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I. BEFORE 1556

From their first appearance in the history of the world the Germans represented the principle of unchecked individualism, as opposed to the Roman principle of an all-embracing authority. German history in the Middle Ages was strongly influenced by two opposing principles: universalism and individualism. After Arminius had fought for German freedom in the Teutoburg Forest the idea that the race was entitled to be independent gradually became a powerful factor in its historical development. This conception first took form when the Germanic states grew out of the Roman Empire. Even Theodoric the Great thought of uniting the discordant barbarian countries with the aid of the leges gentium into a great confederation of the Mediterranean. Although in these Mediterranean countries the Roman principle finally prevailed, being that of a more advanced civilization, still the individualistic forces which contributed to found these states were not wasted. By them the world-embracing empire of Rome was overthrown and the way prepared for the national principle. It was not until after the fall of the Western Empire that a great Frankish kingdom became possible and the Franks, no longer held in check by the Roman Empire, were able to draw together the tribes of the old Teutonic stock and to lay the foundation of a German empire. Before this the Germanic tribes had been continually at variance; no tie bound them together; even the common language failed to produce unity. On the other hand, the so-called Lautverschiebung , or shifting of the consonants, in German, separated the North and South Germans. Nor was German mythology a source of union, for the tribal centres of worship rather increased the already existing particularism. The Germans had not even a common name. Since the eighth century most probably the designations Franks and Frankish extended beyond the boundaries of the Frankish tribe. It was not, however, until the ninth century that the expression theodisk (later German Deutsch ), signifying "popular," or "belonging to people" made its appearance and a great stretch of time divided this beginning from the use of the word as a name of the nation.

The work of uniting Germany was not begun by a tribe living in the interior but by one on the outskirts of the country. The people called Franks suddenly appear in history in the third century. They represented no single tribe, but consisted of a combination of Low and High German tribes. Under the leadership of Clovis (Chlodwig) the Franks overthrew the remains of the Roman power in Gaul and built up the Frankish state on a Germano-Romanic foundation. The German tribes were conquered one after another and colonized in the Roman manner. Large extents of territory were marked out as belonging to the king, and on these military colonies were founded. The commanders of these military colonies gradually became administrative functionaries, and the colonies themselves grew into peaceful agricultural village communities. For a long time political expressions, such as Hundreds , recalled the original military character of the people. From that time the Frankish ruler became the German overlord, but the centrifugal tendency of the Germanic tribes reacted against this sovereignty as soon as the Merovingian Dynasty began slowly to decline, owing to internal feuds. In each of the tribes after this the duke rose to supremacy over his fellow tribesmen. From the seventh century the tribal duke became an almost independent sovereign. These ducal states originated in the supreme command of large bodies of troops, and then in the administration of large territories by dukes. At the same time the disintegration was aided by the bad administration of the counts, the officials in charge of the territorial districts ( Gau ), who were no longer supervised by the central authority. But what was most disastrous was that an unruly aristocracy sought to control all the economical interests and to exercise arbitrary powers over politics. These sovereign nobles had become powerful through the feudal system, a form of government which gave to medieval Germany its peculiar character. Caesar in his day found that it was customary among the Gauls for a freeman, the "client," voluntarily to enter into a relation of dependence on a "senior." This surrender ( commendatio ) took place in order to obtain the protection of the lord or to gain the usufruct of land. From this Gallic system of clientship there developed, in Frankish times, the conception of the "lord's man " ( homagium or hominium ), who by an oath swore fealty to his suzerain and became a vassus , or gasindus , or homo . The result of the growth of this idea was that finally there appeared, throughout the kingdom, along with royalty, powerful territorial lords with their vassi or vassalli , as their followers were called from the eighth century. The vassals received as fief ( beneficium ) a piece of land of which they enjoyed the use for life. The struggle of the Franks with the Arabs quickened the development of the feudal system, for the necessity of creating an army of horsemen then became evident. Moreover the poorer freemen, depressed in condition by the frequent wars, could not be required to do service as horsemen, a duty that could only be demanded from the vassals of the great landowners. In order to force these territorial lords to do military service fiefs were granted from the already existing public domain, and in their turn the great lords granted part of these fiefs to their retainers. Thus the Frankish king was gradually transformed from a lord of the land and people to a feudal lord over the beneficiaries directly and indirectly dependent upon him by feudal tenure. By the end of the ninth century the feudal system had bound together the greater part of the population.

While in this way the secular aristocracy grew into a power, at the same time the Church was equally strengthened by feudalism. The Christian Church during this era -- a fact of the greatest importance -- was the guardian of the remains of classical culture. With this culture the Church was to endow the Germans. Moreover it was to bring them a great fund of new moral conceptions and principles, much increase in knowledge, and skill in art and handicrafts. The well-knit organization of the Church, the convincing logic of dogma, the grandeur of the doctrine of salvation, the sweet poetry of the liturgy, all these captured the understanding of the simple-minded but fine-natured primitive German. It was the Church, in fact, that first brought the exaggerated individualism of the race under control and developed in it gradually, by means of asceticism, those social virtues essential to the State. The country was converted to Christianity very slowly for the Church had here a difficult problem to solve, namely, to replace the natural conception of life by an entirely different one that appeared strange to the people. The acceptance of the Christian name and ideas was at first a purely mechanical one, but it became an inner conviction. No people has shown a more logical or deeper comprehension of the organization and saving aims of the Christian Church. None has exhibited a like devotion to the idea of the Church nor did any people contribute more in the Middle Ages to the greatness of the Church than the German. In the conversion of Germany much credit is due the Irish and Scotch, but the real founders of Christianity in Germany are the Anglo-Saxons, above all St. Boniface . Among the early missionaries were: St. Columbanus, the first to come to the Continent (about 583), who laboured in Swabia; Fridolin, the founder of Saeckingen; Pirminius, who established the monastery of Reichenau in 724; and Gallus (d. 645), the founder of St. Gall. The cause of Christianity was furthered in Bavaria by Rupert of Worms (beginning of the seventh century), Corbinian (d. 730), and Emmeram (d. 715). The great organizer of the Church of Bavaria was St. Boniface. The chief herald of the Faith among the Franks was the Scotchman, St. Kilian (end of the seventh century); the Frisians received Christianity through Willibrord (d. 739). The real Apostle of Germany was St. Boniface, whose chief work was in Central Germany and Bavaria. Acting in conjunction with Rome he organized the German Church, and finally in 755 met the death of a martyr at the hands of the Frisians. After the Church had thus obtained a good foothold it soon reached a position of much importance in the eyes of the youthful German peoples. By grants of land the princes gave it an economic power which was greatly increased when many freemen voluntarily became dependents of these new spiritual lords; thus, besides the secular territorial aristocracy, there developed a second power, that of the ecclesiastical princes. Antagonism between these two elements was perceptible at an early date. Pepin sought to remove the difficulty by strengthening the Frankish Church and placing between the secular and spiritual lords the new Carlovingian king, who, by the assumption of the title Dei gratia , obtained a somewhat religious character.

The Augustinian conception of the Kingdom of God early influenced the Frankish State; political and religious theories unconsciously blended. The union of Church and State seemed the ideal which was to be realized. Each needed the other; the State needed the Church as the only source of real order and true education ; the Church needed for its activities the protection of the secular authority . In return for the training in morals and learning that the Church gave, the State granted it large privileges, such as: the privilegium fori or freedom from the jurisdiction of the State; immunity, that is exemption from taxes and services to the State, from which gradually grew the right to receive the taxes of the tenants residing on the exempt lands and the right to administer justice to them; further, release from military service; and, finally, the granting of great fiefs that formed the basis of the later ecclesiastical sovereignties. The reverse of this picture soon became apparent; the ecclesiastics to whom had been given lands and offices in fief became dependent on secular lords. Thus the State at an early date had a share in the making of ecclesiastical laws, exercised the right of patronage, appointed to dioceses, and soon undertook, especially in the time of Charles Martel , the secularization of church lands. Consequently the question of the relation of Church and State soon claimed attention; it was the most important question in the history of the German Middle Ages. Under the first German emperor this problem seemed to find its solution.

Real German history begins with Charlemagne (768-814). The war with the Saxons was the most important one he carried on, and the result of this struggle, of fundamental importance for German history, was that the Saxons were brought into connexion with the other Germanic tribes and did not fall under Scandinavian influence. The lasting union of the Franks, Saxons, Frisians, Thuringians, Hessians, Alamanni, and Bavarians, that Charlemagne effected, formed the basis of a national combination which gradually lost sight of the fact that it was the product of compulsion. From the time of Charlemagne the above-named German tribes lived under Frankish constitution retaining their own old laws the leges barbarorum , which Charlemagne codified. Another point of importance for German development was that Charlemagne fixed the boundary between his domain and the Slavs, including the Wends, on the farther side of the Elbe and Saale Rivers. It is true that Charlemagne did not do all this according to a deliberate plan, but mainly in the endeavour to win these related Germanic peoples over to Christianity. Charlemagne's German policy, therefore, was not a mere brute conquest, but a union which was to be strengthened by the ties of morality and culture to be created by the Christian religion. The amalgamation of the ecclesiastical with the secular elements that had begun in the reign of Pepin reached its completion under Charlemagne. The fact that Pepin obtained papal approval of his kingdom strengthened the bond between the Church and the Frankish kingdom. The consciousness of being the champion of Christianity against the Arabs, moreover, gave to the King of the Franks the religious character of the predestined protectors of the Church ; thus he attained a position of great importance in the Kingdom of God. Charlemagne was filled with these ideas ; like St. Augustine he hated the supremacy of the heathen empire. The type of God's Kingdom to Charlemagne and his councillors was not the Roman Empire but the Jewish theocracy. This type was kept in view when Charlemagne undertook to give reality to the Kingdom of God. The Frankish king desired like Solomon to be a great ecclesiastical and secular potentate, a royal priest. He was conscious that his conception of his position as the head of the Kingdom of God, according to the German ideas, was opposed to the essence of Roman Caesarism, and for reason he objected to being crowned emperor by the Pope on Christmas Day, 800. On this day the Germanic idea of the Kingdom of God, of which Charlemagne was the representative, bowed to the Roman idea, which regards Rome as its centre, Rome the seat of the old empire and the most sacred place of the Christian world . Charlemagne when emperor still regarded himself as the real leader of the Church. Although in 774 he confirmed the gift of his father to the Roman res publica , nevertheless he saw to it that Rome remained connected with the Frankish State; in return it had a claim to Frankish protection. He even interfered in dogmatic questions.

Charlemagne looked upon the revived Roman Empire from the ancient point of view inasmuch as he greatly desired recognition by the Eastern Empire. He regarded his possession of the empire as resulting solely from his own power, consequently he himself crowned his son Louis. Yet on the other hand he looked upon his empire only as a Christian one, whose most noble calling it was to train up the various races within its borders to the service of God and thus to unify them. The empire rapidly declined under his weak and nerveless son, Louis the Pious (814-40). The decay was hastened by the prevailing idea that this State was the personal property of the sovereign, a view that contained the germ of constant quarrels and necessitated the division of the empire when there were several sons. Louis sought to prevent the dangers of such division by law of hereditary succession published in 817, by which the sovereign power and the imperial crown were to be passed to the oldest son. This law was probably enacted through the influence of the Church, which maintained positively this unity of the supreme power and the Crown, as being in harmony with the idea of the Kingdom of God, and as besides required by the hierarchical economy of the church organization. When Louis had a fourth son, by his second wife, Judith, he immediately set aside law of partition of 817 for the benefit of the new heir. An odious struggle broke out between father and sons, and among the sons themselves. In 833 the emperor was captured by his sons at the battle of Luegenfeld (field of lies) near Colmar. Pope Gregory IV was at the time in the camp of the sons. The demeanour of the pope and the humiliating ecclesiastical penance that Louis was compelled to undergo at Soissons made apparent the change that had come about since Charlemagne in the theory of the relations of Church and State. Gregory's view that the Church was under the rule of the representative of Christ, and that it was a higher authority, not only spiritually but also substantially, and therefore politically, had before this found learned defenders in France. In opposition to the oldest son Lothair, Louis and Pepin, sons of Louis the Pious, restored the father to his throne (834), but new rebellions followed, when the sons once more grew dissatisfied.

In 840 the emperor died near Ingelheim. The quarrels of the sons went on after the death of the father, and in 841 Lothair was completely defeated near Fontenay (Fontanetum) by Louis the German and Charles the Bald. The empire now fell apart, not from the force of national hatreds, but in consequence of the partition now made and known as the Treaty of Verdun (August, 843), which divided the territory between the sons of Louis the Pious: Lothair, Louis the German (843-76), and Charles the Bald, and which finally resulted in the complete overthrow of the Carlovingian monarchy.

As the imperial power grew weaker, the Church gradually raised itself above the State. The scandalous behaviour of Lothair II, who, divorced himself from his lawful wife in order to marry his concubine, brought deep disgrace on his kingdom. The Church however, now an imposing and well-organized power, sat in judgment on the adulterous king. When Lothair II died, his uncles divided his possessions between them; by the Treaty of Ribemont (Mersen), Lorraine, which lay between the East Frankish Kingdom of Louis the German and the West Frankish Kingdom of Charles the Bald, was assigned to the East Frankish Kingdom. In this way a long-enduring boundary was definitely drawn between the growing powers of Germany and France. By a curious chance this boundary coincided almost exactly with the linguistic dividing line. Charles the Fat (876-87), the last son of Louis the German, united once more the entire empire. But according to old Germanic ideas the weak emperor forfeited his sovereignty by his cowardice when the dreaded Northmen appeared before Paris on one of their frequent incursions into France, and by his incapacity as a ruler. Consequently the Eastern Franks made his nephew Arnulf (887-99) king. This change was brought about by a revolt of the laity against the bishops in alliance with the emperor. The danger of Norman invasion Arnulf ended once and for all by his victory in 891 at Louvain on the Dyle. In the East also he was victorious after the death (894) of Swatopluk, the great King of Moravia. The conduct of some of the great nobles forced him to turn for aid to the bishops ; supported by the Church, he was crowned emperor at Rome in 896. Theoretically his rule extended over the West Frankish Kingdom, but the sway of his son, Louis the Child (899-911), the last descendant of the male line of the German Carlovingians, was limited entirely to the East Frankish Kingdom. Both in the East and West Frankish Kingdoms, in this era of confusion, the nobility grew steadily stronger, and freemen in increasing numbers became vassals in order to escape the burdens that the State laid on them; the illusion of the imperial title could no longer give strength to the empire. Vassal princes like Guido and Lamberto of Spoleto, and Berengar of Friuli, were permitted to wear the diadem of the Caesars.

As the idea of political unity declined, that of the unity of the Church increased in power. The Kingdom of God, which the royal priest, Charlemagne, by his overshadowing personality had, in his own opinion, made a fact, proved to be an impossibility. Church and State, which for a short time were united in Charlemagne, had, as early as the reign of Louis the Pious, become separated. The Kingdom of God was now identified with the Church. Pope Nicholas I asserted that the head of the one and indivisible Church could not be subordinate to any secular power, that only the pope could rule the Church, that it was obligatory on princes to obey the pope in spiritual things, and finally that the Carlovingians had received their right to rule from the pope. This grand idea of unity, this all-controlling sentiment of a common bond, could not be annihilated even in these troubled times when the papacy was humiliated by petty Italian rulers. The idea of her unity gave the Church the strength to raise herself rapidly to a position higher than that of the State. From the age of St. Boniface the Church in the East Frankish Kingdom had direct relations with Rome, while numerous new churches and monasteries gave her a firm hold in this region. At an early date the Church here controlled the entire religious life and, as the depositary of all culture, the entire intellectual life. She had also gained frequently decisive influence over German economic life, for she disseminated much of the skill and many of the crafts of antiquity. Moreover the Church itself had grown into an economic power in the East Frankish Kingdom. Piety led many to place themselves and their lands under the control of the Church.

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There was also in this period a change in social life that was followed by important social consequences. The old militia composed of every freeman capable of bearing arms went to pieces, because the freemen constantly decreased in number. In its stead there arose a higher order in the State, which alone was called on for military service. In this chaotic era the German people made no important advance in civilization. Nevertheless the union that had been formed between Roman and German elements and Christianity prepared the way for a development of the East Frankish Kingdom in civilization from which great results might be expected. At the close of the Carlovingian period the external position of the kingdom was a very precarious one. The piratic Northmen boldly advanced far into the empire; Danes and Slavs continually crossed its borders; but the most dangerous incursions were those of the Magyars, who in 907 brought terrible suffering upon Bavaria ; in their marauding expeditions they also ravaged Saxony, Thuringia, and Swabia. It was then that salvation came from the empire itself. The weak authority of the last of the Carlovingians, Louis the Child, an infant in years, fell to pieces altogether, and the old ducal form of government revived in the several tribes. This was in accordance with the desires of the people. In these critical times the dukes sought to save the country; still they saw clearly that only a union of all the duchies could successfully ward off the danger from without; the royal power was to find its entire support in the laity. Once more, it is true, the attempt was made by King Conrad I (911-18) to make the Church the basis of the royal power, but the centralizing clerical policy of the king was successfully resisted by the subordinate powers. Henry I (919-36) was the free choice of the lay powers at Fritzlar. On the day he was elected the old theory of the State as the personal estate of the sovereign was finally done away with, and the Frankish realm was transformed into a German one. The manner of his election made plain to Henry the course to be pursued. It was necessary to yield to the wish of the several tribes to have their separate existence with a measure of self-government under the imperial power recognized. Thus the duchies were strengthened at the expense of the Crown. The fame of Henry I was assured by his victory over the Magyars near Merseburg (933). By regaining Lorraine, that had been lost during the reign of Conrad, he secured a bulwark on the side towards France that permitted the uninterrupted consolidation of his realm. The same result was attained on other frontiers by his successful campaigns against the Wends and Bohemians. Henry's kingdom was made up of a confederation of tribes, for the idea of a "King of the Germans" did not yet exist. It was only as the "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" that Germany could develop from a union of German tribes to a compact nation. As supporters of the supreme power, as vassals of the emperor, the Germans were united.

This imperial policy was continued by Otto I, the Great (936-73). During his long reign Otto sought to found a strong central power in Germany, an effort at once opposed by the particularistic powers of Germany, who took advantage of disputes in the royal family. Otto proved the necessity of a strong government by his victory over the Magyars near Augsburg (955), one result of which was the reestablishment of the East Mark. After this he was called to Rome by John XII, who had been threatened by Berengarius II of Italy, and by making a treaty that secured to the imperial dignity a share in the election of the pope, he attained the imperial crown, 2 February, 962. It was necessary for Otto to obtain imperial power in order to carry out his politico-ecclesiastical policy. His intention was to make the Church an organic feature of the German constitution. This he could only do if the Church was absolutely under his control, and this could not be attained unless the papacy and Italy were included within the sphere of his power. The emperor's aim was to found his royal power among the Germans, who were strongly inclined to particularism, upon a close union of Church and State. The Germans had now revived the empire and had freed the papacy from its unfortunate entanglement with the nobility of the city of Rome. The papacy rapidly regained strength and quickly renewed the policy of Nicholas I . By safeguarding the unity of the Church of Western Europe the Germans protected both the peaceful development of civilization, which was dependent upon religion, and the progress of culture which the Church spread. Thus the Germans, in union with the Church, founded the civilization of Western Europe. For Germany itself the heroic age of the medieval emperors was a period of progress in learning. The renaissance of antiquity during the era of the Ottos was hardly more than superficial. Nevertheless it denoted a development in learning, throughout ecclesiastical in character, in marked contrast to the tendencies in the same age of the grammarian Wilgard at Ravenna, who sought to revive not only the literature of ancient times, but also the ideas of antiquity, even when they opposed Christian ideas. Germany now boldly assumed the leadership of Western Europe and thus prevented any other power from claiming the supremacy. Moreover the new empire sought to assert its universal character in France, as well as in Burgundy and Italy. Otto also fixed his eyes on Lower Italy, which was in the hands of the Greeks, but he preferred a peaceful policy with Byzantium. He therefore married his son Otto II, in 972, to the Greek Princess Theophano.

Otto II (973-83) and his son Otto III (983-1002) firmly upheld the union with the Church inaugurated by Otto I. Otto II aimed at a great development of his power along the Mediterranean; these plans naturally turned his mind from a national German policy. His campaign against the Saracens, however, came to a disastrous end in Calabria in 982, and he did not long survive the calamity. His romantic son sought to bring about a complete revival of the ancient empire, the centre of which was to be Rome, as in ancient times. There, in union with the pope, he wished to establish the true Kingdom of God. The pope and the emperor were to be the wielders of a power one and indivisible. This idealistic policy, full of vague abstractions, led to severe German losses in the east, for the Poles and Hungarians once more gained their independence. In Italy Arduin of Ivrea founded a new kingdom; naturally enough the Apennine Peninsula revolted against the German imperial policy. Without possession of Italy, however, the empire was impossible, and the blessings of the Ottonian theory of government were now manifest. The Church became the champion of the unity and legitimacy of the empire.

After the death of Otto III and the collapse of imperialism the Church raised Henry II (1002-24) to the throne. Henry, reviving the policy of Otto I which had been abandoned by Otto III, made Germany and the German Church the basis of his imperial system; he intended to rule the Church as Otto I had done. In 1014 he defeated Arduin and thus attained the Imperial crown. The sickly ruler, whose nervousness caused him to take up projects of which he quickly tired, did his best to repair the losses of the empire on its eastern frontier. He was not able, however, to defeat the Polish King Boleslaw II: all he could do was to strengthen the position of the Germans on the Elbe River by an alliance with the Lusici, a Slavonic tribe. Towards the end of his reign a bitter dispute broke out between the emperor and the bishops. At the Synod of Seligenstadt, in 1023, Archbishop Aribo of Mainz, who was an opponent of the Reform of Cluny, made an appeal to the pope without the permission of the bishop. This ecclesiastical policy of Aribo's would have led in the end to the founding of a national German Church independent of Rome. The greater part of the clergy supported Aribo, but the emperor held to the party of reform. Henry, however, did not live to see the quarrel settled.

With Conrad II (1024-39) began the sway of the Franconian (Salian) emperors. The sovereigns of this line were vigorous, vehement, and autocratic rulers. Conrad had natural political ability and his reign is the most flourishing era of medieval imperialism. The international position of the empire was excellent. In Italy Conrad strengthened the German power, and his relations with King Canute of Denmark were friendly. Internal disputes kept the Kingdom of Poland from becoming dangerous; moreover, by regaining Lusatia the Germans recovered the old preponderance against the Poles. Important gains were also made in Burgundy, whereby the old Romanic states, France and Italy, were for a long time separated and the great passes of the Alps controlled by the Germans. The close connexion with the empire enabled the German population of north-western Burgundy to preserve its nationality. Conrad had also kept up the close union of the State with the Church and had maintained his authority over the latter. He claimed for himself the same right of ruling the Church that his predecessors had exercised, and like them appointed bishops and abbots ; he also reserved to himself the entire control of the property of the Church . Conrad's ecclesiastical policy, however, lacked definiteness; he failed to understand the most important interests of the Church, nor did he grasp the necessity of reform. Neither did he do anything to raise the papacy, discredited by John XIX and Benedict IX, from its dependence on the civil rulers of Rome. The aim of his financial policy was economic emancipation from the Church ; royal financial officials took their place alongside of the ministeriales , or financial agents, of the bishops and monasteries. Conrad sought to rest his kingdom in Germany on these royal officials and on the petty vassals. In this way the laity was to be the guarantee of the emperor's independence of the episcopate. As he pursued the same methods in Italy, he was able to maintain an independent position between the bishops and the petty Italian despots who were at strife with one another. Thus the ecclesiastical influence in Conrad's theory of government becomes less prominent.

This statesmanlike sovereign was followed by his son, the youthful Henry III (1039-56). Unlike his father Henry had a good education ; he had also been trained from an early age in State affairs. He was a born ruler and allowed himself to be influenced by no one; to force of character and courage he added a strong sense of duty. His foreign policy was at first successful. He established the suzerainty of the empire over Hungary, without, however, being always able to maintain it; Bohemia also remained a dependent state. The empire gained a dominant position in Western Europe, and a sense of national pride was awakened in the Germans that opened the way for a national spirit. But the aim of these national aspirations, the hegemony in Western Europe, was a mere phantom. Each time an emperor went to Italy to be crowned that country had to be reconquered. Even at this very time the imperial supremacy was in great danger from the threatened conflict between the imperial and the sacerdotal power, between Church and State. The Church, the only guide on earth to salvation, had attained dominion over mankind, whom it strove to wean from the earthly and to lead to the spiritual. The glaring contrast between the ideal and the reality awoke in thousands the desire to leave the world. A spirit of asceticism, which first appeared in France, took possession of many hearts. As early as the era of the first Saxon emperors the attempt was made to introduce the reform movement of Cluny into Germany, and in the reign of Henry III this reform had become powerful. Henry himself laid much more stress than his predecessors on the ecclesiastical side of his royal position. His religious views led him to side with the men of Cluny. The great mistake of his ecclesiastical policy was the belief that it was possible to promote this reform of the Church by laying stress on his suzerain authority. He repeatedly called and presided over synods and issued many decisions in Church affairs. His fundamental mistake, the thought that he could transform the Church in the manner desired by the party of reform and at the same time maintain his dominion over it, was also evident in his relations with the papacy. He sought to put an end to the disorder at Rome, caused by the unfortunate schism, by the energetic measure of deposing the three contending popes and raising Clement II to the Apostolic See. Clement crowned him emperor and made him Patrician of Rome. Thus Henry seemed to have regained the same control over the Church that Otto had exercised. But the papacy, purified by the elevated conceptions of the party of reform and freed by Henry from the influence of the degenerate Roman aristocracy, strove to be absolutely independent. The Church was now to be released from all human bonds. The chief aims of the papal policy were the celibacy of the clergy, the presentation of ecclesiastical offices by the Church alone, and the attainment by these means of as great a centralization as possible. Henry had acted with absolute honesty in raising the papacy, but he did not intend that it should outgrow his control. Sincerely pious, he was convinced of the possibility and necessity of complete accord between empire and papacy. His fanciful policy became an unpractical idealism. Consequently the monarchical power began rapidly to decline in strength. Hungary regained freedom, the southern part of Italy was held by the Normans, and the Duchy of Lorraine, already long a source of trouble, maintained its hostility to the king. By the close of the reign of Henry III discontent was universal in the empire, thus permitting a growth of the particularistic powers, especially of the dukes.

When Henry III died Germany had reached a turning-point in its history. His wife Agnes assumed the regency for their four-year-old son, Henry IV (1056-1106), and at once showed her incompetence for the position by granting the great duchies to opponents of the crown. She also sought the support of the lesser nobility and thus excited the hatred of the great princes. A conspiracy of the more powerful nobles, led by Archbishop Anno (Hanno) of Cologne, obtained possession of the royal child by a stratagem at Kaiserswert and took control of the imperial power. Henry IV, however, preferred the guidance of Adalbert, Archbishop of Bremen, who was able for the moment to give the governmental policy a more national character. Thus in 1063 he restored German influence over Hungary, and the aim of his internal policy was to strengthen the central power. At the Diet of Tribur, 1066, however, he was overthrown by the particularists, but the king by now was able to assume control for himself. In the meantime the papacy had been rapidly advancing towards absolute independence. The Curia now extended the meaning of simony to the granting of an ecclesiastical office by a layman and thus demanded an entire change in the conditions of the empire and placed itself in opposition to the imperial power. The ordinances passed in 1059 for the regulation of the papal elections excluded all imperial rights in the same. Conditions in Italy grew continually more unfavourable for the empire. The chief supporters of the papal policy were the Normans, over whom the pope claimed feudal suzerainty. The German bishops also yielded more and more to the authority of Rome ; the Ottonian theory of government was already undermined. The question was now raised: In the Kingdom of God on earth who is to rule, the emperor or the pope ? In Rome this question had long been settled. The powerful opponent of Henry, Gregory VII , claimed that the princes should acknowledge the supremacy of the Kingdom of God, and that the laws of God should be everywhere obeyed and carried out. The struggle which now broke out was in principle a conflict concerning the respective rights of the empire and the papacy. But the conflict soon shifted from the spiritual to the secular domain; at last it became a conflict for the possession of Italy, and during the struggle the spiritual and the secular were often confounded. Henry was not a match for the genius of Gregory. He was courageous and intelligent and, though of a passionate nature, fought with dogged obstinacy for the rights of his monarchical power. But Gregory as the representative of the reform movement in the Church, demanding complete liberty for the Church, was too powerful for him. Aided by the inferior nobility, Henry sought to make himself absolute. The particularistic powers, however, insisted upon the maintenance of the constitutional limits of the monarchy. The revolt of the Saxons against the royal authority was led both by spiritual and secular princes, and it was not until after many humiliations that Henry was able to conquer them in the battle on the Unstrut (1075). Directly after this began his conflict with the papacy. The occasion was the appointment of an Archbishop of Milan by the emperor without regard to the election already held by the ecclesiastical party. Gregory VII at once sent a threatening letter to Henry. Angry at this, Henry had the deposition of the pope declared at the Synod of Worms, 24 January, 1076. Gregory now felt himself released from all restraint and excommunicated the emperor. On 16 October, 1076, the German princes decided that the pope should pronounce judgment on the king and that unless Henry were released from excommunication within a year and a day he should lose his crown. Henry now sought to break the alliance between the particularists and the pope by a clever stroke. The German princes he could not win back to his cause, but he might gain over the pope. By a penitential pilgrimage he forced the pope to grant him absolution. Henry appealed to the priest, and Gregory showed his greatness. He released the king from the ban, although by so doing he injured his own interests, which required that he should keep his agreement to act in union with the German princes.

Thus the day of Canossa (2 and 3 February, 1077) was a victory for Henry. It did not, however, mean the coming of peace, for the German confederates of the pope did not recognize the reconciliation at Canossa, and elected Duke Rudolf of Swabia as king at Forchheim, 13 March, 1077. A civil war now broke out in Germany. After long hesitation Gregory finally took the side of Rudolf and once more excommunicated Henry. Soon after this however, Rudolf lost both throne and life in the battle of Hohenmoelsen not far from Merseburg. Henry now abandoned his policy of absolutism, recognizing its impracticability. He returned to the Ottonian theory of government, and the German episcopate, which was embittered by the severity of the ecclesiastical administration of Rome, now came over to the side of the king. Relying upon this strife within the Church, Henry caused Gregory to be deposed by a synod held at Brixen and Guibert of Ravenna to be elected pope as Clement III . Accompanied by this pope, he went to Rome and was crowned emperor there in 1084. Love for the rights of the Church drove the great Gregory into exile where he soon after died. After the death of his mighty opponent Henry was more powerful than the particularists who had elected a new rival king, Herman of Luxembourg. In 1090 Henry went again to Italy to defend his rights against the two powerful allies of the papacy, the Normans in the south and the Countess Matilda of Tuscany in the north. While he was in Italy his own son Conrad declared himself king in opposition to him. Overwhelmed by this blow, Henry remained inactive in Italy, and it was not until 1097 that he returned to Germany. No reconciliation had been effected between him and Pope Urban II . In Germany Henry sought to restore internal peace, and this popular policy intensified the particularism of the princes. In union with these the king's son, young Henry, rebelled against his father. The pope supported the revolt, and the emperor was unable to cope with so many opponents. In 1105 he abdicated. After this he once more asserted his rights, but death soon closed (1106) this troubled life filled with so many thrilling and tr

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Gédoyn, Nicolas

Nicolas Gedoyn

A French translator and literary critic; b. at Orléans, 17 June, 1667; d. 10 August, 1744, ...
Génebrard, Gilbert

Gilbert Genebrard

A learned Benedictine exegete and Orientalist, b. 12 December, 1535, at Riom, in the department ...
Génicot, Edward

Edward Genicot

Moral theologian, b. at Antwerp, Belgium, 18 June, 1856; d. at Louvain, 21 February, 1900. After ...
Géramb, Baron Ferdinand de

Baron Ferdinand de Geramb

In religion, Brother Mary Joseph; Abbot and procurator-general of La Trappe, came of a noble and ...
Gérando, Joseph-Marie de

Joseph-Marie de Gerando

A French statesman and writer, born at Lyons, 29 February, 1772; died at Paris, 10 November, ...
Gérard, Abbot of Brogne, Saint

St. Gerard

Born at Staves in the county of Namur, towards the end of the ninth century; died at Brogne or ...
Géry, Saint

St. Gery

(Latin Gaugericus ). Bishop of Cambrai - Arras ; b. of Roman parents, Gaudentius and ...
Gómara, Francisco Lopez de

Francisco Lopez de Gomara

( Or GOMORA.) Born at Seville, Spain, in 1510; studied at the University of Alcalá, ...
Görres, Guido

Guido Gorres

Historian, publicist, and poet; b. at Coblenz on 28 May, 1805; d. at Munich on 14 July, 1852. He ...
Görres, Johann Joseph

Johann Joseph Goerres

Born at Coblenz, in the heart of the Rhine country, 25 January, 1776; died at Munich, 29 January, ...
Görz

Goerz

( Italian GORIZIA; Slovene GORICA). Capital of the Austrian crown-land Görz and ...
Göttweig, Abbey of

Abbey of Gottweig

(GOTTWEIH, GOTTVICUM, GOTTVICENSE). A Benedictine abbey situated on a hill of the same name, ...
Gügler, Joseph Heinrich Aloysius

Joseph Guegler

Born at Udligerschwyl, near Lucerne, Switzerland, 25 August, 1782; died at Lucerne, 28 February, ...
Günther of Cologne

Gunther of Cologne

(also GUNTHAR) An archbishop of that city, died 8 July, 873. He belonged to a noble ...
Günther, Anton

Anton Guenther

Philosopher ; b. 17 Nov., 1783, at Lindenau, near Leitmeritz, Bohemia ; d. at Vienna, 24 ...
Gabala

Gabala

A titular see of Syria Prima. Ten bishops of this city are known between 325 and 553, the ...
Gabbatha

Gabbatha

The Aramaic appellation of a place in Jerusalem, designated also under the Greek name of ...
Gaboon

Gaboon

V ICARIATE A POSTOLIC OF G ABUN Formerly called the Vicariate Apostolic of the Two ...
Gabriel Possenti, Blessed

Bl. Gabriel Possenti

Passionist student; renowned for sanctity and miracles ; born at Assisi, 1 March, 1838; died ...
Gabriel Sionita

Gabriel Sionita

A learned Maronite, famous for his share in the publication of the Parisian polyglot of the ...
Gabriel the Archangel, Saint

St. Gabriel the Archangel

"Fortitudo Dei", one of the three archangels mentioned in the Bible . Only four appearances of ...
Gabriel, Brothers of Saint

Brothers of St. Gabriel

The Congregation of the Brothers of Christian Instruction of St. Gabriel was originally founded ...
Gad

Gad

( , fortune, luck). A proper name which designates in the Bible , (I), a patriarch; (II), a ...
Gadara

Gadara

A titular see of Palaestina Prima; there were two sees of this name, one in Palaestina Prima, ...
Gaddi, Agnolo, Giovanni, and Taddeo

Agnolo, Giovanni, and Taddeo Gaddi

Florentine artists, Taddeo being the father of Agnolo and Giovanni. The dates of their birth ...
Gaeta

Gaeta

ARCHDIOCESE OF GAETA (CAIETANA). Archdiocese in the province of Caserta in Campania (Southern ...
Gaetano, Saint

St. Cajetan

(GAETANO.) Founder of the Theatines, born October, 1480 at Vicenza in Venetian territory; ...
Gagarin, Ivan Sergejewitch

Ivan Sergejewitch Gargarin

Gagarin was of the princely Russian family which traces its origin to the ancient rulers of ...
Gagliardi, Achille

Achille Gagliardi

Ascetic writer and spiritual director ; born at Padua, Italy, in 1537; died at Modena, 6 ...
Gahan, William

William Gahan

A priest and author; born 5 June, 1732, in the parish of St. Nicholas, Dublin ; died ...
Gaillard, Claude Ferdinand

Claude Ferdinand Gaillard

A French engraver and painter ; b. at Paris, 7 Jan., 1834; d. there, 27 Jan., 1887. His early ...
Gal, Saint

St. Gal

Of the ninety-eight bishops who have occupied the see of Clermont-Ferrand (Auvergne) the ...
Galantini, Ippolito, Blessed

Bl. Ippolito Galantini

Founder of the Congregation of Christian Doctrine of Florence; b. at Florence of obscure ...
Galatians, Epistle to the

Epistle to the Galatians

GALATIA In the course of centuries, gallic tribes, related to those that invaded Italy and ...
Galatino, Pietro Colonna

Pietro Colonna Galatino

Friar Minor, philosopher, theologian, Orientalist ; b. at Galatia (now Cajazzo) in Apulia; d. at ...
Galerius, Valerius Maximianus

Valerius Maximianus Galerius

Galerius, a native of Illyria, was made Caesar 1 March, 293, by Diocletian, whose daughter ...
Galien, Joseph

Joseph Galien

Dominican, professor of philosophy and theology at the University of Avignon, meteorologist, ...
Galilee

Galilee

( Septuagint and New Testament Galilaia ). The native land of Jesus Christ, where He began ...
Galilei, Alessandro

Allesandro Galilei

An eminent Florentine architect ; born 1691; died 1737. Having attained some distinction, he ...
Galilei, Galileo

Galileo Galilei

Generally called GALILEO. Born at Pisa, 15 February, 1564; died 8 January, 1642. His father, ...
Galitzin, Elizabeth

Elizabeth Galitzin

Princess, religious of the Sacred Heart ; born at St. Petersburg, 22 February, 1797; died in ...
Gall, Abbey of Saint

Abbey of St. Gall

In Switzerland, Canton St. Gall, 30 miles southeast of Constance ; for many centuries one of ...
Gall, Saint

Saint Gall

(GALLUS; in the most ancient manuscript he is called GALLO, GALLONUS, GALLUNUS, and sometimes ...
Galla

Galla

Vicariate Apostolic embracing the territory of the Galla or Oromo tribes in Abyssinia. In its ...
Galla, Saint

Saint Galla

A Roman widow of the sixth century; feast, 5 October. According to St. Gregory the Great ...
Gallait, Louis

Louis Gallait

Flemish painter ; born at Tournai, 10 May, 1810; died in Brussels, 20 November, 1887. He ...
Galland, Antoine

Antoine Galland

French Orientalist and numismatist, b. at Rollot, near Montdidier, in Picardy, 1646, d. at ...
Gallandi, Andrea

Andrea Gallandi

Oratorian and patristic scholar, born at Venice, 7 December, 1709; died there 12 January, 1779, ...
Galle

Galle

DIOCESE OF GALLE (GALLENSIS). Diocese in Ceylon, created by Leo XIII 25 Aug., 1893, by ...
Gallego, Juan Nicasio

Juan Nicasio Gallego

Priest and poet; born at Zamora, Spain, 14 December, 1777; died at Madrid, 9 January, 1853; ...
Galletti, Pietro Luigi

Pietro Luigi Galletti

Benedictine, historian and archaeologist; b. at Rome in 1724; d. there, 13 December, 1790. He ...
Gallia Christiana

Gallia Christiana

A documentary catalogue or list, with brief historical notices, of all the dioceses and ...
Gallican Rite, The

The Gallican Rite

This subject will be treated under the following six heads: I. History and Origin; II. ...
Gallicanism

Gallicanism

This term is used to designate a certain group of religious opinions for some time peculiar to the ...
Gallicanus, Saints

Sts. Gallicanus

The following saints of this name are commemorated on 25 June: (1) St. Gallicanus Roman ...
Gallienus, Publius Licinius Egnatius

Gallienus

Roman emperor; b. about 218; d. at Milan, 4 March, 268; appointed regent by his father Valerian ...
Gallifet, Joseph de

Joseph de Gallifet

Priest ; b. near Aix, France, 2 May 1663; d. at Lyons, 1 September, 1749. He entered the ...
Gallipoli

Gallipoli

DIOCESE OF GALLIPOLI (GALLIPOLITANA). Diocese in the province of Lecce (Southern Italy ). ...
Gallitzin, Adele Amalie

Adele Amalie Gallitzin

(Or GOLYZIN). Princess; b. at Berlin, 28 Aug., 1748; d. at Angelmodde, near Münster, ...
Gallitzin, Demetrius Augustine

Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin

Prince, priest, and missionary, born at The Hague, Holland, 22 December, 1770; died at Loretto, ...
Galloway, Diocese of

Galloway

(Gallovidiana). Situated in the southwest of Scotland. It comprises the Counties of Dumfries, ...
Galluppi, Pasquale

Pasquale Galluppi

Philosopher, b. at Tropea, in Calabria, 2 April, 1770; d. at Naples, 13 Dec., 1846, where from ...
Gallwey, Peter

Peter Gallwey

Born at Killarney, 13 Nov., 1820; d. in London, 23 Sept., 1906; one of the best-known London ...
Galtelli-Nuoro

Galtelli-Nuoro

(Galtellinensis-Norensis) Diocese in the province of Sassari (Sardinia), on a hill of the ...
Galura, Bernhard

Bernhard Galura

Prince- Bishop of Brixen ; b. 21 August, 1764, at Herbolzheim, Bresigau; d. 17 May, 1856. After ...
Galvani, Luigi

Luigi Galvani

Physician, b. at Bologna, Italy, 9 September, 1737; d. there, 4 December, 1798. It was his ...
Galveston

Galveston

DIOCESE OF GALVESTON (GALVESTONIENSIS). The Diocese of Galveston was established in 1847 and ...
Galway and Kilmacduagh

Galway and Kilmacduagh

DIOCESE OF GALWAY AND KILMACDUAGH (GALVIENSIS ET DUACENSIS). Diocese in Ireland ; an ...
Gama, Vasco da

Vasco da Gama

The discover of the sea route to East Indies; born at Sines, Province of Alemtejo, Portugal, ...
Gamaliel

Gamaliel

(Greek form of the Hebrew name meaning "reward of God "). The name designates in the New ...
Gamans, Jean

Jean Gamans

Born 8 July, 1606, at Ahrweiler (according to other sources at Neuenahr, about two miles from ...
Gambling

Gambling

Gambling , or gaming , is the staking of money or other thing of value on the issue of a game ...
Gams, Pius Bonifacius

Pius Bonifacius Gams

An ecclesiastical historian, b. at Mittelbuch, Würtemberg, 23 January, 1816; d. Munich, ...
Gandolphy, Peter

Peter Gandolphy

(Or Gandolphi.) Jesuit preacher; b. in London, 26 July, 1779; d. at East Sheen, Surrey, 9 ...
Gangra

Gangra

A titular see in the province of Paphlagonia; in the native tongue the word signifies goat, and ...
Gansfort, John Wessel

John Wessel Goesport (Gansfort)

(GANSFORT). A fifteenth-century Dutch theologian, born at Gröningen in 1420; died there ...
Gap

Gap

(VAPINCENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Aix, includes the department of the Hautes-Alpes. ...
García Moreno, Gabriel

Gabriel Garcia Moreno

Ecuadorean patriot and statesman; b. at Guayaquil, 24 December, 1821; assassinated at Quito, 6 ...
García, Anne

Anne Garcia

Better known as Venerable Anne of St. Bartholomew, Discalced Carmelite nun, companion of St. ...
Garcia, Saint Gonsalo

St. Gonsalo Garcia

Born of a Portuguese father and a Canarese mother in Bassein, East India, about the year 1556 or ...
Garcilasso de la Vega

Garcilasso de la Vega (1503-1536)

Spanish lyric poet; b. at Toledo, 6 Feb., 1503; d. at Nice, 14 Oct., 1536. A noble and a ...
Garcilasso de la Vega

Garcilasso de la Vega (1503-1536)

Historian of Peru ; b. at Cuzco, Peru, 12 April, 1539; d. at Córdoba, Spain, c. 1617. The ...
Gardellini, Aloisio

Aloisio Gardellini

Born at Rome, 4 Aug., 1759; died there, 8 Oct., 1829. He is famous chiefly for his collection of ...
Garesché, Julius Peter

Julius Peter Garesche

Soldier; born 26 April, 1821, near Havana, Cuba; killed at the battle of Stone River, Tennessee, ...
Garet, Jean

Jean Garet

Benedictine of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Havre about 1627; died at ...
Gargara

Gargara

A titular see in the province of Asia, suffragan of Ephesus. The city appears to have been ...
Garin, André

Andre Garin

An Oblate missionary and parish priest, born 7 May, 1822, at Côte-Saint-André, ...
Garland

Garland

A wreath of flowers or evergreens formerly used in connection with baptismal, nuptial, and ...
Garland, John

John Garland

An English poet and grammarian, who lived in the middle of the thirteenth century. He tells us ...
Garlick, Venerable Nicholas

Ven. Nicholas Garlick

Priest and martyr, born at Dinting, Derbyshire, c. 1555; died at Derby, 24 July, 1588. He ...
Garneau, François-Xavier

Francois-Xavier Garneau

A French Canadian historian, b. at Quebec, 15 June, 1809, of François-Xavier Garneau and ...
Garnet, Henry

Henry Garnet

(Garnett.) English martyr, b. 1553-4; d. 1606, son of Brian Garnet, master of Nottingham ...
Garnet, Saint Thomas

St. Thomas Garnet

Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...
Garnier, Charles

Charles Garnier

Jesuit Missionary, born at Paris, 1606, of Jean G. and Anne de Garault; died 7 December, 1649. He ...
Garnier, Jean

Jean Garnier

Church historian, patristic scholar, and moral theologian ; b. at Paris, 11 Nov., 1612; d. at ...
Garnier, Julien

Julien Garnier

Jesuit missionary, born at Connerai, France, 6 January, 1642; d. in Quebec, 1730. He entered ...
Garrucci, Raffaele

Raffaele Garrucci

A historian of Christian art, b. at Naples, 22 January, 1812; d. at Rome, 5 May, 1885. He ...
Garzon

Garzon

(GARZONENSIS.) Suffragan diocese of Popayan in the Republic of Colombia . It comprises the ...
Gaspare del Bufalo, Blessed

St. Gaspare Del Bufalo

Founder of the Missionaries of the Most Precious Blood (C.P.P.S.); b. at Rome on the feast of ...
Gaspe, Philippe-Aubert de

Philippe-Aubert de Gaspe

A French Canadian writer, b. at Quebec, 30 Oct., 1786, of a family ennobled by Louis XIV in ...
Gassendi, Pierre

Pierre Gassendi

(GASSENDY, GASSEND.) A French philosopher and scientist ; b. at Champtercier, a country ...
Gasser von Valhorn, Joseph

Joseph Gasser von Valhorn

An Austrian sculptor, b. 22 Nov., 1816 at Prägraten, Tyrol; d. 28 Oct., 1900. He was first ...
Gassner, Johann Joseph

Johann Joseph Gassner

A celebrated exorcist ; b. 22 Aug., 1727, at Braz, Vorarlberg, Austria ; d. 4 April, 1779, at ...
Gaston, William

William Gaston

Jurist; b. at Newbern, North Carolina , U.S.A. 19 Sept., 1778: d. at Raleigh, North Carolina ...
Gatianus, Saint

St. Gatianus

Founder and bishop of Tours ; b. probably at Rome ; d. at Tours, 20 December, 301. He came ...
Gau, Franz Christian

Franz Christian Gau

Architect and archeologist, b. at Cologne, 15 June, 1790; d. at Paris, January, 1854. In 1809 he ...
Gaubil, Antoine

Antoine Gaubil

A French Jesuit and missionary to China, b. at Gaillac (Aveyron), 14 July, 1689; d. at Peking, ...
Gaudentius of Brescia

Gaudentius of Brescia

(GAUDENTIUS BRIXIENSIS or BONTEMPS.) A theologian of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins ; ...
Gaudentius, Saint

St. Gaudentius

Bishop of Brescia from about 387 until about 410; he was the successor of the writer on ...
Gaudete Sunday

Gaudete Sunday

The third Sunday of Advent, so called from the first word of the Introit at Mass ( Gaudete ...
Gaudier, Antoine de

Antoine de Gaudier

A writer on asectic theology ; b. at Château-Thierry, France, 7 January, 1572; d. at ...
Gaudiosus

Gaudiosus

Bishop of Tarazona (Turiasso), Spain ; died about 540. Our information concerning the life ...
Gaul, Christian

Christian Gaul

The Church of Gaul first appeared in history in connexion with the persecution at Lyons under ...
Gaultier, Aloisius-Edouard-Camille

Aloisius-Edouard-Camille Gaultier

Priest and schoolmaster; b. at Asti, Piedmont, about 1745, of French parents ; d. at Paris, 18 ...
Gaume, Jean-Joseph

Jean-Joseph Gaume

French theologian and author, b. at Fuans (Franche-Comté) in 1802; d. in 1879. While ...
Gavantus, Bartolommeo

Bartolommeo Gavantus

(GAVANTO) Liturgist, a member of the Barnabite Order ; b. at Monza, 1569; d. at Milan, 14 ...
Gaza

Gaza

( Hebrew 'Azzah , "the strong") A titular see of Palaestina Prima, in the Patriarchate ...
Gazzaniga, Pietro Maria

Pietro Maria Gazzaniga

A theologian, b. at Bergamo, Italy, 3 March, 1722; d. at Vicenza, 11 Dec., 1799. At a very ...
Gebhard (III) of Constance

Gebhard (III) of Constance

Bishop of that city and strenuous defender of papal rights against imperial encroachments ...
Gebhart, Emile

Emile Gebhart

A French professor and writer, b. 19 July, 1839, at Nancy ; d. 22 April, 1908, in Paris. He was ...
Gedeon

Gideon

Gideon or Gedeon (Hebrew "hewer"), also called JEROBAAL ( Judges 6:32 ; 7:1 ; etc.), and ...
Gegenbauer, Josef Anton

Josef Anton Gegenbauer

An accomplished German historical and portrait painter, b. 6 March, 1800, at Wangen, ...
Geiler von Kayserberg, Johann

Johann Geiler von Kayserberg

A celebrated German pulpit orator, b. at Schaffhausen, Switzerland, 16 March, 1445; d. at ...
Geissel, Johannes von

Johannes von Geissel

Cardinal, Archbishop of Cologne, b. 5 February, 1796, at Gimmeldingen, in the Palatinate; d. 8 ...
Gelasius I, Pope Saint

Pope St. Gelasius I

Died at Rome, 19 Nov., 496. Gelasius, as he himself states in his letter to the Emperor ...
Gelasius II, Pope

Pope Gelasius II

Born at Gaeta, year unknown; elected 24 Jan., 1118; died at Cluny, 29 Jan., 1119. No sooner had ...
Gelasius of Cyzicus

Gelasius of Cyzicus

Ecclesiastical writer. He was the son of a priest of Cyzicus, and wrote in Bithynia, about 475, ...
Gemblours

Gemblours

(Gembloux, Gemblacum) A suppressed Benedictine monastery about nine miles north-west of ...
Genealogy (in the Bible)

Genealogy (In the Bible)

The word genealogy occurs only twice in the New Testament : I Tim., i, 4, and Tit., iii, 9. ...
Genealogy of Christ

Genealogy of Christ

It is granted on all sides that the Biblical genealogy of Christ implies a number of exegetical ...
General Chapter

General Chapter

( Latin capitulum , a chapter). The daily assembling of a community for purposes of ...
General Judgment

General Judgment (Last Judgment)

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...
Generation

Generation

( Latin Vulgate, generatio ). This word, of very varied meaning, corresponds to the two ...
Genesareth

Genesareth

( Gennesaret .) This is the name given to the Lake of Tiberias in Luke 5:1; called ...
Genesius

Genesius

(1) Genesius (of Rome) A comedian at Rome, martyred under Diocletian in 286 or 303. Feast, 25 ...
Genevieve, Saint

St. Genevieve

Patroness of Paris, b. at Nanterre, c. 419 or 422; d. at Paris, 512. Her feast is kept on 3 ...
Genezareth, Land of

Land of Genezareth

By this name is designated in Mark, vi, 53, a district of Palestine bordering on the Sea of ...
Genga, Girolamo

Girolamo Genga

A painter, born at Urbino in 1476; died at the same place, 1551. This talented craftsman was ...
Gennadius I, Saint

St. Gennadius I

Patriarch of Constantinople (458-471), has left scarcely any writings. Facundus (Defensio, II, ...
Gennadius II

Gennadius II

Patriarch of Constantinople (1454-1456). His original name was George Scholarius ( Georgios ...
Gennadius of Marseilles

Gennadius of Marseilles

(GENNADIUS SCHOLASTICUS). A priest whose chief title to fame is his continuation of St. ...
Gennings, Edmund and John

Edmund and John Jennings

The first, a martyr for the Catholic Faith, and the second, the restorer of the English province ...
Genoa

Genoa

ARCHDIOCESE OF GENOA (JANUENSIS) Archdiocese in Liguria, Northern Italy. The city is situated ...
Gentile da Fabriano

Gentile Da Fabriano

Italian painter ; b. probably about 1378 in the District of the Marches; d. probably 1427. The ...
Gentiles

Gentiles

( Hebrew Gôyîm ; Greek ethne, ethnikoi , Hellenes ; Vulgate Gentes, Gentiles, ...
Gentili, Aloysius

Aloysius Gentili

Born 14 July, 1801, at Rome ; died 26 September, 1848, at Dublin. He was proficient in poetry, ...
Genuflexion

Kneeling and Genuflection

To genuflect [ Latin genu flectere , geniculare (post-classic), to bend the knee; Greek ...
Geoffrey of Clairvaux

Geoffrey of Clairvaux

A disciple of Bernard, was b. between the years 1115 and 1120, at Auxerre; d. some time after ...
Geoffrey of Dunstable

Geoffrey of Dunstable

Also known as GEOFFREY OF GORHAM. Abbot of St. Alban's, d. at St. Alban's, 26 Feb., 1146. He ...
Geoffrey of Monmouth

Geoffrey of Monmouth

(GAUFRIDUS ARTURUS, GALFRIDUS MONEMETENSIS, GALFFRAI or GRUFFYD AB ARTHUR). Bishop of St. ...
Geoffrey of Vendôme

Geoffrey of Vendome

(GOFFRIDUS ABBAS VINDOCINENSIS.) A cardinal, b. in the second half of the eleventh century of ...
Geography and the Church

Geography and the Church

The classic historians of geography, Alexander von Humboldt, Carl Ritter, and Oscar Peschel, never ...
Geography, Biblical

Biblical Geography

With the exception of the didactic literature, there is no book in the Bible which, to a greater ...
George Hamartolus

George Hamartolus

A monk at Constantinople under Michael III (842-867) and the author of a chronicle of some ...
George of Trebizond

George of Trebizond

A Greek scholar of the early Italian Renaissance ; b. in Crete (a Venetian possession from ...
George Pisides

George Pisides

(Or THE PISIDIAN). A Byzantine poet lived in the first half of the seventh century. From his ...
George the Bearded

George the Bearded

(Also called THE RICH.) Duke of Saxony, b. at Dresden, 27 August, 1471; d. in the same city, ...
George, Orders of Saint

Orders of St. George

Knights of St. George appear at different historical periods and in different countries as ...
George, Saint

St. George

Martyr, patron of England, suffered at or near Lydda, also known as Diospolis, in Palestine, ...
Georgetown University

Georgetown University

Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia , "is the oldest Catholic literary ...
Georgia

Georgia

STATISTICS The area of Georgia is 59,475 sq. m., and it is the largest of the original thirteen ...
Georgius Syncellus

Georgius Syncellus

(Greek Georgios ho Sygkellos ). Died after 810; the author of one of the more important ...
Gerace

Gerace

DIOCESE OF GERACE (HIERACENSIS). Diocese in the province of Reggio in Calabria (Southern Italy ...
Gerald, Saint

St. Gerald

Bishop of Mayo, an English monk, date of birth unknown; died 13 March, 731; followed St. ...
Geraldton

Geraldton

DIOCESE OF GERALDTON (GERALDTONENSIS). Diocese in Australia, established in 1898, comprises ...
Gerard Majella, Saint

St. Gerard Majella

Born in Muro, about fifty miles south of Naples, in April, 1726; died 16 October, 1755; ...
Gerard of Cremona

Gerard of Cremona

A twelfth-century student of Arabic science and translator from Arabic into Latin; born at ...
Gerard, Archbishop of York

Gerard, Archbishop of York

Date of birth unknown; died at Southwell, 21 May, 1108. He was a nephew of Walkelin, Bishop of ...
Gerard, Bishop of Toul, Saint

St. Gerard, Bishop of Toul

Born at Cologne, 935; died at Toul, 23 April, 994. Belonging to a wealthy and noble family, he ...
Gerard, John

John Gerard

Jesuit ; born 4 October, 1564; died 27 July, 1637. He is well known through his autobiography, a ...
Gerard, Richard

Richard Gerard

Confessor ; born about 1635; died 11 March, 1680 (O.S.). The Bromley branch of the Gerard ...
Gerard, Ven. Miles

Ven. Miles Gerard

Martyr ; born about 1550 at Wigan; executed at Rochester 13 (30?) April, 1590. Sprung perhaps ...
Gerardus Odonis

Gerardus Odonis

Also Geraldus Othonis , or Ottonis , a medieval theologian and Minister General of the ...
Gerasa

Gerasa

A titular see in the province of Arabia and the Patriarchate of Antioch. According to ...
Gerberon, Gabriel

Gabriel Gerberon

A Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation ; b. at St-Calais, Department of Sarthe, France, 12 ...
Gerbet, Olympe-Phillipe

Olympe-Philippe Gerbet

A French bishop and writer; b. at Poligny (Jura), 1798; d. at Perpignan (Pyrénées ...
Gerbillon, Jean-François

Jean-Francois Gerbillon

French missionary; born at Verdun, 4 June, 1654; died at Peking, China, 27 March, 1707. He ...
Gerdil, Hyacinthe Sigismond

Hyacinthe Sigismond Gerdil

Cardinal and theologian ; b. at Samoëns in Savoy, 20 June, 1718; d. at Rome, 12 August ...
Gerhard of Zütphen

Gerhard of Zutphen

(ZERBOLT OF ZUTPHEN) Born at Zütphen, 1367; died at Windesheim, 1398; a mystical writer ...
Gerhoh of Reichersberg

Gerhoh of Reichersberg

Provost of that place and Austin canon , one of the most distinguished theologians of Germany ...
Germain, Saint, Bishop of Auxerre

Saint Germain, Bishop of Auxerre

Bishop of Auxerre, born at Auxerre c. 380; died at Ravenna, 31 July, 448. He was the son of ...
Germain, Saint, Bishop of Paris

Saint Germain, Bishop of Paris

Bishop of Paris ; born near Autun, Saône-et-Loire, c. 496; died at Paris, 28 May, 576. ...
Germaine Cousin, Saint

St. Germaine Cousin

Born in 1579 of humble parents at Pibrac, a village about ten miles from Toulouse ; died in ...
German Gardiner, Blessed

Bl. German Gardiner

Last martyr under Henry VIII ; date of birth unknown; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1544; ...
German Literature

German Literature

I. FROM OLDEST PRE-CHRISTIAN PERIOD TO 800 A.D. There are no written monuments before the eighth ...
Germanicia

Germanicia

A titular see in the province of Euphratensis and the patriarchate of Antioch; incorrectly ...
Germanicopolis

Germanicopolis

A titular see in the province of Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia. The city took its name from ...
Germans in the United States

Germans in the United States

Germans, either by birth or descent, form a very important element in the population of the ...
Germanus I, Saint

St. Germanus I

Patriarch of Constantinople (715-30), b. at Constantinople towards the end of the reign of ...
Germany

Germany

I. BEFORE 1556 From their first appearance in the history of the world the Germans represented ...
Germany, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern

Vicariate Apostolic of Northern Germany

(VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF THE NORTHERN MISSIONS) Its jurisdiction covers the Grand Duchies of ...
Germia

Germia

A titular see of Galatia Secunda, a suffragan of Pessinus ; mentioned by Hierocles in the ...
Gerona

Gerona

DIOCESE OF GERONA (GERUNDENSIS) The Diocese of Geronia in Catalonia, Spain, suffragan of ...
Gerrha

Gerrha

A titular see in the province of Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium in the Patriarchate ...
Gerson, Jean de Charlier de

Jean de Charlier de Gerson

The surname being the name of his native place; b. in the hamlet of Gerson 14 December, 1363; d. ...
Gertrude of Aldenberg, Blessed

Bl. Gertrude of Aldenberg

Abbess of the Premonstratensian convent of Aldenberg, near Wetzlar, in the Diocese of Trier ; ...
Gertrude of Hackeborn

Gertrude of Hackeborn

Cistercian Abbess of Helfta, near Eisleben; born near Halberstadt in 1232; died towards the end ...
Gertrude of Nivelles, Saint

St. Gertrude of Nivelles

Virgin, and Abbess of the Benedictine monastery of Nivelles; born in 626; died 17 March, 659. ...
Gertrude the Great, Saint

St. Gertrude the Great

Benedictine and mystic writer; born in Germany, 6 Jan., 1256; died at Helfta, near Eisleben, ...
Gertrude van der Oosten, Venerable

Ven. Gertrude van Der Oosten

Beguine ; born at Voorburch, Holland ; died at Delft, 6 Jan., 1358. She was born of peasant ...
Gervaise, Dom François Armand

Dom Francois Armand Gervaise

Discalced Carmelite, b. at Paris, 1660; d. at Reclus, France, 1761. After completing his ...
Gervase of Canterbury

Gervase of Canterbury

(GERVAS US DOROBORNENSIS) English chronicler, b. about 1141; d. in, or soon after, 1210. If ...
Gervase of Tilbury

Gervase of Tilbury

(TILBERIENSIS) Medieval writer, b. probably at Tilbury, in the County of Essex, England, ...
Gervase, George

George Gervase

(Jervise.) Priest and martyr, born at Boscham, Suffolk, England, 1571; died at Tyburn, 11 ...
Gervasius and Protasius, Saints

Sts. Gervasius and Protasius

Martyrs of Milan, probably in the second century, patrons of the city of Milan and of ...
Gesellenvereine

Gesellenvereine

German Catholic societies for the religious, moral, and professional improvement of young men. ...
Gesta Dei per Francos

Gesta Dei Per Francos

Gesta Dei per Francos is the title adopted by Guibert de Nogent (died about 1124) for his history ...
Gesta Romanorum

Gesta Romanorum

A medieval collection of anecdotes, to which moral reflections are attached. It was compiled ...
Gethsemane

Gethsemani

Gethsemani (Hebrew gat , press, and semen , oil) is the place in which Jesus Christ ...
Gethsemane, Abbey of Our Lady of

Abbey of Our Lady of Gethsemani

An abbey of the Order of Reformed Cistercians, commonly called Trappists, established in ...
Gezireh

Gezireh

Gezireh (or Djezireh), seat of two Catholic residential sees, one Chaldean, the other Syrian. ...
Gfrörer, August Friedrich

August Friedrich Gfroerer

German historian; b. at Calw, Würtemberg, 5 March, 1803; d. at Karlsbad, 6 July, 1861. ...
Ghardaia

Ghardaia

Prefecture Apostolic in the French Sahara, separated in 1901 from the Vicariate Apostolic of ...
Ghent

Ghent

DIOCESE OF GHENT (GANDENSIS or GANDAVENSIS). The Diocese of Ghent at present comprises the ...
Ghibellines and Guelphs

Guelphs and Ghibellines

Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the ...
Ghiberti, Lorenzo di Cione

Lorenzo di Cione Ghiberti

Sculptor ; b. at Florence about 1381; d. there, December, 1455. He ushered in the early ...
Ghirlandajo

Ghirlandajo

(D OMENICO DI T OMMASO B IGORDI ). A famous Florentine painter ; b. 1449; d. 11 Jan., ...
Ghislain, Saint

St. Ghislain

Confessor and anchorite in Belgium ; b. in the first half of the seventh century; d. at ...
Ghost Dance

Ghost Dance

The principal ceremonial rite of a peculiar Indian religion with originated about 1887 with ...
Giannone, Pietro

Pietro Giannone

Italian historian, born 7 May, 1676, at Ischitella in the province of Capinata, Naples ; died ...
Gibail and Batrun

Gibail and Batrun

A Maronite residential see. Gibail is merely the modern name of Byblos a titular see of ...
Gibault, Pierre

Pierre Gibault

Missionary, b. at Montreal, Canada, 1737; d. at New Madrid, about 1804; son of Pierre Gibault ...
Gibbons, John

John Gibbons

Jesuit theologian and controversialist; b. 1544, at or near Wells, Somersetshire; died 16 Aug. or ...
Gibbons, Richard

Richard Gibbons

Brother of Father John Gibbons, born at Winchester, 1550 or 1549; died at Douai, 23 June, 1632. ...
Giberti, Gian Matteo

Gian Matteo Giberti

Cardinal, and Bishop of Verona, the natural son of Francesco Giberti, a Genoese naval ...
Giberti, Jean-Pierre

Jean-Pierre Gibert

Canonist; b. at Aix, Provence, in 1660; d. at Paris in 1736. He became a cleric at an early ...
Gibraltar

Gibraltar

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF GIBRALTAR. Gibraltar is a rugged promontory in the province of ...
Gideon

Gideon

Gideon or Gedeon (Hebrew "hewer"), also called JEROBAAL ( Judges 6:32 ; 7:1 ; etc.), and ...
Giffard, Bonaventure

Bonaventure Giffard

Born at Wolverhampton, England, 1642; died at Hammersmith, Middlesex, 12 March, 1734; second son ...
Giffard, Godfrey

Godfrey Giffard

Bishop of Worcester, b. about 1235; d. 26 Jan., 1301. He was the son of Hugh Giffard of Boyton ...
Giffard, William

William Giffard

Second Norman Bishop of Winchester from 1100 to 1129. Little is known of his history anterior ...
Gifford, William

William Gifford

Archbishop of Reims ; b. in Hampshire, 1554; d. at Reims, 11 April, 1629. He was the son of ...
Gift of Miracles

Gift of Miracles

The gift of miracles is one of those mentioned by St. Paul in his First Epistle to the ...
Gift, Supernatural

Supernatural Gift

A supernatural gift may be defined as something conferred on nature that is above all the ...
Gil de Albornoz, Alvarez Carillo

Alvarez Carillo Gil de Albornoz

A renowned cardinal, general, and statesman; b. about 1310 at Cuenca in New Castile ; d. 23 ...
Gil of Santarem, Blessed

Blessed Gil of Santarem

A Portuguese Dominican : b. at Vaozela, diocese of Viseu, about 1185; d. at Santarem, 14 May, ...
Gilbert de la Porrée

Gilbert de la Porree

(Gilbertus Porretanus) Bishop of Poitiers, philosopher, theologian and general scholar; b. ...
Gilbert Foliot

Gilbert Foliot

Bishop of London, b. early in the twelfth century of an Anglo-Norman family and connected ...
Gilbert Islands

Gilbert Islands

Vicariate apostolic ; comprises the group of that name, besides the islands of Ellice and ...
Gilbert of Sempringham, Saint

St. Gilbert of Sempringham

Founder of the Order of Gilbertines , b. at Sempringham, on the border of the Lincolnshire fens, ...
Gilbert, Nicolas-Joseph-Laurent

Nicolas-Joseph-Laurent Gilbert

Poet, b. at Fontenoy-le-Château, 1751; d. at Paris, 12 November, 1780. His parents were ...
Gilbert, Sir John Thomas

Sir John Thomas Gilbert

Irish archivist and historian, b. in Dublin, 23 January, 1829; d. there, 23 May, 1898. He was ...
Gilbertines, Order of

Order of Gilbertines

Founded by St. Gilbert, about the year 1130, at Sempringham, Gilbert's native place, where he was ...
Gildas, Saint

St. Gildas

Surnamed the Wise; b. about 516; d. at Houat, Brittany, 570. Sometimes he is called "Badonicus" ...
Giles, Saint

St. Giles

(Latin Ægidius.) An Abbot, said to have been born of illustrious Athenian parentage ...
Gillespie, Eliza Maria

Eliza Maria Gillespie

(In religion Mother Mary of St. Angela). Born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, 21 ...
Gillespie, Neal Henry

Neal Henry Gillespie

Brother of Eliza Maria Gillespie ; b. in Washington County, Pennsylvania, 19 January 1831; d. at ...
Gillis, James

James Gillis

Scottish bishop ; b. at Montreal, Canada, 7 April, 1802; d. at Edinburgh, 24 February 1864. He ...
Gilmore, Patrick Sarsfield

Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore

A musician, born at Ballygar Galway, Ireland, 25 Dec., 1829; died at St. Louis, 24 Sept., 1892; ...
Gindarus

Gindarus

A titular see of Syria Prima, in the Patriarchate of Antioch. Pliny (Hist. nat. V, 81) ...
Ginoulhiac, Jacques-Marie-Achille

Jacques-Marie-Achille Ginoulhiac

A French bishop ; b. at Montpellier (department of Herault) 3 Dec., 1806; d. there 17 Nov., ...
Gioberti, Vincenzo

Vincenzo Gioberti

An Italian statesman and philosopher ; b. at Turin, 5 April, 1801; d. at Paris, 26 October, ...
Giocondo, Fra Giovanni

Fra Giovanni Giocondo

An Italian architect, antiquary, archaeologist, and classical scholar, b. in Verona, c. 1445; ...
Giordani, Tommasso

Tommasso Giordani

A composer, b. at Naples in 1738; d. at Dublin, Ireland, February 1806. The family came to ...
Giordano, Luca

Luca Giordano

Neapolitan painter ; b. at Naples, 1632; d. in the same place, 12 Jan., 1705. He was esteemed ...
Giorgione

Giorgione

(GIORGIO BARBARELLI, ZORZO DA CASTELFRANCO) Italian painter, b. at Castelfranco in or before ...
Giotto di Bondone

Giotto di Bondone

A Florentine painter, and founder of the Italian school of painting, b. most probably, in 1266 ...
Giovanelli, Ruggiero

Ruggiero Giovanelli

Composer, b. at Velletri, near Rome, in 1560; d. at Rome, 7 January, 1625. In 1584 he was ...
Giovanni Dominici, Blessed

Blessed Giovanni Dominici

(BANCHINI or BACCHINI was his family name). Cardinal, statesman and writer, born at ...
Giraldi, Giovanni Battista

Giovanni Battista Giraldi

(Surnamed CINTIO) Italian dramatist and novelist; b. at Ferrara, Italy, 1504; d. there, ...
Giraldi, Ubaldo

Ubaldo Giraldi

(UBALDUS A SANCTO CAJETANO). An Italian canonist; b. in 1692; d. in 1775. He was a member of ...
Giraldus Cambrensis

Giraldus Cambrensis

Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald de Barry) was a distinguished writer, historian, and ecclesiastic of ...
Girard, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Girard

Known as Père Girard, a Swiss pedagogue, b. at Fribourg, 17 December, 1765; d. there, 6 ...
Girardon, François

Francois Girardon

A noted sculptor of the reign of Louis XIV, b. at Troyes, France, 1630; d. at Paris, 1715. The ...
Giraud de Borneil

Giraud de Borneil

A Provençal troubadour, b. about the middle of the twelfth century, at Excideuil in the ...
Girba

Girba

A titular see in the province of African Tripoli. It is an island, in ancient times called ...
Girgenti

Girgenti

DIOCESE OF GIRGENTI (AGRIGENTINA). Girgenti is the capital of a province in Sicily and is ...
Gisbert, Blaise

Blaise Gisbert

French rhetorician and critic; born at Cahors, 21 February, 1657; died at Montpellier, 21 ...
Giuliani, Veronica

St. Veronica Giuliani

Born at Mercatello in the Duchy of Urbino, Italy, 1660; died at Citt` di Castello, 9 July, 1727. ...
Giulio Romano

Giulio Romano

Properly GIULIO DEI GIANNUZZI, also known as GIULIO PIPPI. A famous architect and painter, the ...
Giuseppe Giusti

Giuseppe Giusti

A poet and patriot ; b. 1809, at Monsumano near Pescia, Italy ; d. 31 March, 1850, at ...
Giuseppe Maria Tommasi, Blessed

Bl. Giuseppe Maria Tommasi

A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...
Glaber, Raoul

Raoul Glaber

Benedictine chronicler; b. in Burgundy before 1000; d. at Cluny about 1050. In early boyhood he ...
Glabrio, Manius Acilius

Manius Acilius Glabrio

Consul at Rome during A.D. 91, with Trajan. He belonged to one of the noblest families of ...
Glagolitic

Glagolitic

(Or G LAGOLITSA ; Slavonic glagol, a word; glagolati, to speak). An ancient alphabet ...
Glaire, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Glaire

Priest, hebraist, and Biblical scholar; b. at Bordeaux, 1 April, 1798; d. at Issy, near Paris, ...
Glanville, Ranulf de

Ranulf de Glanville

Chief Justiciar of England ; b. at Stratford, Suffolk, England, date unknown; d. before Acre, ...
Glarean, Henry

Henry Glarean

(LORITI) The most distinguished of Swiss humanists, poet, philosopher, geographer, ...
Glasgow

Glasgow

I. ARCHDIOCESE OF GLASGOW (GLASGUENSIS) Archdiocese in the south-west of Scotland, comprising at ...
Glastonbury Abbey

Glastonbury Abbey

[G LESTINGABURH; called also Y NISWITRIN (Isle of Glass) and A VALON (Isle of Apples)] ...
Glebe

Glebe

Glebe ( Latin gleba ) originally signified, in common law , any farm, estate, or parcel of ...
Glendalough, School of

School of Glendalough

Glendalough (the Valley of the Two Lakes) is a picturesque and lonely glen in the heart of the ...
Gloria in Excelsis Deo

Gloria in Excelsis Deo

The great doxology ( hymnus angelicus ) in the Mass is a version of a very old Greek form". ...
Gloria, Laus et Honor

Gloria, Laus Et Honor

A hymn composed by St. Theodulph of Orléans in 810, in Latin elegiacs, of which the ...
Glory

Glory

This word has many shades of meaning which lexicographers are somewhat puzzled to differentiate ...
Glory Be

Doxology

In general this word means a short verse praising God and beginning, as a rule, with the Greek ...
Glosses, Glossaries, Glossarists

Glosses, Glossaries, Glossarists

(IN CANON LAW) A gloss (Gk. glossa , Lat. glossa , tongue, speech) is an interpretation ...
Glosses, Scriptural

Scriptural Glosses

I. ETYMOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL MEANINGS The modern English word gloss is derived directly from the ...
Glossolalia

Gift of Tongues (Glossolalia)

(Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...
Gloves, Episcopal

Episcopal Gloves

Liturgical gloves ( chirothecœ , called also at an earlier date manicœ , wanti ...
Gluttony

Gluttony

(From Lat. gluttire , to swallow, to gulp down), the excessive indulgence in food and drink. ...
Gnesen-Posen

Gnesen-Posen

Archdiocese in the Kingdom of Prussia. The archdiocese includes the Dioceses of Gnesen and ...
Gnosticism

Gnosticism

The doctrine of salvation by knowledge. This definition, based on the etymology of the word ( ...
Goa

Goa

(GOANENSIS.) Patriarchate of the East Indies, the chief see of the Portuguese dominions in the ...
Goajira, Vicariate Apostolic of

Goajira

Goajira is the most northern portion of South America is a peninsula running into the Caribbean ...
Goar, Jacques

Jacques Goar

A Dominican and hellenist, b. at Paris, 1601, d. 23 September, 1653. He entered the convent of ...
Goar, Saint

St. Goar

An anchorite of Aquitaine; b. about 585; d. near Oberwesel (Germany), 6 July, 649. He came of a ...
Gobat, George

George Gobat

Moral theologian ; born at Charmoilles, in the Diocese of Basil, now in the Department of the ...
Gobban Saer

Gobban Saer

Regarded in traditional lore as the greatest Irish architect of the seventh century, and ...
Gobelinus, Person

Person Gobelinus

(Persona.) Born in 1358; died 17 November, 1421. He was a Westphalian and was known as an ...
God

God

Etymology of the Word "God" Discusses the root-meaning of the name "God", which is derived from ...
God, Existence of

Existence of God

The topic will be treated as follows: I. As Known Through Natural ReasonA. The Problem Stated1. ...
God, Nature and Attributes of

Nature and Attributes of God

I. As Known Through Natural ReasonA. Infinity of GodB. Unity or Unicity of God C. Simplicity of ...
God, Relation of the Universe to

Relation of God to the Universe

1. Essential Dependence of the Universe on God (Creation and Conservation) In developing the ...
God, Three Persons of

The Blessed Trinity

This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...
Godard, Saint

St. Godard

(Also spelled GOTHARD, GODEHARD). Bishop of Hildesheim in Lower Saxony ; born about the ...
Godden, Thomas

Thomas Godden

(True name Tylden.) Born at Addington, Kent, 1624; died in London, 1 Dec., 1688. His father, ...
Godeau, Antoine

Antoine Godeau

Bishop, poet and exegete ; b. at Dreux in the diocese of Chartres, 1605; d. at Vence, 21 ...
Godeberta, Saint

St. Godeberta

Born about the year 640, at Boves, a few leagues from Amiens, in France ; died about the ...
Godelina, Saint

St. Godelina

(GODELINA.) Born at Hondeforte-lez-Boulogne, c. 1049; died at Ghistelles, 6 July, 1070. The ...
Godet des Marais, Paul

Paul Godet Des Marais

Bishop of Chartres, France ; b. at Talcy, near Blois, 1647; d. at Chartres, 1709. He studied ...
Godfrey Goodman

Godfrey Goodman

Born at Ruthin, Denbighshire, 28 February, 1582-3; died at Westminster, 19 January, 1656. He was ...
Godfrey of Bouillon

Godfrey of Bouillon

Duke of Lower Lorraine and first King of Jerusalem, son of Eustache II, Count of Boulogne, and ...
Godfrey of Fontaines

Godfrey of Fontaines

(GODEFRIDUS DE fontIBUS, DOCTOR VENERANDUS) A scholastic philosopher and theologian ; born ...
Godfrey of Viterbo

Godfrey of Viterbo

German writer of the twelfth century. Nothing is known as to the place or date of his birth, ...
Godinez

Michael Wadding

(GODINEZ). Mystical theologian, born at Waterford, Ireland, in 1591; died in Mexico, Dec. ...
Godric

Godric

The name of two Abbots of Croyland. Godric I (870-941) Godrick I was the successor of the Abbot ...
Goesport, John Wessel

John Wessel Goesport (Gansfort)

(GANSFORT). A fifteenth-century Dutch theologian, born at Gröningen in 1420; died there ...
Goetz, Marie Josephine

Marie Josephine Goetz

Second superior-general of the Society of the Sacred Heart, daughter of Joseph Goetz of ...
Goffe, Stephen

Stephen Goffe

(Or Gough) Oratorian; b. 1605; d. at Paris, Christmas Day, 1681. He was the son of Stephen ...
Goffine, Leonard

Leonard Goffine

(Or G OFFINÉ ). Born at Cologne, or according to some, at Broich, 6 December, 1648; ...
Gog and Magog

Gog and Magog

Names, respectively, of a king and of his supposed kingdom, mentioned several times in chapters 38 ...
Golden Bull

Bulla Aurea (Golden Bull)

(Golden Bull ). A fundamental law of the Holy Roman Empire; probably the best known of all ...
Golden Calf

Golden Calf

An object of worship among the Hebrews, mention of which occurs principally in Exodus 32 where ...
Golden Rose

Golden Rose

A precious and sacred ornament made of pure gold by skilled artificers, which the popes have ...
Goldoni, Carlo

Carlo Goldoni

Dramatist; b. at Venice, 25 Feb., 1707; d. at Paris, 6 Jan., 1793. Goldoni is especially ...
Goldwell, Thomas

Thomas Goldwell

Bishop of St. Asaph, the last survivor of the ancient hierarchy of England ; b. probably at ...
Golgotha

Mount Calvary

The place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ. NAME Etymology and Use The word Calvary ( ...
Gomes De Amorim, Francisco

Francisco Gomes de Amorim

Portuguese poet, dramatist, and novelist; b. at Avelomar, near Oporto, 13 August, 1827; d. 4 ...
Gondulphus

Gondulphus

(GUNDULFUS). The name of three saints, of whom one was Bishop of Tongres (Maestricht), the ...
Gonet, Jean Baptiste

Jean Baptiste Gonet

Theologian, b. about 1616 at Beziers, in the province of Languedoc; d. there 24 Jan., 1681. From ...
Gonnelieu, Jérôme de

Jerome de Gonnelieu

Theologian, ascetical writer, and preacher; born at Soissons, 8 Sept., 1640; died at Paris, 28 ...
González de Santalla, Thyrsus

Thyrsus Gonzalez de Santalla

Theologian and thirteenth general of the Society of Jesus, b. at Arganda, Spain, 18 January, ...
González, Zeferino

Zeferino Gonzalez

Dominican, cardinal, theologian, and philosopher, b. at Villoria in the Province and Diocese ...
Gonzaga, Ercole

Ercole Gonzaga

(Hercules.) Cardinal ; b. at Mantua, 23 November, 1505; d. 2 March, 1563. He was the Son of ...
Gonzaga, Saint Aloysius

St. Aloysius Gonzaga

Born in the castle of Castiglione, 9 March, 1568; died 21 June, 1591. At eight he was placed in ...
Gonzaga, Scipione

Scipione Gonzaga

Cardinal ; b. at Mantua, 11 November, 1542; d. at San Martino, 11 January, 1593. He belonged to ...
Gonzalez, Saint Peter

St. Peter Gonzalez

Popularly known as St. Elmo, b. in 1190 at Astorga, Spain ; d. 15 April, 1246, at Tuy. He was ...
Gonzalo de Berceo

Gonzalo de Berceo

Spanish poet, active between 1220 and 1242. Born in the closing years on twelfth century, he ...
Good

Good

"Good" is one of those primary ideas which cannot be strictly defined. In order to fix its ...
Good Faith

Good Faith

A phrase employed to designate the mental and moral state of honest, even if objectively ...
Good Friday

Good Friday

Definition and etymology Good Friday, called Feria VI in Parasceve in the Roman Missal, he ...
Good Hope, Cape of (Eastern)

Eastern Vicariate of the Cape of Good Hope

The Eastern Vicariate of the Cape of Good Hope was established in 1847, when the Vicariate of the ...
Good Hope, Cape of (Western)

Western Vicariate of the Cape of Good Hope

The Western vicariate and the Central prefecture, although different in name, are virtually one. ...
Good Samaritan, Sisters of the

Sisters of the Good Samaritan

A congregation of Tertiaries Regular of St. Benedict, established 2 February, 1857, at Sydney, ...
Good Shepherd, Our Lady of Charity of the

Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd

The aim of this institute is to provide a shelter for girls and women of dissolute habits, who ...
Good, Highest, The

The Highest Good

"We always act with a view to some good. The good is the object which all pursue, and for the ...
Goodman, Ven. John

Ven. John Goodman

Priest and martyr ; born in the Diocese of Bangor, Wales, 1590; died 1642. He was educated at ...
Goossens, Pierre-Lambert

Pierre-Lambert Goossens

Cardinal, Archbishop of Mechlin (Belgium), b. at Perck, near Vilvorde, 18 July, 1827; d. at ...
Gordian

Gordian

( Latin GORDIANUS.) There were three Roman emperors of this name, who reigned between A.D. ...
Gordianus and Epimachus, Saints

Sts. Gordianus and Epimachus

Martyrs, suffered under Julian the Apostate , 362, commemorated on 10 May. Gordianus was a judge ...
Gordon Riots

Gordon Riots

This agitation, so called from the head and spirit of the movement, Lord George Gordon, ...
Gordon, Andrew

Andrew Gordon

A Benedictine monk, physicist ; b. 15 June, 1712, at Cofforach in Forfarshire, Scotland ; d. ...
Gordos

Gordos

A titular see in the province of Lydia, suffragan of Sardis. The city is mentioned by Strabo, ...
Gorgonius, Saint

St. Gorgonius

Martyr, suffered in 304 at Nicomedia during the persecution of Diocletian. Gorgonius held a high ...
Gorkum, The Martyrs of

The Martyrs of Gorkum

The year 1572, Luther and Calvin had already wrested from the Church a great part of Europe. ...
Gortyna

Gortyna

A titular see, and in the Greek Church metropolitan see, of the Island of Crete. The city, ...
Goscelin

Goscelin

(Or GOTSELIN, according to the spelling in the earliest manuscripts of his works.) A ...
Gospel and Gospels

Gospel and Gospels

The word Gospel usually designates a written record of Christ's words and deeds. It is very ...
Gospel in the Liturgy

Gospel in the Liturgy

I. HISTORY From the very earliest times the public reading of parts of the Bible was an important ...
Gospel of Mark

Gospel of Mark

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Contents, Selection and Arrangement of ...
Goss, Alexander

Alexander Goss

Second Bishop of Liverpool ; born at Ormskirk, Lancashire, 5 July, 1814; died. at St. Edward's ...
Gossaert, Jan

Jan Gossaert

Called M ABUSE from Maubeuge in Hainaut. Flemish painter ; b. about 1472; d. at Middelburg ...
Gosselin, Jean-Edmé-Auguste

Jean-Edme-Auguste Gosselin

Ecclesiastical author; b. at Rouen, France, 28 Sept., 1787; d. at Paris, 27 Nov., 1858. He ...
Gother, John

John Gother

(Or JOHN GOTER) Priest and controversialist; b. at Southampton, date unknown; d. at sea on a ...
Gothic Architecture

Gothic Architecture

The term Gothic was first used during the later Renaissance, and as a term of contempt. Says ...
Gottfried von Strasburg

Gottfried von Strasburg

One of the greatest of Middle High German epic poets. Of his life we know absolutely nothing; ...
Gotti, Vincent Louis

Vincent Louis Gotti

Cardinal and theologian, b. at Bologna, 5 Sept., 1664; d. in Rome, 18 Sept., 1742. He received ...
Gottschalk of Orbais

Gottschalk of Orbais

A medieval theologian ; b. about 800, d. after 866, probable 30 October, 868 (or 869), in the ...
Gottschalk, Saint

St. Gottschalk

(GODESCALCUS). Martyr Prince of the Wends; d. at Lenzen on the Elbe, 7 June 1066. His feast ...
Goulburn

Goulburn

(Gulburnensis). One of the six suffragan sees of the ecclesiastical province of Sydney, ...
Gounod, Charles-François

Charles-Francois Gounod

One of the most distinguished French musicians and composers of the nineteenth century, b. in ...
Goupil, René

Rene Goupil

Jesuit missionary; born 1607, in Anjou; martyred in New York State, 23 September, 1642. Health ...
Gousset, Thomas-Marie-Joseph

Thomas-Marie-Joseph Gousset

French cardinal and theologian ; b. at Montigny-les-Charlieu, a village of ...
Government Authority

Civil Authority

Civil Authority is the moral power of command, supported (when need be) by physical coercion, ...
Gower, John

John Gower

Poet; born between 1327-1330, probably in Kent; died October, 1408. He was of gentle blood and ...
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco José de

Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes

Painter and etcher, b. in Fuendetodos, Aragon, Spain, 31 March, 1746; d. in Bordeaux, 16 ...
Goyaz, Diocese of

Goyaz

(Goyasiensis). Co-extensive with the state of the same name, one of the twenty states which, with ...
Gozo, Diocese of

Gozo

The diocese of Gozo (Goulos-Gaudisiensis), comprises the Island of Gozo in the Mediterranean ...
Gozzi, Carlo

Carlo Gozzi

Italian author, born at Venice, 1720; died 1806. He spent in military service three years that ...
Gozzoli

Gozzoli

(BENOZZO DI LESE DI SANDRO, surnamed GOZZOLI). Painter ; b. at Florence, 1420; d. at Pisa ...
Gozzolini, Saint Sylvester

St. Sylvester Gozzolini

Founder of the Sylvestrines, b. of the noble family of the Gozzolini at Osimo, 1177; d. 26 ...
Grässel, Lorenz

Lorenz Grassel

Coadjutor-elect of Baltimore ; born at Ruemannsfelden, Bavaria, 18 August, 1753; died at ...
Gröne, Valentin

Valentin Grone

A Catholic theologian, b. at Paderborn, 7 December, 1817; d. at Irmgarteichen, in the district ...
Grün, Anastasius

Anastasius Grun

A pseudonym for Anton Alexander (Maria), Count von Auersperg, an Austrian poet; b. at Laibach in ...
Grace

Grace

Actual Grace Explains the concept of actual grace, which is defined in the article as "a ...
Grace at Meals

Grace at Meals

In Apostolic times St. Paul counsels the faithful: "Whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever ...
Grace, Actual

Actual Grace

Grace ( gratia, Charis ), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual creatures ...
Grace, Controversies on

Controversies on Grace

These are concerned chiefly with the relation between grace and free will. How can the ...
Grace, Supernatural

Sanctifying Grace

Grace ( gratia, Charis ), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual ...
Grace, William Russell

William Russell Grace

Philanthropist and merchant, born at Cork, Ireland, 10 May, 1832; died at New York, 21 March, ...
Gradual

Gradual

( Latin Graduale , from gradus , a step) Gradual, in English often called Grail, is the ...
Gradual Psalms

Gradual Psalms

Fifteen psalms -- namely, Psalms 119-133 (in Hebrew 120-134) -- bear a Hebrew inscription which ...
Gradwell, Robert

Robert Gradwell

Bishop; b. at Clifton-in-the-Fylde, Lancashire, 26 Jan., 1777; d. in London, 15 March, 1833; went ...
Graffiti

Graffiti

The term in common usage among archaeologists to designate a class of rude inscriptions scratched ...
Graham, Patrick

Patrick Graham

First Archbishop of St. Andrews and Metropolitan of Scotland, date of birth uncertain; d. ...
Grail, The Holy

The Holy Grail

The name of a legendary sacred vessel , variously identified with the chalice of the Eucharist ...
Gramont, Eugénie de

Eugenie de Gramont

Religious of the Society of the Sacred Heart ; b. at Versailles, 17 September, 1788; d. at ...
Gran

Gran

( Hungarian ESZTERGOM; Latin STRIGONIUM, STRIGONIENSIS) Located in Hungary. From the ...
Granada

Granada

Archdiocese of Granada (Granatensis). Archdiocese in Spain, founded by St. Cecilius about ...
Granada, University of

University of Granada

The origin of this university is to be traced to the Arab school at Cordova, which, when the ...
Grancolas, Jean

Jean Grancolas

Doctor of the Sorbonne, theologian, liturgist; b. near Chateaudun, about 1660; d. at Paris, 1 ...
Grand Rapids

Grand Rapids

(Grandormensis) Diocese created 12 May, 1882 out of the diocese of Detroit, and made to ...
Grande Chartreuse, La

La Grande Chartreuse

The mother-house of the Carthusian Order lies in a high valley of the Alps of Dauphine, at an ...
Granderath, Theodor

Theodor Granderath

Born 19 June, 1839, at Giesenkirchen, Rhine Province; died 19 March, 1902, at Valkenburg, ...
Grandidier, Philippe-André

Philippe-Andre Grandidier

Priest and historian, b. at Strasburg, Alsace, 9 Nov., 1752; d. at the Abbey of Luntzel ...
Grandmont, Abbey and Order of

Grandmont

Abbey and Order in the department of Hte-Vienne, France. The exact date of the foundation of the ...
Grant, Thomas

Thomas Grant

First Bishop of Southwark ; b. at Ligny-les-Aires, Arras, France, 25 Nov., 1816; d. at Rome, ...
Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de

Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle

Known in history as CARDINAL DE GRANVELLE (GRANVELLA). Born at Ornans in Franche-Comté, ...
Gras, Venerable Louise de Marillac Le

Venerable Louise de Marillac Le Gras

Foundress of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul , born at Paris, 12 August, 1591, ...
Grasse, François-Joseph-Paul

Grasse

Count and Marquess de Grasse-Tilly, lieutenant-general of the naval forces; b. near Toulon, 1723; ...
Grassis, Paris de

Paris de Grassis

Master of ceremonies to Julius II and Leo X ; b. at Bologna, about 1470; d. at Rome, 10 June, ...
Gratian

Gratian

Roman Emperor; son of Valentinian I; born at Sirmium, 359; died at Lyons, 383. Before he had ...
Gratian, Jerome

Jerome Gratian

Spiritual director of St. Teresa and first Provincial of the Discalced Carmelites ; born at ...
Gratian, Johannes

Johannes Gratian

(GRATIANUS). The little that is known concerning the author of the "Concordantia discordantium ...
Gratianopolis

Gratianopolis

A titular see in Caesarea Mauretania, Africa. This city does not figure in a list of the ...
Gratius, Ortwin

Ortwin Gratius

(VAN GRAES) Humanist ; b. 1475 at Holtwick, near Coesfeld, Westphalia ; d. at Cologne, 22 ...
Gratry, Auguste-Joseph-Alphonse

Auguste-Joseph-Alphonse Gratry

French priest and writer; b. at Lille, 30 March, 1805; d. at Montreux, Switzerland, 7 February, ...
Gratz, Peter Aloys

Peter Aloys Gratz

Schoolmaster and exegete, b. 17 Aug., 1769, at Mittelberg, Allgäu, Bavaria ; d. at ...
Gravier, Jacques

Jacques Gravier

Jesuit missionary; born 1651 at Moulins, where he studied classics and philosophy under the ...
Gravina and Montepeloso

Gravina and Montepeloso

DIOCESE OF GRAVINA AND MONTEPELOSO (GRAVINENSIS ET MONTIS PELUSII). Gravina is a town in the ...
Gravina, Dominic

Dominic Gravina

Theologian ; b. in Sicily, about 1573; d. in the Minerva, at Rome, 26 Aug., 1643. He entered the ...
Gravina, Giovanni Vincenzo

Giovanni Vincenzo Gravina

Italian jurist and littérateur of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; b. at ...
Graz, University of

University of Graz

The University of Graz, located in the capital of the Province of Steiermark, owes its ...
Great Falls

Great Falls

DIOCESE OF GREAT FALLS (GREATORMENSIS). Created by Pope Pius X, 18 May, 1904; comprises the ...
Greco, El

El Greco

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...
Greece

Greece

Greece will be treated in this article under the following heads: I. The Land and the People; II. ...
Greek Catholics in America

Greek Catholics in America

The Uniat churches of the Byzantine or Greek Rite were almost unknown to the United States ...
Greek Church

Greek Church

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Explanation of Terms; II. The Greek ...
Greek Orthodox Church in America

Greek Orthodox Church in America

The name Orthodox Church is generally used to distinguish those of the Greek Rite who are ...
Greek Rites

Greek Rites

(1) Rite, Language, Religion These are three things that must always be distinguished. A rite is ...
Green Bay

Green Bay (Wisconsin)

(SINUS VIRIDIS) The Diocese of Green Bay — established 3 March, 1868, from the territory ...
Green, Hugh

Hugh Green

Martyr ; born about 1584; martyred 19 August, 1642. His parents, who were Protestants, sent him ...
Green, Thomas Louis

Thomas Louis Green

Priest and controversialist; b. at Stourbridge, Worcestershire, 1799; d. at Newport, Shropshire, ...
Greenland

Greenland

An island stretching from within the Arctic Circle south to about 59 degrees N. latitude, being ...
Gregorian Chant

Gregorian Chant

The name is often taken as synonymous with plain chant, comprising not only the Church music of ...
Gregory Bæticus

Gregory Baeticus

Bishop of Elvira, in the province of Baetica, Spain, from which he derived his surname; d. ...
Gregory I, Pope Saint

St. Gregory the Great

Doctor of the Church ; born at Rome about 540; died 12 March 604. Gregory is certainly one of ...
Gregory II, Pope Saint

Pope St. Gregory II

(Reigned 715-731). Perhaps the greatest of the great popes who occupied the chair of Peter ...
Gregory III, Pope Saint

Pope St. Gregory III

(Reigned 731-741.) Pope St. Gregory III was the son of a Syrian named John. The date of his ...
Gregory IV, Pope

Pope Gregory IV

Elected near the end of 827; died January, 844. When Gregory was born is not known, but he was a ...
Gregory IX

Pope Gregory IX

(UGOLINO, Count of Segni). Born about 1145, at Anagni in the Campagna; died 22 August, 1241, ...
Gregory of Heimburg

Gregory of Heimburg

Humanist and Statesman, b. at Würzburg in the beginning of the fifteenth century; d. at ...
Gregory of Nazianzus, Saint

St. Gregory of Nazianzus

Doctor of the Church, born at Arianzus, in Asia Minor, c. 325; died at the same place, 389. He ...
Gregory of Neocaesarea, Saint

St. Gregory of Neocaesarea

Known at THAUMATURGUS, ( ho Thaumatourgos , the miracle-worker). Born at Neocæsarea in ...
Gregory of Nyssa, Saint

Saint Gregory of Nyssa

Date of birth unknown; died after 385 or 386. He belongs to the group known as the "Cappadocian ...
Gregory of Rimini, Saint

Gregory of Rimini

An Augustinian theologian ; born at Rimini, Italy, in the second half of the thirteenth ...
Gregory of Tours, Saint

St. Gregory of Tours

Born in 538 or 539 at Arverni, the modern Clermont-Ferrand; died at Tours, 17 Nov., in 593 or ...
Gregory of Utrecht, Saint

St. Gregory of Utrecht

Abbot; b. about 707 or 708; d. 775 or 780. Gregory was born of a noble family at Trier. His ...
Gregory of Valencia

Gregory of Valencia

Professor of the University of Ingolstadt , b. at Medina, Spain, March, 1550 (1540, 1551?); d. ...
Gregory the Illuminator

Gregory the Illuminator

Born 257?; died 337?, surnamed the Illuminator (Lusavorich). Gregory the Illuminator is the ...
Gregory V, Pope

Pope Gregory V

Born c. 970; died 4 February, 999. On the death of John XV the Romans sent a deputation to Otto ...
Gregory VI

Gregory VI (Antipope)

On the death of Sergius IV in June, 1012, "a certain Gregory", opposed the election of ...
Gregory VI, Pope

Pope Gregory VI

(JOHN GRATIAN). Date of birth unknown; elected 1 May 1045; abdicated at Sutri, 20 December, ...
Gregory VII, Pope Saint

Pope St. Gregory VII

(HILDEBRAND). One of the greatest of the Roman pontiffs and one of the most remarkable men ...
Gregory VIII

Gregory VIII (Antipope)

Antipope. He was Mauritius Burdinus (Bordinho, Bourdin), who was placed upon the papal chair by ...
Gregory VIII, Pope

Pope Gregory VIII

(ALBERTO DI MORRA). Born about the beginning of the twelfth century, at Benevento ; elected ...
Gregory X

Pope Gregory X

Born 1210; died 10 January, 1276. The death of Pope Clement IV (29 November, 1268) left the ...
Gregory XI

Pope Gregory XI

(PIERRE ROGER DE BEAUFORT). Born in 1331, at the castle of Maumont in the Dioceses of Limoges ...
Gregory XII

Pope Gregory XII

(ANGELO CORRARIO, now CORRER). Legal pope during the Western Schism ; born at Venice, of a ...
Gregory XIII, Pope

Pope Gregory XIII

(UGO BUONCOMPAGNI). Born at Bologna, 7 Jan., 1502; died at Rome, 10 April, 1585. He studied ...
Gregory XIV, Pope

Pope Gregory XIV

(N ICCOLÒ S FONDRATI ). Born at Somma, near Milan, 11 Feb., 1535; died at Rome, 15 ...
Gregory XV, Pope

Pope Gregory XV

(ALESSANDRO LUDOVISI). Born at Bologna, 9 or 15 January, 1554; died at Rome, 8 July, 1623. ...
Gregory XVI, Pope

Pope Gregory XVI

(MAURO, or BARTOLOMEO ALBERTO CAPPELLARI). Born at Belluno, then in the Venetian territory, 8 ...
Greifswald, University of

University of Greifswald

The oldest university of Prussia, founded in 1456. Even before this, Greifswald had, for a short ...
Greith, Karl Johann

Karl Johann Greith

Bishop and church historian, b. at Rapperswyl, Switzerland, 25 May, 1897; d. at St. Gall, 17 ...
Gremiale

Gremiale

A square or oblong cloth which the bishop, according to the "Cæremoniale" and ...
Grenoble

Grenoble

DIOCESE OF GRENOBLE (GRATIANOPOLITANA) Now comprises the Department of Isère and the Canton ...
Gresemund, Dietrich

Dietrich Gresemund

German humanist ; b. in 1477, at Speyer ; d. 1512, at Mainz. His father, also named Dietrich, ...
Greslon, Adrien

Adrien Greslon

French missionary; b. at Perigueux, in 1618; entered the Society of Jesus at Bordeaux, 5 ...
Gresset, Jean Baptiste

Jean Baptiste Gresset

Born 29 August, 1709; died 16 June, 1777, at Amiens. Having finished his studies at the college ...
Gretser, Jacob

Jacob Gretser

A celebrated Jesuit writer; b. at Markdorf in the Diocese of Constance in 1562; d. at ...
Greuze, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Greuze

French painter, b. at Tournus in Ardeche, 21 August, 1725; d. at Paris, 21 March, 1805. His ...
Grey Nuns

Grey Nuns

The Order of Sisters of Charity of the Hôpital Général of Montreal, commonly ...
Grey Nuns of the Cross

Grey Nuns of the Cross

A community founded in 1745 at Monteal by Madame d'Youville, known as the Grey Sisters, or Grey ...
Griffin, Gerald

Gerald Griffin

A novelist, dramatist, lyricist; b. 12 December, 1803, at Limerick, Ireland ; d. at Cork, 12 ...
Griffin, Martin Ignatius Joseph

Martin Ignatius Joseph Griffin

Journalist, historian, b. at Philadelphia, 23 Oct., 1842; d. there, 10 Nov., 1911. In early ...
Griffiths, Thomas

Thomas Griffiths

Born in London, 2 June, 1791; died 19 August, 1847; the first and only Vicar Apostolic of the ...
Grillparzer, Franz

Franz Grillparzer

An Austrian poet, b. at Vienna, 15 January, 1791, d. 21 January, 1872. After desultory ...
Grimaldi, Francesco Maria

Francesco Maria Grimaldi

Italian physicist, b. at Bologna, 2 April, 1618; d. in the same city, 28 Dec., 1663. He entered ...
Grimaldi, Giovanni Francesco

Giovanni Francesco Grimaldi

An eclectic painter of the Bolognese school ; b. at Bologna, 1606; d. at Rome, 1680. He was a ...
Grimmelshausen, Johann Jacob Christoffel von

Johann Jacob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen

The greatest German novelist of the seventeenth century. What we know of his life is largely ...
Groote, Gerard

Gerard Groote

( Or Geert De Groote; Gerhardus Magnus.) Founder of the "Brethren of the Common Life" , b. ...
Gropper, John

John Gropper

An eminent jurist and theologian, b. 24 Feb., 1503, at Soest, Westphalia ; d. at Rome, 13 March, ...
Grosseteste, Robert

Robert Grosseteste

Bishop of Lincoln and one of the most learned men of the Middle Ages ; b. about 1175; d. 9 ...
Grosseto

Grosseto

(Grossetana) Grosseto, suffragan diocese of Siena, has for its episcopal city the capital ...
Grosswardein

Grosswardein

( Hungarian Nagy-Várad; Magno-Varadinensis) A diocese of the Latin Rite in ...
Grottaferrata, Abbey of

Abbey of Grottaferrata

( Latin Crypta ferrata .) A Basilian monastery near Rome, sometimes said to occupy the site ...
Grueber, Johann

Johann Grueber

A German Jesuit missionary in China and noted explorer of the seventeenth century; b. at Linz, ...
Guéranger, Prosper Louis Pascal

Prosper Louis Pascal Gueranger

Benedictine and polygraph; b. 4 April, 1805, at Sablé-sur-Sarthe; d. at Solesmes, 30 ...
Guérard, Robert

Robert Guerard

Born at Rouen, 1641; died at the monastery of Saint-Ouen, 2 January, 1715. For some time he ...
Guérin

Guerin

(1) Eugénie de Guérin A French writer; b. at the château of La Cayla, in ...
Guérin, Anne-Thérèse

Anne-Therese Guerin

(In religion, Mother Theodore) Born at Etables (Côte du Nord), Brittany, France, 2 ...
Guadalajara

Guadalajara

(Guadalaxara) Archdiocese in Mexico, separated from the Diocese of Michoacan by Paul III, 31 ...
Guadalupe, Shrine of

Shrine of Guadalupe

Guadalupe is strictly the name of a picture, but was extended to the church containing the ...
Guadeloupe

Guadeloupe

(Or Basse Terre; Guadalupensis; Imæ Telluris) Diocese in the West Indies, comprises the ...
Guadix, Diocese of

Guadix

(GUADICENSIS) The Diocese of Guadix, in Spain, comprises the greater part of the Province of ...
Guaicuri Indians

Guaicuri Indians

(Pronounced Waikuri .) A group of small tribes, speaking dialectic forms of a common ...
Guamanga, Diocese of

Ayacucho

( Or Guamanga). A Peruvian diocese, suffragan to Lima. The See of Guamanga was erected by ...
Guaraní Indians

Guarani Indians

(Pronounced Waraní .) One of the most important tribal groups of South America, ...
Guarantees, Law of

Law of Guarantees

(LA LEGGE DELLE GUARENTIGIE) A name given to the law passed by the senate and chamber of the ...
Guarda, Diocese of

Guarda

(EGITANIENSIS.) Province of Beira, Portugal. Near the episcopal city are the ruins of Idanha, ...
Guardi, Francesco

Francesco Guardi

Venetian painter ; born at Venice, 1712; died in the same city, 1793. He was a pupil of ...
Guardian Angels

Guardian Angels

( See also FEAST OF THE GUARDIAN ANGELS .) That every individual soul has a guardian angel ...
Guardian Angels, Feast of

Feast of Guardian Angels

This feast, like many others, was local before it was placed in the Roman calendar. It was not ...
Guardianship, in Civil Jurisprudence

Guardianship, in Civil Jurisprudence

Guardianship is "the condition or fact of being a guardian; the office or position of guardian" ...
Guarini, Battista

Battista Guarini

An Italian poet, b. at Ferrara, 1538, d. at Venice, 7 Oct., 1612. His father, Francesco ...
Guarino da Verona

Guarino Da Verona

A humanist, b. 1370, at Verona, Italy ; d. 1460, at Ferrara. He studied Latin in the school ...
Guastalla, Diocese of

Guastalla

(GUASTELLENSIS). In the province of Reggio Emilia (Central Italy ) on the left bank of the Po ...
Guastallines

Guastallines

Luigia Torelli, Countess of Guastalla (b. about 1500; d. 29 Oct., 1559 or 1569), widowed for ...
Guatemala, Santiago de

Santiago de Guatemala

(Sancti Jacobi majoris de Guatemala) Archdiocese conterminous with the Republic of Guatemala, ...
Guayaquil

Guayaquil

A RCHDIOCESE OF G UAYAQUIL (G UAYAQUILENSIS ). Guayaquil, the capital of the Ecuadorian ...
Gubbio

Gubbio

Diocese of Eugubinensis, in the province of Perugia in Umbria (Central Italy ). The city ...
Gudenus, Moritz

Moritz Gudenus

A German convert to the Catholic faith from the Protestant ministry; b. 11 April, 1596, at ...
Gudula, Saint

Saint Gudula

(Latin, Guodila ). Born in Brabant, Belgium, of Witger and Amalberga, in the seventh ...
Guelphs and Ghibellines

Guelphs and Ghibellines

Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the ...
Guglielmini, Giovanni Battista

Giovanni Battista Guglielmini

Scientist, b. at Bologna, 16 August, 1763; d. in the same city, l5 December, 1817. He is known as ...
Guiana

Guiana

(Or Guayana .) Guiana was the name given to all that region of South America which extends ...
Guibert of Ravenna

Guibert of Ravenna

An antipope, known as Clement III, 1080 (1084) to 1100; born at Parma about 1025; died at ...
Guicciardini, Francesco

Francesco Guicciardini

An historian and statesman; born at Florence, 1483; died there, 23 May, 1540. His parents, Piero ...
Guido of Arezzo

Guido of Arezzo

(Guido Aretinus). A monk of the Order of St. Benedict, b. (according to Dom Morin in the ...
Guigues du Chastel

Guigues du Chastel (Guigo de Castro)

(Guigo de Castro). Fifth prior of the Grande Chartreuse, legislator of the Carthusian Order ...
Guijon, André

Andre Guijon

Bishop and orator; born in November, 1548, at Autun ; died in September, 1631. He was the son ...
Guilds

Guilds

Guilds were voluntary associations for religious, social, and commercial purposes. These ...
Guiney, Patrick Robert

Patrick Robert Guiney

Second and eldest surviving son of James Roger Guiney and Judith Macrae; born at Parkstown, Co. ...
Guiscard, Robert

Robert Guiscard

Duke of Apulia and Calabria, founder of the Norman state of the Two Sicilies; born about 1016; ...
Guise, House of

House of Guise

The House of Guise, a branch of the ducal family of Lorraine, played an important part in the ...
Guitmund

Guitmund

A Bishop of Aversa, a Benedictine monk, theologian, and opponent of Berengarius ; born at an ...
Gulf of St. Lawrence

Gulf of St. Lawrence

Vicariate erected 12 September, 1905, and formed from the prefecture Apostolic of the same name ...
Gunpowder Plot, The

The Gunpowder Plot

(Oath taken May, 1604, plot discovered November, 1605). Robert Catesby, the originator of the ...
Gunther, Blessed

Blessed Gunther

A hermit in Bohemia in the eleventh century; b. about 955; d. at Hartmanitz, Bohemia, 9 ...
Gurk

Gurk

(GURCENSIS) A prince-bishopric of Carinthia, suffragan to Salzburg, erected by Archbishop ...
Gury, Jean-Pierre

Jean-Pierre Gury

Moral theologian ; b. at Mailleroncourt, Haute-Saône, 23 January, 1801; d. at Merc ur, ...
Gusmão, Bartholomeu Lourenço de

Bartholomeu Lourenco de Gusmao

Naturalist, and the first aeronaut; b. in 1685 at Santos in the province of São Paulo , ...
Gutenberg, Johann

Johann Gutenberg

(Henne Gänsfleisch zur Laden, commonly called Gutenberg). Inventor of printing; born about ...
Guthlac, Saint

St. Guthlac

Hermit; born about 673; died at Croyland, England, 11 April, 714. Our authority for the life ...
Guyon, Jeanne-Marie-Bouvier de La Motte-

Madame Guyon

A celebrated French mystic of the seventeenth century; born at Montargis, in the Orléanais, ...
Guzmán, Fernando Pérez de

Fernando Perez de Guzman

Señor de Batres; Spanish historian and poet (1376-1458). He belonged to a family ...
Györ

Gyor

( German RAAB; Latin JAURINENSIS). A Hungarian see, suffragan to the Archdiocese of ...

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