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The Cross and Crucifix in Liturgy

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(1) Material Objects in Liturgical Use ; (2) Liturgical Forms connected with Them ; (3) Festivals Commemorative of the Holy Cross ; (4) Rite of the "Adoration" ; (5) The Cross as a Manual Sign of Blessing ; (6) Dedications of Churches, etc. to the Holy Cross ; (7) The Cross in Religious Orders and in the Crusades; (8) The Cross outside of the Catholic Church .

I. MATERIAL OBJECTS IN LITURGICAL USE

A. The Altar-Cross

As a permanent adjunct to the altar, the cross or crucifix can hardly be traced farther back than the thirteenth century. The third canon of the Second Council of Tours (567), "ut corpus Domini in altario non in imaginario ordine sed sub crucis titulo componatur", which has sometimes been appealed to prove the early existence of an altar-cross, almost certainly refers to the arrangement of the particles of the Host upon the corporal. They were to be arranged in the form of a cross and not according to any fanciful idea, of the celebrant (see Hefele, Conciliengeschichte). On the other hand, Innocent III at the beginning of the thirteenth century in his treatise on thee Mass says plainly, "a cross is set upon the altar, in the middle between two candlesticks ", but even this probably refers only to the actual duration of the Holy Sacrifice.. From the ninth to the eleventh century the rule is several times repeated: "Let nothing be placed on the altar except a chest with relics of saints or perhaps the four gospels or a pyx with the Lord's Body for the viaticum of the sick (cf. Thiers, Sur les principaux autels des églises, l29 sqq.). This no doubt was understood to exclude even the crucifix from the altar, and it is certain that in various liturgical ivory carvings of the eighth, ninth, and tenth centuries no cross is shown. At the same time it should be noted that the ciborium , or canopy over the altar, was often surmounted by a plain cross, and also that the coronæ , or ornamental circular frames which were suspended from the inner side of the ciborium, frequently had a cross hanging down in their midst. Some auch coronæ are explicitly referred to in the "Liber Pontificalis" during the ninth century. The best-known existing example is the corona of

Recesvinthus now at the Musée de Cluny, Paris, in which the pendent cross is set with large gems. The papal chronicle just referred to also mentions a silver cross which was erected not over, but close beside, the high altar of St. Peter's in the time of Leo III (795-816): "'There also he made the cross of purest silver, gilded, which stands beside the high altar, and which weighs 22 pounds" (Lib. Pont., Leo III, c. lxxxvii). It is probable that when the cross was first introduced as an ornament for the altar it was most commonly plain and without any figure of Our Saviour. Such is the cross which a well-known Anglo-Saxon manuscript represents King Cnut as presenting to Hyde Abbey, Winchester. But the association of the figure of Christ with the cross was familiar in England as early as 678, when Benedict Biscop brought a painting of the Crucifixion from Rome (Bede, Hist. Abb., §99), and we can hardly doubt that a people capable of producing such sculptural work as the stone crosses at Ruthwell and Bewcastle, or the Franks' casket, would soon have attempted the same subject in the solid. We know at any rate that a gold crucifix was found in the tomb of St. Edward the Confessor, and a crucifix is mentioned in one of the later Lives of St. Dunstan. That such objects were sometimes used for the altar seems highly probable.

Still, Innocent III speaks only of a cross, and it is certain that for several centuries later neither cross nor crucifix were left upon the altar except at Mass time. Even so late as the beginning of the sixteenth century an engraving in the Guinta "Corpus Juris" shows the altar-crucifix being carried in at High Mass by the celebrant, while in many French dioceses this or some similar custom lasted down to the time of Claude de Vert (Explication, IV, 31). At present the Cæremoniale Episcoporum assumes the permanency of the crucifix on the altar, with its attendant candlesticks [see ALTAR-CRUCIFIX, under ALTAR (IN LITURGY)].

B. The Processional Cross

When Bede tells us that St. Augustine of England and his companions came before Ethelbert "carrying a silver cross for a standard" (veniebant crucem pro vexillo ferentes argenteam ) while they said the litanies, he probably touched upon the fundamental idea of the processional cross. Its use seems to have been general in early times and it is so mentioned in the Roman "Ordines" as to suggest that one belonged to each church. An interesting specimen of the twelfth century still survives in the Cross of Cong, preserved in the museum of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. This is made of oak covered with copper plates, but much decoration is added in the form of gold filigreework. It lacks most of the shaft, but is two feet six inches high, and one foot six inches across the arms. In the centre is a boss of rock crystal, which formerly enshrined a relic of the True Cross, and an inscription tells us that it was made for Turloch O'Conor, King of Ireland (1123). It seems never to have had any figure of Christ, but other processional crosses of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries are for the most part true crucifixes. In a great number of cases the shaft was removable, and the upper portion could be set in a stand to be used as an altar-cross. Indeed it seems not impossible that this was the actual origin of the altar-cross employed during Mass ( Rohault de Fleury, La Meese, V, 123-140). Just as the seven candlesticks carried before the pope in Rome were deposited before or behind the altar, and probably developed into the six altar-candlesticks (seven, it will be remembered, when a bishop celebrates) with which we are now familiar, so the processional cross seems also to have first been left in a stand near the altar and ultimately to have taken its place upon the altar itself. To this day the ritual books of the Church seem to assume that the handle of the processional cross is detachable, for in the funeral of infants it is laid down that the cross is to be carried without its handle. All Christians are supposed to be the followers of Christ, hence in procession the crucifix is carried first, with the figure turned in the direction in which the procession is moving.

C. Archiepiscopal and Papal Cross

It is not easy to determine with certainty at what period the archiepiscopal cross came into separate use. It was probably at first only an ordinary processional cross. In the tenth "Ordo Romanus" we read of a subdeacon who is set aside to carry the crux papalis . If this specially papal cross had been in existence for some time it is likely that it was imitated by patriarchs and metropolitans as a mark of dignity which went with the pallium. In the twelfth century the archbishop's cross was generally recognized, and in the dispute regarding the primacy between the Archbishops of Canterbury and York the right to carry their cross before them played a prominent part. In 1125 Pope Honorius II admonished the Southern bishops of England that they should allow Archbishop Thurstan of York crucem ante se deferre juxta antiquam consuetudiem . In all ecclesiastical functions an archbishop in his own province has a right to be preceded by his cross-bearer with cross displayed. Hence an archbishop when solemnly giving his blessing gives it with head uncovered out of reverence for the cross which is held before him. An ordinary bishop, who is not privileged to have such a cross, blesses the people with his mitre on. As regards form, both the papal and the archiepiscopal cross consists in practice of a simple crucifix mounted upon a staff, the material being silver or silver gilt. The crosses with double and triple bars, which are sometimes termed distinctively archiepiscopal, patriarchal, or papal crosses, have for the most part only a heraldic existence (see Barbier de Montault, La croix à deux croisillons, 1883). An archiepiscopal cross is borne with the figure turned towards the archbishop.

D. Pectoral Crosses

These objects seem originally to have been little more than costly ornaments upon which much artistic skill was lavished and which usually contained relics. A jewel of this kind which belonged to Queen Theodelinda at the end of the sixth century is still preserved in the treasury of Monza. .Another of much later date, but wrought with wonderful enamels, was found in the tomb of Queen Dagmar and is at Copenhagen. When the present Queen Alexandra came to England in 1863 to marry the then Prince of Wales, she was presented with a facsimile of this jewel containing, among other relics, a fragment of the True Cross. Such encolpia were probably at first worn by bishops not as insignia of rank, but as objects of devotion. For example, a famous and beautiful jewel of this kind was found in the tomb of St. Cuthbert and is now at Durham. When they contained relics they often came later on to be enclosed in processional crosses . This no doubt was the case with the Cross of Cong, mentioned above, upon which we read in Irish characters the Latin verse: Hac cruce crux tegitur qua passus conditor orbis.- See Journ. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, vol. XXXI (1901). As a liturgical cross, and part of the ordinary episcopal insignia, the pectoral cross is of quite modern date. No word is said regarding it in the first edition of the "Cæremoniale Episcoporum" of 1600, but later editions speak of it, and its liturgical character is fully recognized by all modern rubricians. It is worn bishops at Mass and solemn functions, and also forms part of their ordinary walking-dress. It is usually a plain Latin cross of gold suspended round the neck by a gold chain or a cord of silk and gold. Its use seems gradually to have been introduced during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in imitation of the pectoral cross which we know to have been regularly worn by the popes from a much earlier date. Certain metropolitans (e.g. the Patriarch of Lisbon and the Archbishop of Armagh ) are accustomed to wear a cross with two bars or transoms (Anal. Jur. Pont., 1896, 344). The privilege of wearing a pectoral cross has also been conceded to certain canons.

E. Consecration Crosses

These are the twelve crosses, usually merely painted on the wall, which mark the places where the church walls have been anointed with chrism in a properly consecrated church. A candle-bracket should be inserted immediately below. Some of these consecration crosses are even yet distinguishable on the walls of old churches which go back to the Romanesque period. The Carlovingian oratory in Nimeguen preserves, perhaps, the most ancient known example. In other cases e.g. at Fürstenfeld, some of the old Romanesque candle- brackets also remain. Owing to the number of unctions, it was not infrequently the custom to place these consecration crosses on shields, each borne by one of the twelve Apostles. In the Sainte Chapelle at Paris, built by St. Louis in the thirteenth century, we find twelve statues of the Apostles carrying discs cases, used for this purpose. In England it was the custom to mark twelve consecration crosses on the outside walls of the church as well as twelve on the inside. The Roman Pontifical only prescribes the latter. (See CONSECRATION.) Salisbury cathedral still preserves some remarkable examples of consecration crosses. At Ottery St. Mary, Devon, the old crosses are carved in high relief on shields borne by angels within moulded panels, a quatrefoil in a square. Those inside have marks of the remains of iron brackets for candles or a lamp. (See, on English examples, Middleton in "Archæologia", XLVIII, 1885.)

F. Churchyard or Monumental Crosses

In the contemporary life of St. Willibald (born c. 700) we have a significant mention of the Anglo-Saxon custom of erecting a cross instead of a church as a rendezvous for prayer. Many ancient stone crosses still surviving in England are probably witnesses to the practice, and the conjecture of Prof. Baldwin Browne (Arts in Anglo-Saxon England ), that the cross and graveyard often preceded the church in date, has much to recommend it. Certain it is that the earliest known forms for blessing a cemetery contain five blessings pronounced at the four points of the compass one in the centre, thus forming a cross, while crosses were later on planted in the ground at each of these places. Throughout the Middle Ages, both in England and on the Continent, there seems always to have been one principal churchyard cross. This was commonly an object of great importance in the Palm Sunday procession when it was saluted with prostrations or gunuflexions by the whole assembly. There was also a scattering of boughs and flowers, and the cross was often decorated with garlands or box. For this reason it was often called crux buxata (cf. Gasquet, Parish Life, 1906, pp. 171-4). Many beautiful churchyard crosses are still preserved in England, France, and Germany ; the most remarkable English examples being perhaps those of Ampney Crucis, near Cirencester, and Bag Enderby, Lincolnshire. The famous ancient Northumbrian crosses at Bewcastle and Ruthwell (which English scholars still assign to the seventh and eighth centuries, despite the plea for a much later date put forward by Prof. A. S. Cook of Yale) may possibly have been principal churchyard crosses. The fact that they were probably memorial crosses as well does not exclude this.

When St. Aldhelm died in 709, his body had to be transported fifty miles to Malmesbury, and at each stage of seven miles, where the body rested for the night, a cross was afterwards erected. These crosses were still standing in the twelfth century ( William of Malmesbury, Gesta Pont., 383). An even more famous example of such memorial crosses, but of much later date, is supplied by the removal of the body of Eleanor, Queen of Edward I, from Lincoln to London. Several of these crosses in a more or less mutilated form exist at the present day. The most famous of the series, however, Charing (? Chère Reine) Cross in London, is a modern reconstruction. The route followed by the body of St. Louis of France on its way to St. Denis was similarly honoured, and it seems probable that a large number of wayside crosses originated in this manner. No stronger testimony of the early connection of the cross with the cemetery could be desired than the directions given by St. Cuthbert for his own burial : "Cum autem Deus susceperit animam meam, sepelite me in hâc mansione juxta oratorium meum ad meridiem, contra orientalem plagam sanctæ crucis quam ibidem erexi" (Bede, Vita S. Cuthberti).

G. Rood, Rood-Screen, and Rood-Loft

From very early times it seems to have been not unusual to introduce a plain cross in such a way into the mosaics of the apse or of the main arch ( Truimphbogen ) as to dominate the church. Notable examples may be found at S. Apollinare in Classe at Ravenna, at S. Pudenziana in Rome, and at the Lateran basilica. There are also, as already noticed, incontestable examples both of crosses surmounting the ciborium over the altar, and of the large crosses suspended, with or without a corona, from the under side of the ciborium. It must, however, be pronounced very doubtful whether the rood, which in so many churches of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries occupied the great arch, can be regarded as a development of this idea. This point will be more fully treated under ROOD-SCREEN. It will be sufficient to notice here that in the thirteenth century a practice grew up of screening off the choir from the nave of the greater churches by a structure broad enough to admit a narrow bridge or gallery spanning the chancel arch and most commonly adorned by a great crucifix with the figures of Our Lady and St. John. The rood-loft of the cathedral of Sens, as described by J. B. Thiers (Traité sur les jubés) affords a valuable hint of how this process was effected. It consisted, he tells us, of two stone pulpits quite separate from each other, supported by columns, and with a crucifix between them, each having an entrance on the choir side and an exit down into the nave, on either side of the principal door of the choir. From this it seems probable that the two ambos from which the Gospel and Epistle were sung in earlier times became gradually connected by a continuous gallery upon which was erected a great crucifix, and that in this way we may trace the development of the rood-loft, or jubé, which was so conspicuous a feature in later medieval architecture. There can at least be no doubt that this loft was used on certain occasions of ceremony for reading the Epistle and Gospel and for making announcements to the people. The great rood above the rood-screen was saluted by the whole procession, as they re-entered the church on Palm Sunday , with the words: Ave Rex noster .

H. Absolution Crosses

These have already been spoken of in the article CHRISTIAN BURIAL. They seem for the most part to have been rude crosses of lead laid upon the breast of the corpse. It is only in some few examples, of which the most important is that of Bishop Godfrey of Chichester (1088), that a formula of absolution is found inscribed upon them entire. We may infer that the practice in the West was always in some measure irregular, and it is only the absolution paper which is uniformly placed in the hand or on the breast of the corpse in the Eastern Church, which explains them and gives them a certain imporance as a liturgical development.

J. Crosses on Vestments, etc.

Rubrical law now requires that most of the vestments, as well as some other objects more immediately devoted to the service of the altar, should be marked with cross. Speaking generally this is a comparatively modern development. For example, the great majority of stoles and maniples of the Middle Ages do not exhibit this feature. At the same time Dr. Wickham Legg goes much too far when he says without qualification that such crosses were not used in pre-Reformation times. For example the stole of St. Thomas of Canterbury preserved at Sens has three crosses, one in the middle end one at each extremity, just as a modern stole would have. That the archiepiscopal pallium, like the Greek omophorion ( see RITE OF CONSTANTINOPLE) was always marked with crosses, is not disputed. The large cross conspicuous upon most modern chasubles, which appears behind in the French type and in front in the Roman, does not seem to have been originally adopted with any symbolic purpose. It probably came into existence accidentally for sartorial reasons, the orphreys having been so arranged in a sort of Y-cross to conceal the seams. But the idea, once suggested to the eye, was retained, and various symbolical reasons were found for it. In somewhat of the same way a cross was marked in the Missal before the Canon. and this the priest was directed to kiss when beginning this portion of the Mass; probably this cross first arose from an illumination of the initial T, in the words: Te igitur clementissime Pater . As Innocent III writes, "Et forte divinâ factum est providentiâ ut ab eâ literâ T [ tau ] canon inciperet quæ sui formâ signum crucis ostendit et exprimit in figurâ"; and Beleth further comments, "Unde profecto est, quod istic crucis imago adpingi debeat" (See Ebner, Quellen und Forschungen, 445 sqq.). The tradition is perpetuated in the picture of the Crucifixion which precedes the Canon in every modern Missal. The five crosses commonly marked on altar-atones depend closely on the rite of the consecration of an altar.

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K. Crosses for Private Devotion

These may all be held to wear a liturgical aspect in so far as the Church, in the "Rituale," provides a form for their blessing, and presupposes that such a cross should be placed in the hands of the dying. The crosses which surmount the Stations of the Cross, and to which the Indulgences are directly attached may also be noticed. In the Greek Church a little wooden cross is used for the blessing of holy water, and is dipped into it in the course of the ceremony.

II. LITURGICAL FORMS CONNECTED WITH THE MATERIAL OBJECTS

A. Blessing of Consecration Crosses

The "Pontificale Romanum" directs that towards the close of the dedication ceremony the twelve consecration crosses previously marked upon the walls of the church, three upon each wall, are to be each anointed by the bishop with chrism, the following form of words being spoken over each: "May this Temple be hallowed + and consecrated + in the name of the Father + and of the Son + and of the Holy Ghost + in honour of God and the glorious Virgin Mary and of all the Saints, to the name and memory of Saint N. Peace be to thee." This is prescribed in practically identical terms in English pontificals of the tenth century; and the Pontifical of Egbert (? 768) describes the anointing of the walls, though it does not give the words or the form. What is more, an analogous ceremony must have existed in the Celtic Church from a very early date, for a liturgical fragment in the Leabar Breac describes how the bishop with two priests is to go round the outside of the church marking crosses upon the "tel-columns" with his knife, while the three other priests do the same within (see Olden in "Trans. St. Paul's Eccles. Soc.", IV, 103). In this case, however, the use of chrism is not mentioned. From this Celtic practice the Anglo-Saxon and Sarum uses seem to have derived the custom of affixing consecration crosses outside the church as well as within.

B. Consecration of the Altar

In the consecration of an altar, also, crosses are to be marked in chrism upon the altar-slab with almost the same form of words as that used for the walls. This practice may equally claim Celtic analogues, whose antiquity is shown by the fact that the altar to be consecrated must have been of wood. The Tract in the "Leabar Breac" says: "The bishop marks four crosses with his knife on the four corners of the altar, and he marks three crosses over the middle of the altar, a cross over the middle on the east to the edge, and a cross over the middle on the west to the edge, and a cross exactly over the middle." This makes seven crosses, but the Roman usage for many centuries has provided five only.

C. Pontifical Blessings of Crosses

The consecration crosses on the walls of churches and on altars are clearly not substantive and independent objects of cultus; the blessing they receive is only a detail in a longer ceremony. But the "Pontificale Romanum" supplies a solemn form of episcopal blessing for a cross, under the title, Benedictio novæ Crucis , which, besides containing several prayers of considerable length, includes a consecratory preface and is accompanied with the use of incense. At the conclusion of the ceremony we find the rubric : "Tum Pontifex, flexis ante crucem genibus, ipsam devote adorat et osculatur." This rite is of great antiquity, and many of the prayers occur in identical terms in pontificals of the tenth century or earlier, e.g. in the Benedictional of Archbishop Robert (Henry Bradshaw Soc.). But in the ancient ceremony the cross was first washed with holy water and then anointed with chrism precisely as in the form for the blessing of bells (see BELLS ). For cemetery crosses in this connection, see CEMETERY.

D. Blessings of Crosses in the Ritual

The "Rituale Romanum" (tit. VIII, cap. xxiv) supplies an ordinary blessing for a cross which may be used by any priest. It consists only of a short prayer, with a second prayer whose use is optional, and only holy water is used; but the same rubric directing the priest to kneel and "devoutly adore and kiss the cross" is added, which we have just noticed in the solemn episcopal benediction. Furthermore, the Ritual, in an appendix, reprints the longer form from the Pontifical under the heading: "Benedictiones reservatæ, ab episcopo vel sacerdotibus facultatem habentibus faciendæ". It may be noted that St. Louis, King of France, regarded it as unseemly that crosses and statues should be set up for veneration without being previously blessed. He accordingly ordered search to be made for a form of blessing in the ancient episcopal ceremonials. The form was found and duly used first of all in St. Louis' own private chapel ; but the incident seems to suggest that the practice of blessing such objects had partly fallen into desuetude. (See Galfridus, De Bello Loco, cap. xxxvi.)

E. Blessings of Crosses for Indulgences etc.

The indulgences most commonly attached to crosses, crucifixes, etc., are: first, the so-called "Apostolic Indulgences", which are the same as those attached to objects blessed by the Holy Father in person. These are numerous and, amongst other things, entitle the possessor who has habitually worn or used such a cross to a plenary indulgence at the hour of death; secondly, the indulgences of the Stations of the Cross, which under certain conditions may be gained by the sick and others unable to visit a church upon the recitation of twenty Paters, Aves, and Glorias before the indulgenced cross which they must hold in their hand; thirdly, the so-called "Bona Mors" indulgence for the use of priests, enabling the priest by the use of this cross to communicate a plenary indulgence to any dying person who is in the requisite dispositions to receive it; Special faculties are needed to communicate such indulgences to crosses, etc., though in the case of the "Apostolic Indulgences" these faculties are easily obtained. The only blessing required is the making of a simple sign of the cross over the crucifix or other object with the intention of imparting the indulgence. For further details, the reader must be referred to the article INDULGENCES and to such treatises upon indulgences as those of Beringer, "Les Indulgences" or of Mocchegiani, "Collectio Indulgentiarum" (Quaracchi, 1897). (See also BLESSINGS.)

III. FESTIVALS OF THE HOLY CROSS

A. The Invention of the Holy Cross

This is now kept by the Western Church upon 3 May, but so far as our somewhat uncertain data allow us to judge, the real date of St. Helena's discovery was 14 September, 326. Upon this same day, 14 September, took place the dedication of Constantine's two churches, that of the Anastasis and that of Golgotha Ad Crucem , both upon Calvary, within the precincts of the present church of the Holy Sepulchre . The portion of the Holy Cross preserved in Jerusalem afterwards fell into the hands of the Persians, but was recovered by the Emperor Heraclius, and, if we may trust our authorities, was solemnly brought back to Jerusalem on 3 May, 629. This day, strangely enough, seems to have attracted special attention among Celtic liturgists in the West and, though disregarded in the East, has passed through Celtic channels (we meet it first in the Lectionary of Silos and in the Bobbio Missal ) into general recognition under the mistaken title of "Invention of the Cross". Curiously enough the Greek Church keeps a feast of the apparition of the Cross to St. Cyril of Jerusalem on 7 May, though that of 3 May is unknown in the East.

B. The Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross

The Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, 14 September, though apparently introduced into the West somewhat later than the so-called "Invention" on 3 May, seems to preserve the true date of the discovery of the Cross by St. Helena. This festival has always been kept in the East, and especially at Jerusalem, on that day, under the name of, i.e. "elevation" which probably meant originally the "bringing to light".

C. Other Feasts of the Cross

We might in some sense regard such a festival as that of the Holy Lance and Nails as a festival of the Cross, but it should perhaps rather be grouped with feasts of the Passion. In the East, however, we find other celebrations strictly connected with the Cross. For example, on 1 August the Greeks commemorate the taking of the relic of the Holy Cross from the palace in Constantinople to the church of St. Sophia, and on 7 May, as we have seen, they recall an apparition of the Cross to St. Cyril of Jerusalem. The Armenians, on the other hand, observe one principal feast of the Cross, under the name Chatz , which occurs in autumn almost immediately after the feast of the Assumption. It is counted as one of the seven principal feasts of the year, is preceded by a week's fast, and followed by an octave or its Armenian equivalent. See also ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE CROSS AND CRUCIFIX.

IV. THE "ADORATION"

From a theological standpoint this is treated above under ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE CROSS AND CRUCIFIX. (See also LATRIA.) As a liturgical function the veneration of the Cross on Good Friday must no doubt be traced back, as Amalarius already in the ninth century correctly divined, to the practice of honouring the relic of the True Cross at Jerusalem which is described in detail in the "Pilgrimage of Etheria", c. 380 (see TRUE CROSS.) The ceremony came to prevail everywhere where relics of the True Cross existed, and by a very natural development, where relics failed any ordinary cross supplied their place as an object of cultus. As Amalarius again sensibly remarks, "although every church cannot have such a relic, still the virtue of the Holy True Cross is not wanting in those crosses which are made in imitation of it." Neither was this veneration, in the case at any rate, of relics of the True Cross, confined to Good Friday. St. Gregory of Tours uses language which may possibly imply that in Jerusalem the True Cross was honoured every Wednesday and Friday. It is certain that at Constantinople a Sunday in Mid-Lent, the first of August, and the 14th of September were similarly privileged. Even from early times there was no hesitation about using the word adoratio . Thus, St. Paulinus of Nola , writing of the great Jerusalem relic (c. 410), declares that the bishop offered it to the people for worship ( crucem quotannis adorandam populo promit ), and first adored it himself. (See P. L., LXI, 325.) A curious practice was also introduced of anointing the cross, or, on occasion, any image or picture, with balm ( balsamo ) before presenting it for the veneration of the faithful. This custom was transferred to Rome, and we hear much of it in connection with the very ancient reliquary of the True Cross and also the supposed miraculous portrait of Our Saviour ( acheiropoieta , i.e. not made by the hand of man ) preserved in the Sancta Sanctorum of the Lateran, both of which recently, together with a multitude of other objects, have been examined and reported on by papal permission (see Grisar Die römische Kapelle Sancta Sanctorum und ihr Schatz, Freíburg, 1908, 91, 92). The objects mentioned were completely covered in part with solidified balm. Pope Adrian I, in vindicating the veneration of images to Charlemagne, mentions this use of balm and defends it ( Mansi, Concilia, XIII, 778). The ceremony of the adoration of the Cross on Good Friday must have spread through the West in the seventh and eighth centuries, for it appears in the Gelasian Sacramentary and is presupposed in the Gregorian Antiphonarium. Both in Anglo-Saxon England and in the England of the later Middle Ages the "Creeping to the Cross" was a ceremony which made a deep impression on the popular mind. St. Louis of France : and other pious princes dressed themselves in haircloth and crept to the cross barefoot. At present, instead of creeping to the cross on hands and knees, three profound double genuflexions are made before kissing the feet of the crucifix, and the sacred ministers remove their shoes when performing the ceremony. The collection now commonly made on this occasion for the support of the Holy Places seems also to date from medieval times.

V. MANUAL SIGN OF THE CROSS

For the Figure of the Cross as a Manual Sign of Blessing the reader must be referred to the article SIGN OF THE CROSS, also subtitles (4) of ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE CROSS and (1) of TRUE CROSS.

VI. DEDICATIONS OF CHURCHES, ETC. TO THE HOLY CROSS

Possibly one of the earliest dedications to the Cross, if we put aside Constantine's church upon Calvary known in Etheria's time as Ad Crucem and also the Sessorian basilica which was its Roman counterpart, was the monastery erected at Poitiers by St. Rhadegund in the sixth century. In behalf of this foundation the saint begged and obtained a relic of the True Cross from the Emperor Justin II at Constantinople.

The bringing of the relic to Poitiers was the occasion of the composition of the two famous hymns by Venantius Fortunatus, "Vexilla regis" and "Pange, lingua, gloriosi prælium certaminis". In England perhaps the most famous monastery bearing this dedication was the Holy Cross Abbey at Waltham, founded by King Harold. At present about sixty ancient English churches are dedicated to the Holy Cross, while twenty more bear the same dedication in the distinctively-English form of "Holy Rood ". The famous Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh, once occupied by Mary Queen of Scots, derives its name from a monastery of the Holy Rood upon the site of which it was erected, and its church, now in ruins, was originally the church of the monks.

VII. THE CROSS IN RELIGIOUS ORDERS AND IN THE CRUSADES

Although the older orders were earnest in conforming to the general usage of the Church as regards the veneration of the Cross, no distinctive cultus seems to be attributable to the monasteries. The practice of carrying a crucifix as part of the ordinary religious habit seems to be of comparatively modern date. It is significant that, although in most modern congregations of nuns the bestowal of the crucifix is a prominent feature of the ceremony of profession, the service in the Roman Pontifical, "De Benedictione et Consecratione Virginum", knows nothing of it. It provides for the giving of rings and crosses but not of crucifixes. Probably much of the stimulus given to devotion to the crucifix may be traced ultimately to Franciscan influences, and it is not mere coincidence that the development in art of the agonized and thorn-crowned type of figure upon the Cross coincides more or less exactly with the great Franciscan revival of the thirteenth century. Somewhat earlier than the time of Francis an Italian Order of crociferi (cross-bearers), distinguished by carrying as part of their costume a plain cross of wood or metal, was founded in the neighbourhood of Bologna to tend the sick, and several other orders, particularly one established shortly afterwards in the Netherlands and still surviving, have since borne the same or a similar name. In the case of the Military Orders, for example, that of St. John of Jerusalem or Knights Hospitallers, the cross impressed upon their habit has gradually become distinctive of the order. It seems to have been originally only the badge of the crusaders, who wore a red cross upon their right shoulders as a token of the obligation they had taken upon themselves. The Roman Pontifical still contains the ceremonial for the blessing and imposition of the cross upon those who set out for the aid and defence of the Christian Faith or for the recovery of the Holy Land. After the cross has been blessed the bishop imposes it upon the candidate with the words: "Receive the sign of the cross, in the Name of the Father + and of the Son + and of the Holy Ghost + in token of the Cross, Passion, and Death of Christ, for the defence of thy body and thy soul, that by the favour of the Divine Goodness when thy journey is accomplished thou mayest return to thy family safe and amended [ salvus et emendatus ]. Through Christ Our Lord, Amen." The crosses conferred by sovereigns in connection with various orders of knighthood may probably be traced to the same idea.

The various types of cross have rather to do with heraldry or art than with the history of Christianity. The names and shapes of the more common varieties can best be gathered from the annexed table. For the vast majority the form is purely conventional and artificial. Their divergence from the normal type is a mere freak of fancy and corresponds to no attempt to reproduce the shape of the gibbet on which Our Saviour died, or to convey any symbolical meaning. The crux ansata , or cross with a handle, and the crux gammata , or "fylfot", are much more ancient than Christianity. (See in ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE CROSS, (1) Primitive Cruciform Signs.) The chrismon , or chi-rho , has already been mentioned as the earliest forms in which the cross appear in Christian art [Section I (4)]. The forms which it took varied considerably and it is difficult to classify them chronologically. -With regard to the great Celtic stone crosses, particularly in Ireland, we may note the tendency conspicuous in so many specimens to surround the cross within a circle. It is just conceivable that there is foundation for regarding this circle as derived from the loop of the Egyptian crux ansata .

VIII. THE CROSS OUTSIDE OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH

In the Russian Church the conventional form in which the cross is usually shown is in fact a three-barred cross, of which the upper bar represents the title of the cross, the second the arms, and the lowest, which is always inclined at an angle, the suppedaneum or foot-rest. In England it may be said that in the early years of Elizabeth's reign a clean sweep was made of the crosses so long venerated by the people. All the roods were ordered to be pulled down, and the crosses were removed from the altars, or rather the communion-tables which replaced the altars. The only check in this movement was the fact that the queen herself, for some rather obscure reason, insisted at first on retaining the crucifix in her own private chapel. The presence of a crucifix or even a plain cross upon the altar was long held to be illegal in virtue of the "Ornaments Rubrics ". In recent years, however, there has been a notable reaction, and crosses, or even crucifixes, are quite commonly seen upon the altar of Anglican churches. Again, in the reredos recently erected in St. Paul's Cathedral in London a large crucifix, with the figures of St. Mary and St. John, forms the most conspicuous feature. In Lutheran churches there has always been much tolerance for the crucifix either upon or behind the altar.

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Tænarum

Taenarum (Greece)

Tænarum, a titular see in Greece, suffragan of Corinth. Tænarum, or Tænarus, ...
Téllez, Gabriel

Gabriel Tellez

Spanish priest and poet, better known by his pseudonym of Tirso de Molina, b. at Madrid, c. ...
Tübingen, University of

University of Tubingen

Located in Würtemberg ; founded by Count Eberhard im Bart on 3 July, 1477, after Pope ...
Tabæ

Tabae (Caria)

Titular see in Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis ; according to Strabo (XII, 570, 576) it was ...
Tabasco

Tabasco (Mexico)

(TABASQUENSIS) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of the Archbishopric of ...
Tabb, John Bannister

John Bannister Tabb

An American poet and educator, born at "The Forest" near Richmond, 1845; died at Ellicott City, ...
Tabbora

Tabbora

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Tabbora or Talbora has been ...
Tabernacle

Tabernacle

(TABERNACULUM). Tabernacle signified in the Middle Ages sometimes a ciborium-altar, a ...
Tabernacle

Tabernacle

(Latin tabernaculum , tent). Tabernacle in Biblical parlance usually designates the ...
Tabernacle Lamp

Altar Lamp

In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should ...
Tabernacle Societies

Tabernacle Societies

The Association of Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament and of work for poor churches ...
Tabernacle Society

Tabernacle Society

Notre Dame Convent, Philadelphia; a society of persons affiliated with the Association of ...
Tabernacles, Feast of

Feast of Tabernacles

One of the three great feasts of the Hebrew liturgical calendar, even the greatest, according ...
Tabor, Mount

Mount Thabor

The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...
Tacana Indians

Tacana Indians

The collective designation for a group of tribes constituting the Tacanan linguistic stock in ...
Tacapæ

Tacapae

Titular see of Tripolitana in northern Africa. The official list of titular sees of the ...
Taché, Alexandre-Antonin

Alexandre-Antonin Tache

First Archbishop of St. Boniface, Manitoba, missionary, prelate, statesman, and writer of ...
Taché, Etienne-Pascal

Etienne-Pascal Tache

Statesman, b. at St. Thomas (Montmagny, Province of Quebec ), 5 Sept., 1795, son of Charles, and ...
Tadama

Tadama

A titular see in Mauretania Cæsariensis, of which nothing, is known. Its bishop David is ...
Taensa Indians

Taensa Indians

A tribe of Muskhogean stock and somewhat superior culture, living when first known on the west ...
Tahiti

Tahiti

Tahiti, the most important of the Society Islands, has an area of 600 square miles and a ...
Taigi, Ven. Anna Maria

Ven. Anna Maria Taigi

( Maiden name Giannetti.) Venerable Servant of God, born at Siena, Italy, 29 May, 1769; ...
Tait Indians

Tait Indians

( Te-it , "Those up river"). A collective term for those members of the Cowichan tribe, of ...
Takkali

Takkali

(More proper Takhehi, plural Takhehlne). The hybrid name by which the Carrier Indians of the ...
Talbot, James

James Talbot

Fourth son of George Talbot and brother of the fourteenth Earl of Shrewsbury (b. 1726; d. ...
Talbot, John

John Talbot

English Catholic layman, b. 1535(?); d. 1607(?). Only son and heir of Sir John Talbot, of ...
Talbot, Peter

Peter Talbot

Archbishop of Dublin, 1669-1680; b. at Malahide, Dublin, in 1620. At an early age he entered ...
Talbot, Thomas Joseph

Thomas Talbot

Born 14 February, 1727; died at Hotwells, near Bristol, 24 April, 1795. Brother of the fourteenth ...
Tallagaht, Monastery of

Monastery of Tallagaht

The name Tallaght (Irish Tamlachta ), derived from tam , plague, and lecht , stone ...
Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles-Maurice de

Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord

Prince of Benevento, Bishop of Autun, French minister and ambassador, born in Paris, 13 ...
Tallis, Thomas

Thomas Tallis

English composer, born about 1514; died 23 November, 1585. He was a chorister at Saint ...
Talmud

Talmud

1. DEFINITION Talmud was a post-Biblical substantive formation of Pi'el ("to teach"), and ...
Talon, Jean

Jean Talon

First intendant in exercise of New France , b. at Châlons-sur-Marne, 1625, of Philippe ...
Talon, Nicolas

Nicolas Talon

French Jesuit, historian, and ascetical writer, b. at Moulins, 31 August, 1605; d. at Paris, 29 ...
Talon, Pierre

Pierre Talon

A French-Canadian explorer, b. at Quebec, 1676, of Lucien and Isabelle Planteau; d. in France ...
Tamanac Indians

Tamanac Indians

A formerly important tribe of Cariban linguistic stock occupying the territory about the Cuchivero ...
Tamassus

Tamassus (Cyprus)

A titular see in Cyprus, suffragan of Salamis, was situated in the great central plain of the ...
Tamaulipas

Tamaulipas

(CIVTTATIS VICTORIÆ SIVE TAMAULIPENSIS) Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of ...
Tamburini, Michelangelo

Michelangelo Tamburini

Fourteenth General of the Society of Jesus , born at Modena, 27 Sept., 1648; died 28 Feb., ...
Tamburini, Thomas

Thomas Tamburini

Moral theologian, born at Caltanisetta in Sicily, 6 March, 1591; died at Palermo 10 October, ...
Tametsi

Tametsi

("ALTHOUGH") The first word of Chapter 1, Session 24 ( De Ref. Matr. ), of the Council of ...
Tamisier, Marie-Marthe-Baptistine

Marie-Marthe-Baptistine Tamisier

(Called by her intimates EMILIA) Initiator of international Eucharistic congresses, born at ...
Tanagra

Tanagra (Hellas)

A titular see in Hellas, suffragan of Corinth ; it was a town of Bœotia, in a fertile ...
Tancred

Tancred, Prince of Antioch

Prince of Antioch, born about 1072; died at Antioch, 12 Dec., 1112. He was the son of Marquess ...
Taney, Roger Brooke

Roger Brooke Taney

(Pronounced Tawney ) Fifth chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, ...
Tanguay, Cyprien

Cyprien Tanguay

Genealogist, born at Quebec, 1819; died 1902. After a course of classics and theology at Quebec ...
Tanis

Tanis

A titular see, suffragan of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima, capital of the fourteenth district ...
Tanner, Adam

Adam Tanner

Controversialist, born at Innsbruck in 1571; died at Unken, 25 May, 1632. He entered the Society ...
Tanner, Conrad

Conrad Tanner

Abbot of Einsiedeln, born at Arth in the Canton of Schwyz, 28 Dec., 1752; died 7 April, 1825. He ...
Tanner, Edmund

Edmund Tanner

Bishop of Cork and Cloyne, Ireland, 1574-1579; born about 1526; died 1579. The statement in ...
Tanner, Matthias

Matthias Tanner

Born at Pilsen in Bohemia, 28 Feb., 1630; died at Prague, 8 Feb., 1692. He entered the Society ...
Tantum Ergo

Tantum Ergo

The opening words of the penultimate stanza of the Vesper hymn (see PANGE LINGUA GLORIOSI, II) ...
Tanucci, Bernardo

Bernardo Tanucci

Marchese, Italian statesman, born at Stia in Tuscany, of poor family, in 1698 died at Naples, 29 ...
Taoism

Taoism

(TAO-KIAO.) Taoism is the second of the three state religions ( San-kiao ) of China. ...
Taos Pueblo

Taos Pueblo

An important town of the Pueblo group, inhabited by Indians speaking the Tigua language of ...
Taparelli, Aloysius

Aloysius Taparelli

(D'AZEGLIO, christened PROSPERO) Philosopher and writer on sociological subjects, born at ...
Tapestry

Tapestry

A word of French origin naming a fabric in which the two processes of weaving and embroidering ...
Tapis, Esteban

Esteban Tapis

Born at Santa Coloma de Farnes, Catalonia, Spain, 25 Aug., 1754; died 3 Nov., 1825. He entered ...
Tarabotti, Helena

Helena Tarabotti

Nun and authoress, b. at Venice, 1605; d. there 1652. Obliged by her father, who was descended ...
Tarachus, Probus, and Andronicus, Saints

Sts. Tarachus, Probus, and Andronicus

Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...
Taranto

Taranto

DIOCESE OF TARANTO (TARENTINA) Diocese in southern Italy, on a bay in the Gulf of Taranto. The ...
Tarapacá

Tarapaca

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF TARAPACA (DE TARAPACA). Situated in Chile, bounded on the north by the ...
Tarasius, Saint

St. Tarasius

Patriarch of Constantinople, date of birth unknown; died 25 February, 806. He was the son of the ...
Tarazona

Tarazona

DIOCESE OF TARAZONA (TURIASONENSIS) The Diocese of Tarazona comprises the Spanish provinces of ...
Tarbes

Tarbes

DIOCESE OF TARBES (TARBIA) The Diocese of Tarbes comprises the Department of the ...
Tarentaise

Tarentaise

(TARANTASIENSIS) Tarentaise comprises the arrondissement of Moutiers in the Department of ...
Targum

Targum

Targum is the distinctive designation of the Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the Old ...
Tarisel, Pierre

Pierre Tarisel

Master-mason to the king, b. about 1442; d. in August, 1510. (In 1555 the title of architect was ...
Tarkin, Saint

St. Tarkin

(Talarican.) Bishop of Sodor (including the western islands of Scotland ), was probably of ...
Tarnow

Tarnow

DIOCESE OF TARNOW (TARNOVIENSIS). Diocese in western Galicia, Austria. The See of Posen, ...
Tarquini, Camillus

Camillus Tarquini

Cardinal, Jesuit canonist and archaeologist, b. at Marta in the diocese of Montefiascone, ...
Tarragona

Tarragona

ARCHDIOCESE OF TARRAGONA (TARRACONENSIS) Bounded on the north by Barcelona and Lérida, ...
Tarsicius, Saint

St. Tarsicius

Martyr. The only positive information concerning this Roman martyr is found in the poem composed ...
Tarsus

Tarsus

A metropolitan see of Cilicia Prima. It appears to have been of Semitic origin and is ...
Tartaglia, Nicolò

Nicolo Tartaglia

(T ARTALEA ). Italian mathematician, b. at Brescia, c. 1500; d. at Venice, 13 December, ...
Tartini, Giuseppe

Giuseppe Tartini

Violinist, composer, and theorist, b. at Pirano, Italy, 12 April, 1692; d. at Padua, 16 Feb., ...
Taschereau, Elzéar-Alexandre

Elzear-Alexandre Taschereau

Archbishop of Quebec and first Canadian cardinal, b. 17 February, 1820, at la Beauce, Province ...
Tassé, Joseph

Joseph Tasse

Writer and journalist, born at Montreal, 23 Oct., 1848; died 17 Jan., 1895; son of Joseph, and ...
Tassach, Saint

St. Tassach

Irish saint, born in the first decade of the fifth century; died about 497. He was one of St. ...
Tassin, René-Prosper

Rene-Prosper Tassin

French historian, belonging to the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Lonlay, in ...
Tasso, Torquato

Torquato Tasso

Italian poet, born at Sorrento near Naples in 1544; died at Rome, in 1595; son of Bernardo ...
Tassoni, Alessandro

Alessandro Tassoni

Italian poet, born at Modena in 1565; died there in 1635. He spent his life in the service of ...
Tatian

Tatian

A second-century apologist about whose antecedents and early history nothing can be affirmed ...
Tatwin, Saint

Saint Tatwin

(TATUINI) Archbishop of Canterbury ; died 30 July, 734. A Mercian by birth, he became a ...
Taubaté

Taubate

(DE TAUBATÉ) Diocese in Brazil, South America, established on 29 April, 1908, as a ...
Tauler, John

John Tauler

German Dominican, one of the greatest mystics and preachers of the Middle Ages, born at ...
Taunton, Ethelred

Ethelred Taunton

Writer, born at Rugeley, Staffordshire, England, 17 Oct., 1857; died in London, 9 May, 1907. He ...
Taverner, John

John Taverner

Composer, b. in the County of Norfolk, England, about 1475; d. at Boston, England, 1535 or 1536. ...
Tavistock Abbey

Tavistock Abbey

Tavistock Abbey, on the Tavy River in Devonshire, England, founded for Benedictine monks in ...
Tavium

Tavium

A titular see in Galatia Prima, suffragan of Ancyra. Tavium, or Tavia, was the chief city of ...
Taxa Innocentiana

Taxa Innocentiana

A Decree issued by Innocent XI, 1 Oct., 1678, regulating the fees that may be demanded or ...
Taxster, John de

John de Taxster

(TAYSTER) John de Taxster, sometimes erroneously called Taxter or Taxston, was a ...
Taylor, Frances Margaret

Frances Margaret Taylor

(MOTHER M. MAGDALEN TAYLOR) Superior General, and foundress of the Poor Servants of the Mother ...
Taylor, Ven. Hugh

Ven. Hugh Taylor

English martyr, born at Durham ; hanged, drawn, and quartered at York, 25 (not 26) November, ...
Te Deum, The

Te Deum

An abbreviated title commonly given both to the original Latin text and the translations of a ...
Te Lucis Ante Terminum

Te Lucis Ante Terminum

The hymn at Compline in the Roman Breviary. The authorship of St. Ambrose, for which Pimont ...
Tebaldeo, Antonio

Antonio Tebaldeo

Italian poet, born at Ferrara, in 1463; died in 1537. His family name (Tebaldi) he changed to ...
Tegernsee

Tegernsee

Called Tegrinseo in 817, Tegernsee in 754. A celebrated Benedictine abbey of Bavaria that ...
Tehuantepec

Tehuantepec

(Tehuantepecensis) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of Oaxaca. Its area covers ...
Teilo, Saint

St. Teilo

(Eliud.) "Archbishop" of Llandaff, born at Eccluis Gunniau, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died at ...
Tekakwitha, Blessed Kateri

Bl. Kateri Tekakwitha

(Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha/Takwita.) Known as the "Lily of the Mohawks", and the ...
Teleology

Teleology

(From Greek telos , end, and logos , science). Teleology is seldom used according to its ...
Telepathy

Telepathy

( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...
Telese

Telese

(TELESINENSIS) Telese, a small town in the Province of Benevento, Southern Italy, is situated ...
Telesio, Bernardino

Bernardino Telesio

Italian humanist and philosopher born of a noble family at Cosenza, near Naples, 1508; died ...
Telesphorus of Cosenza

Telesphorus of Cosenza

(THEOPHORUS, THEOLOPHORUS). A name assumed by one of the pseudo-prophets during the time of ...
Telesphorus, Pope Saint

Pope St. Telesphorus

(Lived about 125-136.) St. Telesphorus was the seventh Roman bishop in succession from the ...
Tell el-Amarna Tablets, The

The Tell El-Amarna Tablets

The Tell el-Amarna Tablets are a collection of some 350 clay tablets found in 1887 amid the ruins ...
Tellier, Michel Le

Michel Le Tellier

Born 19 April, 1603; died at Paris, 30 Oct., 1685. He was commissioned by Cardinal Mazarin to ...
Telmessus

Telmessus

Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Telmessus (or incorrectly Telmissis) was a flourishing ...
Temiskaming

Temiskaming

The Vicariate Apostolic of Temiskaming, suffragan of Ottawa, Canada, is bounded on the north by ...
Temnus

Temnus

A titular see in Asia, a suffragan of Ephesus. Temnus was a little town of Æolia, near ...
Tempel, Wilhelm

Wilhelm Tempel

(ERNEST LEBERECHT) German astronomer, b. 4 December, 1821, at (Nieder-) Cunnersdorf near ...
Temperance

Temperance

(Latin temperare , to mingle in due proportions; to qualify). Temperance is here considered ...
Temperance Movements

Temperance Movements

EUROPE Reasons for a temperance movement exist to a greater or less degree in all the countries ...
Templars, The Knights

The Knights Templar

The Knights Templars were the earliest founders of the military orders, and are the type on which ...
Temple

Temple

The Latin form, templum , from which the English temple is derived, originally signified an ...
Temple of Jerusalem

Temple of Jerusalem

The word "temple" is derived from the Latin templum , signifying an uncovered place affording a ...
Temple, Sisters of the

Sisters of the Temple

The Sisters of the Temple (whose full title is S ISTERS OF THE F INDING OF J ESUS IN THE T ...
Temptation

Temptation

( Latin tentare , to try or test). Temptation is here taken to be an incitement to sin ...
Temptation of Christ

Temptation of Christ

In the Catholic translation of the Bible , the word "temptation" is used in various senses, ...
Ten Commandments, The

The Ten Commandments

Called also simply THE COMMANDMENTS, COMMANDMENTS OF GOD, or THE DECALOGUE (Gr. deka , ten, ...
Ten Thousand Martyrs, The

The Ten Thousand Martyrs

On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. On 18 March: ...
Tencin, Pierre-Guérin de

Pierre-Guerin Tencin

French statesman and cardinal, b. at Grenoble, 22 August, 1680; d. at Lyons, 2 March, 1758. ...
Tenebræ

Tenebrae

Tenebræ is the name given to the service of Matins and Lauds belonging to the last three ...
Tenebrae Hearse

Tenebrae Hearse

The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...
Tenedos

Tenedos

A titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades. The island, called in Turkish ...
Teneriffe

Teneriffe

DIOCESE OF TENERIFFE (TENERIFENSIS). Suffragan of Seville, formerly called Nivariensis from ...
Teniers, David

David Teniers

The name of two eminent Flemish landscape painters ; the elder, born at Antwerp in 1582; ...
Tennessee

Tennessee

The State of Tennessee lies between 35° and 36°30' N. lat. and 81°37' and 90°38' ...
Tenney, William Jewett

William Jewett Tenney

An author, editor, born at Newport, Rhode Island, 1814; died at Newark, New Jersey, 20 Sept., ...
Tentyris

Tentyris

(TENTYRA) Seat of a titular suffragan see of Ptolemais in Thebaid Secunda. The city was ...
Tenure, Ecclesiastical

Ecclesiastical Tenure

I. In the feudal system an ecclesiastical fief followed all the laws laid down for temporal ...
Teos

Teos

Titular see ; suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. A city of Caria situated on a peninsula ...
Tepic

Tepic

DIOCESE OF TEPIC (TEPICENSIS) A diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the ...
Tepl

Tepl

A Premonstratensian abbey in the western part of Bohemia, included in the Archdiocese of Prague ...
Teramo

Teramo

Diocese in southern Italy. In the past the city was injured by earthquakes. It is situated at ...
Terce

Terce

The origin of Terce, like that of Sext and None, to which it bears a close relationship, dates ...
Terenuthis

Terenuthis

Titular see, suffragan of Antinoë in Thebais Prima. Le Quien (Oriens christ., II, 611) ...
Teresa of Avila, Saint

St. Teresa of Jesus (Teresa of Avila)

Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada Born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at ...
Teresa of Lisieux, Saint

Saint Therese of Lisieux

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...
Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed

The Martyrs of Compiegne

Guillotined at the Place du Trône Renversé (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 ...
Terill, Anthony

Anthony Terill (Bonville)

English theologian, b. at Canford, Dorsetshire, in 1623; d. at Liège, 11 Oct., 1676. His ...
Termessus

Termessus

A titular see, suffragan of Perge in Pamphylia Secunda. This is one of the most ancient cities ...
Termoli

Termoli

(THERMULARUM) Located on the Italian coast of the Adriatic, having a small harbour near the ...
Ternan, Saint

St. Ternan

Bishop of the Picts, flourished in the sixth century. Much obscurity attaches to his history, and ...
Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

(TERRACINENSIS, SETINENSIS ET PRIVERNENSIS) Located in the Province of Rome. The city of ...
Terrasson, André

Andre Terrason

A French preacher, born at Lyons in 1669; died at Paris, 25 April, 1723. He was the eldest son ...
Terrestrial Paradise

The Garden of Eden

( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...
Terrien, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Terrien

Dogmatic theologian, born at St-Laurent-des-Autels, Maine-et-Loire, 26 Aug., 1832; d. at ...
Tertiaries

Tertiaries

(From the Latin tertiarius , the relative adjective of tertius , third ). Tertiaries, or ...
Tertullian

Tertullian

(Q UINTUS S EPTIMIUS F LORENS T ERTULLIANUS ). Ecclesiastical writer in the second and ...
Teruel

Teruel

(TUROLENSIS) A suffragan of Saragossa, comprises the civil province of the same name, ...
Test-Oath, Missouri

Missouri Test-Oath

In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...
Testament, New

New Testament

I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...
Testament, Old

Old Testament

I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...
Testem Benevolentiae

Testem Benevolentiae

An Apostolic Letter of Leo XIII addressed to Cardinal Gibbons, 22 January, 1899. It opens by ...
Tetzel, Johann

Johann Tetzel

First public antagonist of Luther, b. at Pirna in Meissen, 1465; d. at Leipzig, 11 Aug., 1519. ...
Teuchira

Teuchira

A titular see in Libyan Pentapolis. Teuchira ( Teucheira ) neuter plural, was a city on the ...
Teutonic Order

Teutonic Order

A medieval military order modelled on the Hospitallers of St. John, which changed its residence ...
Tewdrig

Tewdrig

(THEODORIC) A Welsh saint, son of King Ceithfalt of Morganwg or Southern Wales, flourished ...
Texas

Texas

S TATE OF T EXAS . The name, Texas, is probably derived from Tejas, the name of a ...
Textual Criticism

Biblical Criticism

The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...
Thænæ

Thaenae

A titular see in Africa Byzacena. It is mentioned in numerous ancient geographical documents ...
Thébaud, Augustus

Augustus Thebaud

Jesuit educator and publicist, b. at Nantes, France, 20 Nov., 1807; d. at St. John's College, ...
Thénard, Louis-Jacques, Baron

Baron Louis-Jacques Thenard

Chemist, b. at Louptière, near Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube, France, on 4 May, 1777; d. at Paris, ...
Théophane Vénard

Bl. Theophane Venard

(JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...
Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint

Saint Therese of Lisieux

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...
Thabor, Mount

Mount Thabor

The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...
Thabraca

Thabraca

A titular see of Numidia near the sea, between the Armua and the Tusca. Thabraca was the last ...
Thacia Montana

Thacia Montana

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. An inscription discovered in the ...
Thagaste

Thagaste

(TAGASTE) Thagaste, a titular see in Numidia, was a rather important municipality. It is ...
Thagora

Thagora

(Tagora) Titular see in Numidia, mentioned by the "Rabula Peutingeriana", which calls it ...
Thais, Saint

Saint Thais

(THAISIS or THAISIA). A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century. In the Greek menology her ...
Thalberg, Sigismond

Sigismond Thalberg

Musical composer and pianist, b. at Geneva, 1812; d. at Posilipo, Italy, 27 April, 1871. The ...
Thalhofer, Valentin

Valentin Thalhofer

German theologian, b. at Unterroth, near Ulm, 21 January, 1825; d. at the same place, 17 ...
Thangmar

Thangmar

(THANKMAR) Historian, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. probably at Hildesheim ...
Thanksgiving before and after Meals

Grace Before Meals

The word grace , which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English ...
Thanksgiving Day

Thanksgiving Day

A civil holiday observed annually in the United States of America on the last Thursday in ...
Thapsus

Thapsus

A titular see in Byzacene Africa. It was a Phoenician market on the coast of Byzacium in ...
Thasos

Thasos

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. The island of Thasos was anciently ...
Thaumaci

Thaumaci

A titular see in Thessaly, suffragan of Larissa, commanding the defile of Coele at the ...
Thayer, John

John Thayer

Missionary, convert, first native of New England ordained to the priesthood, b. Boston, ...
Theatines

Theatines

(CLERICS REGULAR) A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo ...
Theatre, The

The Theatre

Considering the tone of what is preserved to us of the works of the Greek tragedians and even of ...
Thebaid

Thebaid

The valley of the Nile, under Roman domination, was divided into four provinces: Lower and Upper ...
Thebes

Thebes (Achaia Secunda)

(THEBAE) A metropolitan titular see of Achaia Secunda. The city was founded by the ...
Thebes

Thebes (Thebais Secunda)

(THEBAE) Titular see of Thebais Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais, and the seat of a Coptic ...
Thecla, Saint

St. Thecla

Benedictine Abbess of Kitzingen and Ochsenfurt; date of birth unknown; d. at Kitzingen about 790 ...
Thecla, Saints

Sts. Thecla

I. Thecla of Iconium The reputed pupil of the Apostle Paul , who is the heroine of the ...
Theft

Theft

Theft is the secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other. ...
Thegan (Degan) of Treves

Thegan

Chronicler, d. about 850. Very little is known of his life; all that is certain is that he was ...
Theiner, Augustin

Augustin Theiner

Theologian and historian, b. at Breslau, 11 April, 1804; d. at Civitavecchia, 8 Aug., 1874. He was ...
Thelepte

Thelepte

A titular see in Byzacene. From an inscription we learn that it was a colony. An important ...
Themiscyra

Themiscyra

A titular see, suffragan of Amasea in the Hellespont. There was a town of this name near the ...
Themisonium

Themisonium

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. Themisonium was a city of Phrygia, ...
Thennesus

Thennesus

A titular suffragan see of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima. Cassian (Collat., XI, 1-3) gives a ...
Theobald

Theobald

(T EDBALD .) Archbishop of Canterbury ; d. 18 April, 1161. He was a Norman by descent and ...
Theobald, Saint

Saint Theobald

Born at Provins in the Province of Champagne, France, in 1017; died at Salanigo in Italy 30 June, ...
Theocracy

Theocracy

A form of civil government in which God himself is recognized as the head. The laws of the ...
Theodard, Saint

Saint Theodard

Archbishop of Narbonne, b. at Montauban about 840; d. at the same place 1 May, 893. He seems to ...
Theodicy

Theodicy

Etymologically considered theodicy ( théos díe ) signifies the justification of ...
Theodore I, Pope

Pope Theodore I

Pope from 642 to 649; the date of his birth is unknown. He was a Greek of Jerusalem and the ...
Theodore II, Pope

Pope Theodore II

Son of Photius. His pontificate lasted only twenty days; neither the date of his birth nor of his ...
Theodore of Amasea, Saint

St. Theodore of Amasea

Surnamed Tyro (Tiro), not because he was a young recruit, but because for a time he belonged to ...
Theodore of Gaza

Theodore of Gaza

A fifteenth-century Greek Humanist and translator of Aristotle, b. at Thessalonica early in ...
Theodore of Studium, Saint

Theodore of Studium

A zealous champion of the veneration of images and the last geat representative of the unity ...
Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

Seventh Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Tarsus in Cilicia about 602; d. at Canterbury 19 ...
Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia

Theodore of Mopsuestia

Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer; b. at Antioch about 350 (thus also ...
Theodoret

Theodoret

Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457. He says ...
Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

A Platonist philosopher of the twelfth century, b. in France at the beginning of the twelfth ...
Theodoric the Great

Theodoric the Great

King of the Ostrogoths, born A.D. 454 (?); died 26 August, 526. He was an illegitimate son of ...
Theodorus and Theophanes, Saints

Sts. Theodorus and Theophanes

(Called Grapti , "written upon", graptoi ) Theodorus, b. about 775; d. about 842-43; ...
Theodorus Lector

Theodorus Lector

A lector attached to the Church of St. Sophia of Constantinople in the early part of the sixth ...
Theodosiopolis

Theodosiopolis

A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Prima. In the beginning the city was called Apros, or ...
Theodosius Florentini

Theodosius Florentini

Born at Münster, in the Grisons, Switzerland, 23 May, 1808; died at Heiden, in Appenzell, ...
Theodosius I

Theodosius I

Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 ...
Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint

St. Theodotus of Ancyra

Martyr. On 18 May the Roman Martyrology says: "At Ancyra, in Galatia, the martyr Saint Theodotus ...
Theodulf

Theodulf

(Theodulfus, Theodulfe), Bishop of Orléans, a writer skilled in poetic forms and a ...
Theology of Christ (Christology)

Christology

Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ. In its full extent ...
Theology, Ascetical

Ascetical Theology

Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of ...
Theology, Dogmatic

Dogmatic Theology

Dogmatic theology is that part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith ...
Theology, History of Dogmatic

History of Dogmatic Theology

The imposing edifice of Catholic theology has been reared not by individual nations and men, ...
Theology, Moral

Moral Theology

Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...
Theology, Mystical

Mystical Theology

Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...
Theology, Pastoral

Pastoral Theology

Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...
Theonas

Theonas

Bishop of Alexandria from about 283 to 301 ( Eusebius, "Chronicle", Ann. Abr. 2299, St. Jerome's ...
Theophanes Kerameus

Theophanes Kerameus

( Kerameus , potter). Archbishop of Rossano in Calabria (1129-52), a celebrated homiletic ...
Theophanes, Saint

St. Theophanes

Chronicler, born at Constantinople, about 758; died in Samothracia, probably 12 March, 817, on ...
Theophilanthropists

Theophilanthropists

("Friends of God and Man") A deistic sect formed in France during the latter part of the ...
Theophilus

Theophilus

Bishop of Antioch. Eusebius in his "Chronicle" places the name of Theophilus against that of ...
Theophilus

Theophilus

Patriarch of Alexandria (385-412). Concerning the extraction and early life of Theophilus we ...
Theosophy

Theosophy

( Theosophia = "wisdom concerning God ") Theosophy is a term used in general to designate ...
Theotocopuli, Domenico

El Greco

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...
Thera (Santorin)

Thera

DIOCESE OF THERA (SANTORINO) Diocese in the Cyclades. About the year 2000 B.C., the ...
Thermae Basilicae

Thermae Basilicae

A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. The Greek "Notitiae episcopatuum" ...
Thermopylae

Thermopylae

A titular see and suffragan of Athens in Achaia Prima. It is the name of a defile about 4 ...
Thessalonians, Epistles to the

Epistles to the Thessalonians

Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul. This article will treat the Church of ...
Thessalonica

Thessalonica

(SALONIKI) Titular metropolis in Macedonia. It was at first a village called Alia, situated ...
Theveste

Theveste

Titular see of Numidia. The city seems to have had some importance even prior to Christianity. ...
Thibaris

Thibaris

Titular see in Byzacena ( Africa ), not mentioned by any ancient author. The official list of ...
Thibaut de Champagne

Thibaut de Champagne

Thibaut IV, count of Champagne and King of Navarre, a French poet, b. 1201, at Troyes ; d. 8 ...
Thierry of Freburg

Thierry of Freiburg

( Or Thierry of Saxony). A philosopher and physician of the Middle Ages, and a member of ...
Thiers, Louis-Adolphe

Louis-Adolphe Thiers

French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic, b. at Marseilles, ...
Thignica

Thignica

A titular see in Numidia. The Roman Curia's official list of titular sees places Thignica in ...
Thijm, Joseph Albert Alberdingk

Joseph Albert Alberdingk Thijm

Born at Amsterdam, 8 July, 1820; d. there, 17 March, 1889. After finishing his studies in his ...
Thijm, Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk

Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk Thijm

Brother of Joseph Alberdingk Thijm , b. at Amsterdam, 21 Oct., 1827, d. at Louvain, 1 Feb., ...
Thimelby, Richard

Richard Thimelby

( Alias ASHBY) Missionary priest, b. in Lincolnshire, England, 1614; d. at St. Omer's, ...
Third Orders

Third Orders

I. GENERAL Third Orders signify in general lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women ...
Thirty Years War

The Thirty Years War

The Thirty Years War (1618-48), though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance ...
Thmuis

Thmuis

A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium ; a city of Lower Egypt, on the ...
Thomas á Jesu

Thomas a Jesu

(Diaz Sanchez de Avila). Discalced Carmelite, writer on mystical theology, born at Baeza, ...
Thomas à Kempis

Thomas a Kempis

Author of the "Imitation of Christ" , born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; ...
Thomas Abel, Blessed

Blessed Thomas Abel

(Also ABLE, or ABELL.) Priest and martyr, born about 1497; died 30 July, 1540. He was ...
Thomas Alfield, Venerable

Ven. Thomas Alfield

(AUFIELD, ALPHILDE, HAWFIELD, OFFELDUS; alias BADGER). Priest, born at Gloucestershire; ...
Thomas Aquinas, Saint

St. Thomas Aquinas

Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church ( Angelicus Doctor ), patron of Catholic ...
Thomas Atkinson, Venerable

Ven. Thomas Atkinson

Martyred at York, 11 March, l6l6. He was born in the East Riding of Yorkshire, was ordained ...
Thomas Becket, Saint

St. Thomas Becket

Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, born at London, 21 December, 1118 (?); died at Canterbury, 29 ...
Thomas Belchiam, Venerable

Venerable Thomas Belchiam

A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537. He ...
Thomas Christians, Saint

St. Thomas Christians

An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent ...
Thomas Cottam, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Cottam

Martyr, born 1549, in Lancashire; executed at Tyburn, 30 May, 1582. His parents, Laurence cottam ...
Thomas Ford, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Ford

Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...
Thomas Garnet, Saint

St. Thomas Garnet

Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...
Thomas Johnson, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Johnson

Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...
Thomas More, Saint

St. Thomas More

Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...
Thomas of Beckington

Thomas of Beckington

(BEKYNTON.) Bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Beckington, Somerset, about 1390; died at ...
Thomas of Bradwardine

Thomas of Bradwardine

(BRAGWARDIN, BRANDNARDINUS, BREDWARDYN, BRADWARDYN, DE BREDEWARDINA). Born about 1290; died in ...
Thomas of Cantimpré

Thomas of Cantimpre

Medieval writer, preacher, and theologian, born of noble parentage at Leuw St. Pierre near ...
Thomas of Celano

Thomas of Celano

Friar Minor, poet, andhagiographical writer, born at Celano in the Province of the Abruzzi, about ...
Thomas of Dover

Thomas of Dover

Martyr ; died 2 or 5 August, 1295. On the above date the French ravaged Dover with fire and ...
Thomas of Hereford

St. Thomas of Hereford

(THOMAS DE CANTELUPE). Born at Hambledon, Buckinghamshire, England, about 1218; died at ...
Thomas of Jesus

Thomas of Jesus

(THOMAS DE ANDRADA). Reformer and preacher, born at Lisbon, 1529; died at Sagena, Morocco, 17 ...
Thomas of Jorz

Thomas of Jorz

(Often but erroneously called JOYCE and frequently referred to as ANGLUS or ANGLICUS). ...
Thomas of Strasburg

Thomas of Strasburg

A fourteenth-century scholastic of the Augustinian Order, born, according to some writers, at ...
Thomas of Villanova, Saint

St. Thomas of Villanova

Educator, philanthropist, born at Fuentellana, Spain, 1488; died at Valencia, 8 September, 1555. ...
Thomas Percy, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Percy

Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...
Thomas Sherwood, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Sherwood

Martyr, born in London, 1551; died at Tyburn, London, 7 February, 1578. His parents also ...
Thomas the Apostle, Saint

St. Thomas the Apostle

Little is recorded of St. Thomas the Apostle, nevertheless thanks to the fourth Gospel his ...
Thomas Thwing, Venerable

Ven. Thomas Thwing

Martyr. Born at Heworth Hall, near York, in 1635; suffered at York, 23 Oct., 1680. His father was ...
Thomas Woodhouse, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Woodhouse

Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...
Thomas, Charles L.A.

Charles L.A. Thomas

French composer, born at Metz, 5 August, 1811; died at Paris, 12 February, 1896. He gained the ...
Thomassin, Louis

Louis Thomassin

Theologian and French Oratorian, b. at Aix-en-Provence 28 Aug., 1619; d. in Paris, 24 Dec., ...
Thomism

Thomism

In a broad sense, Thomism is the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. ...
Thompson River Indians

Thompson River Indians

(THOMPSON INDIANS). An important tribe of British Columbia of Salishan linguistic stock, also ...
Thompson, Blessed James

Bl. James Thompson

(Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...
Thompson, Edward Healy and Harriet Diana

Edward and Harriet Thompson

The name of two English converts : (1) Edward Healy and (2) Harriet Diana. Edward Healy ...
Thompson, Francis

Francis Thompson

Poet, b. at Preston, Lancashire, 18 Dec., 1859; d. in London, 13 Nov., 1907. He came from the ...
Thompson, Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David

Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David Thompson

Jurist and first Catholic Premier of Canada, b. at Halifax, Nova Scotia , 10 Nov., 1844; d. ...
Thonissen, Jean-Joseph

Jean-Joseph Thonissen

Professor of law at the University of Louvain, minister in the Belgian Government, b. at ...
Thorlaksson, Arni

Arni Thorlaksson

An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297. While a deacon, he visited ...
Thorney Abbey

Thorney Abbey

(i.e. "the isle of thorns", anciently called ANCARIG). Thorney Abbey, in Cambridgeshire, ...
Thorns, Crown of

Crown of Thorns

Although Our Saviour's Crown of Thorns is mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded ...
Thorns, Feast of the Crown of

Feast of the Crown of Thorns

The first feast in honour of the Crown of Thorns ( Festum susceptionis coronae Domini ) was ...
Thorpe, Venerable Robert

Venerable Robert Thorpe

Priest and martyr, b. in Yorkshire; suffered at York, 15 May, 1591. He reached the English ...
Thou, Jacques-Auguste de

Jacques-Auguste de Thou

French historian, b. at Paris, 8 October, 1553; d. there, 7 May, 1617. The son of Christophe de ...
Thou, Nicolas de

Nicolas de Thou

Bishop of Chartres, uncle of the historian Jacques-Auguste de Thou, b. at Paris, 1528; d. at ...
Three Chapters

Three Chapters

The Three chapters ( trîa kephálaia ) were propositions anathematizing : (1) the ...
Three Rivers

Three Rivers (Quebec)

DIOCESE OF THREE RIVERS (TRIFLUVIANENSIS) Formed from the Archdiocese of Quebec , to which it ...
Throne

Throne

(Latin thronus, cathedra, sedes episcopalis ), the seat the bishop uses when not engaged at ...
Thuburbo Minus

Thuburbo Minus

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Thuburbo Minus is mentioned in ...
Thugga

Thugga

Titular see of Numidia, perhaps the Numidian fortress of Tocai mentioned about 305 B.C. by ...
Thugut, Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula

Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula Thugut

Austrian statesman, born at Linz, 31 March, 1736; died at Vienna, 28 May, 1818. He was the son of ...
Thulis, Venerable John

Ven. John Thulis

English martyr, born at Up Holland, Lancashire, probably about 1568; suffered at Lancaster, 18 ...
Thun-Hohenstein, Count Leo

Count Leo Thun-Hohenstein

Austrian statesman, b. at the family castle of Tetschen in Bohemia, 7 April, 1811; d. at Vienna, ...
Thundering Legion

Thundering Legion

( Legio fulminata , or fulminea , not fulminatrix ). The story of the Thundering Legion ...
Thuringia

Thuringia

The name Thuringia is given to a large part of Central Germany, bounded on the west by the ...
Thurmayr, Johannes

Johannes Thurmayr

(Called AVENTINUS from the place of his birth) Born at Abensberg, Bavaria, 4 July, 1477; died ...
Thyatira

Thyatira

A titular suffragan see of Sardes in Lydia. According to Stephanus Byzantius, the name was ...
Thynias

Thynias

A titular see, suffragan of Nicomedia, in Bithynia Prima. It is an island situated in the Black ...
Thyräus, Hermann

Hermann Thryaus

German Jesuit, b. at Neuss on the Rhine, 1532; d. at Mainz, 26 October, 1591. He studied first ...
Tiara

Tiara

The papal crown, a costly covering for the head, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, ...
Tibaldi, Pellegrino

Pellegrino Tibaldi

Known also as Pellegrino da Bologna and as Pellegrino Pellegrini; decorator, mural painter, and ...
Tiberias

Tiberias

Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda. The town of Tiberias was founded on ...
Tiberias, Sea of

Sea of Galilee

So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1 ), otherwise known as "the sea of Galilee" ( Matthew 4:18 ; Mark ...
Tiberiopolis

Tiberiopolis

Titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana. Tiberiopolis is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, 2, 25); Socrates ...
Tiberius

Tiberius

The second Roman emperor ( A. D. 14-37), b. 16 November, 42 B. C. , d. 16 March, A. D. 37. ...
Tibet

Tibet

A vast plateau, about 463,320 square miles, about 1240 miles in its greatest length from east to ...
Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints

Sts. Tiburtius and Susanna

Roman martyrs, feast 11 August. The story is related in the legend of St. Sebastian that ...
Ticelia

Ticelia

Titular see, suffragan of Cyrene, in the Libya Pentapolis. Under this name it is not found in any ...
Tichborne, Ven. Nicholas

Ven. Nicholas Tichborne

Martyr, b. at Hartley Mauditt, Hampshire; suffered at Tyburn, London, 24 Aug., 1601. He was a ...
Tichborne, Ven. Thomas

Ven. Thomas Tichborne

Born at Hartley, Hampshire, 1567; martyred at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1602. He was educated ...
Ticonius

Ticonius

(Also TYCONIUS, TYCHONIUS, etc.) An African Donatist writer of the fourth century who ...
Ticuna Indians

Ticuna Indians

A tribe of Indians of some importance, constituting a distinct linguistic stock, inhabiting the ...
Tieffentaller, Joseph

Joseph Tieffentaller

Jesuit missionary and noted geographer in Hindustan, b. at Bozen in the Tyrol, 27 August, 1710; ...
Tiepolo

Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Tiepolo Born in Venice in 1696; died at Madrid, 27 March, 1770. ...
Tierney, Mark Aloysius

Mark Aloysius Tierney

Born at Brighton, Sept., 1795; died at Arundel, 19 Feb., 1862. After his early schooling with the ...
Tigris, Saint

St. Tigris

Irish saint, sister of St. Patrick. Much obscurity attaches to her life, and she has been ...
Tillemont, Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de

Louis-Sebastien Le Nain de Tillemont

French historian and priest, b. at Paris, 30 November, 1637; d. there, 10 January, 1698; he was ...
Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of

Count of Tilly

Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632. He was a member of a noble family of ...
Timbrias

Timbrias

A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. It is called Thymbrium in the official lists ...
Time

Time

The problem of time is one of the most difficult and most keenly debated in the field of natural ...
Timothy and Symphorian, Saints

Sts. Timotheus and Symphorian

Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August. During the pontificate of Melchiades (311-13), ...
Timothy and Titus, Epistles to

Epistles to Timothy and Titus

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...
Timucua Indians

Timucua Indians

A principal group or confederacy of Ancient Florida, notable for the successful missions ...
Tincker, Mary Agnes

Mary Agnes Tincker

Novelist, born at Ellsworth, Maine, 18 July, 1833; died at Boston, Massachusetts, 4 December, ...
Tingis

Tingis

A titular see of Mauretania Tingitana (the official list of the Roman Curia places it in ...
Tinin

See of Tinin (Dalmatia)

SEE OF TININ (KNIN). Located in Dalmatia ; suffragan to Kalocsa-Bacs. Knin is a town on ...
Tinos and Mykonos

Tinos and Mykonos

DIOCESE OF TINOS AND MYKONOS (TINENSIS ET MYCONENSIS) A Latin diocese of the Cyclades, ...
Tintern Abbey

Tintern Abbey

This abbey, in Monmouthshire, England [actually Wales -- Ed. ], was founded in 1131 by ...
Tintoretto, Il

Il Tintoretto

(J ACOPO R OBUSTI ) Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594. His father was a ...
Tipasa

Tipasa

A titular see of Numidia. The Phoenician word signifies passage. Early in its history we find ...
Tiraboschi, Girolamo

Girolamo Tiraboschi

Italian scholar, b. in the region of Bergamo, 1731; d. 3 June, 1794. At an early age he entered ...
Tiraspol

Tiraspol

DIOCESE OF TIRASPOL (or CHERSONESE) (TIRASPOLENSIS; CHERSONENSIS) Diocese in Southern Russia ...
Tisio da Garofalo, Benvenuto

Benvenuto Tisio da Garofalo

An Italian painter of the Ferrarese school ; b. in 1481 at Garofalo, whence, as was the ...
Tissot, James

James Tissot

(JOSEPH-JACQUES TISSOT) French draughtsman and painter, b. at Nantes, 15 Oct., 1836; d. at ...
Tithes

Tithes

(Anglo-Saxon teotha , a tenth). Generally defined as "the tenth part of the increase arising ...
Tithes, Lay

Lay Tithes

Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...
Titian

Titian

(T IZIANO V ECELLI , called T ITIAN ). The greatest of Venetian painters, born at Pieve ...
Titopolis

Titiopolis

(TITIOPOLIS) Titular see, suffragan of Seleucia Trachaea in Isauria. Le Quien (Oriens ...
Titulus

Titulus

In pagan times titulus signified an inscription on stone, and later the stone which marked ...
Titus

Titus

Roman Emperor 79-81, b. 30 Dec., 41; d. 13 Sept., 81; son of the Emperor Vespasian, and from the ...
Titus and Timothy, Epistles to

Epistles to Timothy and Titus

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...
Titus, Bishop of Bostra

Titus, Bishop of Bostra

Born about 362-371. Sozomen (Hist. eccl., III, xiv) names Titus among the great men of the time ...
Tius

Tius

(TIUM) Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in Honorias. According to Strabo (542, 545) the ...
Tivoli

Tivoli

DIOCESE OF TIVOLI (TIBURTINA) Diocese in the Province of Rome. The city in situated where the ...
Tlaxcala

Tlaxcala

(TLAXCALENSIS) A former diocese of the colony of New Spain. It was the fifth diocese ...
Tlos

Tlos

A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Tlos was one of the six cities forming the Lycian ...
Toaldo, Giuseppe

Giuseppe Toaldo

Priest and physicist, b. at Pianezze, 1719; d. at Padua, 1797. In his fourteenth year he entered ...
Toba Indians

Toba Indians

One of the few still unconquered savage tribes of the great Chaco wilderness of South America, and ...
Tobias

Book of Tobias

We shall first enumerate the various Biblical persons and then treat the book of this name. I. ...
Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de

Alexis de Tocqueville

(CHARLES-ALEXIS-HENRI-MAURICE-CLEREL DE TOCQUEVILLE) Writer and statesman, b. at Verneuil, ...
Todi

Todi

(T UDERTINA ). Diocese in Central Italy ; immediately dependent on the Holy See. The city ...
Tokio

Tokio (Tokyo)

(Tokiensis) Archdiocese comprising 21 provinces or 15 departments with a population of over ...
Toledo (Ohio)

Toledo (Ohio)

(Toletana in America) A diocese in Ohio, U.S.A. formed out of the Diocese of Cleveland and ...
Toledo (Spain)

Toledo (Spain)

ARCHDIOCESE OF TOLEDO (TOLETANENSIS) Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost ...
Toledo, Francisco

Francisco Toledo

Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, son of an actuary, b. at Córdova, 4 Oct., 1532; d. ...
Tolentino and Macerata

Macerata and Tolentino

Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...
Toleration, History of

History of Toleration

In any attempt to deal historically with the attitude of the Church towards religious toleration ...
Toleration, Religious

Religious Toleration

Toleration in general signifies patient forbearance in the presence of an evil which one is ...
Tolomei, John Baptist

John Baptist Tolomei

A distinguished Jesuit theologian and cardinal, born of noble parentage, at Camberaia, between ...
Tomb

Tomb

A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons, ...
Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...
Tomb, Altar

Altar Tomb

A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having ...
Tomi

Tomi

A titular metropolitan see in the Province of Scythia, on the Black Sea. It was a Greek colony ...
Tommasi, Blessed Giuseppe Maria

Bl. Giuseppe Maria Tommasi

A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...
Tongerloo, Abbey of

Abbey of Tongerloo

Located near Antwerp, Belgium, founded in 1128 in honour of the Blessed Virgin, by de ...
Tongiorgi, Salvator

Salvator Tongiorgi

Philosopher, born at Rome, Italy, 25 December, 1820; d. there, 12 November, 1865. At the age of ...
Tongues, Gift of

Gift of Tongues (Glossolalia)

(Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...
Tonica Indians

Tonica Indians

(Or TUNICA). A small tribe constituting a distinct linguistic stock living, when first known ...
Tonkawa Indians

Tonkawa Indians

A tribal group or confederacy, of low culture status and constituting a distinct linguistic stock, ...
Tonsure

Tonsure

( Latin tondere , "to shear") A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized ...
Tootell, Hugh

Hugh Tootell

Commonly known as Charles Dodd. Historian, b. in 1671 or 1672, at Durton-in-Broughton, ...
Torah

Torah

I. USE OF WORD Torah, (cf. Hiph. of ), signifies first "direction, instruction", as, for ...
Torbido, Francesco

Francesco Torbido

Often called IL MORO (The Moor). Veronese painter and engraver, b. at Verona about 1486; ...
Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint

St. Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo

Archbishop of Lima ; b. at Mayorga, León, Spain, 1538; d. near Lima Peru, 23 March ...
Tornielli, Girolamo Francesco

Girolamo Francesco Tornielli

Italian Jesuit, preacher and writer, b. at Cameri, 1 Febreuary, 1693, of a distinguished family ...
Torone

Torone

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. Torone was a colony of Chalcideans from ...
Toronto

Toronto

(TORONTINA). Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada. When constituted a diocese, it ...
Torquemada, Tomás de

Tomas de Torquemada

First Grand Inquisitor of Spain, born at Valladolid in 1420; died at Avila, 16 September, ...
Torres Naharro, Bartolemé de

Bartolome de Torres Naharro

Spanish poet and dramatist, b. at Torres, near Badajoz, towards the end of the fifteenth ...
Torres, Francisco

Francisco Torres

(TURRIANUS.) Hellenist and polemicist, born in Herrera, Palencia, about 1509; died at Rome, ...
Torricelli, Evangelista

Evangelista Torricelli

Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 ...
Torrubia, José

Jose Torrubia

Born towards the end of the seventeenth century at Granada, Spain ; died in 1768 in the ...
Tortona

Tortona

DIOCESE OF TORTONA (DERTONENSIS) Diocese in Piedmont, Italy. The city is situated on the ...
Tortosa

Tortosa

DIOCESE OF TORTOSA (DERTHUSENSIS, DERTUSA). Located in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; ...
Toscanella and Viterbo

Viterbo and Toscanella

(VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...
Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo

Paolo Dal Pozzo Toscanelli

Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer, b. at Florence in 1397; d. there, 10 May, 1482. ...
Tosephta

Tosephta

( Hebrew = addition, supplement ) Tosephta is the name of compilation of ...
Tostado, Alonso

Alonso Tostado

(ALONSO TOSTATUS) Exegete, b. at Madrigal, Castile, about 1400; d. at Bonilla de la Sierra, ...
Tosti, Luigi

Luigi Tosti

Benedictine historian, b. at Naples 13 Feb., 1811; d. at Monte Cassino, 24 Sept., 1897. His ...
Totemism

Totemism

Totemism from ote , root ot , possessive form otem , in the Ojibway dialect of the ...
Totonac Indians

Totonac Indians

One of the smaller cultured nations of ancient Mexico, occupying at the time of the Spanish ...
Touchet, George Anselm

George Anselm Touchet

Born at Stalbridge, Dorset; died about 1689. He was second son of Mervyn, twelfth Lord Audley, ...
Toulouse

Toulouse

A RCHDIOCESE OF T OULOUSE (T OLOSENSIS ) Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne. As ...
Tournély, Honoré

Honore Tournely

Theologian, b. Antibes, Provence, 28 August, 1658; d. at Paris, 26 December 1729. His parents ...
Tournai

Tournai

DIOCESE OF TOURNAI (Latin TURNACUM, TORNACUM; Flemish, DOORNIJK — TORNACENSIS) Diocese ...
Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de

Joseph Pitton de Tournefort

French botanist, b. at Aix in Provence, 5 June, 1656; d. at Paris, 28 Dec., 1708. After his ...
Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de

Charles-Thomas Maillard de Tournon

Papal legate to India and China, cardinal, born of a noble Savoyard family at Turin, 21 ...
Touron, Antoine

Antoine Touron

Dominican biographer and historian, born at Graulhet, Tarn, France, on 5 September, 1686; died ...
Tours

Tours

(TURONENSIS.) Comprises the Department of Indre-et-Loire, and was re-established by the ...
Toustain, Charles-François

Charles-Francois Toustain

French Benedictine, and member of the Congregation of St-Maur, born at Repas in the Diocese of ...
Touttée, Antoine-Augustin

Antoine-Augustin Touttee

A French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. at Riom, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, ...
Tower of Babel

Tower of Babel

The "Tower of Babel" is the name of the building mentioned in Genesis 11:19 . History of the ...
Tracy, Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de

Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de Tracy

Viceroy of New France, born in France, 1603, of noble parents ; died there in 1670. A soldier ...
Tradition and Living Magisterium

Tradition and Living Magisterium

The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...
Traditionalism

Traditionalism

A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude. ...
Traducianism

Traducianism

Traducianism ( tradux , a shoot or sprout, and more specifically a vine branch made to take root ...
Trajan

Trajan

Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117. He ...
Trajanopolis

Trajanopolis

Titular metropolitan see of Rhodope. The city owes its foundation or restoration to Trajan. Le ...
Trajanopolis

Trajanopolis

A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. The only geographer who speaks ...
Tralles

Tralles

A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. It was founded, it is said, by the Argians ...
Trani and Barletta

Trani and Barletta

(T RANEN , et Barolen.) Diocese in Italy. The city of Trani is situated on the Adriatic in ...
Transcendentalism

Transcendentalism

The terms transcendent and transcendental are used in various senses, all of which, as a ...
Transept

Transept

A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica. It ...
Transfiguration

Transfiguration

The Transfiguration of Christ is the culminating point of His public life, as His Baptism is ...
Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the

Feast of the Transfiguration of Christ

Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. ...
Transubstantiation

The Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...
Transvaal

Transvaal

Vicariate apostolic ; lies between 23° 3' and 27° 30' S. lat., and 25° and 32° ...
Transylvania

Transylvania

(Also TRANSYLVANIENSIS or ERDELY). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Kalocsa Bács. The ...
Trapani

Trapani

(TREPANENSIS). Diocese in Sicily, suffragan of Palermo. The city is the capital of a ...
Trapezopolis

Trapezopolis

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan to Laodicea. Trapezopolis was a town of Caria ...
Trappists

Trappists

The common name by which the Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de ...
Trasilla and Emiliana, Saints

Sts. Trasilla and Emiliana

Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...
Treason, Accusations of

Accusations of Treason

A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics ...
Trebizond

Trebizond

(TRAPEZUNTINA). An Armenian Catholic diocese. The city owes its ancient name to the fact that ...
Trebnitz

Trebnitz

A former abbey of Cistercian nuns, situated north of Breslau in Silesia. It was founded in ...
Tredway, Lettice Mary

Lettice Mary Tredway

(Called "Lady" Tredway) Born 1595; died Oct., 1677; daughter of Sir Walter Tredway, of Buckley ...
Tregian, Francis

Francis Tregian

Confessor, b. in Cornwall, 1548; d. at Lisbon, 25 Sept., 1608. He was son of Thomas Tregian of ...
Tremithus

Tremithus

Titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. The city is mentioned by Ptolemy (Geog., V, xiii, ...
Trent

Trent

(TRIDENTUM; TRIDENTINA). Diocese ; suffragan of Salzburg. Trent became universally known ...
Trent, Council of

Council of Trent

The nineteenth ecumenical council opened at Trent on 13 December, 1545, and closed there on 4 ...
Trenton

Trenton

(T RENTONENSIS ). Diocese created 15 July, 1881, suffragan of New York, comprises Atlantic, ...
Tresham, Sir Thomas

Sir Thomas Tresham

Knight Bachelor (in or before 1524), Grand Prior of England in the Order of Knights ...
Treviso

Treviso

(TARVISINA). Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The capital is surrounded by the River ...
Tribe, Jewish

Jewish Tribe

( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...
Tricarico, Diocese of

Tricarico

(TRICARICENSIS.) Located in the Province of Potenza in the Basilicata (Southern Italy ), near ...
Tricassin, Charles Joseph

Charles Joseph Tricassin

One of the greatest theologians of the Capuchin Order, b. at Troyes ; d. in 1681. There is but ...
Tricca

Tricca

Titular see, suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. It was an ancient city of Thessaly, near the River ...
Trichinopoly, Diocese of

Trichinopoly

(TRICHINOPOLITAN.) Located in India, suffragan of Bombay, comprises the south east portion of ...
Trichur

Trichur

(TRICHURENSIS.) Vicariate Apostolic in India, one of the three vicariates of the Syro-Malabar ...
Tricomia

Tricomia

Titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palaestina Prima. It is mentioned in George of Cyprus ...
Triduum

Triduum

(Three days). A time frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices, whether ...
Trier

Trier

(TREVIRENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Cologne; includes in the Prussian province of the ...
Triesnecker, Francis a Paula

Francis a Paula Triesnecker

Astronomer, b. at Kirchberg on the Wagram, in Lower Austria, 2 April, 1745; d. at Vienna 29 ...
Triest-Capo d'Istria

Triest-Capo d'Istria

(TERGESTINA ET JUSTINOPOLITANA.) Suffragan diocese of Görz-Gradiska ; exists as a ...
Trincomalee

Trincomalee

(TRINCOMALIENSIS.) Located in Ceylon, suffragan of Colombo, was created in 1893 by a division ...
Trinità di Cava dei Tirrenti, Abbey of

Abbey of Trinita di Cava Dei Tirreni

Located in the Province of Salerno. It stands in a gorge of the Finestre Hills near Cava dei ...
Trinitarians, Order of

Order of Trinitarians

The redemption of captives has always been regarded in the Church as a work of mercy, as is ...
Trinity College

Trinity College

An institution for the higher education of Catholic women, located at Washington, D.C., and ...
Trinity Sunday

Trinity Sunday

The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity. In the early ...
Trinity, The Blessed

The Blessed Trinity

This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...
Triple-Candlestick

Triple-Candlestick

A name given along with several others (e.g. reed, tricereo, arundo, triangulum, lumen Christi ...
Trissino, Giangiorgio

Giangiorgio Trissino

Italian poet and scholar, b. of a patrician family at Vicenza in 1478; d. at Rome, 8 ...
Tritheists

Tritheists

(TRITHEITES). Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity. (1) Those who are ...
Trithemius, John

John Trithemius

A famous scholar and Benedictine abbot, b. at Trittenheim on the Moselle, 1 February, 1462; d. at ...
Trivento

Trivento

(Triventensis) Diocese in southern Italy. The earliest bishop was St. Castus of an uncertain ...
Trivet, Nicholas

Nicholas Trivet

(Or "Trevet" as he himself wrote it) B. about 1258; d. 1328. He was the son of Thomas Trevet, a ...
Troas

Troas

A suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespont. The city was first called Sigia; it was enlarged and ...
Trocmades

Trocmades

(Trocmada) Titular see of Galatia Secunda, suffragan of Pessinus. No geographer or historian ...
Trokelowe, John de

John de Trokelowe

(THROWLOW, or THORLOW) A monastic chronicler still living in 1330, but the dates of whose birth ...
Trondhjem, Ancient See of

Ancient See of Trondhjem

(NIDAROS). In Norway it was the kings who introduced Christianity, which first became ...
Trope

Trope

Definition and Description Trope, in the liturgico-hymnological sense, is a collective name ...
Tropology, Scriptural

Scriptural Tropology

The theory and practice of interpreting the figurative meaning of Holy Writ. The literal meaning, ...
Troy, John Thomas

John Thomas Troy

Archbishop of Dublin ; b. in the parish of Blanchardstown, near Dublin, 10 May, 1739; d. at ...
Troyes

Troyes

(TRECENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Aube. Re-established in 1802 as a suffragan ...
Truce of God

Truce of God

The Truce of God is a temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God ...
Truchsess von Waldburg, Otto

Otto Truchsess von Waldburg

Cardinal-Bishop of Augsburg (1543-73), b. at Castle Scheer in Swabia, 26 Feb., 1514; d. at ...
Trudo, Saint

St. Trudo

(TRON, TROND, TRUDON, TRUTJEN, TRUYEN). Apostle of Hasbein in Brabant; d. 698 (693). Feast 23 ...
Trudpert, Saint

St. Trudpert

Missionary in Germany in the seventh century. He is generally called a Celtic monk from ...
True Cross, The

The True Cross

(AND REPRESENTATIONS OF IT AS OBJECTS OF DEVOTION). (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult ; (2) ...
Trueba, Antonio de

Antonio de Trueba

Spanish poet and folklorist, b. at Montellana, Biscay, in 1821; d. at Bilbao, 10 March, 1889. In ...
Trujillo

Trujillo

Diocese comprising the Departments of Lambayeque, Libertad, Pinra, and the Province of Tumbes, ...
Trullo, Council in

Council in Trullo

This particular council of Constantinople, held in 692 under Justinian II, is generally known as ...
Trumpets, Feast of

Feast of Trumpets

The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...
Trumwin, Saint

Saint Trumwin

(TRIUMWINI, TRUMUINI). Died at Whitby, Yorkshire, England, after 686. He was consecrated by ...
Trustee System

Trustee System

I In the exercise of her inherent right of administering property, the Church often appoints ...
Trusts and Bequests

Trusts and Bequests

A trust has been defined, in its technical sense, as the right enforceable solely in equity to ...
Truth

Truth

Truth (Anglo-Saxon tréow, tryw, truth, preservation of a compact, from a Teutonic base ...
Truth Societies, Catholic

Catholic Truth Societies

This article will treat of Catholic Truth Societies in the chronological order of their ...
Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...
Tschiderer zu Gleifheim, Johann Nepomuk von

Tschiderer Zu Gleifheim

Bishop of Trent, b. at Bozen, 15 Feb., 1777; d. at Trent, 3 Dec., 1860. He sprang from a family ...
Tschupick, John Nepomuk

John Nepomuk Tschupick

A celebrated preacher, b. at Vienna, 7 or 12 April, 1729; d. there, 20 July, 1784. He entered the ...
Tuam

Tuam

(TUAMENSIS). The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly ...
Tuam, School of

School of Tuam

(Irish, Tuaim da Ghualann , or the "Mound of the two Shoulders"). The School of Tuam was ...
Tubunae

Tubunae

A titular see in Mauretania Caesariensis, according to the "Gerachia cattolica", or in Numidia ...
Tucson

Tucson

(T UCSONENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe. It comprises the State of ...
Tucumán

Tucuman

(T UCUMANENSIS ). Suffragan to Buenos Aires, erected from the Diocese of Salta on 15 ...
Tudela

Tudela

(TUTELÆ, TUTELENSIS). Diocese in Spain. The episcopal city has a population of 9213. ...
Tuguegarao

Tuguegarao

(TUGUEGARAONENSIS). Diocese in the Philippines ; situated in the north-eastern section of ...
Tulancingo

Tulancingo

(D E T ULANCINGO ). Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of Mexico. Its area is ...
Tulasne, Louis-René

Louis-Rene Tulasne

A noted botanist, b. at Azay-le-Rideau, Dept of Indre-et-Loire, France, 12 Sept., 1815; d. at ...
Tulle

Tulle

(TUTELENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Corrèze. It was suppressed by the ...
Tunic

Tunic

By tunic is understood in general a vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper ...
Tunis

Tunis

French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa. About the twelfth century before Christ ...
Tunja

Tunja

(T UNQUENENSIS ). Diocese established in 1880 as a suffragan of Bogotá, in the ...
Tunkers

Tunkers

( German tunken , to dip) A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite. ...
Tunstall, Cuthbert

Cuthbert Tunstall

Bishop of London, later of Durham, b. at Hackforth, Yorkshire, in 1474; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...
Tunstall, Venerable Thomas

Ven. Thomas Tunstall

Martyred at Norwich, 13 July, 1616. He was descended from the Tunstalls of Thurland, an ancient ...
Tunsted, Simon

Simon Tunsted

English Minorite, b. at Norwich, year unknown; d. at Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369. Having joined the ...
Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques

Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot

Baron de L' Aulne, French minister, born at Parish, 10 May, 1727; died there, 20 March, 1781. ...
Turin

Turin

(Turino; Taurinensis) The City of Turin is the chief town of a civil province in Piedmont and ...
Turin, Shroud of

The Shroud of Turin

This name is primarily given to a relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that ...
Turin, University of

The University of Turin

The University of Turin was founded in 1404, when the lectures at Piacenza and Pavia were ...
Turkestan

Turkestan

I. CHINESE TURKESTAN When Jenghiz Khan died (1227) his second son, Djagatai, had the greater part ...
Turkish Empire

Turkish Empire

Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the ...
Turnebus, Adrian

Adrian Turnebus

Philologist, b. at Andely in Normandy in 1512; d. in Paris, 12 June, 1565. The accounts of the ...
Turpin

Turpin

Archbishop of Reims, date of birth uncertain; d. 2 Sept., 800. He was a monk of St. Denis ...
Tuscany

Tuscany

Tuscany, a division of central Italy, includes the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, ...
Tuy

Tuy

(Tudensis.) Suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Santiago, comprises the civil provinces ...
Twenge, Saint John

St. John Twenge

Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...
Twiketal of Croyland

Twiketal of Croyland

(THURCYTEL, TURKETUL). Died July, 975. He was a cleric of royal descent, who is said to have ...
Tyana

Tyana

A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Prima. The city must first have been called Thoana, ...
Tychicus

St. Tychicus

A disciple of St. Paul and his constant companion. He was a native of the Roman province of ...
Tynemouth Priory

Tynemouth Priory

Tynemouth Priory, on the east coast of Northumberland, England, occupied the site of an earlier ...
Types in Scripture

Types in Scripture

Types, though denoted by the Greek word typoi , are not coextensive with the meaning of this ...
Tyrannicide

Tyrannicide

Tyrannicide literally is the killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a ...
Tyre

Tyre

(TYRUS.) Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese. The city is called in Hebrew, Zor , ...
Tyrie, James

James Tyrie

Theologian, b. at Drumkilbo, Perthshire, Scotland, 1543; d. at Rome, 27 May, 1597. Educated ...

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