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Volume J in the Catholic Encyclopedia

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Jáuregui, Juan de - A Spanish painter and poet, born at Seville c. 1570, or, according to some, as late as 1583; ...
Jíbaro Indians - Jíbaro (Spanish orthography) "forest man", i.e. native. An important tribal group of ...
Jörg, Joseph Edmund - Historian and politician, b. 23 Dec., 1819 at Immenstadt (Ahgau); d. at Landshut, 18 Nov., 1901. ...
Jaén - (GIENNENSIS) Diocese in Southern Spain. The city of Jaén, capital of the province of ...
Jaca, Diocese of - ( Also JACCA; Latin JACCENSIS). Located in the Spanish province of Huesca. Jaca, the chief ...
Jackson, Henry Moore - Knight, born in Grenada, 1849; died in London, 29 August, 1908. The youngest son of the Anglican ...
Jacob - The son of Isaac and Rebecca, third great patriarch of the chosen people, and the immediate ...
Jacob of Jüterbogk - (In the world BENEDICT STOLZENHAGEN). Theologian and canonist, born of poor parents near ...
Jacobus de Teramo - (AB ANCHARANO), belonging to the family of Palladini, canonist and bishop, born in 1349 at ...
Jacopo de Voragine, Blessed - ( Also DI VIRAGGIO). Archbishop of Genoa and medieval hagiologist, born at Viraggio (now ...
Jacopone da Todi - (Properly called JACOPO BENEDICTI or BENEDETTI). Franciscan poet, born at Todi in the first ...
Jacotot, Joseph - French educator, b. at Dijon, March, 1770; d. at Paris, 30 July, 1840. He studied in the college ...
Jacques de Vitry - Historian of the crusades, cardinal Bishop of Acre, later of Tusculum, b. at Vitry-sur-Seine, ...
Jacquier, François - French mathematician and physicist, born at Vitry-le-Francois, 7 June, 1711; died at Rome, 3 ...
Jaenbert - (Jaenberht, Janbriht, Janibert, Jambert, Lambert, Lanbriht, Genegberht.) Thirteenth ...
Jaffa - A titular see in the Patriarchate of Jerusalem. The city of Jaffa is very ancient. Even before ...
Jaffna, Diocese of - (JAFFNENSIS.) Situated in the northern portion of Ceylon, Jaffna comprises the northern and ...
Jainism - A form of religion intermediate between Brahminism and Buddhism, originated in India in ...
Jamaica - The largest of the British West Indian islands, is situated in the Caribbean Sea, between latitude ...
Jamay, Denis - Franciscan, missionary, date and place of birth unknown; died in France, 1625; an important ...
James of Brescia - Theologian of the fifteenth century. He entered the Dominican Order at Brescia, his native ...
James of Edessa - A celebrated Syrian writer, b. most likely in A.D. 633; d. 5 June, 708. He was a native of the ...
James of Sarugh - A writer of the Syrian Church "the flute of the Holy Spirit and the harp of the believing ...
James of the Marches, Saint - Franciscan, b. of a poor family named Gangala, at Monteprandone, Italy, 1391; d. at Naples, 28 ...
James Primadicci - (Or Primadizzi.) Born at Bologna; died in the same city in 1460. As early as the year 1426 he ...
James the Greater, Saint - ( Hebrew Yakob ; Septuagint Iakob ; N.T. Greek Iakobos ; a favourite name among the later ...
James the Less, Saint - THE IDENTITY OF JAMES The name "James" in the New Testament is borne by several: James, the ...
James Thompson, Blessed - (Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...
James, Epistle of Saint - The questions concerning this epistle are treated in the following order: I. Author and ...
Janauschek, Leopold - Cistercian, born at Brünn, Moravia, 13 October, 1827; died 23 July, 1898, at Baden, near ...
Jandel, Alexandre Vincent - General of the Dominican order, born at Gerbevilliers (Lorraine), 18 July, 1810; died at Rome, ...
Jane Frances de Chantal, Saint - Born at Dijon, France, 28 January, 1572; died at the Visitation Convent Moulins, 13 December, ...
Janner, Ferdinand - Theologian, born at Hirschau, in the Upper Palatinate (Bavaria), 4 Feb., 1836; died 1 November, ...
Janow, Matthew of - A medieval ecclesiastical author, born in the fourteenth century in Bohemia ; died at ...
Jansen, Cornelius - ( Also Jansens, Janssen, Janssenius or Jansenius Gandaviensis). Exegete, born at Hulst, ...
Jansenius and Jansenism - Cornelius Jansen, Bishop of Ypres ( Cornelius Jansenius Yprensis ), from whom Jansenism derives ...
Janssen, Arnold - Founder and first superior-general of the Society of the Divine Word, b. at Goch in the Rhine ...
Janssen, Johann - Historian, born 10 April, 1829, at Kanten, Germany ; died 24 December, 1891, at ...
Janssens, Abraham - Flemish painter, b. at Antwerp about 1573; d. probably in the same place about 1631. He is also ...
Janssens, Johann Hermann - Catholic theologian, b. at Maeseyck, Belgium, 7 Dec., 1783; d. at Engis, 23 May, 1853. After ...
Januarius, Saint - Martyr, Bishop of Beneventum. St. Januarius is believed to have suffered in the ...
Japan - AREA AND POPULATION Japan, called in the language of the country Nihon or Nippon (Land of the ...
Japanese Martyrs - There is not in the whole history of the Church a single people who can offer to the ...
Jarcke, Karl Ernst - Born 10 November, 1801, at Danzig, Prussia ; died 27 December, 1852, at Vienna. He belonged to a ...
Jaricot, Pauline-Marie - Foundress of the Society of the Propagation of the Faith and the Association of the Living ...
Jarlath, Saint - Patron of the Archdiocese of Tuam , born in Connaught about 445; died 26 December, ( al. , 11 ...
Jaro - Diocese in the Philippine Islands, formerly a part of the Diocese of Cebú, was made a ...
Jarric, Pierre de - Missionary writer, born at Toulouse in 1566; d. at Saintes, 2 March, 1617. He entered the ...
Jason - A Greek name adopted by many Jews whose Hebrew designation was Joshua (Jesus). In the Old ...
Jassus - A titular see of Caria, and suffragan of Aphrodisias. The city was founded by colonists from ...
Jassy - (Jassiensis). Diocese in Rumania. The town of Jassy stands in a very fertile plain on the ...
Javouhey, Venerable Anne-Marie - Foundress of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny, born at Chamblanc, Diocese of Dijon, 11 ...
Jealousy - Jealousy is here taken to be synonymous with envy. It is defined to be a sorrow which one ...
Jean de La Bruyère - Born at Paris in 1645; died at Chantilly in 1696. He was the son of a comptroller general of ...
Jean Eudes, Blessed - French missionary and founder of the Eudists and of the Congregation of Our Lady of Charity; ...
Jean-Baptiste-Marie Vianney, Saint - Curé of Ars, born at Dardilly, near Lyons, France, on 8 May, 1786; died at Ars, 4 ...
Jean-Gabriel Perboyre, Blessed - Missionary and martyr, born at Puech, Diocese of Cahors, France, 6 January, 1802; martyred at ...
Jeanne de Valois, Saint - Queen and foundress of the Order of the Annonciades, b. 1464; d. at Bourges, 4 Feb., 1505. ...
Jeaurat, Edmond - (EDME JEAURAT) French engraver, b. at Vermenton, near Auxerre, 1688; d. at Paris, 1738. He ...
Jedburgh - (Eighty-two different spellings of the name are given in the "Origines Parochiales Scotiæ"). ...
Jehoshaphat - ( Hebrew for " Yahweh hath judged"; Septuagint 'Iosaphát ). Fourth King of Juda ...
Jehoshaphat, Valley of - (JEHOSHAPHAT). Mentioned in only one passage of the Bible ( Joel 3 -- Hebrew text, 4). In ...
Jehovah - The proper name of God in the Old Testament ; hence the Jews called it the name by ...
Jehu - The derivation of the name is uncertain. By some it is translated " Yahweh is he". I. J EHU ...
Jemez Pueblo - An Indian pueblo situated upon the north bank of the river of the same name about twenty miles ...
Jeningen, Venerable Philipp - Born at Eichstätt, Bavaria, 5 January, 1642;d, at Ellwangen, 8 February, 1704. Entering the ...
Jenks, Silvester - Theologian, born in Shropshire, c. 1656; died in December, 1714. He was educated at Douai ...
Jennings, Sir Patrick Alfred - An Australian statesman, b. at Newry, Ireland, 1831; d. July, 1897. He received his education, ...
Jephte - One of the judges of Israel. The story of Jephte is narrated in chapters xi and xii of the Book ...
Jeremias - [Hebrew Irmeyah; often in the paragogic form Irmeyahu, especially in the Book of ...
Jeremias the Prophet - ( THE P ROPHET .) Jeremias lived at the close of the seventh and in the first part of the ...
Jericho - Three cities of this name have successively occupied sites in the same neighbourhood. I. A ...
Jeroboam - (Septuagint `Ieroboám ), name of two Israelitish kings. (1) J EROBOAM I was the ...
Jerome Emiliani, Saint - Founder of the Order of Somascha; b. at Venice, 1481; d. at Somascha, 8 Feb., 1537; feast, 20 ...
Jerome, Saint - Born at Stridon, a town on the confines of Dalmatia and Pannonia, about the year 340-2; died at ...
Jerusalem (71-1099) - I. TO THE TIME OF CONSTANTINE (71-312) When Titus took Jerusalem (April-September, A.D. 70) he ...
Jerusalem (After 1291) - (1) Political History The Latin dominion over Jerusalem really came to an end on 2 October, ...
Jerusalem (Before A.D. 71) - This article treats of the "City of God", the political and religious centre of the People of ...
Jerusalem, Assizes of - The signification of the word assizes in this connection is derived from the French verb ...
Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom of (1099-1291) - The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was founded as a result of the First Crusade, in 1099. Destroyed ...
Jerusalem, Liturgy of - The Rite of Jerusalem is that of Antioch. That is to say, the Liturgy that became famous as ...
Jesi - (ÆSINA) Diocese in the Province of Ancona, Italy, immediately subject to the Holy ...
Jesu Dulcis Memoria - A poem ranging from forty two to fifty three stanzas (in various manuscripts ), to form the three ...
Jesuit Apologetic - The accusations brought against the Society have been exceptional for their frequency and ...
Jesuit Generals Prior to the Suppression - (1) St. Ignatius Loyola (19 April 1541-31 July, 1556). The society spread rapidly, and at the ...
Jesuit's Bark - (C HINA B ARK ; C INCHONA ; C ORTEX C HINÆ ; P ERUVIAN B ARK ). Jesuit's ...
Jesuits, Distinguished - Saints Ignatius Loyola ; Francis Xavier ; Francis Borgia ; Stanislaus Kostka; Alfonso ...
Jesuits, History of the (1773-1814) - The execution of the Brief of Suppression having been largely left to local bishops, there was ...
Jesuits, History of the (1814-1912) - Pius VII had resolved to restore the Society during his captivity in France ; and after his ...
Jesuits, History of the (pre-1750) - Italy The history of the Jesuits in Italy was generally very peaceful. The only serious ...
Jesuits, Suppression of the (1750-1773) - The Suppression is the most difficult part of the history of the Society. Having enjoyed very high ...
Jesuits, The - (Company of Jesus, Jesuits) See also DISTINGUISHED JESUITS , JESUIT APOLOGETIC, EARLY JESUIT ...
Jesus and Mary, Sisters of the Holy Childhood of - (1) A congregation founded in 1835 in the Diocese of Fréjus, for the education of girls ...
Jesus Christ - Origin of the Name of Jesus In this article, we shall consider the two words -- "Jesus" and ...
Jesus Christ, Character of - The surpassing eminence of the character of Jesus has been acknowledged by men of the most ...
Jesus Christ, Chronology of the Life of - In the following paragraphs we shall endeavour to establish the absolute and relative chronology ...
Jesus Christ, Devotion to the Heart of - The treatment of this subject is divided into two parts: I. Doctrinal Explanations;II. Historical ...
Jesus Christ, Early Historical Documents on - The historical documents referring to Christ's life and work may be divided into three classes: ...
Jesus Christ, Genealogy of - It is granted on all sides that the Biblical genealogy of Christ implies a number of exegetical ...
Jesus Christ, Holy Name of - We give honour to the Name of Jesus, not because we believe that there is any intrinsic power ...
Jesus Christ, Knowledge of - " Knowledge of Jesus Christ," as used in this article, does not mean a summary of what we know ...
Jesus Christ, Origin of the Name of - In this article, we shall consider the two words which compose the Sacred Name. JESUS The word ...
Jesus Christ, Resurrection of - Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life. In this article, we shall ...
Jesus Mary, Religious of - The Congregation of the Religious of Jesus Mary was founded at Lyons, France, in October, 1818, by ...
Jesus, Daughters of - Founded at Kermaria, in the Diocese of Vannes , France, in 1834, for the care of the sick poor, ...
Jesus, The Society of - (Company of Jesus, Jesuits) See also DISTINGUISHED JESUITS , JESUIT APOLOGETIC, EARLY JESUIT ...
Jewish Calendar - Days From the remotest time to the present the Israelites have computed the day ( yôm ...
Jewish Tribe - ( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...
Jews (as a Religion) - At the present day, the term designates the religious communion which survived the destruction of ...
Jews, History of the - ( Yehúd`m; Ioudaismos ). Of the two terms, Jews and Judaism , the former denotes ...
Jezabel - ( Septuagint, 'Iezabél, ). Wife of Achab, King of Israel. She was the daughter of ...
Joachim of Flora - Cistercian abbot and mystic; b. at Celico, near Cosenza, Italy, c. 1132; d. at San Giovanni in ...
Joachim, Saint - Joachim (whose name means Yahweh prepares ), was the father of the Blessed Virgin Mary. If we ...
Joan of Arc, Saint - In French Jeanne d'Arc ; by her contemporaries commonly known as la Pucelle (the Maid). ...
Joan, Popess - The fable about a female pope, who afterwards bore the name of Johanna (Joan), is first noticed ...
Joanna of Portugal, Blessed - Born at Lisbon, 16 February, 1452; died at Aveiro, 12 may, 1490; the daughter of Alfonso V, King ...
Joannes de Sacrobosco - (John Holywood), a monk of English origin, lived in the first half of the thirteenth century as ...
Job - One of the books of the Old Testament , and the chief personage in it. In this article it is ...
Jocelin - Cistercian monk and Bishop of Glasgow ; d. at Melrose Abbey in 1199. On 22 April, 1170, ...
Jocelin de Brakelond - An English chronicler, of the late twelfth century. He was the monk of Bury St. Edmund's ...
Jocelin of Wells - (Or JOSCELINE) Bishop of Bath and Wells (JOCELINUS THOTEMAN), d. 19 Nov., 1242. He was ...
Joel - The son of Phatuel, and second in the list of the twelve Minor Prophets. Nothing is known of his ...
Joest, Jan - (V AN K ALKAR ). Otherwise JAN JOOST VAN CALCKER. Dutch painter, b. at Calcker, or ...
Jogues, Saint Isaac - French missionary, born at Orléans, France, 10 January, 1607; martyred at Ossernenon, ...
John and Cyrus, Saints - Celebrated martyrs of the Coptic Church, surnamed thaumatourgoi anargyroi because they healed ...
John and Paul, Saints - Martyred at Rome on 26 June. The year of their martyrdom is uncertain according to their ...
John Baptist de la Salle, Saint - Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools , educational reformer, and ...
John Baptist de Rossi, Saint - (De Rubeis). Born at Voltaggio in the Diocese of Genoa, 22 February, 1698; died at Rome, 23 ...
John Beche, Blessed - ( Alias THOMAS MARSHALL). English Benedictine abbot and martyr ; date of birth unknown; ...
John Berchmans, Saint - Born at Diest in Brabant, 13 March, 1599; died at Rome, 13 August, 1621. His parents watched ...
John Bosco, Saint - ( Or St. John Bosco; Don Bosco.) Founder of the Salesian Society. Born of poor parents in ...
John Boste, Saint - (Or JOHN BOAST.) Priest and martyr, b. of good Catholic family at Dufton, in Westmoreland, ...
John Britton, Venerable - (Or Bretton). A layman and martyr, of all ancient family of Bretton near Barnsley in ...
John Buckley, Venerable - ( Alias John Jones; alias John Griffith; in religion, Godfrey Maurice). Priest and martyr, ...
John Cantius, Saint - Born at Kenty, near Oswiecim, Diocese of Krakow, Poland, 1412 (or 1403); died at Krakow, 1473, ...
John Capistran, Saint - Born at Capistrano, in the Diocese of Sulmona, Italy, 1385; died 23 October, 1456. His father had ...
John Chrysostom, Saint - ( Chrysostomos , "golden-mouthed" so called on account of his eloquence). Doctor of the ...
John Climacus, Saint - Also surnamed SCHOLASTICUS, and THE SINAITA, b. doubtlessly in Syria, about 525; d. on Mount ...
John Colombini, Blessed - Founder of the Congregation of Jesuati; b. at Siena, Upper Italy, about 1300; d. on the way to ...
John Cornelius and Companions, Venerable - John Cornelius (called also Mohun) was born of Irish parents at Bodmin, in Cornwall, on the ...
John Damascene, Saint - Born at Damascus, about 676; died some time between 754 and 787. The only extant life of the ...
John de Britto, Blessed - Martyr ; born in Lisbon, 1 March, 1647, and was brought up in court; martyred in India 11 ...
John Felton, Blessed - Martyr, date and place of birth unknown, was executed in St. Paul's Churchyard, London, 8 ...
John Fisher, Saint - Cardinal, Bishop of Rochester, and martyr ; born at Beverley, Yorkshire, England, 1459 ...
John Forest, Blessed - Born in 1471, presumably at Oxford, where his surname was then not unknown; suffered 22 May, ...
John Francis Regis, Saint - Born 31 January, 1597, in the village of Fontcouverte (department of Aude); died at la Louvesc, 30 ...
John Hambley, Venerable - English martyr (suffered 1587), born and educated in Cornwall, and converted by reading one ...
John I, Pope Saint - Died at Ravenna on 18 or 19 May (according to the most popular calculation), 526. A Tuscan by ...
John II, Pope - (533-535). The date of the birth of this pope is not known. He was a Roman and the son of ...
John III, Pope - (561-574). A Roman surnamed Catelinus, d. 13 July, 574. He was of a distinguished family, ...
John Ingram, Venerable - English martyr, born at Stoke Edith, Herefordshire, in 1565; executed at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 26 ...
John IV, Pope - (640-642). A native of Dalmatia, and the son of the scholasticus (advocate) Venantius. The ...
John IX, Pope - (898-900). Not only is the date of John's birth unknown, but the date of his election as ...
John Joseph of the Cross, Saint - Born on the Island of Ischia, Southern Italy, 1654; d. 5 March, 1739. From his earliest years ...
John Larke, Blessed - English martyr ; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1543-4. He was rector of St. Ethelburga's ...
John Malalas - A Monophysite Byzantine chronicler of the sixth century, born at Antioch where he spent most if ...
John Nelson, Blessed - English Jesuit martyr, b. at Skelton, four miles from York, in 1534; d. at Tyburn, 3 February, ...
John Nepomucene, Saint - Born at Nepomuk about 1340; died 20 March, 1393. The controversy concerning the identity of John ...
John of Antioch - There are four persons commonly known by this name. I John, Patriarch of Antioch ...
John of Avila, Blessed - Apostolic preacher of Andalusia and author, b. at Almodóvar del Campo, a small town in ...
John of Beverley, Saint - Bishop of Hexham and afterwards of York; b. at Harpham, in the East Riding of Yorkshire; d. at ...
John of Biclaro - (Johannes Biclariensis.) Chronicler, born in Portugal, probably about the middle of the sixth ...
John of Cornwall - (JOHANNES CORNUBIENSIS, JOHANNES DE SANCTO GERMANO). John of Cornwall lived about 1176. He was ...
John of Ephesus - (Also known as JOHN OF ASIA). The earliest, and a very famous, Syriac historian. He was born ...
John of Fécamp - (Also known as JEANNELIN on account of his diminutive stature). Ascetic writer, b. near Ravenna ...
John of Falkenberg - Author, b. at Falkenberg, Pomerania, Prussia, date unknown; d. about 1418 in Italy &151; ...
John of Fermo, Blessed - More often called JOHN OF LA VERNA, from his long sojourn on that holy mountain, b. at Fermo ...
John of Genoa - (Often called Balbi, or de Balbis.) Grammarian; born at Genoa, date unknown; died there ...
John of God, Saint - Born at Montemor o Novo, Portugal, 8 March, 1495, of devout Christian parents ; died at ...
John of Hauteville - Moralist and satirical poet of the twelfth century (flourished about 1184). Little is known of his ...
John of Janduno - An Averroistic philosopher, theologian, and political writer of the fourteenth century. John of ...
John of Montecorvino - A Franciscan and founder of the Catholic mission in China, b. at Montecorvino in Southern ...
John of Montesono - Theologian and controversialist, born at Monzón, Spain ; dates of birth and death ...
John of Nikiû - An Egyptian chronicler who flourished in the latter part of the seventh century. The little we ...
John of Paris - ( Called also Quidort and de Soardis). Theologian and controversialist; born at Paris, ...
John of Parma, Blessed - Minister General of the Friars Minor (1247-1257), b. at Parma about 1209; d. at Camerino 19 ...
John of Ragusa - (Sometimes confounded with John of Segovia ). A Dominican theologian, president of the ...
John of Roquetaillade (de Rupescissa) - Franciscan alchemist, date of birth unknown; d. probably at Avignon, 1362. After pursuing the ...
John of Rupella - Franciscan theologian, b. at La Rochelle (Rupella), towards the end of the twelfth century; d. ...
John of Sahagun, Saint - Hermit, b. 1419, at Sahagún (or San Fagondez) in the Kingdom of Leon, in Spain ; d. 11 ...
John of Saint Thomas - (Family name John Poinsot), theologian, born at Lisbon, 9 June, 1589; died at Fraga, Spain, 17 ...
John of Salisbury - (JOHANNES DE SARESBERIA, surnamed PARVUS). Born about 1115; died 1180; a distinguished ...
John of Segovia - A Spanish theologian, b. at Segovia towards the end of the fourteenth century; d. probably in ...
John of the Cross, Saint - Founder (with St. Teresa) of the Discalced Carmelites, doctor of mystic theology, b. at ...
John of Victring - (JOHANNES VICTORENSIS or DE VICTORIA). Chronicler, b. probably between 1270 and 1280; d. at ...
John of Winterthur - (Johannes Vitoduranus.) Historian, born about 1300 at Winterthur (Switzerland); died ...
John Parvus - Called in his day, JEHAN PETIT or LE PETIT. A French theologian and professor in the ...
John Payne, Blessed - Born in the Diocese of Peterborough ; died at Chelmsford, 2 April, 1582. He went to Douai in ...
John Rigby, Saint - English martyr ; b. about 1570 at Harrocks Hall, Eccleston, Lancashire; executed at St. Thomas ...
John Roberts, Saint - First Prior of St. Gregory's, Douai (now Downside Abbey ), b. 1575-6; martyred 10 ...
John Rochester, Blessed - Priest and martyr, born probably at Terling, Essex, England, about 1498; died at York, 11 May, ...
John Sarkander, Blessed - Martyr of the seal of confession, born at Skotschau in Austrian Silesia, 20 Dec., 1576; died at ...
John Scholasticus - ( ho Scholastikos ; also called J OHN OF A NTIOCH ) Patriarch of Constantinople (J OHN ...
John Shert, Blessed - A native of Cheshire; took the degree of B.A. at Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1566. Successively ...
John Stone, Blessed - English martyr, executed at the Dane-John, Canterbury, probably in December, 1539, for denying ...
John Story, Blessed - ( Or Storey.) Martyr ; born 1504; died at Tyburn, 1 June, 1571. He was educated at ...
John Talaia - Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria (481-482) at the time of the Monophysite troubles. He had ...
John the Almsgiver, Saint - (JOANNES ELEEMOSYNARIUS; JOANNES MISERICORS). Patriarch of Alexandria (606-16), b. at Amathus ...
John the Baptist, Saint - The principal sources of information concerning the life and ministry of St. John the Baptist are ...
John the Deacon - (J OHANNES D IACONUS ). Among the writers of the Middle Ages who bear this name, four ...
John the Evangelist, Saint - I. New Testament Accounts II. The Alleged Presbyter John III. The Later Accounts of John IV. Feasts ...
John the Faster - ( ‘o nesteutés, jejunator ) Patriarch of Constantinople (John IV, 582-595), ...
John the Silent, Saint - (Hesychastes, Silentiarius). Bishop of Colonia, in Armenia, b. at Nicopolis, Armenia, 8 ...
John Twenge, Saint - Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...
John V, Pope - (685-686). A Syrian whose father was one Cyriacus; when he was born is not known; d. 2 ...
John VI, Pope - (701-705). A Greek, the date of whose birth is unknown; d. 11 January, 705. He ascended the ...
John VII, Pope - (705-707). The year of his birth is unknown; d. 18 October, 707. Few particulars of his life ...
John VIII, Pope - (Reigned 872-82) A Roman and the son of Gundus. He seems to have been born in the first ...
John X, Pope - Born at Tossignano, Romagna; enthroned, 914; died at Rome, 928. First a deacon, he became ...
John XI, Pope - Date of birth unknown, became pope in 931; d. 936. He was the son of Marozia by her first ...
John XII, Pope - Date of birth unknown; reigned 955-64. The younger Alberic, after the downfall of his mother, ...
John XIII, Pope - Date of birth unknown; enthroned on 1 Oct., 965; d. 6 Sept., 972. After the death of John XII ...
John XIV, Pope - Date of birth unknown; d. 984. After the death of Benedict VII, Bishop Peter Campanora of Pavia, ...
John XIX (XX), Pope - Enthroned in 1024; d. 1032. After the death of the last patricius of the House of Crescentius, ...
John XV (XVI), Pope - Enthroned 985; d. April, 996. After John XIV had been removed by force, the usurper, Boniface ...
John XVI (XVII) - Antipope 997-998; d. probably in 1013. After the death of John XV, Bruno, a relative of Otto ...
John XVII (XVIII), Pope - Date of birth unknown; d. 6 Nov., 1003. When Sylvester II died on 12 May, 1003, there was no ...
John XVIII (XIX), Pope - Successor of John XVII, consecrated Christmas, 1003; d. June, 1009. He was the son of a Roman ...
John XXI (XX), Pope - Born at Lisbon between 1210 and 1220; enthroned, 1276; died at Viterbo, 20 May, 1277. The son ...
John XXII, Pope - (JACQUES D'EUSE) Born at Cahors in 1249; enthroned, 5 September, 1316; died at Avignon, 4 ...
John XXIII - Antipope of the Pisan party (1400-15), b. about 1370; d. 22 November, 1419. Cardinal Baldassare ...
John, Epistles of - Three canonical books of the New Testament written by the Apostle St. John. The subject will ...
John, Gospel of - This subject will be considered under the following heads: I. Contents and Scheme of the ...
Johnson, Blessed Robert - Born in Shropshire, entered the German College, Rome, 1 October, 1571. Ordained priest at ...
Johnson, Blessed Thomas - Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...
Johnson, Lionel Pigot - Born at Broadstairs on the Kentish coast, 15 Mar., 1867; died 4 Oct., 1902. He was the youngest ...
Johnston, Richard Malcolm - Educator, author, b. 8 March, 1822, at Powellton, Georgia, U.S.A.; d. at Baltimore, Maryland, 23 ...
Joinville, Jean, Sire de - Seneschal of Champagne, historian, b. in 1225; d. at Joinville, 1317. His family held an ...
Joliet, Louis - (Or JOLLIET). Louis Joliet, a discoverer and the son of a wagon-maker, was born at Quebec, ...
Joliette - (JOLIETTENSIS). Diocese created by Pius X , 27 January, 1904 by division of the Archdiocese ...
Jolly, Philipp Johann Gustav von - German physicist, born at Mannheim, 26 September, 1809; died at Munich, 24 December, 1884. His ...
Jonas - The fifth of the Minor Prophets. The name is usually taken to mean "dove", but in view of the ...
Jonas of Bobbio - (Or Jonas of Susa ) Monk and hagiographer, b. about the close of the sixth century at ...
Jonas of Orléans - Bishop and ecclesiastical writer, born in Aquitaine; died in 843 or 844. From 818, when he ...
Jonathan - (Hebrew, " Yahweh hath given", cf. Theodore; Septuagint 'Ionáthan .) Name of several ...
Jones, Inigo - A famous English architect, b. 15 July, 1573, in London ; d. 21 June, 1652, and was buried in ...
Jones, Venerable Edward - Priest and martyr, b. in the Diocese of St. Asaph, Wales, date unknown; d. in London, 6 May ...
Jordan, The - (In Hebrew Yâdên, from the root Yârâd, to descend). The difference ...
Jordanis - Historian, lived about the middle of the sixth century in the Eastern Roman Empire. His family ...
Jordanus of Giano - (DE JANO). Italian Minorite, b. at Giano in the Valley of Spoleto, c. 1195; d. after 1262. ...
Jornandes - Historian, lived about the middle of the sixth century in the Eastern Roman Empire. His family ...
Josaphat - ( Hebrew for " Yahweh hath judged"; Septuagint 'Iosaphát ). Fourth King of Juda ...
Josaphat and Barlaam - The principal characters of a legend of Christian antiquity, which was a favourite subject of ...
Josaphat Kuncevyc, Saint - Martyr, born in the little town of Volodymyr in Lithuania (Volyn) in 1580 or -- according to ...
Josaphat, Valley of - (JEHOSHAPHAT). Mentioned in only one passage of the Bible ( Joel 3 -- Hebrew text, 4). In ...
Joseph - The eleventh son of Jacob, the firstborn of Rachel, and the immediate ancestor of the tribes ...
Joseph Calasanctius of the Mother of God, Pious Workers of Saint - Founded at Vienna, 24 November, 1889, by Father Anton Maria Schwartz for all works of charity, ...
Joseph Calasanctius, Saint - Called in religion "a Matre Dei", founder of the Piarists, b. 11 Sept., 1556, at the castle of ...
Joseph II - (1741-90). German Emperor (reigned 1765-90), of the House of Hapsburg-Lorraine, son and ...
Joseph of Arimathea - All that is known for certain concerning him is derived from the canonical Gospels. He was born ...
Joseph of Cupertino, Saint - Mystic, born 17 June, 1603; died at Osimo 18 September, 1663; feast, 18 September. Joseph ...
Joseph of Exeter - (JOSEPHUS ISCANUS.) A twelfth-century Latin poet; b. at Exeter, England. About 1180 he went ...
Joseph of Issachar - A man of the tribe of Issachar, and the father of Igal who was one of the spies sent by Moses ...
Joseph of Leonessa, Saint - In the world named Eufranio Desiderio; born in 1556 at Leonessa in Umbria; died 4 February, ...
Joseph's Society for Colored Missions, Saint - This organization began its labours in 1871, when four young priests from Mill Hill were put in ...
Joseph's Society for Foreign Missions, Saint - (Mill Hill, London, N.W.) A society of priests and laymen whose object is to labour for ...
Joseph, Saint - Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary and foster-father of Our Lord Jesus Christ . LIFE Sources ...
Joseph, Sisters of Saint - CONGREGATION OF THE SISTERS OF ST. JOSEPH Founded at Le Puy, in Velay, France, by the Rev. ...
Josephites - (Sons of St. Joseph) A congregation devoted to the Christian education of youth, founded in ...
Josephus, Flavius - Jewish historian, born A.D. 37, at Jerusalem ; died about 101. He belonged to a distinguished ...
Joshua - The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books. ( ...
Josias - (J OSIAH – Hebrew for " Yahweh supports"; Septuagint 'Iosías ). A pious ...
Josue - The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books. ( ...
Joubert, Joseph - French philosopher ; b. at Martignac (Dordogne), 7 May, 1754, d. at Villeneuve-le-Roi (Yonne), 4 ...
Jouffroy, Claude-François-Dorothée de - M ARQUIS d' A BBANS . Mechanician, b. at Abbans, near Besançon, 30 Sept., 1751; d. ...
Jouffroy, Jean de - French prelate and statesman; b. at Luxeuil (Franche-Comté) about 1412; d. at the priory ...
Jouin, Louis - Linguist, philosopher, author, b. at Berlin, 14 June, 1818, d. at New York, 10 June, 1899. He ...
Jouvancy, Joseph de - (JOSEPHUS JUVENCIUS). Poet, pedagogue, philologist, and historian, b. at Paris, 14 September, ...
Jouvenet, Jean - Surnamed T HE G REAT . French painter, b. at Rouen in 1644, d. at Paris, 5 April, 1717. ...
Jovellanos, Gaspar Melchor de - (Also written JOVE-LLANOS). Spanish statesman and man of letters, at Gijon, Asturias, 5 Jan., ...
Jovianus, Flavius Claudius - Roman Emperor, 363-4. After the death of Julian the Apostate (26 June, 363), the army making ...
Jovinianus - An opponent of Christian asceticism in the fourth century, condemned as a heretic (390). Our ...
Jovius, Paulus - (GIOVIO). Historian, b. at Como, Italy, 9 April, 1483, d. at Florence, 11 Dec., 1552. Having ...
Joyeuse, Henri, Duc de - Born in 1563 and not, as is mistakenly stated in the "Biographic Michaud ", in 1567; died at ...
Juan Bautista de Toledo - An eminent Spanish sculptor and architect; b. at Madrid (date not known); d. there 19 May, ...
Jubilate Sunday - The third Sunday after Easter, being so named from the first word of the Introit at Mass ...
Jubilee, Holy Year of - The ultimate derivation of the word jubilee is disputed, but it is most probable that the ...
Jubilee, Year of (Hebrew) - According to the Pentateuchal legislation contained in Leviticus, a Jubilee year is the year that ...
Jubilees, Book of - ( ta Iobelaia ). An apocryphal writing, so called from the fact that the narratives and ...
Juda - The name of one of the Patriarchs, the name of the tribe reputed to be descended from him, the ...
Judaism - At the present day, the term designates the religious communion which survived the destruction of ...
Judaizers - (From Greek Ioudaizo , to adopt Jewish customs -- Esther 8:17 ; Galatians 2:14 ). A ...
Judas Iscariot - The Apostle who betrayed his Divine Master . The name Judas ( Ioudas ) is the Greek form of ...
Judas Machabeus - Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the ...
Judde, Claude - French preacher and spiritual father; born at Rouen, about 20 December, 1661; died at Paris, ...
Jude, Epistle of Saint - The present subject will be treated under the following heads: I. The Author and the ...
Judea - Like the adjective Ioudaios , the noun Ioudaia comes from the Aramæan Iehûdai ...
Judge, Ecclesiastical - (J UDEX E CCLESIASTICUS ) An ecclesiastical person who possesses ecclesiastical ...
Judges, The Book of - The seventh book of the Old Testament , second of the Early Prophets of the Hebrew canon. I. ...
Judgment, Divine - This subject will be treated under two heads: I. Divine Judgment Subjectively and Objectively ...
Judgment, General - (Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...
Judgment, Last - (Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...
Judgment, Particular - A. Dogma of Particular Judgment The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that ...
Judica Sunday - Name given to the fifth Sunday of Lent, and derived from the first words of the Introit of ...
Judith, Book of - HISTORY Nabuchodonosor, King of Nineveh, sends his general Holofernes to subdue the Jews. The ...
Julia Billiart, Saint - ( Also Julia). Foundress, and first superior-general of the Congregation of the Sisters of ...
Julian and Basilissa, Saints - Husband and wife; died at Antioch or, more probably, at Antinoe, in the reign of Diocletian, ...
Julian of Eclanum - Born about 386; died in Sicily, 454; the most learned among the leaders of the Pelagian ...
Julian of Speyer - Often called J ULIANUS T EUTONICUS . A famous composer, poet, and historian of the ...
Julian the Apostate - (FLAVIUS CLAUDIUS JULIANUS). Roman emperor 361-63, b. at Constantinople in 331, d. 26 June, ...
Juliana Falconieri, Saint - Born in 1270; died 12 June, 1341. Juliana belonged to the noble Florentine family of Falconieri. ...
Juliana of Liège, Saint - Nun, b. at Retinnes, near Liège, Belgium, 1193; d. at Fosses, 5 April, 1258. At the age ...
Juliana of Norwich - English mystic of the fourteenth century, author or recipient of the vision contained in the book ...
Juliana, Saint - Suffered martyrdom during the Diocletian persecution. Both the Latin and Greek Churches mention ...
Julie Billiart, Saint - ( Also Julia). Foundress, and first superior-general of the Congregation of the Sisters of ...
Juliopolis - Titular see in the province of Bithynia Secunda, suffragan of Nicaea. The city was founded under ...
Julitta and Quiricus - Martyred under Diocletian. The names of these two martyrs, who in the early Church enjoyed a ...
Julius Africanus - (c. 160-c. 240; the full name is Sextus Iulius Africanus, Greek Sextos Ioulios Aphrikanos ). ...
Julius I, Pope Saint - (337-352). The immediate successor of Pope Silvester, Arcus, ruled the Roman Church for ...
Julius II, Pope - (GIULIANO DELLA ROVERE). Born on 5 December, 1443, at Albissola near Savona; crowned on 28 ...
Julius III, Pope - (GIAMMARIA CIOCCHI DEL MONTE). Born at Rome, 10 September, 1487; died there, 23 March, 1555. ...
Jumièges, Abbey of - Jumièges, situated on the north bank of the Seine, between Duclair and Caudebec, in ...
Junípero Serra - Born at Petra, Island of Majorca, 24 November, 1713; died at Monterey, California, 28 August, ...
Jungmann, Bernard - A dogmatic theologian and ecclesiastical historian, born at Münster in Westphalia, 1 ...
Jungmann, Josef - Born 12 Nov., 1830, at Münster, Westphalia ; died at Innsbruck, 25 Nov., 1885. In 1850 he ...
Jurisdiction, Ecclesiastical - The right to guide and rule the Church of God. The subject is here treated under the following ...
Jus Spolii - (RIGHT OF SPOIL; also called JUS EXUVIARUM and RAPITE CAPITE) Jus Spolii, a claim, exercised in ...
Jussieu, De - Name of five French botanists. (1) ANTOINE DE JUSSIEU, physician and botanist, b. at Lyons, ...
Juste - The name conventionally applied to a family of Italian sculptors, whose real name was Betti, ...
Justice - Justice is here taken in its ordinary and proper sense to signify the most important of the ...
Justification - (Latin justificatio ; Greek dikaiosis .) A biblio-ecclesiastical term; which denotes the ...
Justin de Jacobis, Blessed - Vicar Apostolic of Abyssinia and titular Bishop of Nilopolis, h. at San Fele, Province of ...
Justin Martyr, Saint - Christian apologist, born at Flavia Neapolis, about A.D. 100, converted to Christianity about ...
Justina and Cyprian, Saints - Christians of Antioch who suffered martyrdom during the persecution of Diocletian at ...
Justinian I - Roman Emperor (527-65) Flavius Anicius Julianus Justinianus was born about 483 at Tauresium ...
Justiniani, Benedetto - (GIUSTINIANI). Theological and Biblical writer, born at Genoa, about the year 1550; died at ...
Justiniani, Nicholas - Date of birth unknown, became monk in the Benedictine monastery of San Niccoló del Lido ...
Justinianopolis - A titular see of Armenia Prima, suffragan of Sebaste. This see is better known in history ...
Justus, Saint - Fourth Archbishop of Canterbury ; died 627 (?). For the particulars of his life we are almost ...
Juvencus, C. Vettius Aquilinus - Christian Latin poet of the fourth century. Of his life we know only what St. Jerome tells us ...
Juvenile Courts - Tribunals for the trial of children charged with crimes or offences. The maximum age is usually ...


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