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This name properly signifies the whole peninsula which forms the south-western extremity of Europe. Since the political separation of Portugal, however, the name has gradually come to be restricted to the largest of the four political divisions of the Peninsula: (1) Spain; (2) Portugal ; (3) the Republic of Andorra; (4) the British possession of Gibraltar, at the southern extremity.
The etymology of the name Spain ( España ) is uncertain. Some derive it from the Punic word tsepan , "rabbit", basing the opinion on the evidence of a coin of Galba, on which Spain is represented with a rabbit at her feet, and on Strabo, who calls Spain "the land of rabbits". It is said that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians found the country overrun with these rodents, and so named it after them. Another derivation is from sphan , "north", from the circumstance that the country was north of Carthage, just as the Greeks called Italy Hesperia , because it was their western boundary, or the land of sunset ( Hespera ). Again, some Bascophiles would assert a Basque origin for the name of Spain: Españia , "Land of the Shoulder", because it formed the western shoulder of ancient Europe. Padre Larramendi has remarked that, in the Basque language, ezpaña means "tongue", "lip", or "extremity", and might thus have been applied to the extreme southwestern region of Europe. The Spanish Peninsula has also been called the Iberian, from its original inhabitants, and (by synecdoche) the Pyrenean, from the mountains which bound it on the north. As the Spaniards named one part of America — Mexico — Nueva España (New Spain), we speak of "the Spains", in the plural, to signify the Spanish possessions.
I. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND STATISTICS
The geographical boundaries of Spain are: on the north, the Pyrenees, the Republic of Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay (known in Spain as Mar Cantabrico , or "Cantabrian Sea"); on the east, the Mediterranean; on the south, the Mediterranean, the Straits of Gibraltar and the Atlantic; on the west, Portugal and the Atlantic. Its four extreme points are: on the north, the Estaca de Vares, in N. lat. 43° 47' 32"; on the south, the southern extremity of the Island of Tarifa, in S. lat. 35° 59' 49"; on the east, Cape Creus, in longitude 3 ° 20' 16" E. of Greenwich, on the west, Cape Tirinana, in longitude 9° 17' 33" W. of Greenwich. The total area of the Spanish territory in the Peninsula is 194,563 square miles, with a coast line of 2060 miles in length. The combined French and Portuguese frontiers measure 3094 miles.
The surface of Spain presents the most varied geological features. In the seas of the Cambrian epoch the first elements of the Peninsula appeared as a multitude of islands. The most important of these islands formed what is now Galicia and the North of Portugal, with parts of the Provinces of Cáceres, Salamanca, and Zamora. To the south-east of this was another island, where is now Bejar and Sierra de Gredos, comprising part of the Provinces of Avila, Segovia, and Toledo. To the north-east, the Pyrenees and the Catalonian coast took the form of islets, while in other directions other islets occupied the sites of Lisbon, Evora, Cáceres, Badajoz, Seville, Cordova, and Jaén. The upheaval of the land went on during the Devonian and Silurian epochs until it formed what is now the whole of Galicia, part of the Asturias, León, and Zamora, and as far down as Toledo, Ciudad Real, Cordova, Huelvas, and the Algarves, while, to the east and north, were formed the Catalonian coast and a great part of the Pyrenees. Large islands arose in the neighbourhoods of Burgos, Soria Daroca, Granada, Malaga, and Gibraltar. No Permian formation is to be found in Spain, nor does there appear any Triassic worth mentioning, the formations of these two periods having been submerged during later periods. During the Jurassic period long parallel tracts were formed along the present courses of the Ebro and the Turia, as well as a great mass between Jaén, Granada, Malaga, Osuna, and Montilla. The eastern portions of the Peninsula were built up during the Cretacean period, while, between these formations and the Granitic and Silurian, extensive lakes were left which have since disappeared but which may still be traced in the level steppes of Aragón and the two Castiles. What is now the Ebro was then a vast lake extending through the Eocene and Pliocene formations of Lérida, Saragossa, and Logroño, and joining in the regions of Sto. Domingo de la Calzada, Haro, and Briviesca, another lake which then covered the sites of Burgos, Valladolid, León, Zamora, and Salamanca. Another extension of the Eocene formation was from the region where Madrid now stands to that of Albacete and Murcia. The Quaternary formations are found chiefly on the east coast and the Provinces of Madrid (north-west), Segovia, Valladolid, Palencia, and Asturias, and the basins of the principal rivers. Down to this last period Spain does not seem to have been definitively separated from Africa, its formations — Eocene and Miocene, as well as Silurian — being continued in that region.
Owing to the diversity of formations described above, and the elevation of the central portions, the surface of the Peninsula is, in general, of an uneven character with a very unequally distributed irrigation, some regions enjoying a wonderful fertility, while others are nothing but steppes. In other parts, again, the abrupt slope of the ground is such that the rains produce torrential floods in the rivers and thus negative their beneficial action. The unevenness of the country at the same time results in great differences of climate. The arid prairies of certain parts of the Castiles and Estremadura are in as striking contrast with the fertile, though monotonous, plains of the Campos district and Lower Aragón, and the extremely rich arable lands and meadows of Andalusia and the eastern provinces, as are the perpetual snows of the Pyrenees, the Cantabrian Range, and the Sierra Nevada with the parched lowlands of Estremadura, Andalusia, Murcia, and Alicante. No less uneven is the distribution of rainfall — from the northern provinces, with their ever-clouded skies, to the almost invariably dry and transparent atmosphere of the south. The contrast extends even to the seas surrounding Spain — the tranquil Mediterranean, the stormy Bay of Biscay, and the Atlantic with a character midway between.
The general structural form of the Peninsula is somewhat that of a truncated pyramid, sloping abruptly towards the west, but gently towards the east. The elevated plains of the centre are intersected by mountain ranges. The mountain masses may be divided into six groups: (1) the northern, consisting of the Pyrenees on the east and the Cantabrian Range on the west, and terminated by Capes Creus and Finisterre; (2) the Iberic, or eastern, comprising the mountains which bound the basin of the Ebro and extend as far as Cape Gate; (3) the central system, the Carpetan, or Carpeto-Vetonic, Range, so called from the Carpetani and Vetones who inhabited its slopes in ancient times; (4) the Mountains of Toledo, or Cordillera Oretana; (5) the Betic system, or Cordillera Mariánica, forming the right-hand side of the basin of the Betis, or Guadalquivir, and the chief part of which is the Sierra Morena; (6) the Penibetic system, extending from the Sierra Nevada to Cape Tarifa. The highest elevations are: Maladeta (11,004 ft.) and Pico de Nethou (11,168 ft.), in the Pyrenees: Peña de Corredo (8784 ft.), and Moncayo (7593 ft), in the Cantabrian Range; Plaza del Moro Almanzor (8692 ft.), in the Carpetan Range; the plateau of Corocho de Rocigalgo (4750 ft.), in the Toledo Mountains; Estrella (4260 ft.), in the Betic Range; Mulhacen (11,417 ft.) and Veleta (11,382 ft.) in the Penibetic.
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For hydrographic purposes the surface of Spain is divided by the Instituto Geográfico into the following ten basins: (1) the Eastern Pyrenees, basin of the Rivers Muga, Fluvía, Ter, Tordeva, Besós, Llobregat, Foix, and Francolí; (2) the basin of the Ebro, to the south and west of the preceding, containing the Nela, Zadorra, Ega, Arga, Aragón, Arba, Gallego, Cinea, and Segre, affuents of the Ebro, on its right side, and the Oca, Tiron, Oja, Najerilla, Iregua, Alhama, Jalon, Huerva, Aguas, Martin, Guadalope, Matarrana, and other smaller affuents on its left; the south-eastern region, watered by the Cenia, Migares, Palancia, Turia (or Guadalaviar), Jucar, Serpis, Vinalopó, Segura, and Almanzora; (4) the southern region, intersected by small streams, the most important rivers being the Almería, Adra, Guadalfeo, Guadalhorce, Guadiaro, and Guadalete; (5) the basin of the Guadlaquivir, the affluents of which are, on the right, the Rivers Borosa, Guadalimar, Rumblar, Jandula, Yeguas, Guadamellato, Guadiato, the Brook of Huesna, the River Viar, and the Brooks of Cala, Huelva, and Guadiamar, and on the left, the Guadiana Menor, Genil, Guadabullón, Guadojoz, Corbones, Guadaira, and Salado de Morón; (6) the basin of the Guadiana, with its tributaries, the Záncara, or Cigüela, Bullaque, and Gévora, on the right, and the Javalón, Zujar, Ardila, and Chanza, on the left; (7) the basin of the Tagus, which river rises in the Province of Teruel, in the Sierra de Molina, and receives, on the right, the Gallo, Jarama, Guadarrama, Alberche, Tiétar, Alagón, and Eljas, and, on the left, besides other streams of slight importance, the Guadiela and the Almonte. The Jarama, in its turn, receives the Lozoya, Guadalix, Manzanares (which flows by Madrid ), Henares, and Tajuña; (8) the basin of the Douro, which rises in the Peña (Rock) Urbion, in the Province of Logroño, 7216 feet above the sea level. The chief affuents of the Douro are, on the right, the Pisuerga and the Esla, and on the left, the eresma and the Tormes. The Pisuerga, again, receives, on the right, the Burejo, Vallarna, Astudillo, and Carrión, and on the left, the Camesa, Odra, Arlanzon, Baltanas, and Esgueve. Affluents of the Esla, on the right are the Curueno, Bernesga, Orbigo, Tera, and Aliste, and on the left, the Cea. (9) The western region of Galicia, the chief rivers of which are the Mino, Oitaben, Lerez, Umia, Ulla, Tambre, Jallas, Castro, Rio del Puerto, Allones, Mero, Mandeo, Lume, Jubia, Rio de Porto do Cabo, Mera, and Sor. (10) The northern basin, containing the Eo, Navia Nalon, and Sella, in the Asturias; the Deba, Nansa, Besaya, Mas, and Miera, in Santander ; the Nervion, Oria, and Bidasoa, in the Basque country. The only important lakes in Spain are the lagoons: those of Gallocanta, in Aragón ; the Alfaques, in Catalonia ; Janda, the scene of the battle which has been generally known as the battle of Guadalete, which put an end to the power of the Goths.
Silver, lead, and iron are abundant, the last especially in Biscay. Veins of quicksilver are found in Almaden, besides others of less importance elsewhere. There are also copper, tin, zinc, gold, cobalt, nickel, antimony, bismuth, and molybdenum. Spain is not rich in coal, which, however, is found in the Provinces of Gerona, Lérida, Santander, Asturias, León, Palencia, Burgos, Guadalajara, Cuenca, Ciudad Real, Badajoz, Cordova, and Seville. The most important carboniferous deposits are those of S. Juan de las Abadesas (Gerona), Mieres (Asturias), Barruelo and Orbó (Palencia), Puertollano (Ciudad Real), Bélmez and Espiel (Cordova), and Villanueva del Rio (Seville). There are also deposits of anthracite, lignite, asphalt, and turf, while springs of petroleum, though not of any importance, exist in Barcelona, Burgos, Cádiz, and Guadalajara. On the other hand, sulphur is abundant, as well as common salt, and waters impregnated with sulphates and with sulphur.
The botanical resources are abundant and various — the chestnut, the oak, the cork tree, the pine, and a number of other conifers. Castile produces a great quantity of cereals; Valencia, rice, oranges, lemons, chufas (the tuber of a variety of sedge), melons, and other fruits in immense variety; Catalonia, potatoes, oil, figs, filberts, carobs, pomegranates, alfalfa; Murcia, peppers, dates, saffron etc; Andalusia, oil; Estremadura, pasturage etc. Excellent wines are produced in nearly all the provinces, the most highly esteemed being those of Jerez, Malaga, Montilla (Andalusia), Cariñena (Aragón), Valdepenas, Rioja etc. The soil of Spain is apportioned agriculturally as follows:
- Market gardens: 391,128 acres
- Orchards: 704,522
- Grain: 32,014,934
- Vineyards: 3,480,816
- Olive groves: 2,002,705
- Meadows: 1,803,809
- Pasturage: 6,307,100
- Highways and woods: 207,767
- Mountain: 11,608,197
- Untilled, but fit for grazing: 8,264,063
- Waste: 4,024,770
- Total: 70,808,811
The normal agricultural production is:
- Wheat: 90,167,965 English bushels
- Barley: 47,895,912 English bushels
- Rye: 20,337,766 English bushels
- Maize: 21,425,538 English bushels
- Oats: 7,245,315 English bushels
- Total production of grain: 187,072,496 English bushels
- Oil: 73,947,467 English gallons
- Wine: 509,712,819 English gallons
It is not easy to ascertain the number of head of stock bred in Spain; great pains are taken to conceal the statistics, owing to the increase of taxation. The following statement, may be taken as approximately correct: horses, 500,000; mules, 900,000; asses, 950,000; cattle, 2,500,000; sheep, 18,000,000; goats, 3,000,000; hogs, 3,000,000. At the end of the eighteenth century there were 19,000,000 head of sheep. One of the chief causes of the decline in this respect was the laicization of religious houses, which eventually resulted in the mountain slopes being denuded. It is estimated that 68,000,000 kilogrammes (66,830 English tons, or 74,849 American tons) of fish are caught annually on the sea coasts of Spain. Of this quantity 24,000,000 kilogrammes are salted, and 8,000,000 pickled. The quantity exported is 26,000,000 kilogrammes (25,590 English tons, or 28,660 American tons).
While Spain does not rank as a manufacturing nation, it has important manufactures of woollen, cotton, silk, linen, and hempen textiles; of paper, leather, porcelain, earthenware, and glass; of chocolate, soap, and chemicals. Weapons are manufactured at Toledo, Oviedo, Seville, Trubia (ordnance), Eibar, Plasencia, Saragossa, and Albacete (the famous Albacete navajas , or knives). There are also notablemanufactures of bricks, glazed tiles ( azulejos ), and other ceramic products. The principal articles of importation are cotton, wheat, coal, timber, sugar, salted codfish, woollen fabrics, and machinery; of exportation, wine, oil, metals, and other mineral products, cork, and fruit, both dried and fresh. The principal banks are the Bank of Spain; the Bank of Barcelone, the Banco Hipotecario, the Sociedad Tabacalera de Filipinas, etc. The first-class maritime custom-houses are those of Aguilas, Alicante, Almería, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cádiz, Carril, Cartagena, Corunna, Gijón, Grao de Valencia, Huelva, Mahón, Malaga, Palamós, Palma in Majorca, Pasajes, Ribadeo, San Sebastián, Santander, Seville, Tarragona, Vigo, and Vinaroz. The first-class inland custom-houses are those of Junquera, Portbou, Irún, Canfranc, Benasque, Palau, Sallent, Torla, Les, Alós Bosost, Farga de Moles, Dancharinea, and Valcarlos, on the French frontier, and, on the Portuguese frontier, those of Albuquerque, Badajo, Olivenza, San Vicente, Alcántara, Herrera de Alcántara, Valencia de Alcántara, Paimogo, Verín, Cadovos, Puente Barjas, La Guardia, Salvatierra, Tuy, Fregeneda, Alberguería, Aldea del Obispo, Barba del Puerco, Alcañices, Fermoselle and Pedralva.
According to the census for those years respectively, the population of Spain was: 15,464,340 in 1857; 15,673,481 in 1860; 16,634,345 in 1877; 17,565,632 in 1887; 18,132,475 in 1897; 18,618,086 in 1900. The last of these census shows a distribution according to sex of 9,087,821 males and 9,530,265 females, an excess of 442,444 females ; there were 5,200,816 unmarried men, and 5,109,609 unmarried women ; 7,021,512 married men and women ; 391,452 widowers and 888,629 widows (excess of widows 497, 177); condition not ascertained, 3615 men and 2453 women. In regard to age the married persons were divided as follows:
- Between 11 and 15 years of age: 11 males, 324 females
- Between 16 and 20 years of age: 3,700 males, 55,296 females
- Between 21 and 25 years of age: 136,903 males, 350,957 females
- Between 26 and 30 years of age: 461,439 males, 557,630 females
Unmarried persons were divided as follows:
- Between 41 and 45 years of age: 35,291 males, 50,617 females
- Between 46 and 50 years of age: 32,549 males, 59,067 females
- Between 51 and 60 years of age: 45,255 males, 78,037 females
As to longevity, the figures were:
- Persons living between 71 and 80 years of age: 174,815 males, 184,804 females
- Persons living between 81 and 90 years of age: 28,075 males, 35,948 females
- Persons living between 91 and 100 years of age: 1,656 males, 3,048 females
- Persons living over 100 years of age: 28 males, 124 females
II. GOVERNMENT A. Civil and Military Organization
Spain was formed by the coalition of various states, which for many centuries had kept their own names and boundaries, and had differed considerably in laws (the fueros ), customs, characteristics, and methods of government. These states were: The Kingdoms of Galicia, León, Old and New Castile, Estremadura, Andalusia, Murcia, Valencia, the Balearic Isles, Aragón, and Navarre, the two principalities of Asturias and Catalonia, and the Basque Provinces.
The Bourbons, with their French propensity to centralize, made the government uniform, converting the ancient states into so many intendencias , or departments. In 1809, Joseph Bonaparte, the intruded occupant of the Throne, divided Spain into 38 departments, and the present division, into 49 provinces, was legally enacted in 1834. The ancient Kingdom of Galicia makes four provinces: Corunna (or Coruña), Lugo, Orense, and Pontevedra. The Principality of Asturias is the Province of Oviedo. Old Castile forms the eight provinces of Avila, Segovia, Soria Valladolid, Palencia, Burgos, Logroño, and Santander ; New Castile, those of Madrid, Toledo, Ciudad Real, Cuenca, and Guadalajara. The three Basque Provinces are: Alava, Guipuzcoa, and Vizcaya, their respective capitals being Vitoria, S. Sebastián, and Bilbao. Navarre forms a single province, with Pamplona for its capital. Aragón is divided into the three Provinces of Saragossa, Huesca, and Teruel ; Catalonia forms those of Barcelona, Tarragona, Lérida, and Gerona ; León, those of León, Zamora, and Salamanca; Estremadura, those of Cáceres and Badajoz ; Valencia, those of Alicante and Castellón de la Plana; Murcia, those of Murcia and Albacete. Andalusia forms the eight Provinces of Cordova, Almería, Granada, Malaga, Jaén, Cádiz, Huelva and Seville. The Balearic Isles form one province, with Palma for its capital; the Canaries, another, with Las Palmas for its capital. This division has many inconveniences: it is ill-adapted to historical analysis ; it is extremely unequal, some provinces being three times as large as others. Moreover, it does not fit in with the ecclesiastical organization of the country.
At the head of each province is a civil governor, the office being both administrative and political in character, and one of the few the incumbents of which change with the changes of political parties in power. Subject to the civil governor are all the departments of the provincial administration; the Exchequer, presided over by a delegate, the Police, etc. The civil governor also wields authority over the civil "facultative corps", as they are called — the engineers of highways, forests, and mines, and the agricultural experts — as well as over public instruction, charities, and so on. Each province is divided into municipalities, which are governed by municipal councils ( ayuntamientos ), with an alcalde , or mayor, at the head of each ayuntamiento . Each alcalde is dependent on the governor of the province, and in his turn controls the officials of his own municipal government. The total number of municipalities and ayuntamientos in Spain is 9290. Every village not large enough to form a municipality has a sub-mayor ( alcalde pedaneo ), governing the village in dependence upon the ayuntamiento of the municipality of which it form a part. The theories of Centralism have made the municipal ayuntamientos organs of the central political power; but in practice these bodies aspire to be really representative, each of its own community, in relation to the Government, and this forms the programme of the Municipal Autonomy movement.
The central Government is administered by the various ministerial offices and the bureaux dependent upon them. These ministerial offices are: the Presidency of the Council of Ministers, with its administrative corps; the Ministry of State, with the diplomatic and consular corps, the corps of interpreters, and the auxiliary administrative corps; the Ministry of Grace and Justice, which has charge of ecclesiastical relations, of the judges, notaries, registrars of property, clerks ( escribanos ), and relators, and the direction of prisons and penal establishments; the Ministry of Finance, or the Exchequer ( Hacienda ), which controls the administration of the customs, the advocates of the State, and the examiners of accounts, besides its own special administrative bureau. The Ministerio de Gobernación (equivalent to Home Office or Department of the Interior) has charge of public health and the Police, as well as the Postal and Telegraph Services, and public charities . The Ministry of Public Instruction and Fine Arts has charge of the archives, libraries, copyright ( propiedad literaria ), geographical, topographical, and astronomical workers, independent industrial enterprises, and state professors and teachers. The Ministry of Public Works controls the state engineers and exercises supervision over highways, mines, agriculture, manufactures and commerce, and forests, besides special administration. The Ministry of War has charge of all that relates to national defence; the Ministry of Marine, of the whole administration of the Navy, both as to material and men. The Ministerio de Ultramar (Ministry of the Colonies) has ceased to exist since the loss of the colonies.
The ordinary administration of justice in Spain is carried on by judges of first instance, territorial courts ( audiencias ) of second instance, and the Supreme Court, sitting at Madrid, to which causes of great importance are taken in the last instance. There are fifteen territorial courts, or jurisdictions ( audiencias ): (1) at Albacete; (2) Barcelona; (3) Burgos ; (4) Cáceres; (5) Corunna; (6) Granada ; (7) Madrid ; (8) Oviedo ; (9) Palma (Majorca); (10) Las Palmas (Canary Islands); (11) Pamplona ; (12) Seville; (13) Valencia; (14) Valladolid; and (15) Saragossa. Of these jurisdictions (l) comprises the Provinces of Albacete (eight judicial districts, eighty-five ayuntamientos ), Ciudad Real (ten judicial districts), Cuenca (eight districts), and Murcia (ten districts); (2) of Barcelona (seventeen districts), Gerona (six districts), Lérida (eight districts), and Tarragona (eight districts); (3) of Alava (three districts), Burgos (twelve districts), Logroño (nine districts), Santander (eleven districts), Soria (five districts), and Biscay (five districts); (4) of Badajoz (fifteen districts), and Cáceres (thirteen districts); (5) of Corunna (fourteen districts), Lugo (eleven districts), Orense (eleven districts), and Pontevedra (eleven districts); (6) of Almería (ten districts), Granada (fifteen districts), Jaén (thirteen districts), and Malaga (fifteen districts); (7) of Avila (six districts), Guadalajara (nine districts), Madrid (seventeen districts), Segovia (five districts), and Toledo (twelve districts); (8) comprises the single province of Oviedo, divided into fifteen districts; (9) comprises the Balearic Isles, with six districts; (10) the seven districts of the Canary Islands ; (11) the Provinces of Guipuzcoa (four districts, and Navarre (five districts); (12) of Cádiz (fourteen districts), Cordova (seventeen districts), Huelva (six districts), and Seville (fourteen districts); (13) of Alicante (fourteen districts), Castellon (nine districts), and Valencia (twenty-one districts); (14) of León (ten districts), Palencia (seven districts), Salamanca (eight districts), Valladolid (eleven districts), and Zamora (eight districts); (15) of Huesca (eight districts), Teruel (ten districts), and Saragossa (thirteen districts).
The Peninsula and its adjacent islands are divided into fourteen military districts, or captaincies-general ( capitanias generales ): New Castile, Catalonia, Andalusia, Valencia, Galicia, Aragón, Granada, Old Castile , Estremadura, Navarre, Burgos, The Basque District, the Balearic, and the Canary Islands. Each district is commanded by a lieutenant-general, with the title of captain-general, to whom all the troops in the district, and all persons connected with the army, are subject. A general of division, called the segundo cabo (second chief), takes his place in case of absence or illness, and is also the military governor of the chief province of the district. There is also a commander-in-chief at Ceuta, who is not dependent upon any district commander. Each civil province also forms a military government, usually commanded by a general of brigade or, in the case of the principal ones, by a general of division. Every fortress or place of high strategic importance constitutes a special military government under a comandate de plaza .Ecclesiastical Organization
Spain is divided into the following ecclesiastical provinces : I. Burgos ; II. Granada ; III. Santiago; IV. Saragossa; V. Seville; VI. Tarragona ; VII. Toledo; VIII. Valencia; IX. Valladolid. By the Concordat of 1851 it was agreed that eight sees should be suppressed. These eight were: Albarracín, Barbastro, Ceuta, Ciudad Rodrigo, Iviza, Solsoña, Tenerife, and Tudela. (See map.)
I. (1) The Archdiocese of Burgos ( Burgensis ), erected in 988, made metropolitan by Alfonso VI, numbers 1220 parishes, 47 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Burgos, Santander, Palencia, and Soria. (2) The Diocese of Calahorra and La Calzada ( Calagurritana ) is of Apostolic origin. It has 266 parishes, 47 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Logroño and Navarre. By the provisions of the Concordat its capital should have been transferred to Logroño, but, owing to difficulties which arose, it is at present (1910) administered by the Archbishop of Burgos. (3) The Diocese of León ( Legionensis ), founded in the third century, has 345 parishes, 37 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of León, Valladolid, and Oviedo. (4) The Diocese of Osma ( Oxomensis ) is of Apostolic origin. It was suppressed on account of the Arab invasion, and restored in the ninth century. It numbers 349 parishes, 28 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Soria and Burgos. (5) The Diocese of Palencia ( Palentina ), founded in the third century, has 345 parishes, 24 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Palencia, Valladolid, and Burgos. (6) The Diocese of Santander ( Santanderiensis ), erected in the year 1354, has 425 parishes, 26 rural deaneries, nearly all in the same province. (7) The Diocese of Vitoria ( Victoriensis ), erected in 1862, pursuant to the Concordat of 1851, has 930 parishes, 36 rural deaneries, in the three Basque provinces.
II. (1) The Archdiocese of Granada ( Gramatensis ), of very ancient origin, was restored and made metropolitan by the Catholic sovereign in 1492. It numbers 182 parishes, 13 rural deaneries, nearly all in the Provinces of Granada and Almería. (2) The Diocese of Almería ( Almeriensis ), of very ancient origin, was restored by the Catholic sovereigns. It has 66 parishes, 7 rural deaneries, in the province of the same name. (3) The Diocese of Cartagena-Murcia ( Cartaginiensis ), is of unknown origin. Urban IV restored it and fixed its see in Murcia. It has 134 parishes, 17 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Murcia, Alicante, Almería, and Albacete. (4) The Diocese of Guadix ( Accitana ) founded by St. Torquatus in the first century, restored at the end of the fifteenth century, has 61 parishes, 5 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Almería and Granada. (5) The Diocese of Jaén ( Gienensis ), of very ancient origin, was restored by Innocent IV in 1249. It numbers 119 parishes, 12 rural deaneries, in its own province. (6) The Diocese of Malaga ( Malacitana ) dates from the Apostolic period and was restored by rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Malaga, Cádiz, and Seville, and the African possessions of Spain (Melilla).
III. (1) The Archdiocese of Santiago, or of Compostela ( Compostellana ) is of Apostolic origin. It has 788 parishes, 35 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Corunna and Pontevedra. (See COMPOSTELA.) (2) The Diocese of Lugo ( Lucensis ), founded in the third century and restored by Alfonso I in 739, numbers 647 parishes, 40 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Lugo and Pontevedra. (3) The Diocese of Mondoñedo ( Mindonensis ), of which nothing is known earlier than the sixth century, its see having been established at Mondoñedo by Doña Urraca, has 277 parishes, 18 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Lugo and Coruña. (4) The Diocese of Orense ( Auriensis ), of very ancient, some say Apostolic, origin, has 519 parishes, 30 rural deaneries, nearly all in its own province. (5) The Diocese of Oviedo ( Ovetensis ) appears to have had its origin in the ninth century, although some attribute to it a higher antiquity. It numbers 969 parishes, 78 rural deaneries, in its own province and a part of León. (6) The Diocese of Tuy ( Tudensis ) is of Apostolic origin. It has 276 parishes, 14 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Orense and Pontevedra.
IV. (1) The Archdiocese of Saragossa ( Caesaraugustana ), founded in the first century, restored in 1117, made metropolitan in 1138, has 370 parishes, 15 rural deaneries, in its own province and that of Teruel. (2) The Diocese of Barbastro ( Barbastrensis ), erected in the reign of Pedro I of Aragón (1094-1104), is to be reunited, in pursuance of the Concordat, with the Diocese of Huesca, from which it was separated in the time of Philip II. It numbers 154 parishes, 10 rural deaneries, in the Province of Huesca. (3) The Diocese of Huesca ( Oscensis ) dates from the first century and was restored in 1086. It has 167 parishes, 9 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Huesca and Saragossa. (4) The Diocese of Jaca ( Jacensis ), erected by Don Ramiro of Aragón (eleventh century) and separated in 1575, has 70 parishes, 8 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Huesca, Saragossa, and Navarre. (5) The Diocese of Pamplona ( Pampilonensis ) is of Apostolic origin, its first bishop having been St. Ferminus. It has 567 parishes, 21 rural deaneries, in the Province of Navarre. (6) The Diocese of Tarazona ( Turiasonensis ) dates from the Gothic period and was restored in 1115. It has 138 parishes, 9 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Logroño, Navarre, and Saragossa. (7) The Diocese of Teruel ( Turulensis ), founded in 1577 at the petition of Philip II, has 96 parishes, 5 rural deaneries, in the province of the same name. Its jurisdiction now includes that of Albarracin. (8) The Diocese of Tudela ( Tutelensis ) has had but four bishops, the last consecrated in 1819. It was suppressed by the Concordat, and its jurisdiction given to the Bishop of Tarazona. It has a collegiate church and 26 parishes in the Province of Navarre.
V. (1) The Archdiocese of Seville ( Hispalensis ) dates from the third century, and was restored by St. Ferdinand in 1248. It has 270 parishes, 21 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Seville, Huelva, Cádiz, and Malaga. (2) The Diocese of Badajoz ( Pacensis ) is supposed to be of Apostolic origin, although there is no documentary proof of its existence earlier than the seventh century. It has 136 parishes, 13 rural deaneries, in the province of the same name. (3) The Diocese of Cádiz-Ceuta ( Gaditana ) founded by Alfonso X in 1263, has 32 parishes, 6 rural deaneries, in its own province and Ceuta. (4) The Diocese of the Canaries ( Canariensis ) erected by Innocent VII in 1406, has 42 parishes, 5 rural deaneries, in the Canary Islands. (5) The Diocese of Cordova ( Cordubensis ), dating from the first century, has 124 parishes, 17 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Cordova and Badajoz. (6) The Diocese of Tenerife ( Nivariensis ), erected in 1819 by Pius VIII, is to be incorporated, according to the Concordat, with that of the Canaries. Its see is at La Laguna (Palma) and it numbers 62 parishes, 10 rural deaneries.
VI. (1) The Archdiocese of Tarragona ( Tarraconensis ) was erected in the first century, and disputes with Toledo the right of primacy. It was restored by Ramón Berenguer, Count of Barcelona, in 1088, and numbers 150 parishes, 6 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Tarragona and Lérida. (2) The Diocese of Barcelona ( Barcinonensis ) is believed to be of Apostolic origin, and was restored in the twelfth century by Ramón Berenguer, By a recent concession of the Holy See, its bishop wears the pallium, like a metropolitan. It has 231 parishes, 10 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Barcelona, Tarragona, Lérida, and Gerona. (3) The Diocese of Gerona ( Gerundensis ) dates from the third century, and was restored in the eighth. It has 363 parishes in the Provinces of Gerona and Barcelona. (4) The Duiocese of Lérida ( Ilerdensis ) is one of the most ancient in Spain. It numbers 249 parishes, 12 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Lérida and Huesca. (5) The Diocese of Solsona ( Excelsonensis ) was erected in 1593, suppressed by the Concordat, and again constituted as an Apostolic administration with a titular bishop. It has 152 parishes, 11 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Barcelona, Lérida, and Gerona. (6) The Diocese of Tortosa ( Dertusensis ), believed to be of Apostolic origin, restored in 1141, has 159 parishes, 12 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Tarragona, Teruel, and Castellon. The Concordat provides for the transfer of its capital to Castellon de la Plana. (7) The Diocese of Urgel ( Urgellensis ) is very ancient, and its bishop is the sovereign of the Valleys of Andorra. It has 395 parishes, 19 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Lérida and Gerona and in the Republic of Andorra. (8) The Diocese of Vich ( Vicensis ), in the ancient Ausona, was erected in 713, and restored by Ludovico Pio, and, later, by Vifredo the Hairy Count of Barcelona. It has 248 parishes, 11 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Barcelona, Gerona, and Tarragona.
VII. (1) The Archdiocese of Toledo ( Toletana ), erected in the first century, had for its first bishop St. Eugenius. In the fifth century the see was made metropolitan, and after the Reconquest it became the principal see of the Spains. The archdiocese contains 442 parishes divided into 20 rural deaneries, and covers the Province of Toledo and part of those of Jaén, Guadalajara, and Cáceres. (2) The Diocese of Coria ( Cauriensis ) existed as early as the year 589 and was restored in 1142 by Alfonso VIII. It comprises 124 parishes, divided into 11 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Cáceres, Salamanca, and Badajoz. (3) The Diocese of Cuenca ( Conquensis ) was erected in 1179 by Pope Lucius III . It has 326 parishes, in 12 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Cuenca and Guadalajara. (4) The Diocese of Madrid-Alcalá ( Matritensis-Complutensis ) was erected by the Bull of 7 March, 1885, in pursuance of the Concordat of 1851. It has 232 parishes, divided into 18 rural deaneries, in the Province of Madrid. (5) The Diocese of Plasencia ( Placentina ), erected in 1190 by Alfonso VIII, has 260 parishes, divided into 14 rural deaneries, in the Province of Cáceres, Salamanca, Badajoz, and Avila. (6) The Diocese of Sigüenza ( Saguntina ) existed in the time of the Goths, and was restored by Alfonso VIII. It has 350 parishes, 18 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Guadalajara, Saragossa, and Soria.
VIII. (1) The Archdiocese of Vanencia ( Valentina ) erected in the third century, and restored by Jaime I, the Conqueror, in 1238, has 313 parishes, 25 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Alicante, Valencia, and Castellon. (2) The Diocese of Iviza ( Ebusensis ) is to be merged in that of Majorca, pursuant to the concordat. It has 37 parishes. (3) The Diocese of Majorca ( Majoricensis ) was erected by Jaime, the Conqueror, in 1229. The see is at Palma, and its incorporation with the Diocese of Iviza is provided for by the Concordat. It has 59 parishes, 7 rural deaneries, in the Balearic Isles. (4) The Diocese of Minorca ( Minoricensis ), erected in 1795, has its see at Ciudadela and numbers 14 parishes. (5) The Diocese of Orihuela ( Oriolensis ) was erected in 1564. Its see should, by the terms of the Concordat, be transferred to Alicante. It has 60 parishes, 11 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Alicante, Valencia, and Almería. (6) The Diocese of Segorbe ( Segobricensis ) founded in the time of the Goths, restored in 1171, and again in 1245, has 65 parishes, 7 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Castellon, Valencia, and Teruel.
IX. (1) The Archdiocese of Valladolid ( Vallisoletana ) was founded in 1595 and became metropolitan in 1859. It has 93 parishes, 9 rural deaneries, in the province of the same name. (2) The Diocese of Astorga ( Asturicensis ) is of Apostolic origin, and was restored by Alfonso I in 747. It has 582 parishes and 18 rural deaneries in the Provinces of León, Zamora, and Orense. (3) The Diocese of Avila ( Abulensis ) was erected by St. Secundus in Apostolic times, and restored after the Arab invasion, by Alfonso VI. It has 339 parishes, divided into 20 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Avila, Toledo, and Valladolid. (4) The Diocese of Ciudad Rodrigo ( Civitatensis ), founded by Alexander III, in 1175, is one of those suppressed under the Concordat, its territory having been added to that of Salamanca since 1884 under an Apostolic administrator with episcopal character. It has 150 parishes, 11 rural deaneries, in the Province of Salamanca. (5) The Diocese of Salamanca ( Salmanticensis ) dates from the first century, and was restored by Alfonso I, the Great, in 901. It numbers 286 parishes, 19 rural deaneries, in the province of the same name. (6) The Diocese of Segovia ( Segoviensis ) was erected in the time of the Goths and restored by Alfonso VI. It has 276 parishes, 15 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Segovia, Avila, and Valladolid. (7) The Diocese of Zamora ( Zamorensis ) was founded in the year 905. It has 265 parishes, 13 rural deaneries, in the Provinces of Zamora and Valladolid.
Besides these nine provinces, there is the Diocese-Priorate of the four military orders, or of Ciudad-Real ( Cluniensis ), which was erected as vere nullius by the Bull "Ad Apostolicum", put into execution by the Decree of August, 1876. It has 115 parishes, in 11 rural deaneries.
The privileged ecclesiastical jurisdictions are the Apostolic Nunciature and the Supreme Tribunal of the Rota, both at Madrid, and the Chapel Royal ( Clero de la Real Capilla y Patrimonio ), with a grand almoner ( capellan mayor ) to His Majesty, honorary chaplains, etc. The military chaplains are under the jurisdiction of a Vicar-General of the Army and Navy. There are four deputy vicars and a proportionate number of chaplains-general, and first-class and second-class chaplains.
Notwithstanding the measures of disamortization which have deprived them of their property, and the general expulsion effected a second time by the Revolution of 1868, the religious orders of both sexes prosper and possess many establishments in Spain. Owing, however, to their anomalous legal position, it is extremely difficult to obtain statistics of them, although an approximation may be made. The Liberals assert that, since the Concordat of 1851, only three religious orders of men have any right to be admitted to the country, while the Conservatives and Catholics in general understand that the Concordat places these three orders in a privileged position, but admits all the other orders in a privileged position, but admits all the other orders conformably with the provisions of the canon law to which its stipulations are subject. In 1903 the religious orders in Spain numbered 597 communities of men and 2463 communities of women. The number of male religious was 10,630; of female 40,030. These communities were divided, according to the chief object of their institutions, as follows:—
- The Contemplative life — 75 communities of men/717 of
- Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary
- Unfailing Prayer to St. Anthony
- Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary
- Come Holy Spirit
- The Apostles' Creed
- Prayer to the Holy Spirit
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