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History of Medicine

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The history of medical science, considered as a part of the general history of civilization, should logically begin in Mesopotamia, where tradition and philological investigation placed the cradle of the human race. But, in a condensed article such as this, there are important reasons which dictate the choice of another starting point. Modern medical science rests upon a Greek foundation, and whatever other civilized peoples may have accomplished in this field lies outside our inquiry. It is certain that the Greeks brought much with them from their original home, and also that they learned a great deal from their intercourse with other civilized countries, especially Egypt and India ; but the Greek mind assimilated knowledge in such a fashion that its origin can rarely be recognized.

MYTHICAL, HOMERIC, AND PRE-HIPPOCRATIC TIMES

Greek medical science, like that of all civilized peoples, shows in the beginning a purely theurgical character. Apollo is regarded as the founder of medical science, and, in post-Homeric times, his son Æsculapius (in Homer, a Thessalian prince) is represented, as the deity whose office it is to bring about man's restoration to health by means of healing oracles. His oldest place of worship was at Tricca in Thessaly. The temples of Æsculapius, of which those at Epidaurus and Cos are the best known, were situated in a healthy neighbourhood. The sick pilgrims went thither that, after a long preparation of prayer, fasting and ablutions, they might, through of mediation of the priests, receive in their dreams the healing oracles. This kind of medical science already shows a rational basis, for the priests interpreted the dreams and prescribed a suitable treatment, in most cases purely dietetic. Important records of sicknesses were made and left as votive-tablets in the temples. Side by side with the priestly caste, and perhaps out of it there arose the order of temple physicians, who, as supposed descendants of the god Æsculapius, were known as the Asclepiadae , and formed a kind of guild or corporation. This separation of offices must have occurred at an early time, for even in Homer we find lay physicians mentioned, especially "the sons of Æseulapius", Machaon and Podalirius. In the vegetable drugs of Egyptian origin mentioned in Homer we recognize the early influence of the country of the Pharaohs upon Greek medical science. The schools of the philosophers likewise exerted no small influence upon development, medical problems being studied by Pythagoras of Samos, Alcmaeon of Crotona, Parmenides of Elea, Heraclitus of Ephesus (sixth century B.C.), Empedocles of Agrigentum, and Anaxagoras of Clazomenae (fifth century B.C.). The earliest medical schools were at Cyrene in Northern Africa, Crotona, Cnidus and Cos. From Cnidus came Euryphon and also Ctesias the geographer, who was at first physician in the army of Cyrus and, after the battle of Cunaxa (401 B.C.), to Artaxerxes Memnon. Of greater interest is the medical school adjoining the shrine of Æseulapius at Cos, for from it arose the man who first placed medicine upon a scientific basis, and whose name is even today well known to all physicians, Hippocrates.

HIPPOCRATES AND THE SO-CALLED CORPUS HIPPOCRATICUM

Tradition knows seven physicians named Hippocrates, of whom the second is regarded as the most famous. Of his life we know but little. He was born at Cos in 460 or 459 B.C., and died at Larissa about 379. How great his fame was during his lifetime is shown by the fact that Plato compares him with the artists Polycletus and Phidias. Later he was called "the Great" or "the Divine". The historical kernel is probably as follows: a famous physician of this name from Cos flourished in the days of Pericles, and subsequently many things, which his ancestors or his descendants or his school accomplished, were attributed to him as the hero of medical science. The same was true of his writings. What is now known under the title of "Hippocratis Opera" represents the work, not of an individual, but of several persons of different periods and of different schools. It has thus become customary to designate the writings ascribed to Hippocrates by the general title of the "Hippocratic Collection" (Corpus Hippocraticum), and to divide them according to their origin into the works of the schools of Cnidus and of Cos, and of the Sophists. How difficult it is, however, to determine their genuineness is shown that even in the third century before Christ the Alexandrian librarians, who for the first time collected the anonymous scrolls scattered through Hellas, could not reach a definite conclusion. For the development of medical science it is of little consequence who composed the works of the school of Cos for they are more or less permeated by the spirit of one great master. The secret of his immortality rests on the fact that he pointed out the means whereby medicine became a science. His first rule was the observation of individual patients, individualizing in contradistinction to the schematizing of the school of Cnidus. By the observation of all the principles were gradually derived from experience, and these, uniformly arranged, led by induction to a knowledge of the nature of the disease, its course, and its treatment. This is the origin of the famous "Aphorismi", short rules which contain at times principles derived from experience and at times conclusions drawn from the same source. They form the valuable part of the collection. The school of Cos and its adherents, the Hippocratics, looked upon medical science from a purely practical standpoint; they regarded it as the art of healing the sick, and therefore laid most stress on prognosis and treatment by aiding the powers of nature through dietetic means, while the whole school of Cnidus prided itself upon its scientific diagnosis and, in harmony with money with the East, adopted a varied medicinal treatment. The method which the school of Cos established more than 2000 years ago has proved to be the only one, and thus Hippocratic medial science celebrated its renascence in the eighteenth century with Boerhaave at Leyden and subsequently with Gerhard van Swieten at Vienna. In his endeavour to the truth the earnest investigation often reaches an impassable barrier. There is nothing more tempting than to seek an outlet by means of reflection and deduction. Such a delusive course may easily become fatal to the physicist ; but a medical system, erected upon the results of speculative investigation, carries the germ of death within itself.

THE DOGMATIC SCHOOL

In their endeavour to complete the doctrine of their great master, the successors of the Hippocratics fell victims to the snares of speculation. In spite of this, we owe to this so-called "dogmatic school " some fruitful investigation. Diocles Carystius advanced the knowledge of anatomy, and tried to fathom the causal connection between symptom and disease, in which endeavours he was imitated by Praxagoras of Cos, who established the diagnostic importance of the pulse.

Unfortunately, there already began with Aristotle (38-22 B.C.) that tendency -- later rendered so fatal through Galen's teaching -- to regard organic structure and function not in accordance with facts but from the teleological standpoint.

THE ALEXANDRIAN PERIOD

The desire to give to medicine a scientific basis found rich nourishment in the ancient civilized soil of Egypt under the Ptolemies. Herophilus of Chalcedon (about 300 B.C.) and Erasistratus of Iulis (about 330-240 B.C.) are mentioned in this connection. As anatomists, they were the first systematic investigators, and, following Hippocrates, they tried to complete clinical experience by exact methods. This tendency was opposed by the empires, whose services lay solely in the field of drugs and toxicology. Erasistratus as well as Philinus, the empiric, attacked the doctrine of humors (humoral pathology), which developed out of the Hippocratic tendency. The former alone was a serious opponent since, as an anatomist, he looked for the seat of the disease in the solid parts, rather than in the four fundamental humors (blood, mucus, black and yellow gall) and their different mixtures.

THE METHODIZERS

One of the opponents of humoral pathology was Asclepiades of Prusa in Bithynia (born about 124 B.C.). He tried to use in medicine the atomistic theory of Epicurus and Heracleides of Pontus. He taught that health and disease depend upon the motion of the atoms in the fine capillaries or pores, which, endowed with sensation, pass through the entire body. With Themison as their leader, the followers of Asclepiades simplified his doctrine by supposing disease to be only a contraction or relaxation, and later only a mixed condition (partly contracted, partly relaxed) of the pores. This simple and convenient explanation of all diseases without regard to anatomy and physiology, taken in conjunction with its allied system of physical dietetic therapeutics, explains why this doctrine enjoyed so long a life, and why the works of the methodist, Caelius Aurelianus of Sicca in Numidia (beginning of fifth century A.D.), were diligently studied down to the seventh century.

GALEN

Departure from the Hippocratic observation of nature led physicians to form numerous mutually opposing sects. A man of great industry and comprehensive knowledge, Galen of Pergamum (about A.D. 130-201), tried to rescue medical science from this labyrinth. He chose the path of eclecticism, on which he built his (as he thought) infallible system. Whatever sense-perception and clinical observation left obscure, he tried to explain in a speculative manner. That this system of teaching could hold medicine in bondage until modern times shows the genius of the master, who understood how to cover up the gaps by brilliancy of style. Galen took the entire anatomical knowledge of his time, and out of it produced a work the substance of which was for centuries regarded as inviolable. His anatomy was to a large extent based upon the dissection of mammals, especially of monkeys, and, like his physiology, was under teleological influence. His presentation of things lacks dispassionateness. Instead of explaining the functions of organs on the basis of their structure, Galen chose this reverse method. His anatomy and physiology were the most vulnerable part of his system, and an earnest re-examination of these fields must necessarily have shaken his entire scheme of teaching. Galen expressed the greatest respect for Hippocrates, published his most important works with explanatory notes, but never entered into the spirit of the school of Cos, although he adopted many of its doctrines. Galen is the culminating point and end of ancient Greek medical science. In his vanity he thought he had completed all investigation, and that his successors had only to accept without effort what he had discovered. As will be shown in the following paragraph, his advice was, unfortunately for science, followed literally.

PEDANIUS DIOSCURIDES

Pedanus Dioscurides, who was from Anazarbe and lived in the time of Nero and Vespasian, may be mentioned here as the most important pharmaceutical writer of ancient times. He simplified greatly the pharmacopoeia, which had then assumed unwieldy dimensions, and freed it from ridiculous, superstitious remedies. Our modern pharmacology is based on his work, Ta ton tylikon biblia .

CORNELIUS CELSUS

Cornelius Celsus (about 25-30 B.C. to A.D. 45-50) is the only Roman who worked with distinction in the medical field, but it is doubtful whether he was a physician. His work, "De re medica libri viii", which is written in classical Latin, and for which he used seventy-two works lost to posterity, gives a survey of medical science from Hippocrates to imperial times. Very famous is his description lithotomy. Celsus was altogether forgotten until the fifteenth century, when Pope Nicholas V (1447-55) is said to have discovered a manuscript of his works.

BYZANTINE PERIOD

In Byzantine times medicine shows but little originality, and is of small importantance in the history of medical development. The work handed down to us are all compilations, but as they frequently contain excerpts from lost works they are of some historical value. The notable writers of this period are: Oreibasios (325-403), physician in ordinary to Julian the Apostate ; and Aëtius of Amida, a Christian physician under Justinian (597-66). A little more originality than these men exhibited was shown by Alexander of Tralles (525-605), and Paulus Ægineta of the first half of the seventh century, of whose seven books, the sixth, dealing with surgery, was greatly valued in Arabian medicine. Paulus lived at Alexandria, and was one of the last to come from its once famous school, which became extinct after the capture of the city by Omar in 640. At the end of the thirteenth century Nicolaus Myrepsus, living at the court in Nicaea, made a collection of prescriptions which was extensively used. In the time of Emperor Andronicus III (1328-42) lived a highly gifted physician, Joannes Actuarius, and the mention of his writings closes the account of this period.

ARABIAN MEDICINE

Arabian medical science forms an important chapter in the history of the development of medicine, not because it was especially productive but because it preserved Greek medical science with that of its most important representative Galen. It was, however, strongly influenced by oriental elements of later times. The adherents of the heretic Nestorius, who in 431 settled in Edessa, were the teachers of the Arabs. After the expulsion these Nestorians settled in Dschondisapor in 489, and there founded a medical school. After the conquest of Persia by the Arabs in 650, Greek culture was held in great esteem, and learned Nestorian, Jewish, and even Indian physicians worked diligently as translators of the Greek writings. In Arabian Spain conditions similarly developed from the seventh century. Among important physicians in the first period of Greek-Arabic medicine -- the period of dependence and of translations -- come first the Nestorian family Bachtischua of Syria, which flourished until the eleventh century; Abu Zakerijja Jahja ben Maseweih (d. 875), known as Joannes Damascenus, Mesue the Elder, a Christian who was a director of the hospital at Bagdad, did independent work, and supervised the translation of Greek authors, Abu Jusuf Jacub ben Ishak ben el-Subbah el-Kindi (Alkindus, 813-73), who wrote a work about compound drugs, and the Nestorian Abu Zeid Honein ben Ishak ben Soliman ben Ejjub el 'Ibadi (Joannitius, 809-about 873), a teacher in Baghdad who translated Hippocrates and Dioscurides, and whose work "Isagoge in artem parvam Galeni", early translated into Latin, was much read in the Middle Ages. Wide activity and independent observation -- based, however, wholly upon the doctrine of Galen -- were shown by Abu Bekr Muhammed ben Zakarijia er-Razi (Rhazes, about 850-923), whose chief work, however, "El-Hawi fi'l Tib" (Continens) is a rather unsystematic compilation. In the Middle Ages his "Ketaab altib Almansuri" (Liber medicinalis Almansoris) was well known and had many commentators. The most valuable of the thirty-six productions of Rhazes which have come down to us is "De variolis et morbillis", a book based upon personal experience. We ought also to mention the dietetic writer Abu Jakub Ishak ben Soleiman el-Israili (Isaac Judaeus, 830-about 932), an Egyptian Jew ; the Persian, Ali ben el Abbas Ala ed-Din el-Madschhusi (Ali Abbas, d. 994) author of "El-Maliki" (Regalis dispositio, Pantegnum). Abu Dshafer Ahmed ben Ibrahim ben Abu Chalid Ihn el-Dshezzar (d. 1009) wrote about the causes of the plague in Egypt. A work on pharmaceutics was written by the physician in ordinary to the Spanish Caliph Hisham II (976-1013), Abu Daut Soleiman ben Hassan Ibn Dsholdschholl.

Of the surgical authors, Abu'l Kasim Chalaf ben Abbas el-Zahrewi of el-Zahra near Cordova (Abulkasem, about 912-1013) alone deserves mention, and he depends absolutely on Paulus Ægineta. While he received scant attention at home, since surgery was little cultivated by the Arabs, his work, written in a clear and perspicuous style, became known in the West through the Latin translation by Gerardus of Cremona (1187), and was extensively used even in later days. Arabian medicine reached its culmination with the Persian Abu Ali el-Hosein ben Abdallah Ibn Sina ( Avicenna, 980-1037), who based his system entirely upon the teaching of Galen and tried in various ways to supplement the latter. His chief work, "El-Kanûn" (Canon Medicinae), written in a brilliant style and treating all branches of medical science, soon supplanted in the West the works of the Greeks and, until the time of the Humanists, served as the most important textbook for physicians, but in Arabian Spain his fame was small. One of his chief rivals was Abu-Merwan Abd el-Malik ben Abul-Ala Zohr ben Abd el-Malik Ibn Zohr (Avenzoar, 1113-62) from the neighbourhood of Seville. His friend, the philosopher and physician Abul-Welid Muhammed ben-Ahmed Ibn Roshd el-Maliki ( Averroës, 1126 -98), of Cordova, is regarded as the complement of Avicenna. His book was also popular in the West and bears the title "Kitâbel-Kolijjat" (Colliget). With the decline of Arabian rule began the decay of medicine. In the Orient this decline began after the capture of Cordova in 1236, decay becoming complete after the loss of Granada in 1492. The predominance of Arabian medicine, which lasted scarcely three centuries, seriously delayed the development of our science. A brief survey of this period shows that the Arabs bent in slavish reverence before the works of Aristotle and Galen without examining them critically. No other Greek physician obtained such a hold on the Arabs as Galen, whose system, perfect in form, pleased them in philosophy. Nowhere did dialectics play a greater part in medicine than among the Arabs and their later followers in the West. Independent investigation in the fields of exact science, anatomy, and physiology was forbidden by the laws of the Koran. Symptomatology (semiotics) at the bedside, especially prognosis, based on the pulse and the of the urine, were developed by them with an equally exaggerated and fruitless subtlety. Much, and perhaps the only credit due to them is in the field of pharmaceutics. We are indebted to them for a series of simple and compound drugs of oriental and Indian origin, previously unknown, and also for the polypharmacy of later times. Until the discovery of America the Venetian drug-trade was controlled by Arabian dealers.

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CHRISTIANITY'S SHARE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICAL SCIENCE

As long as the cruel persecution the Church lasted throughout the Roman Empire, it was impossible for Christians to take direct part in the development of medical science. But provision had been made for medical aid within the community, because the priest, like the rabbi of small Jewish communities in the late Middle Ages, was also a physician. This is clear from the story of the two brothers, Sts. Cosmas and Damian, who studied medicine in Syria and were martyred under Diocletian. The exercise of practical charity under the direction of deacons of the churches gave rise to systematic nursing and hospitals. In recent times it has, indeed been alleged that the existence of hospitals among the Buddhists, even in the third century before Christ, and their existence in ancient Mexico at the time of its discovery is demonstrable, and that hospitals had their origin in general philanthropy; but nobody denies that the nursing of the sick, especially during epidemics, had never before been so widespread, so well organized, so self-sacrificing as in the early Christian communities. Christianity tended the sick and devised and executed extensive schemes for the care of deserted children (foundling, orphans ), of the feeble and infirm, of those out of work and of pilgrims. The era of persecution ended, we find large alms-houses and hospitals like that of St. Basilius in Caesarea (370), those of the Roman Lady Fabiola in Rome and Ostia (400), that of St. Samson adjoining the church of St. Sofia in Constantinople in the sixth century, the foundling asylum of Archbishop Datheus of Milan in 787, and many others. In 1198 Pope Innocent III rebuilt the pilgrims' shelter, which had been founded in 726 by a British king, but had been repeatedly destroyed by fire. He turned it into a refuge for travellers and a hospital, and entrusted it to the Brothers of the Holy Ghost established by Guy de Montpellier. Mention must also be made here of the religious orders of knights and the houses for lepers of later times. The great hospitals of the Arabs in Dschondisapor and Bagdad were built after Christian models. The celebrated ecclesiastical writer Tertullian (born A.D. 160) possessed a wide knowledge of medicine, which, following the custom of his time, he calls a "sister of philosophy ". Clement of Alexandria, about the middle of the century, lays down valuable hygienic laws in his "Paedagogus". Lactantius in the fourth century speaks in his work "De Opificio Dei" about the structure of the human body. One of the most learned priests of his time, St. Isidore of Seville (d. 636), treats of medicine in the fourth book of his "Origines S. Etymologiae". St. Benedict of Nursia (480) made it a duty for the sciences, and among them medicine, as aids to the exercise of hospitality. Cassiodorus gave his monks direct instructions in the study in medicine. Bertharius, Abbot of Monte Cassino in the ninth century, was famous as a physician. Walafrid Strabo (d. 849), Abbot of Reichenau the oldest medical writer on German soil, describes in a poem ( Hortulus ) the value of native medicinal plants, and also the method of teaching medicine in monasteries. We must mention, furthermore, the "Physica", a description of drugs from the three kingdoms of nature, written by St. Hildegarde (1099-1179), abbess of a monastery near Bingen-on-the-Rhine. The curative properties of minerals are described by Marbodus of Angers, Bishop of Rennes (d. 1123), in his "Lapidarius".

How diligently medicine was studied in the monasteries is shown by the numerous manuscripts (many still unedited) in the old cathedral libraries and by those which were taken from the suppressed monasteries and are now to be found in the national libraries of various countries. Priests who possessed a knowledge ot medicine served as physicians-in-ordinary to princes as late as the fifteenth century, although they were forbidden to practice surgery by the Fourth Synod of the Lateran (1213). Thus, Master Gerhard, parish priest in Felling, who founded the Hospital of the Holy Ghost at Vienna (1211), was physician-in-ordinary to Duke Leopold VI of Austria, and Sigismund Albicus, who afterward became Archbishop of Prague (1411), held the same office at the court of King Wenzel of Bohemia (1391-1411). From this time, we constantly meet with priests possessing a knowledge of medicine and writing on medical subjects. The popes, the most important patrons of all the sciences, were friendly also to the development of medicine. That they ever at any time forbade the practice of anatomical investigation is a fable. Pope Boniface VIII in 1299-1300 forbade the practice then prevalent of boiling the corpses of noble persons who had died abroad, in order that their bones might be more conveniently transported to the distant ancestral tomb. This prohibitory rule had reference only to cases of death in Christian countries, while in the Orient (e.g. during the Crusades ) the usage seems to have been tacitly allowed to continue.

FIRST UNIVERSITIES IN THE WEST

Having voluntarily undertaken the education of the young in all branches of learning, the monasteries were aided in their endeavours by both Church and State. The foundation of state schools is the work of Charlemagne (768-814), whose activity, especially in the Germanic countries, was stimulated by the decree of the Synod of Aachen (789), that each monastery and each cathedral chapter should institute a school. According to the Capitulary of Charlemagne at Diedenhofen (Thionville) in 806, medicine was commonly taught in these schools. At the diocesan school in Reims, we find Gerbert d'Aurillac, later Pope Sylvester II (999-1003), long active as a teacher of medicine. Simultaneously with the rise of the cities there sprang up higher municipal schools, as for instance the Burgerschule at St. Stephan's in Vienna (about 1237). Out of the secular and religious schools, the curriculum of which institutions comprised the entire learning of the times, the first universities developed themselves partly under imperial and partly under papal protection, according as they sprang from the lay and the cathedral or monastic schools.

SCHOOL OF SALERNO

This is regarded as the oldest medical school of the West. Salerno on the Tyrrhenian Sea, originally probably a Doric colony, was from the sixth to the eleventh century under the rule of the Lombards, and from 1075 to 1130 under that of the Normans. In 1130 it became a part of the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily. The origin of the school is obscure, but, contrary to former belief, it was not a religious foundation, though very many priests were engaged there as teachers of medicine. Women and even Jews were admitted to these studies. Salerno was destined to cultivate for a long time Greek medical science in undimmed purity, until the twelfth century saw the school fall a victim to the all-powerful Arab influence. One of its oldest physicians was Alpuhans, later (1058-85) Archbishop of Salerno. With him worked the Lombard Gariopontus (d. 1050), whose "Passionarius" is based upon Hippocrates, Galen, and Caelius Aurelianus. Contemporary with him was the female physician Trotula who worked also in the literary field, and who is said to have been the wife of the physician Joannes Platearius. Perhaps the best known literary work of this school is the anonymous "Regimen sanitatis Salernitanum" a didactic poem consisting of 364 stanzas, which has been translated into all modern languages. It is said to have been dedicated to Prince Robert, son of William the Conqueror, upon his departure from S. Salerno in 1101. An important change in the intellectual tendency of the "Civitas Hippocratica", as this school called itself, was brought about by the physician Constantine of Carthage (Constantinus Africanus), a man learned in the Oriental languages and a teacher of medicine at Salerno, who died in 1087 a monk of Monte Cassino . While hitherto the best works of Greek antiquity had been known only in mediocre Latin translations, Constantine in the solitude of Monte Cassino began to translate to translate from the Arabic, Greek authors (e.g. the "Aphorisms" of Hippocrates and the "Ars parva" of Galen), as well as such Arabic writer as were accessible to him (Isaak, Ali Abbas). As he brought to the knowledge of his contemporaries first-class Greek authors, but only secondary Arab writers, the study of the former became more profound, while on the other hand an interest was awakened in the hitherto unknown Arabic literature. His pupils were Bartholomaeus, whose "Practica" was translated into German as early as the thirteenth century, and Johannes Afflacius (De febribus et urinis). To the twelfth century, when Arabian polypharmacy was introduced, belong Nicolaus Praepositus (about 1140), whose "Antidotarium", a collection of compounded pharmaceutical formulae, became a model for later works of this kind, and Matthaeus Platearius, who, towards the end of the century, wrote a commentary on the above-named "Antidotarium" (Glossae) and a work about simple drugs (Circa instans). Similar productions appeared from the hand of an otherwise unknown Magister Solernitanus . Maurus, following Arabian sources, wrote on uroscopy. Here must be also mentioned Petrus Musandinus (De cibis et potibus febricitantium), the teacher of Pierre Giles of Corbeil (Ægidius Corboliensis), who later became a canon and the physician-in-ordinary to Philip Augustus of France (1180-1223), and who even at this day began to complain about the decay of the school.

Its first misfortune dates from the death of King Roger III (1193), when the army of King Henry VI captured the city. The establishment of the University of Naples by Frederick II in 1224, the preponderance of Arabian influence, and the rise of the Montpellier school, all exerted so unfavourable an influence that by the fourteenth century Salerno was well-nigh forgotten. Salerno is the oldest school having a curriculum prescribed by the state. In 1140 King Roger II ordered a state examination to test the proficiency of prospective physicians, and Frederick II in 1240 prescribed five years of study besides a year of practical experience. When we consider the proximity of Northern Africa, that the neighbouring Sicily had been under Saracenic rule from the ninth to the eleventh century, and that the Norman kings, and to a far greater degree Frederick II, gave powerful protection to Arabian art and science, it seems wonderful that this oasis of Graeco-Roman culture endured so long. Down to the twelfth century this school was ruled by a purely Hippocratic spirit, especially in practical medicine, by its diagnosis and by the treatment of acute diseases dietetically. Arabian influence makes itself felt first of all in therapeutics, a fact which is easily explained by the proximity of Amalfi, where the Arabian drug-dealers used to land. Local conditions (resulting from the Crusades ) explain how surgery, especially the treatment of wounds received in war, was diligently cultivated. In Rogerius we find a Salernitan surgeon armed with independent experience, but showing, nevertheless, reminiscences of Abulhasem. His "Practica Chirurgiae" dates from the year 1180. Although Salerno finally succumbed to Arabian influences, this school did not hand down to us a knowledge of the best Arabian authors.

SPAIN AS THE TRANSMITTER OF ARABIAN MEDICINE

Its focus was the city of Toledo, which was taken from the Moors in 1085 by Alfonso VI of Castile and Leon. Here Archbishop Raimund (1130-50) founded an institution for translations, in which Jewish scholars were the chief workers. Here lived Gerard of Cremona (1114-87, properly Carmona, near Seville), the translator of Rhazes and Avicenna. A later translator of Rhases (about 1279) was the Jew Faradsch ben Salem (Faragius), who was educated at Salerno.

THE SCHOLASTIC PERIOD

When in the twelfth century all the Aristotelean works gradually became known, one of the results was the development of Scholasticism, that logically arranged systematic treatment and explanation of rational truths based upon the Aristotelean speculative method. Even though this tendency led to the growth of many excrescences in medicine and confirmed the predominance of Galen's system, also largely based on speculation, it is wrong to hold Scholasticism responsible for the mistakes which its disciples made in consequence of their faulty apprehension of the system, because Scholasticism, far from excluding the observation of nature, directly promotes it. The best proof of this is the fact that the most important scholastic of the thirteenth century, St. Albertus Magnus, was likewise the most important physicist of his time. He thus imitated his model, Aristotle, in both directions. The famous scholastic Roger Bacon (1214-94), an English Franciscan, lays chief stress his theory of cognition upon experience as far as the natural sciences are concerned, and this with even greater emphasis than Albertus Magnus .

Albertus Magnus

Albertus Magnus (Albert Count of Bollstädt, 1193-1280) was a Dominican. For medical science his works about animals, plants, and minerals alone concern us. Formerly a work called "De secretis mulierum" was wrongly attributed to him. Albertus's most eminent service to medicine was in pointing out the way to an independent observation of nature. The following books were to a certain degree based upon the writings of Albertus: the encyclopedic works on natural history of the Franciscan Bartholomaeus Anglicus (about 1260), of Thomas of Cantimpré (1204-80), canon of Cambrai, of Vincent of Beauvais (d. 1264), the "Book of Nature " by Kunrad von Megenberg (1307-74), canon of Ratisbon, and the natural history of Meinau composed towards the end of the thirteenth century at the Monastery of Meinau on the Lake of Constance. In the medical schools the influence of scholasticism made itself felt, but this influence was always favourable. The scholastic physician, the philosopher at the bedside, with his compendious works of needy contents, with his endless game of question and answer, must not, however, be misjudged; he preserved interest in the observation of nature and was, as is freely conceded, a skilful practitioner, although he laid excessive stress upon formalism, and medicine in his hands made no special progress.

BOLOGNA

Bologna was the principal home of scholastic medicine, and, as early as the twelfth century, a medical school existed there. The most famous physician there was Thaddeus Alderotti (Th. Florentinus,1215-95), who even at that time gave practical clinical instruction and enjoyed great fame as a physician. Among his pupils were the four Varignana, Dino and Tommaso di Garbo, and Pietro Torrigiano Rustichelli -- later a Carthusian monk -- all well-known expounders of the writings of Galen. Indirect disciples were Pietro de Tussignana (d. 1410), who first described the baths at Bormio, and Bavarius de Bavariis (d. about 1480) who was for a long time physician to Pope Nicholas V.

Bologna and the Study of Anatomy

Bologna has stained incomparable glory from the fact that Mondino de Liucci (about 1275-1326), the reviver of anatomy, taught there. There, for the first time since the Alexandrian period (nearly 1500 years), he dissected a human corpse, and wrote a treatise on anatomy based upon personal observation -- a work which, for nearly two and a half centuries, remained the official textbook of the universities. Although Mondino's work which appeared in 1316, contains many defects and errors, if nevertheless marked an advance and incited men to further investigation.

PADUA

Padua, the famous rival of Bologna, received a university in 1222 from Frederick II. Just as the University Of Leipzig originated in consequence of the migration of students and professors from the University of Prague in 1409, so Padua came into existence through a secession from Bologna. Bologna was soon surpassed by the daughter institution, and, from the foundation of the University of Vienna in 1365 until the middle of the eighteenth century, Padua remained a shininng model for the medical school of Bologna. The first teacher of repute was Pietro d' Abano (Petrus Aponensis, 1250 to about 1320), known as the "great Lombard" -- an honorary title received during his residence at the Universlty of Paris. On account of his too liberalistic opinions and his derision of Christian teaching in his "Conciliator differentiarum", his chief medical work, he was accused of being a heretic. From this period also date the "Aggregator Brixiensis" of Guglielmo Corvi (1250-1326), a work in even greater demand in later times, and the "Consilia" of Gentile da Foligno (d. 1348), who, in 1341, performed the first anatomical dissection in Padua. The fame of the school of Padua was greatly advanced by the family of physicians, the Santa Sophia, which about 1292 emigrated from Constantinople, and whose most famous members were Marsilio (d. 1405) and Galeazzo (d. 1427). The latter, one of the first teachers in Vienna (about 1398-1407), and later professor at Padua, wrote in Vienna a pharmacopoeia which indicates absolutely independent observation in the field of botany. His antithesis and contemporary was Giacomo dalla Torre of Forli (Jacobus Foroliviensis, d. 1413), professor at Padua, known for his commentary on the "Ars parva" of Galen. Giacomo de Dondi (1298-1359), author of the "Aggregator Paduanus do medicinis simplicibus", tried to disengage a salt from the thermal waters of Abano, near Padua. As anatomist and practitioner we must mention Bartholomaeus de Montagnana (d.1460), and the grandfather of the unfortunate Savonarola, Giovanni Michele Savonarola (1390-1462), author of the "Practica Major", who worked along the same lines.

MONTPELLIER

The earliest information about the medical school of this place dates from the twelfth century. Like Salerno, Montpellier developed great independence as far as the other schools were concerned, and laid the greatest stress upon practical medicine. With the decay of Salerno, Montpellier gained in importance. The chief representative of this school is the Spaniards, Arnold of Villanova (1235-about 1312). His greatest merit is that, inclining more towards the Hippocratic school, he did not follow unconditionally the teachings of Galen and Avicenna, but relied upon his own observation and experience, while employing in therapeutics a more dietetic treatment as opposed to Arabian tenets. To him we are indebted for the systematic use of alcohol in certain diseases. A very doubtful merit is his popularizing of alchemy to the study of which he was very much devoted. Other Montpellier representatives of purely practical medicine are Bernard of Gordon (d. 1314; "Lilium medicinae", 1305) a Scot educated in Salerno ; Gerardus de Solo (about 1320; "Introductorium juvenurn"); Johannes de Tornamira (end of the fourteenth century, "Clarificatorium juvenum"), and the Portuguese Valeseus de Taranta ("Philonium pharmaceuticum et chirurgicum", 1418). The medical school of Paris, founded in 1180, remained far behind Montpellier in regard to the practice of medicine.

SURGERY IN THE AGE OF SCHOLASTICISM

Surgery exhibited during this period in many respects a more independent development than practical medicine, especially in Bologna. The founder of the school there was Hugo Borgognoni of Lucca (d. about 1258). A more important figure was his son Teodorico, chaplain, penitentiary, and physician-in-ordinary to Pope Innocent IV , later Bishop of Cervia. In his "Surgery", completed in 1266, he recommends the simplification of the treatment of wounds, fractures, and dislocations. Guilielmo Saliceto from Piacenza (Guil. Placentinus), first of Bologna, then at Verona, where he completed his surgery in 1275, shows great individuality and a kneen diagnostic eye. Similarly his pupil Lanfranchi strongly recommended the reunion of surgery and internal medicine. Lanfranchi, banished in 1290 from his native city, Milan, transplanted Italian surgery to Paris. There the surgeons, like the physicians of the faculty, had, since 1260, been formed into a corporation, the College de St. Cosme (since 1713 Academie de Chirurgie), to which Lanfranchi was admitted. His "Chirurgia magna" (Ars completa), finished in 1296, is full of casuistic notes and shows us the author as an equally careful and lucky operator. The first important French surgeon is Henri de Mondeville (1260-1320), originally a teacher of anatomy at Montpellier whose treatise, although for the most part a compilation, does not lack originality and perspicuity. The culminating point in French surgery at this period is marked by the appearance of Guy de Chauliac (Chaulhac, d. about 1370). He completed his studies at Bologna, Montpellier, and Paris ; later he entered the ecclesiastical state (canon of Reims, 1358), and was physician-in-ordinary to popes Clement VI, Innocent VI, and Urban V. From him we have a description of the terrible plague which he witnessed in 1348 at Avignon. His "Chirurgia magna" treated the subject with a completeness never previously attained, and gave its author during the following centuries the rank of a first-class authority. Among contemporary surgeons in other civilized countries we must mention John Ardern (d. about 1399), an Englishman, who studied at Montpellier and lived subsequently in London, famous for his skill in operating for anal fistulæ, and Jehan Yperman of the Netherlands (d. about 1329), who studied in Paris under Lanfranchi. Besides these surgeons where is no doubt that there were then in Italy many a number of itinerant practitioners who offered their services at fairs; as, specializing usually in certain operations (hernia and lithotomy), they often possessed great skill, and their advice and assistence of a wrong tendency in medicine, but they sought by people of the upper classes.

SIGNS OF IMPROVEMENT: HUMANISM

A short of the survey of the scholastic period gives us the following picture: On the appearance of Arabic literature in Latin translations, Hippocratic medicine was driven from its last stronghold, Salerno. Then came the rule of Arabism, of the system of Galen in Arabic form equipped with all sorts of sophistic subtleties. The works of Rhazes and Avicenna possessed the greatest authority. The latter's "Canon", written in clear language and covering the entire field of medicine became the gospel of physicians. The literature of these times is rich in writings but very poor in thought; for people were content when the long-winded commentaries gave them a better understanding of the Arabs, whom they deemed infallible. A good many things were incomprehensible, first of all the names of diseases and drugs, which translators rendered incorrectly. A comparative investigation of the Greek authors was practically impossible, as both their works and a knowledge of the Greek language had disappeared from among the Romance nations. Thus it happened that special books had to be written from which were learned foreign words and their meanings. The "Synonyma Medicinae" (Clavis sanationis) by the physician Sirnon of Genoa (Januensis, 1270-1303) and the "Pandectae medicinae" of Matthaeus Sylvaticus (d. 1342), both of which were alphabetically arranged, were in vogue. Woe to the physician who dared to doubt the authority of the Arabs ! Only men of strong mind could successfully carry out such a dangerous undertaking. The influence of scholasticism in medicine was manifold. It encouraged the observation of nature at the bedside and logical thinking, but it also stimulated the love of disputation, wherein t

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Hédelin, François

Francois Hedelin, Abbe d'Aubignac

Grammarian, poet, preacher, archeologist, philologist. Born at Paris, 4 August, 1604; died at ...
Hélinand

Helinand

A celebrated medieval poet, chronicler, and ecclesiastical writer; born of Flemish parents ...
Hélyot, Pierre

Pierre Helyot

(Usually known as HIPPOLYTE, his name in religion ) Born at Paris, in 1660; died there 5 ...
Hôpital, Guillaume-François-Antoine de L'

Guillaume-Francois-Antoine de l'Hopital

Marquis de Sainte-Mesme and Comte d'Entremont, French mathematician; b. at Paris, 1661; d. at ...
Höfler, Konstantin von

Konstantin von Hoefler

An historian; born at Memmingen, Bavaria, 26 March, 1811; died at Prague, 29 December, 1898. ...
Hübner, Count Alexander

Count Alexander Huebner

An Austrian statesman, born 26 Nov., 1811; died 30 July, 1892. He was educated at Vienna, and ...
Hüffer, Hermann

Hermann Hueffer

An historian and jurist; born 24 March, 1830, at Münster in Westphalia ; died at Bonn, 15 ...
Hülshoff, Annette Elisabeth von

Baroness Von Huelshoff

(DROSTE-HÜLSHOFF) A poetess; born at Schloss Hülshoff near Münster in ...
Haüy, René-Just

Rene-Just Hauy

Mineralogist; b. at Saint-Just (Oise), 28 Feb., 1743; d. at Paris, 3 June, 1822. His father was a ...
Haüy, Valentin

Valentin Hauy

Founder of the first school for the blind, and known under the endearing name of "Father and ...
Haarlem

Haarlem

DIOCESE OF HAARLEM (HARLEMENSIS). One of the suffragan sees of the Archdiocese of Utrecht ...
Habacuc

Habacuc (Habakkuk)

The eighth of the Minor Prophets, who probably flourished towards the end of the seventh century ...
Habakkuk

Habacuc (Habakkuk)

The eighth of the Minor Prophets, who probably flourished towards the end of the seventh century ...
Haberl, Francis Xavier

Francis Xavier Haberl

An historian of sacred music, editor, born at Oberellenbach, Lower Bavaria, 12 April, 1840; died ...
Habington, William

William Habington

Poet and historian; born at Hindlip, Worcestershire, 1605; died 1654; son of Thomas Habington ...
Habit

Habit

Habit is an effect of repeated acts and an aptitude to reproduce them, and may be defined as "a ...
Habor River

Habor

[Hebrew habhor ; Septuagint 'A Bwr : 2 Kings 17:6 , 'A Biwr : 2 Kings 18:11 ; X aBwr : ...
Haceldama

Haceldama

Haceldama is the name given by the people to the potter's field, purchased with the price of the ...
Hadewych, Blessed

Bl. Hadewych

(HADEWIG, HEDWIG). Prioress of the Premonstratensian convent of Mehre (Meer), near ...
Hadrian

Hadrian

Martyr, died about the year 306. The Christians of Constantinople venerated the grave of this ...
Hadrian, Publius Ælius

Publius Aelius Hadrian

Emperor of the Romans; born 24 January, A. D. 76 at Rome ; died 10 July, 138. He married his ...
Hadrumetum

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(ADRUMETUM, also ADRUMETUS). A titular see of Byzacena. Hadrumetum was a Phoenician colony ...
Haeften, Benedict van

Benedict van Haeften

(Haeftenus). Benedictine writer, provost of the Monastery of Afflighem, Belgium ; born at ...
Hagen, Gottfried

Gottfried Hagen

Gottfried Hagen, town clerk of Cologne, and author of the Cologne "Reimchronik" (rhymed ...
Haggai

Aggeus (Haggai)

Name and personal life Aggeus, the tenth among the minor prophets of the Old Testament, is ...
Haggith

Haggith

This is the ordinary form of the name in the English Bible ; it corresponds better to the ...
Hagiography

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The name given to that branch of learning which has the saints and their worship for its object. ...
Hague, The

The Hague

(French LA HAYE; Dutch 's GRAVENHAGE, "the Count's Park"; Latin HAGA COMITIS) Capital and ...
Hahn-Hahn, Ida

Ida Hahn-Hahn

Countess, convert and authoress, born 22 June, 1805; died 12 January, 1880. She was descended ...
Haid, Herenaus

Herenaus Haid

Catechist, born in the Diocese of Ratisbon , 16 February, 1784; died 7 January, 1873. His ...
Hail Holy Queen

Salve Regina

The opening words (used as a title) of the most celebrated of the four Breviary anthems of the ...
Hail Mary

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Haimhausen, Karl von

Karl von Haimhausen

(Corrupt form of Aymausen .) German missionary; b. at Munich, of a noble Bavarian family, ...
Hair (in Christian Antiquity)

Hair (In Christian Antiquity)

The subject of this article is so extensive that there can be no attempt to describe the types of ...
Hairshirt

Hairshirt

(Latin cilicium ; French cilice ). A garment of rough cloth made from goats' hair and ...
Haiti

Haiti

( Spanish Santo Domingo, Hispaniola .) An island of the Greater Antilles. I. STATISTICS ...
Haito

Haito

(HATTO). Bishop of Basle; b. in 763, of a noble family of Swabia; d. 17 March, 836, in the ...
Hakodate

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Situated between 138º and 157º E. long., and between 37º and 52º N. lat., ...
Hakon the Good

Hakon the Good

King of Norway, 935 (936) to 960 (961), youngest child of King Harold Fair Hair and Thora ...
Halicarnassus

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A titular see of Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis. It was a colony from Trœzen in ...
Halifax

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(HALIFAXIENSIS) This see takes its name from the city of Halifax which has been the seat of ...
Hallahan, Margaret

Margaret Hallahan

Foundress of the Dominican Congregation of St. Catherine of Siena (third order); b. in London, ...
Haller, Karl Ludwig von

Karl Ludwig von Haller

A professor of constitutional law, b. 1 August, 1768, at Berne, d. 21 May, 1854, at Solothurn, ...
Hallerstein, August

August Allerstein

(Or Hallerstein). Jesuit missionary in China, born in Germany, died in China, probably about ...
Halloween

All Saints' Day

[ The vigil of this feast is popularly called "Hallowe'en" or "Halloween".] Solemnity ...
Halloy, Jean-Baptiste-Julien D'Omalius

Jean-Baptiste-Julien d'Omalius Halloy

Belgian geologist, b. at Liège, Belgium, 16 February, 1783; d. at Brussels, 15 January, ...
Halma, Nicholas

Nicholas Halma

French mathematician; born at Sedan, 31 December, 1755; died at Paris, 4 June, 1828. He was ...
Ham, Hamites

Cham, Chamites (Ham, Hamites)

I. CHAM ( A.V. Ham). Son of Noah and progenitor of one of the three great races of men whose ...
Hamar, Ancient See of

Hamar

(HAMARCOPIA; HAMARENSIS). Hamar in Norway, embraced Hedemarken and Christians Amt, and was ...
Hamatha

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(AMATHA). A titular see of Syria Secunda, suffragan of Apamea. Hamath was the capital of a ...
Hambley, Ven. John

Ven. John Hambley

English martyr (suffered 1587), born and educated in Cornwall, and converted by reading one ...
Hamburg

Hamburg

A city supposed to be identical with the Marionis of Ptolemy, was founded by a colony of fishermen ...
Hamilton, John

John Hamilton

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Hamilton, Ontario, Diocese of

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(Hamiltonensis). Located in Ontario, Canada ; a suffragan of Toronto. It comprises the counties ...
Hammer-Purgstall, Joseph, Baron von

Joseph, Baron von Hammer-Purgstall

A distinguished Austrian Orientalist ; b. at Graz, 9 June, 1774; d. at Vienna, 23 November, ...
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( Ha-am-mu-ra-bi ) The sixth king of the first Babylonian dynasty; well known for over ...
Hamsted, Adrian

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Haneberg, Daniel Bonifacius von

Daniel Bonifacius von Haneberg

A distinguished German prelate and Orientalist of the nineteenth century, b. At Tanne near ...
Hanover

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The former Kingdom of Hanover has been a province of the Prussian monarchy since 20 September, ...
Hanse, Blessed Everald

Bl. Everald Hanse

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Hansiz, Markus

Markus Hansiz

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Hanthaler, Chrysostomus

Chrysostomus Hanthaler

(JOHANNES ADAM.) A Cistercian, historical investigator and writer; b. at Marenbach, Austria, ...
Hanxleden, Johann Ernest

Johann Ernest Hanxleden

Jesuit missionary in the East Indies: b. at Ostercappeln, near Osnabrück, in Hanover, ...
Happiness

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( French bonheur ; German Glück ; Latin felicitas ; Greek eutychia, eudaimonia ). ...
Haraldson, Saint Olaf

St. Olaf Haraldson

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Harbor Grace

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(Portus Gratiæ) Diocese in Newfoundland, erected in 1856. It comprises all the northern ...
Hardee, William J.

William J. Hardee

Soldier, convert, b. at Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A. 1817, d. at Wytheville, Virginia, 6 Nov., ...
Hardey, Mary Aloysia

Mary Aloysia Hardey

Of the Society of the Sacred Heart, who established all the convents of her order, up to the ...
Harding, St. Stephen

St. Stephen Harding

Confessor, the third Abbot of Cîteaux, was born at Sherborne in Dorsetshire, England, ...
Harding, Thomas

Thomas Harding

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Hardman, Mary Juliana

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Hardouin, Jean

Jean Hardouin

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Hardyng, John

John Hardyng

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Hare Indians

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Harland, Henry

Henry Harland

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Harlay, Family of

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Harlez de Deulin, Charles-Joseph de

Charles-Joseph de Harlez de Deulin

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Harmony

Harmony

(Greek, harmonia ; Latin, harmonia ) A concord of sounds, several tones of different ...
Harney

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(1) William Selby Harney Soldier, convert ; b. near Haysboro, Tennessee, U.S.A. 27 August, ...
Harold Bluetooth

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(B LAATAND ) Born 911; died 1 November, 985 or 986. He was the son of King Gorm the Old of ...
Harold, Francis

Francis Harold

Irish Franciscan and historical writer, d. at Rome, 18 March, 1685. He was for some time ...
Harpasa

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Harper, Thomas Morton

Thomas Morton Harper

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Harrington, Ven. William

Venerable William Harrington

English martyr ; b. 1566; d. 18 February, 1594. His father had entertained Campion at the ...
Harris, Joel Chandler

Joel Chandler Harris

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Harrisburg

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(Harrisburgensis.) Established 1868, comprises the Counties of Dauphin, Lebanon, Lancaster, ...
Harrison, James

James Harrison

Priest and martyr ; b. in the Diocese of Lichfield, England, date unknown; d. at York, 22 ...
Harrison, William

William Harrison

Third and last archpriest of England, b. in Derbyshire in 1553; d. 11 May, 1621. He was ...
Harrowing of Hell

Harrowing of Hell

This is the Old English and Middle English term for the triumphant descent of Christ into hell ...
Hart, William

Bl. William Hart

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Diocese of Hartford, established by Gregory XVI, 18 Sept., 1843. When erected it embraced the ...
Hartley, Ven. William

Ven. William Hartley

Martyr ; b. at Wyn, in Derbyshire, England, of a yeoman family about 1557; d. 5 October, 1588. ...
Hartmann von Aue

Hartman von Aue

A Middle High German epic poet and minnesinger; died between 1210 and 1220. Little is known ...
Hartmann, Georg

Georg Hartmann

Mechanician and physicist ; b. at Eckoltsheim, Bavaria, 9 Feb. 1489; d. at Nuremberg, 9 ...
Hasak, Vincenz

Vincenz Hasak

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Haschka, Lorenz Leopold

Lorenz Leopold Haschka

A poet-author of the Austrian national anthem; b. at Vienna, 1 Sept. 1749, d. there 3 Aug., ...
Haspinger, Johann Simon

Johann Simon (Joachim) Haspinger

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Hassard, John Rose Greene

John Rose Greene Hassard

An editor, historian; b. in New York, U.S.A. 4 September, 1836; d. in that city, 18 April, 1888. ...
Hasslacher, Peter

Peter Hasslacher

Preacher; b. at Coblenz, 14 August, 1810; d. at Paris, 5 July, 1876. He was one of that band of ...
Hatred

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Hatred in general is a vehement aversion entertained by one person for another, or for ...
Hatto

Hatto

Archbishop of Mainz ; b. of a noble Swabian family, c. 850; d. 15 May, 913. He was educated at ...
Hatton, Edward Anthony

Edward Anthony Hatton

Dominican, apologist ; b. in 1701; d. at Stourton Lodge, near Leeds, Yorkshire, 23 October, ...
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A titular see of Palestina Tertia, suffragan of Petra. Peutinger's map locates a place of ...
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A religious congregation founded in Paris early in the fourteenth century by Jeanne, wife of ...
Haughery, Margaret

Margaret Haughery

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Hauréau, Jean-Barthélemy

Jean-Barthelemy Haureau

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Hautecombe

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(Altacomba, Altæcombæum) A Cistercian monastery near Aix-les-Bains in Savoy, ...
Hautefeuille, Jean de

Jean de Hautefeuille

French physicist, b. at Orléans, 20 March, 1647; d. there, 18 October, 1724. He was the ...
Hautefeuille, Jean de

Jean de Hautefeuille

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(ALTESERRA). Antoine Dadin d'Hauteserre Born 1602, died 1682; a distinguished French historian ...
Hauzeur, Mathias

Mathias Hauzeur

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Havana

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Diocese of Havana (San Cristóbal de la Habana) — Avanensis The city of Havana is ...
Havestadt, Bernhard

Bernhard Havestadt

German Jesuit ; b. at Cologne, 27 February, 1714; died at Münster after 1778. He entered ...
Hawarden, Edward

Edward Hawarden

(HARDEN). Theologian and controversialist, b. in Lancashire, England, 9 April, 1662; d. in ...
Hawes, Stephen

Stephen Hawes

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Hawker, Robert Stephen

Robert Stephen Hawker

Poet and antiquary; b. at Plymouth 3 December, 1803, d. there 15 August, 1875, son of Jacob ...
Hawkins, Sir Henry

Sir Henry Hawkins

Raised to the peerage as Lord Brampton, eminent English lawyer and Judge, b. at Hitchin, ...
Hay, Edmund and John

Edmund and John Hay

(1) Edmund Hay Jesuit, and envoy to Mary Queen of Scots, b. 1540?; d. at Rome, 4 Nov., 1591. he ...
Hay, George

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Franz Joseph Haydn

Born of staunch Catholic parents at Rohrau, Austria, 1 April, 1732; died at Gumpendorf, Vienna, ...
Haydn, Johann Michael

Johann Michael Haydn

A younger brother of Franz Joseph Haydn ; born at Rohrau, Austria, 14 September, 1737; died at ...
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George Leo Haydock

Priest and Biblical scholar; b. 11 April, 1774, at Cottam, near Wood Plumpton, Lancashire; d. 29 ...
Haydock, Venerable George

Ven. George Haydock

English martyr ; born 1556; executed at Tyburn, 12 February, 1583-84. He was the youngest son of ...
Haymo

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( Or Haimo). A Benedictine bishop of the ninth century; d. 26 March, 853. The exact date ...
Haymo of Faversham

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English Franciscan and schoolman, b. at Faversham, Kent; d. at Anagni, Itlay, in 1243, according ...
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Lajos Haynald

Cardinal, Archbishop of Kalocsa-Bács in Hungary ; b. at Szécsény, 3 ...
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Cornelius Hazart

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Healy, George Peter Alexander

George Peter Alexander Healy

An American portrait and historical painter, b. at Boston, 15 July, 1808; d. at Chicago, 14 June ...
Hearse, Tenebrae

Tenebrae Hearse

The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...
Heart of Jesus, Devotion to the

Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus

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Heart of Mary, Congregations of

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Heart of Mary, Devotion to the

Devotion To the Heart of Mary

As in the article on Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus , this subject will be considered ...
Heath, Ven. Henry

Ven. Henry Heath

English Franciscan and martyr, son of John Heath; christened at St. John's, Peterborough, 16 ...
Heaven

Heaven

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Hebrew Bible

Hebrew Bible

As compared with the Latin Vulgate , the Hebrew Bible includes the entire Old Testament with ...
Hebrew Language and Literature

Hebrew Language and Literature

Hebrew was the language spoken by the ancient Israelites, and in which were composed nearly all ...
Hebrews, Epistle to the

Epistle to the Hebrews

This will be considered under eight headings: (I) Argument; (II) Doctrinal Contents; (III) ...
Hebrides, New

New Hebrides

Vicariate Apostolic in Oceania; comprises the New Hebrides, with Banks and Torres, islands ...
Hebron

Hebron

( hbrwn, chebrón ) An ancient royal city of Chanaan, famous in biblical history, ...
Hecker, Isaac Thomas

Isaac Thomas Hecker

Missionary, author, founder of the Paulists ; b. in New York, 18 December, 1819; d. there, 22 ...
Hedonism

Hedonism

( hedoné, pleasure). The name given to the group of ethical systems that hold, with ...
Hedwig, Saint

St. Hedwig

Duchess of Silesia, b. about 1174, at the castle of Andechs ; d. at Trebnitz, 12 or 15 ...
Heeney, Cornelius

Cornelius Heeney

Merchant and philanthropist; b. in King's County, Ireland, 1754; d. at Brooklyn, U.S.A. 3 May, ...
Heereman von Zuydwyk, Freiherr von

Heeremann von Zuydwyk

(Clemens Aug. Ant.). Catholic statesman and writer on art, b. 26 Aug., 1832, at Surenburg near ...
Heeswijk

Heeswijk

A village in the diocese of Hertogenbosch (Bois-le-Duc), Holland, in which the dispersed ...
Hefele, Karl Joseph von

Karl Joseph von Hefele

Bishop of Rottenburg, b. at Unterkochen, Würtemberg, 15 March, 1809; d. at Rottenburg, 5 ...
Hegelianism

Hegelianism

(1) Life and Writings of Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was born at Stüttgart in 1770; ...
Hegesippus, Saint

St. Hegesippus

(Roman Martyrology, 7 April). A writer of the second century, known to us almost exclusively ...
Hegesippus, The Pseudo-

The Pseudo-Hegesippus

A fourth-century translator of the "Jewish War" of Flavius Josephus. The name is based on an ...
Hegius, Alexander

Alexander Hegius

Humanist ; b. probably in 1433, at Heeck (Westphalia); d. 7 December, 1498, at Deventer ...
Heidelberg, University of

University of Heidelberg

Heidelberg, a city of 41,000 inhabitants, is situated in the Grand Duchy of Baden, on the left ...
Heiligenkreuz

Heiligenkreuz

(SANCTA CRUX). An existing Cistercian monastery in the Wienerwald, eight miles north-west of ...
Heilsbronn

Heilsbronn

(FONS SALUTIS). Formerly a Cistercian monastery in the Diocese of Eichstätt in Middle ...
Heilsbronn, Monk of

Monk of Heilsbronn

This name indicates the unknown author of some small mystical treatises, written about the ...
Heim, François Joseph

Francois Joseph Heim

French historical painter, b. near Belfort, 1787, d. in Paris, 1865. This clever painter ...
Heinrich der Glïchezäre

Heinrich Der Glichezare

( Glïchezäre , i.e. the hypocrite, in the sense of one who adopts a strange name or ...
Heinrich von Ahaus

Heinrich von Ahaus

(Hendrik van Ahuis) Founder of the Brethren of the Common Life in Germany, b. in 1371, the ...
Heinrich von Laufenberg

Heinrich von Laufenberg

A German poet of the fifteenth century, d. at Strasburg in 1460; he was a priest in Freiburg ...
Heinrich von Meissen

Heinrich von Meissen

Usually called "Frauenlob" (Woman's praise), a Middle High German lyric poet; b. at Meissen ...
Heinrich von Melk

Heinrich von Melk

German satirist of the twelfth century; of knightly birth and probably a lay brother in the ...
Heinrich von Veldeke

Heinrich von Veldeke

A medieval German poet of knightly rank; b. near Maastricht in the Netherlands about the ...
Heinz, Joseph

Joseph Heinz

Swiss painter ; b. at Basle, 11 June, 1564; d. near Prague, Bohemia, October, 1609. He appears ...
Heis, Eduard

Eduard Heis

German astronomer, b. at Cologne, 18 February, 1806; d. at Münster, Westphalia, 30 June, ...
Heisterbach

Heisterbach

(Vallis S. Petri). A former Cistercian monastery in the Siebengebirge near the little town ...
Helen of Sköfde, Saint

Saint Helen of Skofde

Martyr in the first half of the twelfth century. Her feast is celebrated 31 July. Her life ...
Helena (Montana)

Helena

(Helenensis) Erected from the Vicariate of Montana, 7 March, 1884. It comprises the western ...
Helena, Saint

St. Helena

The mother of Constantine the Great , born about the middle of the third century, possibly in ...
Helenopolis

Helenopolis

A titular see of Bithynia Prima, suffragan of Prusa. On the southern side of the Sinus Astacenus ...
Heli

Heli (Eli)

Heli the Judge and High Priest Heli (Heb. ELI, Gr. HELI) was both judge and high-priest, whose ...
Heliae, Paul

Paul Heliae

(POVL HELGESEN) A Carmelite, opponent of the Reformation in Denmark, born at Warberg (in the ...
Heliand, The

The Heliand

( German Heiland , Saviour) The oldest complete work of German literature . Matthias Flacius ...
Heliogabalus

Heliogabalus

(E LAGABAL ) The name adopted by Varius Avitus Bassianus, Roman emperor (218-222), born of ...
Hell

Hell

This subject is treated under eight headings: (I) Name and Place of Hell; (II) Existence of ...
Hell, Maximilian

Maximilian Hell

(Höll). Astronomer, b. at Schemnitz in Hungary, 15 May, 1720; d. at Vienna, 14 April, ...
Hello, Ernest

Ernest Hello

French philosopher and essayist, b. at Lorient, Brittany, 4 Nov., 1828; d. at Kéroman, ...
Helmold

Helmold

A historian, born in the first half of the twelfth century; died about 1177. He was a native of, ...
Helmont, Jan Baptista van

Jan Baptista van Helmont

Born at Brussels, 1577; died near Vilvorde, 30 December, 1644. This scientist, distinguished in ...
Helpers of the Holy Souls, Society of the

Society of the Helpers of the Holy Souls

( Auxiliatrices des Ames du Purgatoire ) A religious order of women founded in Paris, ...
Helpidius, Flavius Rusticius

Flavius Rusticius Helpidius

The name of several Latin writers. It appears in the manuscript of Pomponius Mela and Julius ...
Hemmerlin, Felix

Felix Hemmerlin

(MALLEOLUS) properly HEMERLI A provost at Solothurn, in Switzerland, born at Zurich, in 1388 ...
Henderson, Issac Austin

Issac Austin Henderson

Born at Brooklyn, 1850; died in Rome, March, 1909. His family was of Scotch and Irish ...
Hendrick, Thomas Augustine

Thomas Augustine Hendrick

First American and the twenty-second Bishop of Cebú, Philippine Islands, b. at Penn Yan, ...
Hengler, Lawrence

Lawrence Hengler

Catholic priest and the inventor of the horizontal pendulum, b. at Reichenhofen, ...
Hennepin, Louis

Louis Hennepin

One of the most famous explorers in the wilds of North America during the seventeenth century, b. ...
Henoch

Henoch

(Greek Enoch ). The name of the son of Cain ( Genesis 4:17, 18 ), of a nephew of Abraham ...
Henoch, Book of

The Book of Enoch

The antediluvian patriarch Henoch according to Genesis "walked with God and was seen no more, ...
Henoticon

Henoticon

The story of the Henoticon forms a chapter in that of the Monophysite heresy in the fifth and ...
Henríquez, Crisóstomo

Crisostomo Henriquez

A Cistercian religious of the Spanish Congregation; b. at Madrid, 1594; d. 23 December, 1632, ...
Henríquez, Enrique

Enrique Henriquez

Noted Jesuit theologian, b. at Oporto, 1536; d. at Tivoli, 28 January, 1608. At the age of ...
Henri de Saint-Ignace

Henri de Saint-Ignace

A Carmelite theologian, b. in 1630, at Ath in Hainaut, Belgium ; d. in 1719 or 1720, near ...
Henrion, Mathieu-Richard-Auguste

Mathieu-Richard-Auguste Henrion

Baron, French magistrate, historian, and journalist; b. at Metz, 19 June, 1805; d. at Aix, ...
Henry Abbot

Henry Abbot

Layman, martyred at York, 4 July, 1597, pronounced Venerable in 1886. His acts are thus related ...
Henry II

Henry II (King of England)

King of England, born 1133; died 6 July, 1189; was in his earlier life commonly known as Henry ...
Henry II, Saint

St. Henry II

German King and Holy Roman Emperor, son of Duke Henry II (the Quarrelsome) and of the Burgundian ...
Henry III

Henry III

German King and Roman Emperor, son of Conrad II; b. 1017; d. at Bodfeld, in the Harz Mountains, 5 ...
Henry IV

Henry IV

King of France and Navarre, son of Jeanne d'Albret and Antoine de Bourbon, b. 14 December, 1553, ...
Henry IV

Henry IV

German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry III and Agnes of Poitou, b. at Goslar, 11 November, ...
Henry of Friemar

Henry of Friemar

(DE VRIMARIA) German theologian ; b. at Friemar, a small town near Gotha in Thuringia, about ...
Henry of Ghent

Henry of Ghent

(HENRICUS DE GANDAVO, known as the DOCTOR SOLEMNIS) A notable scholastic philosopher and ...
Henry of Herford

Henry of Herford

(Or HERWORDEN; HERVORDIA) Friar and chronicler; date of birth unknown; died at Minden, 9 Oct., ...
Henry of Huntingdon

Henry of Huntingdon

Historian; b. probably near Ramsey, Huntingdonshire, between 1080 and 1085; d. 1155. Little is ...
Henry of Kalkar

Henry of Kalkar

(Egher). Carthusian writer, b. at Kalkar in the Duchy of Cleves in 1328; d. at Cologne, 20 ...
Henry of Langenstein

Henry of Langenstein

(Henry of Hesse the Elder.) Theologian and mathematician; b. about 1325 at the villa of ...
Henry of Nördlingen

Henry of Noerdlingen

A Bavarian secular priest, of the fourteenth century, date of death unknown; the spiritual ...
Henry of Rebdorf

Henry of Rebdorf

Alleged author of an imperial and papal chronicle of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, is ...
Henry of Segusio, Blessed

Bl. Henry of Segusio

Usually called Hostiensis , an Italian canonist of the thirteenth century, born at Susa (in ...
Henry Suso, Blessed

Bl. Henry Suso

(Also called Amandus , a name adopted in his writings). German mystic, born at Constance on ...
Henry the Navigator, Prince

Prince Henry the Navigator

Born 4 March, 1394; died 13 November, 1460; he was the fourth son of John I, King of Portugal, by ...
Henry V

Henry V

German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry IV ; b. in 1081; d. at Utrecht, 23 May, 1125. He ...
Henry VI

Henry VI

German King and Roman Emperor, son of Frederick Barbarossa and Beatrice of Burgundy ; b. in ...
Henry VIII

Henry VIII

King of England, born 28 June, 1491; died 28 January, 1547. He was the second son and third ...
Henryson, Robert

Robert Henryson

Scottish poet, born probably 1420-1430; died about 1500. His birthplace, parentage, and place of ...
Henschen, Godfrey

Godfrey Henschen

(Or Henskens .) Jesuit, hagiographer ; b. at Venray (Limburg), 21 June, 1601; d. at ...
Hensel, Luise

Luise Hensel

Poetess and convert ; born at Linum, 30 March, 1798; died at Paderborn, 18 December, 1876. Her ...
Henten, John

John Henton

Biblical exegete, born 1499 at Nalinnes Belgium ; died 10 Oct., 1566, at Louvain. When quite ...
Heortology

Heortology

(From the Greek heorte , festival, and logos , knowledge, discourse) Heortology ...
Hephæstus

Hephaestus

A titular see of Augustamnica Prima, mentioned by Hierocles (Synecd., 727, 9), by George of ...
Heptarchy

Heptarchy

(A NGLO -S AXON H EPTARCHY ) By the term heptarchy is understood that complexus of ...
Heraclas

Heraclas

Bishop of Alexandria from 231 or 232; to 247 or 248. Of his earlier life Origen tells us, ...
Heraclea

Heraclea

A titular see of Thracia Prima. Heraclea is the name given about four centuries before the ...
Heraldry, Ecclesiastical

Ecclesiastical Heraldry

Ecclesiastical heraldry naturally divides itself into various branches, principally: the arms of ...
Herbart and Herbartianism

Herbart and Herbartianism

The widespread and increasing influence of Herbart and his disciples in the work of education ...
Herbert of Bosham

Herbert of Bosham

A biographer of St. Thomas Becket , dates of birth and death unknown. He was probably born in ...
Herbert of Derwentwater, Saint

Saint Herbert of Derwentwater

(Hereberht). Date of birth unknown; d. 20 March, 687; an anchorite of the seventh century, ...
Herbert of Lea, Lady Elizabeth

Lady Elizabeth Herbert of Lea

Authoress, and philanthropist, b. in 1822; d. in London 30 Oct., 1911. Lady Herbert was the ...
Herbst, Johann Georg

Johann Georg Herbst

Born at Rottweil, in Würtemberg, 13 January, 1787; died 31 July, 1836. His college course, ...
Herculano de Carvalho e Araujo, Alejandro

Alejandro Herculano de Carvalho e Araujo

Born at Lisbon, 28 March, 1810; died near Santarem, 13 Sept., 1877. Because of his liberal ...
Herder

Herder

The name of a German firm of publishers and booksellers. Bartholomäus Herder Founder of the ...
Herdtrich, Christian Wolfgang

Christian Wolfgang Herdtrich

(According to Franco, Christianus Henriques ; Chinese, Ngen ). An Austrian Jesuit ...
Heredity

Heredity

The offspring tends to resemble, sometimes with extraordinary closeness, the parents ; this is ...
Hereford, Ancient Diocese of

Ancient Diocese of Hereford

(HEREFORDENSIS) Located in England. Though the name of Putta, the exiled Bishop of ...
Hereswitha, Saint

St. Hereswitha

(HAERESVID, HERESWYDE). Daughter of Hereric and Beorhtswith and sister of St. Hilda of Whitby. ...
Heresy

Heresy

I. Connotation and DefinitionII. Distinctions III. Degrees of heresy IV. Gravity of the sin of ...
Hergenröther, Joseph

Joseph Hergenrother

Church historian and canonist, first Cardinal-Prefect of the Vatican Archives, b. at ...
Heribert

Heribert

(ARIBERT) Archbishop of Milan (1018-1045) An ambitious and warlike prince of the ...
Heribert, Saint

St. Heribert

Archbishop of Cologne ; born at Worms, c. 970; died at Cologne, 16 March, 1021. His father was ...
Heriger of Lobbes

Heriger of Lobbes

A medieval theologian and historian; born about 925; died 31 October, 1007. After studying at ...
Herincx, William

William Herincx

A theologian, born at Helmond, North Brabant, 1621; died 17 Aug., 1678. After receiving his ...
Hermann Contractus

Hermann Contractus

(Herimanus Augiensis, Hermann von Reichenau ). Chronicler, mathematician, and poet; b. 18 ...
Hermann I

Hermann I

Landgrave of Thuringia (1190-1217), famous as a patron of medieval German poets. He was the ...
Hermann Joseph, Saint

Bl. Hermann Joseph

Premonstratensian monk and mystic; b. at Cologne about 1150; d. at Hoven, 7 April, 1241. ...
Hermann of Altach

Hermann of Altach

(Niederaltaich). A medieval historian; b. 1200 or 1201; d. 31 July, 1275. He received his ...
Hermann of Fritzlar

Hermann of Fritzlar

With this name are connected two works on mysticism written in German. The first, "Das ...
Hermann of Minden

Hermann of Minden

Provincial of the German province of Dominicans ; b. at or near Minden on an unknown date ; d. ...
Hermann of Salza

Hermann of Salza

Fourth Grand Master of the Teutonic Order , descendant of the noble Thuringian house of Salza; ...
Hermanos Penitentes, Los

Los Hermanos Penitentes

(The Penitent Brothers), a society of flagellants existing among the Spanish of New Mexico and ...
Hermas

Hermas

(First or second century), author of the book called "The Shepherd" ( Poimen , Pastor), a work ...
Hermas, Saint

Saint Hermas

Martyr The Roman Martyrology sets down for 18 August (XV Kal. Septembris) the feast of the ...
Hermeneutics

Hermeneutics

Derived from a Greek word connected with the name of the god Hermes, the reputed messenger and ...
Hermengild, Saint

St. Hermengild

Date of birth unknown; d. 13 April, 585. Leovigild, the Arian King of the Visigoths (569-86), ...
Hermes, George

George Hermes

Philosopher and theologian, b. at Dreierwalde near Theine (Westphalia), 22 April, 1775; d. at ...
Hermes, Saint

St. Hermes

Martyr, Bishop of Salano (Spalato) in Dalmatia. Very little is known about him; in Romans ...
Hermite, Charles

Charles Hermite

Born at Dieuze, Lorraine, 24 December, 1822; d. at Paris, 14 January, 1901; one of the greatest ...
Hermits

Hermits

( Eremites , "inhabitants of a desert ", from the Greek eremos ), also called anchorites, ...
Hermits of St. Augustine

Hermits of St. Augustine

(Generally called Augustinians and not to be confounded with the Augustinian Canons ). A ...
Hermon

Hermon

[From the Hebrew meaning "sacred (mountain)"; Septuagint, Aermon ] A group of mountains ...
Hermopolis Magna

Hermopolis Magna

A titular see of Thebais Prima, suffragan of Antinoe, in Egypt. The native name was Khmounoun; ...
Hermopolis Parva

Hermopolis Parva

A titular see of Ægyptus Prima, suffragan of Alexandria. Its ancient name, Dimanhoru or ...
Herod

Herod

(Greek Herodes , from Heros .) Herod was the name of many rulers mentioned in the N.T. ...
Herodias

Herodias

Herodias, daughter of Aristobulus -- son of Herod the Great and Mariamne -- was a descendant of ...
Heroic Act of Charity

Heroic Act of Charity

A decree of the Sacred Congregation of Indulgences dated 18 December, 1885, and confirmed the ...
Heroic Virtue

Heroic Virtue

The notion of heroicity is derived from hero, originally a warrior, a demigod; hence it connotes a ...
Herp, Henry

Henry Herp

(Or HARP, Latin CITHARŒDUS, or ERP as in the old manuscripts ) A fifteenth century ...
Herrad of Landsberg

Herrad of Landsberg

(or LANDSPERG) A twelfth-century abbess, author of the "Hortus Deliciarum"; born about 1130, ...
Herregouts

Herregouts

There were three artists of the name of Herregouts, father, son, and grandson, of whom the chief ...
Herrera Barnuevo, Sebastiano de

Sebastiano de Herrera Barnuevo

A painter, architect, sculptor and etcher; born in Madrid, 1611 or 1619; died there, 1671; son ...
Herrera y Tordesillas, Antonio de

Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas

A Spanish historian; born at Cuellar, in the province of Segovia, in 1559; died at Madrid, 27 ...
Herrera, Fernando de

Fernando de Herrera

A Spanish lyric poet; born 1537; died 1597. The head of a school of lyric poets who gathered ...
Herrera, Francisco

Francisco Herrera

(1) Francisco Herrera (el Viejo, the Elder) A Spanish painter, etcher, medallist, and architect; ...
Herrgott, Marquard

Marquard Herrgott

A Benedictine historian and diplomat; born at Freiburg in the Breisgau, 9 October, 1694; died ...
Hersfeld

Hersfeld

An ancient imperial abbey of the Benedictine Order, situated at the confluence of the Geisa and ...
Hervás y Panduro, Lorenzo

Lorenzo Hervas y Panduro

Spanish Jesuit and famous philologist; b. at Horcajo, 1 May, 1735; d. at Rome, 24 August, 1809. ...
Hervetus, Gentian

Gentian Hervetus

French theologian and controversialist; b. at Olivet, near Orléans, in 1499; d. at ...
Hesebon

Hesebon

(A.V. HESHBON; Greek Esebon, Esbous ; Latin Esbus). A titular see of the province of ...
Hesse

Hesse

(H ESSEN ). The name of a German tribe, and also a district in Germany extending along the ...
Hessels, Jean

Jean Hessels

A distinguished theologian of Louvain ; born 1522; died 1566. He had been teaching for eight ...
Hesychasm

Hesychasm

(Greek hesychos , quiet). The story of the system of mysticism defended by the monks of ...
Hesychius of Alexandria

Hesychius of Alexandria

Grammarian and lexicographer; of uncertain date, but assigned by most authorities to the later ...
Hesychius of Jerusalem

Hesychius of Jerusalem

Presbyter and exegete, probably of the fifth century. Nothing certain is known as to the dates ...
Hesychius of Sinai

Hesychius of Sinai

A priest and monk of the Order of St. Basil in the Thorn-bush (Batos) monastery on Mt. ...
Hethites

Hethites

(A.V. H ITTITES ) One of the many peoples of North-Western Asia, styled Hittim in the ...
Hettinger, Franz

Franz Hettinger

A Catholic theologian ; born 13 January, 1819, at Aschaffenburg; died 26 January, 1890, at ...
Heude, Pierre

Pierre Heude

Missionary to China and zoologist; b. at Fougères in the Department of Ille-et-Vilaine, ...
Hewett, John

John Hewett

(Alias WELDON). English martyr ; son of William Hewett of York; date of birth unknown; ...
Hewit, Augustine Francis

Augustine Francis Hewit

Priest and second Superior General of the Institute of St. Paul the Apostle ; b. at Fairfield, ...
Hexaemeron

Hexaemeron

Hexaemeron signifies a term of six days, or, technically, the history of the six days' work of ...
Hexapla

Hexapla

The name given to Origen's edition of the Old Testament in Hebrew and Greek, the most colossal ...
Hexateuch

Hexateuch

A name commonly used by the critics to designate the first six books of the Old Testament, i.e. ...
Hexham and Newcastle

Hexham and Newcastle

Diocese of Hexham and Newcastle (Hagulstadensis et Novocastrensis). Hexham, in ...
Heynlin of Stein, Johann

Johann Heynlin of Stein

(A LAPIDE) A theologian, born about 1425; died at Basle, 12 March, 1496. He was apparently of ...
Heywood, Jasper and John

Jasper and John Heywood

(1) Jasper Heywood A poet and translator; born 1535 in London ; died 1598 at Naples. As a boy ...
Hezekiah

Ezechias

Ezechias (Hebrew = "The Lord strengtheneth"; Septuagint Ezekias ; in the cuneiform inscriptions ...
Hibernians, Ancient Order of

Ancient Order of Hibernians

This organization grew up gradually among the Catholics of Ireland owing to the dreadful ...
Hickey, Antony

Antony Hickey O.F.M.

A theologian, born in the Barony of Islands, Co. Clare, Ireland, in 1586; died in Rome, 26 ...
Hidalgo, Miguel

Miguel Hidalgo

Born on the ranch of San Vicente in the district of Guanajuato, 8 May, 1753; executed at ...
Hierapolis

Titular Archdiocese of Hierapolis

Titular Archdiocese, metropolis of the Province of Euphrates, in the Patriarchate of Antioch. ...
Hierapolis

Hierapolis

A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris, suffragan of Synnada. It is usually called by its ...
Hierarchy

Hierarchy

(Greek Hierarchia ; from hieros , sacred; archein , rule, command). This word has been ...
Hierarchy of the Early Church

Hierarchy of the Early Church

The word hierarchy is used here to denote the three grades of bishop, priest, and deacon ( ...
Hierocæsarea

Hierocaesarea

A titular see of Lydia, suffragan of Sardis. This town is mentioned by Ptolemy (VI, ii, 16). ...
Hieronymites

Hieronymites

In the fourth century, certain Roman ladies, following St. Paula, embraced the religious life ...
Hierotheus

Hierotheus

All attempts to establish as historical a personality corresponding to the Hierotheus who ...
Higden, Ranulf

Ranulf Higden

(HYDON, HYGDEN, HIKEDEN.) Benedictine chronicler; died 1364. He was a west-country man, and ...
High Altar

High Altar

(ALTARE SUMMUM or MAJUS.) The high altar is so called from the fact that it is the chief altar ...
High Priest, The

The High Priest

The high-priest in the Old Testament is called by various names: the priest ( Numbers 3:6 ); ...
Higher Criticism

Biblical Criticism (Higher)

Overview Biblical criticism in its fullest comprehension is the examination of the literary ...
Hilarion, Saint

St. Hilarion

Founder of anchoritic life in Palestine; born at Tabatha, south of Gaza, Palestine, about 291; ...
Hilarius of Sexten

Hilarius of Sexten

(In the world, CHRISTIAN GATTERER.) Moral theologian ; born 1839, in the valley of Sexten in ...
Hilarius, Pope Saint

Pope Saint Hilarus

[ Also spelled HILARIUS] Elected 461; the date of his death is given as 28 Feb., 468. After ...
Hilarus, Pope Saint

Pope Saint Hilarus

[ Also spelled HILARIUS] Elected 461; the date of his death is given as 28 Feb., 468. After ...
Hilary of Arles, Saint

St. Hilary of Arles

Archbishop, b. about 401; d. 5 May, 449. The exact place of his birth is not known. All that may ...
Hilary of Poitiers, Saint

St. Hilary of Poitiers

Bishop, born in that city at the beginning of the fourth century; died there 1 November, according ...
Hilda, Saint

St. Hilda

Abbess, born 614; died 680. Practically speaking, all our knowledge of St. Hilda is derived from ...
Hildebert of Lavardin

Hildebert of Lavardin

Bishop of Le Mans, Archbishop of Tours, and celebrated medieval poet; b. about 1056, at the ...
Hildegard, Saint

Saint Hildegard

Born at Böckelheim on the Nahe, 1098; died on the Rupertsberg near Bingen, 1179; feast 17 ...
Hildesheim

Hildesheim

Diocese of Hildesheim (Hildesheimensis). An exempt see, comprising the Prussian province of ...
Hilduin, Abbot of St-Denis

Hilduin

He died 22 November, 840. He was a scion of a prominent Frankish family, hut the time and place ...
Hill, Ven. Richard

Ven. Richard Hill

English Martyr, executed at Durham, 27 May, 1590. Very little is known of him and his ...
Hillel

Hillel

A famous Jewish rabbi who lived about 70 B.C.-A.D. 10. Our only source of information concerning ...
Hilton, Walter

Walter Hilton

Augustinian mystic, d. 24 March, 1396. Little is known of his life, save that he was the head of a ...
Himeria

Himeria

A titular see in the province of Osrhoene, suffragan of Edessa. The "Notitia" of Anastasius, ...
Himerius

Himerius

(called also EUMERIUS and COMERIUS) An Archbishop of Tarragona in Spain, 385. He is the ...
Hincmar

Hincmar, Archbishop of Reims

An archbishop of Reims ; born in 806; died at Epernay on 21 December, 882. Descended from a ...
Hincmar

Hincmar, Bishop of Laon

Bishop of Laon; died 879. In the beginning of 858 the younger Hincmar, a nephew on the mother's ...
Hinderer, Roman

Roman Hinderer

(Chinese TE). A German missionary in China, born at Reiningen, near Mülhausen, date ...
Hinduism

Hinduism

Hinduism in its narrower sense, is the conglomeration of religious beliefs and practices ...
Hingston, Sir William Hales

Sir William Hales Hingston

Canadian physician and surgeon, b. at Hinchinbrook near Huntingdon, Quebec, June 29, 1829; d. at ...
Hippo Diarrhytus

Hippo Diarrhytus

(Or HIPPO ZARRHYTUS.) A titular see of Northern Africa, now called Bizerta, originally a ...
Hippo Regius

Hippo Regius

A titular see of Numidia, now a part of the residential see of Constantine. Hippo was a Tyrian ...
Hippolytus of Rome, Saint

St. Hippolytus of Rome

Martyr, presbyter and antipope ; date of birth unknown; d. about 236. Until the publication ...
Hippolytus, Saints

Sts. Hippolytus

Besides the presbyter, St. Hippolytus of Rome, others of the name are mentioned in the old ...
Hippos

Sts. Hippolytus

Besides the presbyter, St. Hippolytus of Rome, others of the name are mentioned in the old ...
Hirena

Hirena

A titular see of southern Tunis. Nothing is known of the city, the name of which may have been ...
Hirschau, Abbey of

Abbey of Hirschau

A celebrated Benedictine monastery in Würtemberg, Diocese of Spires, about twenty-two ...
Hirscher, Johann Baptist von

Johann Baptist von Hirscher

Born 20 January, 1788, at Alt-Ergarten, Ravensburg; died 4 September, 1865. He studied at ...
Historical Criticism

Historical Criticism

Historical criticism is the art of distinguishing the true from the false concerning facts of ...
History, Ecclesiastical

Church History

I. NATURE AND OFFICE Ecclesiastical history is the scientific investigation and the methodical ...
Hittites

Hethites

(A.V. H ITTITES ) One of the many peoples of North-Western Asia, styled Hittim in the ...
Hittorp, Melchior

Melchior Hittorp

A theologian and liturgical writer, born about 1525, at Cologne ; died there in 1584. On the ...
Hladnik, Franz von Paula

Franz von Paula Hladnik

Botanist and schoolmaster, b. 29 March, 1773, at Idria, Carniola, Austria ; d. 25 November, ...
Hobart

Hobart

(HOBARTENSIS) Hobart comprises Tasmania, Bruni Island, and the Cape Barren, Flinders, King, ...
Hodgson, Sydney

Sydney Hodgson

A lawman and martyr ; date and place of birth unknown; d. at Tyburn, 10 Dec., 1591. He was a ...
Hofer, Andreas

Andreas Hofer

A patriot and soldier, born at St. Leonhard in Passeyrthale, Tyrol, 22 Nov., 1767; executed at ...
Hogan, John Baptist

John Baptist Hogan

Better known, on account of his long sojourn in France, as Abbé Hogan, born near Ennis in ...
Hohenbaum van der Meer, Moritz

Moritz Hohenbaum van Der Meer

A Benedictine historian; born at Spörl near Belgrade, 25 June, 1718; died at the monastery ...
Hohenburg

Hohenburg

(ODILIENBERG; ALTITONA) A suppressed nunnery, situated on the Odilienberg, the most famous of ...
Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, Alexander Leopold

Alexander Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfuerst

A titular Bishop of Sardica, famous for his many supposedly miraculous cures, born 17 August, ...
Holbein, Hans

Hans Holbein (The Elder)

(The Elder Holbein) A German painter ; b. at Augsburg about 1460; d. at Isenheim, Alsace, in ...
Holden, Henry

Henry Holden

An English priest ; born 1596; died March, 1662. Henry Holden was the second son of Richard ...
Holiness

Holiness

(A.S. hal , perfect, or whole). Sanctitas in the Vulgate of the New Testament is the ...
Holland, Ven. Thomas

Ven. Thomas Holland

An English martyr, b. 1600 at Sutton, Lancashire; martyred at Tyburn, 12 December, 1642. He ...
Hollanders in the United States

Hollanders in the United States

The Hollanders played by no means an insignificant part in the early history of the United ...
Holmes, John

John Holmes

Catholic educator and priest ; born at Windsor, Vermont, in 1799; died at Lorette, near ...
Holocaust

Holocaust

As suggested by its Greek origin ( holos "whole", and kaustos "burnt") the word designates an ...
Holstenius, Lucas

Lucas Holstenius

(HOLSTE). German philologist, b. at Hamburg, 1596; d. at Rome, 2 February, 1661. He studied ...
Holtei, Karl von

Karl von Holtei

German novelist, poet, and dramatist; b. at Breslau, 24 January, 1798; d. in that city, 12 ...
Holy Agony, Archconfraternity of

Archconfraternity of Holy Agony

An association for giving special honour to the mental sufferings of Christ during His Agony ...
Holy Alliance

Holy Alliance

The Emperor Francis I of Austria, King Frederick William III of Prussia, and the Tsar Alexander I ...
Holy Child Jesus, Society of the

Society of the Holy Child Jesus

The Society was founded in England in 1840 by Mrs. Cornelia Connelly, née Peacock, ...
Holy Childhood, Association of the

Association of the Holy Childhood

A children's association for the benefit of foreign missions. Twenty years after the foundation of ...
Holy Coat

Holy Coat

(OF TRIER AND ARGENTEUIL). The possession of the seamless garment of Christ (Gr. chiton ...
Holy Communion

Holy Communion

By Communion is meant the actual reception of the Sacrament of the Eucharist. Ascetic writers ...
Holy Cross Abbey

Holy Cross Abbey

The picturesque ruins of this monastery are situated on the right bank of the River Suir, about ...
Holy Cross, Congregation of

Congregation of the Holy Cross

A body of priests and lay brothers constituted in the religious state by the simple vows of ...
Holy Cross, Sisters Marianites of

Sisters Marianites of Holy Cross

The congregation of the Sisters Marianites of Holy Cross was founded in 1841, in the parish of ...
Holy Cross, Sisters of the

Sisters of the Holy Cross

(Mother House, St. Mary's of the Immaculate Conception, Notre Dame, Indiana) As an offset to ...
Holy Faith, Sisters of the

Sisters of the Holy Faith

Founded at Dublin, in 1857, by Margaret Aylward, under the direction of Rev. John Gowan, C.M., ...
Holy Family, Archconfraternity of the

Archconfraternity of the Holy Family

This archconfraternity owes its origin to Henri Belletable, an officer in the Engineers' Corps, ...
Holy Family, Congregations of the

Congregations of the Holy Family

I. ASSOCIATION OF THE HOLY FAMILY Founded in 1820 by the Abbé Pierre Bienvenue Noailles (d. ...
Holy Ghost

Holy Ghost

I. SYNOPSIS OF THE DOGMA The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms ...
Holy Ghost, Orders of the

Orders of the Holy Ghost

The Hospital of the Holy Ghost at Rome was the cradle of an order, which, beginning in the ...
Holy Ghost, Religious Congregations of the

Religious Congregations of the Holy Ghost

I. THE CONGREGATION OF THE HOLY GHOST AND OF THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY This Congregation was ...
Holy Grail, The

The Holy Grail

The name of a legendary sacred vessel , variously identified with the chalice of the Eucharist ...
Holy House of Loreto

Santa Casa di Loreto (Holy House of Loreto)

(The Holy House of Loreto). Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the "Holy ...
Holy Humility of Mary, Sisters of the

Sisters of the Holy Humility of Mary

Founded at Dommartin-sous-Amance, France, in 1855, by John Joseph Begel (b. 5 April, 1817; d. 23 ...
Holy Infancy, Brothers of the

Brothers of the Holy Infancy

Founded in 1853 by the Right Rev. John Timon, the first Bishop of Buffalo. The special aim of ...
Holy Innocents

Holy Innocents

The children mentioned in St. Matthew 2:16-18 : Herod perceiving that he was deluded by the wise ...
Holy Name of Jesus

Holy Name of Jesus

We give honour to the Name of Jesus, not because we believe that there is any intrinsic power ...
Holy Name, Feast of the

Feast of the Holy Name

This feast is celebrated on the second Sunday after Epiphany (double of the second class). ...
Holy Name, Litany of the

Litany of the Holy Name

An old and popular form of prayer in honour of the Name of Jesus. The author is not known. ...
Holy Name, Society of the

Society of the Holy Name

(Confraternity of the Most Holy Name of God and Jesus). An indulgenced confraternity in the ...
Holy Oils

Holy Oils

(OLEA SACRA). Liturgical Benediction Oil is a product of great utility the symbolic ...
Holy Oils, Vessels for

Vessels For Holy Oils

In Christian antiquity there existed an important category of vessels used as receptacles for ...
Holy Orders

Holy Orders

Order is the appropriate disposition of things equal and unequal, by giving each its proper place ...
Holy Saturday

Holy Saturday

In the primitive Church Holy Saturday was known as Great, or Grand, Saturday, Holy Saturday, the ...
Holy See

Holy See

(From the Latin Sancta Sedes , Holy Chair). A term derived from the enthronement ...
Holy Sepulchre

Holy Sepulchre

Holy Sepulchre refers to the tomb in which the Body of Jesus Christ was laid after His death ...
Holy Sepulchre, Canonesses Regular of the

Canonesses Regular of the Holy Sepulchre

Concerning the foundation there is only a tradition connecting it with St. James the Apostle and ...
Holy Sepulchre, Fathers of the

Fathers of the Holy Sepulchre

(Guardians) The Fathers of the Holy Sepulchre are the six or seven Franciscan Fathers, who ...
Holy Sepulchre, Knights of the

Knights of the Holy Sepulchre

Neither the name of a founder nor a date of foundation can be assigned to the so-called Order of ...
Holy Spirit

Holy Ghost

I. SYNOPSIS OF THE DOGMA The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms ...
Holy Stairs (Scala Sancta)

Scala Sancta (Holy Stairs)

Consisting of twenty-eight white marble steps, at Rome, near the Lateran; according to tradition ...
Holy Synod

Holy Synod

In its full form M OST H OLY D IRECTING S YNOD , the name of the council by which the ...
Holy Thursday

Maundy Thursday (Holy Thursday)

The feast of Maundy (or Holy) Thursday solemnly commemorates the institution of the Eucharist ...
Holy Water

Holy Water

The use of holy water in the earliest days of the Christian Era is attested by documents of ...
Holy Water Fonts

Holy Water Fonts

Vessels intended for the use of holy water are of very ancient origin, and archaeological ...
Holy Week

Holy Week

Holy Week is the week which precedes the great festival of the Resurrection on Easter Sunday, and ...
Holy Year of Jubilee

Holy Year of Jubilee

The ultimate derivation of the word jubilee is disputed, but it is most probable that the ...
Holyrood Abbey

Holyrood Abbey

Located in Edinburgh, Scotland ; founded in 1128 by King David I for the Canons Regular of ...
Holywell

Holywell

A town in North Wales, situated on the declivity of a hill overlooking a picturesque valley, ...
Holywood, Christopher

Christopher Holywood

( Latinized , A Sacrobosco.) Jesuit ; b. At Artane, Dublin, in 1559; d. 4 September, 1626. ...
Holywood, John

Joannes de Sacrobosco

(John Holywood), a monk of English origin, lived in the first half of the thirteenth century as ...
Holzhauser, Bartholomew

Bartholomew Holzhauser

Parish priest, ecclesiastical writer, and founder of a religious community; born 24 Aug., ...
Homes

Homes

This term, when used in an eleemosynary sense, covers all institutions that afford the general ...
Homicide

Homicide

( Latin homo , man; and caedere , to slay) Homicide signifies, in general, the killing of a ...
Homiletics

Homiletics

Homiletics is the science that treats of the composition and delivery of a sermon or other ...
Homiliarium

Homiliarium

A collection of homilies, or familiar explanations of the Gospels (see HOMILY). From a very ...
Homily

Homily

The word homily is derived from the Greek word homilia (from homilein ), which means to ...
Homoousion

Homoousion

(Gr. homoousion - from homos , same, and ousia , essence ; Latin consubstantialem , of ...
Honduras

British Honduras

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF BRITISH HONDURAS. The territory of the vicariate is co-extensive with ...
Hong-Kong

Hong-Kong

The island of Hong-Kong was ceded by the Chinese Government to Great Britain in January, 1841, ...
Honoratus a Sancta Maria

Honoratus a Sancta Maria

A Discalced Carmelite ; born at Limoges, 4 July, 1651 ; died at Lille, 1729. Blaise Vauxelles ...
Honoratus, Saint

Saint Honoratus

Archbishop of Arles; b. about 350; d. 6 (or, according to certain authors, 14 or 15) January, ...
Honorius I, Pope

Pope Honorius I

Pope (625-12 October, 638), a Campanian, consecrated 27 October (Duchesne) or 3 November ...
Honorius II, Pope

Pope Honorius II

(Lamberto Scannabecchi) Born of humble parents at Fagnano near Imola at an unknown date ; ...
Honorius III, Pope

Pope Honorius III

(Cencio Savelli) Born at Rome, date of birth unknown; died at Rome, 18 March, 1227. For a ...
Honorius IV, Pope

Pope Honorius IV

(Giacomo Savelli) Born at Rome about 1210; died at Rome, 3 April, 1287. He belonged to the ...
Honorius of Autun

Honorius of Autun

(HONORIUS AUGUSTODUNENSIS) A theologian, philosopher, and encyclopedic writer who lived in ...
Honorius, Flavius

Flavius Honorius

Roman Emperor, d. 25 August, 423. When his father, the Emperor Theodosius, divided up the ...
Honorius, Saint

St. Honorius

Archbishop of Canterbury, fifth in succession from St. Augustine, elected 627; consecrated at ...
Honour

Honour

Honour may be defined as the deferential recognition by word or sign of another's worth or ...
Hontheim, Johannes Nicolaus von

Johannes Nicolaus Von Hontheim

(FEBRONIUS) An auxiliary Bishop of Trier ; born at Trier, 27 January, 1701; died at ...
Hood

Hood

A flexible, conical, brimless head-dress, covering the entire head, except the face. It is either ...
Hoogstraten, Jacob van

Jacob van Hoogstraten

(also HOCHSTRATEN) A theologian and controversialist, born about 1460, in Hoogstraeten, ...
Hooke, Luke Joseph

Luke Joseph Hooke

Born at Dublin in 1716; died at St. Cloud, Paris, 16 April, 1796, son of Nathaniel Hooke the ...
Hope

Hope

Hope, in its widest acceptation, is described as the desire of something together with the ...
Hope-Scott, James Robert

James Robert Hope-Scott

(Originally H OPE ) Parliamentary barrister, Q.C.; b. 15 July, 1812, at Great Marlow, ...
Hopi Indians

Hopi Indians

(From Hopita, "peaceful ones" their own name; also frequently known as Moki, or Moqui, an alien ...
Hopkins, Gerard Manley

Gerard Manley Hopkins

Jesuit and poet, born at Stratford, near London, 28 July, 1844; died at Dublin, 8 June, 1889. ...
Hormisdas, Pope Saint

Pope St. Hormisdas

Date of birth unknown, elected to the Holy See, 514; d. at Rome, 6 August, 523. This able and ...
Horner, Nicholas

Nicholas Horner

Layman and martyr, born at Grantley, Yorkshire, England, date of birth unknown; died at ...
Horns, Altar

Altar Horns

On the Jewish altar there were four projections, one at each corner, which were called the horns ...
Hornyold, John Joseph

John Joseph Hornyold

A titular Bishop of Phiomelia, Vicar Apostolic of the Midland District, England ; born 19 ...
Hortulus Animæ

Hortulus Animae

(L ITTLE G ARDEN OF THE S OUL ). A prayer book which both in its Latin and German ...
Hosanna

Hosanna

"And the multitudes that went before and that followed, cried, saying: Hosanna to the son of ...
Hosea

Osee

NAME AND COUNTRY Osee (Hôsheá‘– Salvation ), son of Beeri, was one of ...
Hosius of Cordova

Hosius of Cordova

The foremost Western champion of orthodoxy in the early anti-Arian struggle; born about 256; ...
Hosius, Stanislaus

Stanislaus Hosius

(HOE, HOSZ) Cardinal and Prince- Bishop of Ermland ; born of German parents at Cracow, 5 ...
Hospice

Hospice

( Latin hospitium , a guest house). During the early centuries of Christianity the hospice ...
Hospital Sisters of the Mercy of Jesus

Hospital Sisters of the Mercy of Jesus

These sisters are established in religion under the Rule of St. Augustine, the institute being ...
Hospitality

Hospitality

The Council of Trent in its twenty-fifth session, cap. viii, De Ref., enjoins "all who hold any ...
Hospitallers

Hospitallers

During the Middle Ages, among the hospitals established throughout the West ( Maisons-Dieu ...
Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem

Knights of Malta

(Also known as K NIGHTS OF M ALTA ). The most important of all the military orders, both ...
Hospitals

Hospitals

(Latin hospes , a guest; hence hospitalis , hospitable; hospitium , a guest-house or ...
Hospitius, Saint

Saint Hospitius

(Sospis) Recluse, b. according to tradition in Egypt, towards the beginning of the sixth ...
Hossche, Sidron de

Sidron de Hossche

( Latin HOSSCHIUS) Sidron de Hossche, poet and priest ; born at Mercken, West Flanders, in ...
Host

Host

Archaeological and Historical Aspects The bread destined to receive Eucharistic Consecration is ...
Host, Johann

Johann Host

One of the seven Dominicans, who distinguished themselves in the struggle against Luther in ...
Hottentots

Hottentots

The Hottentot is one of three tribes of South Africa which may be divided — Bantus, ...
Houbigant, Charles François

Charles-Francois Houbigant

Born in Paris, 1686; died there 31 October, 1783. He entered the Congregation of the Oratory in ...
Houdon, Jean-Antoine

Jean-Antoine Houdon

Born at Versailles, 1741; died 16 July, 1828; the most distinguished sculptor of France ...
Houdry, Vincent

Vincent Houdry

Preacher and writer on ascetics; b. 23 January, 1631, at Tours ; d. 21 March, 1729, at Paris. ...
Houghton, John, Blessed

Blessed John Houghton

Protomartyr of the persecution under Henry VIII, b. in Essex, 1487; d. at Tyburn, 4 May, 1535. ...
Houghton, William

William Houghton

(Variously called DE HOTUM, DE HOTHUM, DE HOZUM, BOTHUM, DE HONDEN, HEDDON, HEDDONEM, according as ...
Hours, Canonical

Canonical Hours

I. IDEA By canonical hour is understood all the fixed portion of the Divine Office which the ...
Hours, Liturgy of the

Divine Office

("Liturgy of the Hours" I. THE EXPRESSION "DIVINE OFFICE" This expression signifies ...
Hove, Peter van

Peter van Hove

Friar Minor, lector in theology and exegete ; b. at Rethy, in Campine (Belgium); d. at Antwerp, ...
Howard, Mary, of the Holy Cross

Mary Howard, of the Holy Cross

Poor Clare, born 28 December, 1653; died at Rouen, 21 Mary's 1735, daughter of Sir Robert Howard, ...
Howard, Philip Thomas

Philip Thomas Howard

Dominican and cardinal, commonly called the "Cardinal of Norfolk"; born at Arundel House, ...
Howard, Philip, Venerable

Ven. Philip Howard

Martyr, Earl of Arundel; born at Arundel House, London, 28 June 1557, died in the Tower of London, ...
Howard, Venerable William

Ven. William Howard

Viscount Stafford, martyr ; born 30 November, 1614; beheaded Tower-Hill, 29 December, 1680. He ...
Hroswitha

Hroswitha

A celebrated nun -poetess of the tenth century, whose name has been given in various forms, ...
Huánuco

Huanuco

(Huanucensis) Suffragan of Lima in Peru. The department of Huánuco contains an ...
Huajuápam de León

Huajuapam de Leon

(Huajuapatamensis) Diocese in the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, erected by Bull of Leo XIII , ...
Huaraz

Huaraz

Diocese of Huaraz (Huaraziensis) Suffragan of Lima. It comprises the entire department of ...
Huber, Alphons

Alphons Huber

An historian; born 14 October, 1834, at Fügen, Zillerthal (Tyrol); died 23 November, 1898, at ...
Hubert Walter

Hubert Walter

Archbishop of Canterbury (1193-1205); died 13 July, 1205; son of Hervey (Herveus) Walter and ...
Hubert, Jean-François

Jean-Francois Hubert

The ninth Bishop of Quebec, born at Quebec, 23 February, 1739; died 17 October, 1799; son of ...
Hubert, Saint

St. Hubert

Confessor, thirty-first Bishop of Maastricht, first Bishop of Liège, and Apostle of ...
Hubert, Saint, Military Orders of

Military Orders of Saint Hubert

I. The highest order of Bavaria, founded in 1444 or 1445 by Gerhard V, Duke of Jülich, in ...
Huc, Evariste Régis

Evariste Regis Huc

A French Lazarist missionary and traveller; born at Caylus (Tarn-et-Garonne), 1 June, 1813; died ...
Hucbald of St-Amand

Hucbald of St-Amand

(HUGBALDUS, UBALDUS, UCHUBALDUS) A Benedictine monk ; born in 840; died in 930 or 932. The ...
Huddleston, John

John Huddleston

Monk of the Order of St. Benedict; b. at Farington Hall, Lancashire, 15 April, 1608; exact date ...
Hudson, Blessed James

Bl. James Thompson

(Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...
Hueber, Fortunatus

Fortunatus Hueber

A Franciscan historian and theologian, born at Neustadt on the Danube; died 12 Feb., 1706, at ...
Huelgas de Burgos

Huelgas de Burgos

The royal monastery of Las Huelgas de Burgos was founded by Alfonso VIII at the instance of ...
Huesca

Huesca

(OSCENSIS) Huesca embraces parts of the province of Huesca in north-eastern Spain, seven ...
Huet, Pierre-Daniel

Pierre-Daniel Huet

A distinguished savant and celebrated French bishop ; born 8 February, 1630, at Caen (Normandy), ...
Hug, Johann Leonhard

Hug

A German Catholic exegete, b. at Constance, 1 June, 1765; d. at Freiburg im Br., 11 March, ...
Hugh Capet

Hugh Capet

King of France, founder of the Capetian dynasty, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. ...
Hugh Faringdon, Blessed

Bl. Hugh Faringdon

( Vere COOK). English martyr ; b. probably at Faringdon, Berkshire, date unknown; d. at ...
Hugh of Digne

Hugh of Digne

Friar Minor andascetical writer; b. at Digne, south-east France, date uncertain; d. at ...
Hugh of Flavigny

Hugh of Flavigny

Benedictine monk and historian; b. about 1064, probably at Verdun (Lorraine); d. before the ...
Hugh of Fleury

Hugh of Fleury

(Called also HUGO A SANTA MARIA, from the name of the church of his native village). ...
Hugh of Lincoln, Saint

Saint Hugh of Lincoln

Born about the year 1135 at the castle of Avalon, near Pontcharra, in Burgundy ; died at London, ...
Hugh of Remiremont

Hugh of Remiremont

Surnamed CANDIDUS or BLANCUS. Cardinal, born of a noble family, probably in Lorraine, died soon ...
Hugh of St-Cher

Hugh of St-Cher

(Latin D E S ANCTO C ARO ; D E S ANCTO T HEODORICO ). A Dominican cardinal of the ...
Hugh of St. Victor

Hugh of St. Victor

Medieval philosopher, theologian, and mystical writer; b. 1096, at the manor of Hartingham in ...
Hugh of Strasburg

Hugh of Strasburg

Theologian, flourished during the latter half of the thirteenth century. The dates of his birth ...
Hugh the Great, Saint

St. Hugh the Great

Abbot of Cluny, born at Semur (Brionnais in the Diocese of Autun, 1024; died at Cluny, 28 ...
Hugh, Saint

St. Hugh

(Called LITTLE SAINT HUGH OF LINCOLN.) St. Hugh was the son of a poor woman of Lincoln ...
Hughes, John

John Hughes

Fourth bishop and first Archbishop of New York, born at Annaloghan, Co. Tyrone, Ireland, 24 ...
Hugo, Charles-Hyacinthe

Charles-Hyacinthe Hugo

Born 20 Sept., 1667, at St. Mihiel (Department of Meuse, France ); died 2 August, 1739. He ...
Huguccio

Huguccio

(HUGH OF PISA) Italian canonist, b. at Pisa, date unknown; d. in 1210. He studied at ...
Huguenots

Huguenots

A name by which the French Protestants are often designated. Its etymology is uncertain. ...
Hulst, Maurice Le Sage d'Hauteroche d'

Maurice le Sage d'Hauteroche d'Hulst

A prelate, writer, orator; born at Paris, 10 Oct., 1841; died there, 6 Nov., 1896. After a ...
Human Acts

Human Acts

Acts are termed human when they are proper to man as man; when, on the contrary, they are ...
Humanism

Humanism

Humanism is the name given to the intellectual, literary, and scientific movement of the ...
Humbert of Romans

Humbert of Romans

(DE ROMANIS). Fifth master general of the Dominican Order, b. at Romans in the Diocese of ...
Humeral Veil

Humeral Veil

This is the name given to a cloth of rectangular shape about 8 ft. long and 1 1/2 ft. wide. The ...
Humiliati

Humiliati

I. A penitential order dating back, according to some authorities, to the beginning of the ...
Humility

Humility

The word humility signifies lowliness or submissiveness an it is derived from the Latin ...
Humphrey Middlemore, Blessed

Bl. Humphrey Middlemore

English Carthusian martyr, date of birth uncertain; d. at Tyburn, London, 19 June, 1535. His ...
Humphreys, Laurence

Laurence Humphreys

Layman and martyr, born in Hampshire, England, 1571; died at Winchester, 1591. Of Protestant ...
Hungarian Catholics in America

Hungarian Catholics in America

The Kingdom of Hungary (Magyarország) comprises within its borders several races or ...
Hungarian Literature

Hungarian Literature

The language which has prevailed in Hungary for nearly a thousand years and is spoken at the ...
Hungary

Hungary

GEOGRAPHY AND MATERIAL CONDITIONS The Kingdom of Hungary, or "Realm of the Crown of St. Stephen ...
Hunolt, Franz

Franz Hunolt

The most popular German preacher of the early part of the eighteenth century, b. 31 March, 1691, ...
Hunt, Ven. Thurston

Ven. Thurston Hunt

An English martyr (March, 1601), who belonged to the family seated at Carlton Hall, near ...
Hunter, Sylvester Joseph

Sylvester Joseph Hunter

English Jesuit priest and educator; b. at Bath, 13 Sept., 1829; d. at Stonyhurst, 20 June, 1896. ...
Hunting, Canons on

Hunting

From early times, hunting, in one form or another has been forbidden to clerics. Thus, in the ...
Huntington, Jedediah Vincent

Jedediah Vincent Huntington

Clergyman, novelist; born 20 January, 1815, in New York City; died 10 March, 1862, at Pau, France. ...
Hunyady, János

Janos Hunyady

(JOHN) Governor of Hungary, born about 1400; died 11 August, 1456; the heroic defender of the ...
Huron Indians

Huron Indians

The main divisions of the subject are: I. THE HURONS BEFORE THEIR DISPERSION (1) Their Place in ...
Hurst, Richard

Richard Hurst

(Or HERST.) Layman and martyr, b. probably at Broughton, near Preston, Lancashire, England, ...
Hurtado, Caspar

Caspar Hurtado

A Spanish Jesuit and theologian, b. at Mondejar, New Castle, in 1575; d. at Alcalá, 5 ...
Hurter

Hurter

(1) Friedrich Emmanuel Von Hurter Convert and historian, b. at Schaffhausen, 19 March, 1787; d. at ...
Hus, Jan

Jan Hus

(Also spelled John ). Born at Husinetz in southern Bohemia, 1369; died at Constance 6 ...
Husenbeth, Frederick Charles

Frederick Charles Husenbeth

Born at Bristol, 30 May, 1796; died at Cossey, Norfolk, 31 October, 1872. The son of a Bristol ...
Hussey, Thomas

Thomas Hussey

Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, b. at Ballybogan, Co. Meath, in 1746; d. at Tramore, Co. ...
Hussites

Hussites

The followers of Jan Hus did not of themselves assume the name of Hussites. Like Hus, they ...
Hutton, Peter

Peter Hutton

Priest, b. at Holbeck, Leeds, Yorkshire, England, 29 June, 1811; d. at Ratcliffe, ...
Huysmans, Joris Karl

Joris Karl Huysmans

A French novelist; born in Paris, 5 February, 1848; died 12 May, 1907. He studied at the Lycee ...
Hyacinth and Protus, Saints

Sts. Protus and Hyacinth

Martyrs during the persecution of Valerian (257-9). The day of their annual commemoration is ...
Hyacinth, Saint

St. Hyacinth

Dominican, called the Apostle of the North, son of Eustachius Konski of the noble family of ...
Hyacintha Mariscotti, Saint

St. Hyacintha Mariscotti

A religious of the Third Order of St. Francis and foundress of the Sacconi; born 1585 of a noble ...
Hydatius of Lemica

Hydatius of Lemica

( Also IDATIUS; LEMICA is more correctly LIMICA.) A chronicler and bishop, born at the end ...
Hyderabad-Deccan, Diocese of

Hyderabad-Deccan

Hyderabad, also called Bhagnagar, and Fakhunda Bunyad, capital of the Nizam's dominions, was ...
Hyginus, Pope Saint

Pope St. Hyginus

Reigned about 138-142; succeeded Pope Telesphorus, who, according to Eusebius (Hist. eccl., IV, ...
Hylozoism

Hylozoism

(Greek hyle , matter + zoe , life ) The doctrine according to which all matter ...
Hymn

Hymn

A derivative of the Latin hymnus , which comes from the Greek hymnos , derived from hydein ...
Hymnody and Hymnology

Hymnody and Hymnology

Hymnody, taken from the Greek ( hymnodia ), means exactly " hymn song", but as the hymn-singer ...
Hypæpa

Hypaepa

Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus; it was a small town on the southern slope of ...
Hypnotism

Hypnotism

(Greek hypnos , sleep) By Hypnotism , or Hypnosis , we understand here the nervous ...
Hypocrisy

Hypocrisy

(Greek hypo , under, and krinesthai , to contend — hence adequately "to answer" on the ...
Hypostatic Union

Hypostatic Union

A theological term used with reference to the Incarnation to express the revealed truth ...
Hypsistarians

Hypsistarians

Hypsistarians or worshippers of the Hypsistos , i.e. of the "Most High" God ; a distinct ...
Hyrtl, Joseph

Joseph Hyrtl

Austrian anatomist, b. at Eisenstadt in Hungary, December 7, 1810; d. 17 July, 1894, on his ...
Hyssop

Hyssop

( Septuagint hyssopos ). A plant which is referred to in a few passages of Holy Writ , and ...

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