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The Celtic Rite

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This subject will be treated under the following seven heads:

I. History and Origin;
II. Manuscript Sources;
III. The Divine Office;
IV. The Mass;
V. The Baptismal Service;
VI. The Visitation, Unction, and Communion of the Sick;
VII. The Consecration of Churches;
VIII. Hymns.

I. HISTORY AND ORIGIN

The term "Celtic Rite " is generally, but rather indefinitely, applied to the various rites in use in Great Britain, Ireland, perhaps in Brittany, and sporadically in Northern Spain, and in the monasteries which resulted from the Irish missions of St. Columbanus in France, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, at a time when rites other than the then existing rite of Rome were used, wholly or partially, in those places. The term must not be taken to imply any necessary homogeneity, for the evidence such as it is, is in favour of considerable diversity. This evidence is very scanty and fragmentary, and much of what has been written about it has been largely the result of conjectures based upon very insecure foundations, and has been influenced by controversial motives.

The beginning of the period is vague. There is no evidence before the fifth century and very little even then. The extreme end of it may be taken as 1172, when the Synod of Cashel finally adopted the Anglo-Roman Rite. The existence of a different rite in Britain and Ireland has been used to prove that the Christianity of these islands had an origin independent of Rome, though, even if it were true, it is not easy to see how that should prove anything more than the fact itself. In reality the existence of a Celtic Rite has no bearings, one way or the other, on the Anglo-Roman controversy. In the period before the eighth century diversity of rites was the rule rather than the exception. Rome, though when its advice was asked it might naturally recommend its own way of doing things, did not then make the smallest attempt to force uniformity on any local church. With a very complete unity of faith, and at times a considerable amount of intercourse between different parts of the Western Church, there existed great diversity of practice in things in which diversity, as St. Gregory's answer to St. Augustine seems to imply, was not considered to matter very much. Gradually, no doubt, the influence of important centres, such as Rome itself on one side, and Toledo on another, tended to lessen the diversity and to draw divergent Churches together into larger liturgical districts, so that by the time of the final fusion, which happened in the Charlemagne period, the Roman Rite with its Ambrosian variant, the Romanized Celtic Rite, and the Hispano-Gallican Rite, now represented by the Mozarabic survival, were practically all that were left, but we must beware of antedating this classification. The essential unity of the Roman Empire was such that whether Christianity came to Britain from Rome, from Gaul, or from the East in the first instance, the fact would have no bearings on the origin and spread of the liturgical customs, which certainly developed at a later period than its first introduction. In the fourth century we find an apparently organized British Church, with bishops who represent it at the Council of Arles in 314, and certainly at Rimini in 359. This Church was evidently in close communication with the Church in Gaul, as may be inferred from the dedication to St. Martin of the two churches at Withern and at Canterbury, and from the mission of Victridius of Rouen in 396, and those of Sts. Germanus and Lupus in 429, and Sts. Germanus and Severus in 447, directed against that heresy of Pelagius which had its origin in Britain. It is not unreasonable to suppose that at the period when liturgies were beginning to be differentiated more or less by districts and provinces the liturgy of the Church of Britain should resemble that of the neighbouring Church of Gaul, and it is possible to infer from St. Augustine's question to St. Gregory, concerning the different customs of Masses observed in Rome and in Gaul, that he found Gallican customs prevailing in Britain. But St. Augustine may only be referring to the use of Queen Bertha's Frankish chaplain, Bishop Luidhard, at Canterbury, and there is no evidence one way or the other as to what liturgy was in use among the Romanized Britons themselves.

The passage attributed to Gidas (Haddan and Stubbs, I, 112), "Britones toti mundo contrarii, moribus Romanis inimici, non solum in misa sed in tonsura etiam", is probably of the seventh century. Yet upon this frail foundation of conjecture an elaborate theory has been built and still remains almost an article of faith with so large and important a school of Anglican controversialists that it is impossible to ignore its existence, though it has been given up by all serious liturgiologists. This theory (for which see also AMBROSIAN LITURGY AND RITE) is to the effect that St. Irenæus, the disciple of St. Polycarp, who was the disciple of St. John the Divine, brought the Rite of Ephesus to Provence, whence it spread through Gaul and to Britain. This so-called "Ephesine" Rite (a term often used as synonymous with "Hispano-Gallican"), say the supporters of the theory, was the foundation of the Sarum Rite, and from this it derived a belief that the Church of England had an origin independent of Rome. It is hardly necessary to assert here that the Sarum Rite is merely a local variety of the Roman, and that the influence of the Gallican Rite upon it is no greater than upon any other Roman variety, so that the deductions, which have recently been reasserted with great certainty by the Bishop of Chichester in his "Story of the English Prayerbook", are quite unwarranted by the facts. But on examination it will be seen that the Ephesine origin of the Gallican Rite rests only upon the assertion of an eighth-century Irish writer (in Cott. manuscript Nero A. II in the British Museum), who, by the way, derives the Celtic Rite, as far as the Divine Office is concerned, from Alexandria, and on a statement by Colman at the Synod of Whitby , in 664, respecting the origin of the Celtic Easter, which, as St. Wilfrid pointed out at the time, was certainly incorrect. The theory seems to have been first put forward in modern times by Sir William Palmer in his "Origines Liturgicae", on the authority of the said Irish writer, and has found its way into many Anglican textbooks. Yet the only points of difference between the British Church of St. Augustine's time and the Roman of which we can be certain are: (1) The rule of keeping Easter ; (2) the tonsure ; (3) some differences in the manner of baptizing.

(1) The Easter Question

The Britons adhered to the old Roman cycle of 84 years instead of the newer cycle of 19 years. They counted the third week of the moon, on the Sunday of which Easter must fall, from the 14th to the 20th instead of from the 15th to the 21st as the vernal equinox. Until 457, when the 532-year cycle of Victorius of Aquitaine was adopted at Rome, Britain agreed with Rome in its differing from Alexandria and the East. In 525 Rome altered its rule again to the 19-years cycle of Dionysius Exiguus, to conform to the Eastern usage, and from that time until the change of style in 1582 Rome and the East agreed in their rule of Easter, and even now calculate by the same rule, though the fact that the Greek 21st of March is only an imaginary vernal equinox, thirteen days later than the real one, makes the actual Greek Easter generally fall on a different day from the Roman. Yet it is still argued (e.g. in Archbishop Nuttall's Catechism; s.p.c.k., 1907) that the Easter difference proves the Eastern origin of the British Church. If it proves anything it is the exact opposite. Colman at the Synod of Whitby evidently had some vague memory of the long extinct Quartodeciman controversy in his mind when he claimed an Ephesian origin for his Easter, and St. Wilfrid rightly pointed out that the essence of the Quartodeciman rule was that Easter might be kept on any day of the week, whereas the Celts kept theirs on Sunday only. St. Aldhelm, in his letter to King Geruntius of Cornwall, seems to charge the Cornish with Quartodecimanism, but he also mistook the point of that controversy. The Easter question was eventually settled at various times in different parts of the Celtic Church. The following dates are derived from Haddan and Stubbs: South Ireland, 626-8; North Ireland, 692; Northumbria (converted by Celtic missions), 664; East Devon and Somerset, the Celts under Wessex, 705; the Picts, 710; Iona, 716-8; Straathclyde, 721; North Wales, 768; South Wales, 777. Cornwall held out the longest of any, perhaps even, in parts, to the time of Bishop Aedwulf of Crediton (909).

(2) The form of the tonsure

The Britons were accustomed to shave the whole head in front of a line drawn from ear to ear, instead of using the coronal tonsure of the Romans. This, though there is no real evidence that it was the practice of the Druids, was nicknamed tonsura magorum . ( Magus was accepted as equivalent to druid , and to this day the Magoi of Matthew 2 , are druidhean in the Scottish Gaelic Bible.) Later, the Roman party jeered at it as the tonsura Simonis Magi , in contradistinction to their " tonsure of St. Peter ". This is mentioned in the passage attributed wrongly, to Gildas (Haddan and Stubbs, I, 113).

(3) Some unspecified difference in the manner of baptizing

It has been conjectured, on no real evidence, that the British Church resembled the Spanish in baptizing with a single immersion. But this form had been allowed by Rome in the case of Spain. It would seem however, from a letter from Pope Zacharias to St. Boniface (1 May, 748, Haddan and Stubbs, III, 51), that an unnamed English synod had forbidden any bapism except in the name of the Trinity, and had declared that whoever omits the Name of any Person of the Trinity does not truly baptize. Spelman and Wilkins put this synod at London in the time of St. Augustine, 603. Mansi makes its date the first year of Theodore of Tarsus, 668. It would seem by this that it was the formula that was at fault, and certainly in the time of Theodore the possibility of priests, presumably Celtic, having been invalidly baptized was considered. "Si quis presbiter ordinatus deprehendit se non esse baptizatus, baptizetur et ordinetur iterum et omnes quos prius baptizavit baptizentur", says the "Poenitentiale Theodori" (Lib. II, cap. iii, 13), and in cap ix of the same book, after ordering the reordination of those ordained by Scottish and British bishops, "qui in Pascha et tonsua catholici non sunt", and the asperging of churches consecrated by them, Theodore adds: "Et qui ex horum similiter gente vel quicunque de baptismo suo dubitaverit, baptizetur".

Thus it may be seen that, with these exceptions, and excepting also one statement by Gildas (to the effect that certain lessons, differing from those of any known rite, were read at ordinations), and a possible allusion by him to the anointing of hands at ordination, we have no information about the rites of the British Church. They may have been Gallican but they may just as well have been Roman in type, or if the Christianity of Britain preceded the construction of definite liturgies, they may have been indigenous, with or without foreign influences. The Britons were quite capable of composing their own liturgy on that nucleus which was common to all Christendom ; but we do not know whether they did so or not.

One part of Britain, indeed, derived a great part of its Christianity from post-Patrician Irish missions. St. Ia and her companions, and St. Piran, St. Sennen, St. Petrock, and the rest of the Irish saints who came to Cornwall in the late fifth and early sixth centuries found there, at any rate in the West, a population which had perhaps relapsed into Paganism under the Pagan King Teudar. When these saints introduced, or reintroduced, Christianity, they probably brought with them whatever rites they were accustomed to, and Cornwall certainly had its own separate ecclesiastical quarrel with Wessex in the days of St. Aldhelm , which, as appears by a statement in Leofric's Missal, was still going on in the early tenth century, though the details of it are not specified.

The rites of the Irish Church stand on firmer ground, though even there the information is scanty. There were Christians in Ireland before St. Patrick, but we have no information as to how they worshiped, and their existence is ignored by the "Catalogus Sanctorum Hiberniae", attributed to the seventy-century Tirechan. This interesting document, which, though its dates need not be accepted too exactly, is worthy of general credit, divides the saints of Ireland into three orders, each of which orders is stated to have lasted during the reigns of four kings, the three orders covering, between them, a period of about 225 years, from the coming of St. Patrick in 440, in the reign of Laoghaire MacNeil, to the reign of Blathmac and Diarmait, sons of Aodh Slane, in 665. Symmetry is attained by omitting about six intervening reigns, but the outside dates of each period are clear enough, and the liturgiological value of the document consists in the statements, very probably true in the main, respecting the customs of the saints of these orders as to the Masses and celebrationes , i.e. the Divine Office, and the Easter and tonsure questions. ( Celebratio -- " Divine Office "; Irish, Celebrad . Dr. MacCarthy in his edition of the Stowe Missal gives several instances of this use of the word.) the first order was in the time of St. Patrick. They were all bishops, 350 in number, founders of churches. They had one Head, Christ ; one leader, Patrick ; one Mass, and one tonsure from ear to ear, and they celebrated one Easter "quarta decima luna post aequinoctium vernale". All these bishops were sprung from the Romans, the French (i.e. the Gauls), the Britons, and the Scots. Their period is given from the reign of Laoghaire to that of Tuathal Moelgarbh (c. 440-544). The second order were a few bishops and many priests, 300 in number. They had one head, Christ, they celebrated different Masses and "diversas regulas", they had one Easter, the fourteenth of the moon after the equinox, and one tonsure from ear to ear. The received a Mass from the Britons, David, Gilla (Gildas), and Docus (Cadoc). It may be noted that the "Vita Gildae" tells how King Ainmerech sent for Gildas to restore ecclesiastical order in his kingdom "quia paene catholicam fidem inipsa insula omnes reliquerant". The second order lasted from the end of the reign of Tuathal to that of Aodh MacAinmerech (c. 544-99). The third order were priests and a few bishops, 100 in number, "qui in locis desertis habitabant et oleribus et aqua et eleemosynis vivebant, propria devitabant", evidently hermits and monks. They had different Masses, different rules, and different tonsures, "alii enim habebant coronam, alii caesariem", and celebrated different Easters, some on the fourteenth, some on the sixteenth, of the moon, "cum duris intentionibus" -- which perhaps means "obstinately". These lasted from the reign of Aeda Allain (Aodh Slaine) to that of his two sons (Blathmac and Diarmait, c. 599-665). The meaning seems to be that the first order celebrated a form of Mass introduced by St. Patrick, the second and third orders used partly that Mass and partly one of British origin, and in the case of the third order Roman modifications were also introduced. Though we have no direct evidence one way or the other, it would seem probable that St. Patrick, who was the pupil of St. Germanus of Auxerre and St. Honoratus of Lérins, brought with him a Mass of the Gallican type, and it is clear that the British Mass introduced by Sts. David, Gildas, and Cadoc differed from it, though to what extent we have no means of knowing. The "unam celebrationem" of the first order and the "diversas regulas" of the second and third probably both refer to the Divine Office, and we may take the authority of the eighth-century tract in Cott. manuscript Nero A. II for what it is worth in its not improbable statement that St. Germanus taught the "Cursus Scottorum" to St. Patrick, who certainly was under his instruction for some time. The working of the "Catalogus" seems to imply that the first and second orders were Quartodecimans, but this is clearly not the meaning, or on the same argument the third order must have been partly Sextodecimans -- if there were such things -- and moreover we have the already mentioned statement of St. Wilfred, the opponent of the Celtic Easter, at the Synod of Whitby, that such was not the case. Tirechan can only mean what we know from other sources: that the fourteenth day of the moon was the earliest day on which Easter could fall, not that it was kept on that day, Sunday or weekday. It was the same ambiguity of expression which misled Colman in 664 and St. Aldhelm in 704. The first and second orders used the Celtic tonsure, and it seems that the Roman coronal tonsure came partly into use during the period of the third order. After that we have an obscure period, during which the Roman Easter which had been accepted in South Ireland in 626-28, became universal, being accepted by North Ireland in 692, and it seems probable that a Mass on the model of the Carlsruhe and Piacenza fragments and the Stowe and Bobbio Missals, that is to say a Roman Canon with some features of a non-Roman type came into general use. But it was not until the twelfth century that the separate Irish Rite, which, according to Gilbert, Bishop of Limerick (1106-390), was in use in nearly all Ireland, was abolished. St. Malachy, bishop of Armagh (1134-48), began the campaign against it, and at the Synod of Cashel, in 1127, a Roman Rite "juxta quod Anglicana observat Ecclesia" was finally substituted.

In Scotland there is very little information. The intercourse with Ireland was considerable, and the few details that can be gathered from such sources as Adamnan's Life of St. Columba and the various relics of the Scoto-Northumbrian Church point to a general similarity with Ireland in the earlier period. Of the rite of the monastic order of the Culdees ( Céli Dé or Goillidhe-Dé , servants of God, or possibly Cultores Dei ) very little is known, but they certainly had a rite of their own, which may have been similar to the Irish. The Roman Easter and tonsure were adopted by the Picts in 710, and at Iona in 716-18, and much later, in about 1080, St. Margaret of Scotland , wife of King Malcolm III, wishing to reform the Scottish church in a Roman direction, discovered and abolished certain peculiar customs of which Theodoric, her chaplain and biographer, tells us less than we could wish. It seems that the Scots did not begin Lent on Ash Wednesday , but on the Monday following. This is still the Ambrosian practice. They refused to communicate on Easter Day, and the arguments on the subject make it seem as if the laity never communicated at all. In some places they celebrated Mass "contra totius Ecclesiae consuetudinem, nescio quo ritu barbaro". The last statement may be read in connection with that in the Register of St. Andrew's (drawn up 1144-53), "Keledei in angulo quodam ecclesiae, quae modica nimis est, suum officum more suo celebrant". How much difference there may have been cannot be judged from these expressions. Scotland may have retained a primitive Celtic Rite, or it may have used the greatly Romanized Stowe or Bobbio Mass. The one fragment of a Scottish Rite, the Office of the Communion of the Sick, in the Book of Deer, probably eleventh century, is certainly non-Roman in type, and agrees with those in the extant Irish books.

In 590 St. Columbanus and his companions invaded the Continent and established monasteries throughout France, South Germany, Switzerland, and North Italy, of which the best known were Luxeuil, Bobbio, St. Galen, and Ratisbon. It is from the Rule of St. Columbanus that we know something of a Celtic Divine Office. These Irish missionaries, with their very strict rule, were not altogether popular among the lax Gallican clergy, who tried to get them discouraged. At a council at Mâcon, in 623, certain charges brought by one Agrestius were considered. Among them is the following: "In summâ quod a caeterorum ritu ac norma desciscerent et sacra mysteria sollemnia orationum et collectarum multiplici varietate celebrarent". There has been more than one interpretation of this phrase, some holding, with Pope Benedict XIV, that it refers to the use of many collects before the Epistle, instead of the one collect of the then Roman Missal, others that it implies a multiplicity of variables in the whole Mass, analogous to that existing in the Hispano-Gallican Rite. The Columbanian monasteries gradually drifted into the Benedictine Order.

The ultimate origin of the various prayers, etc., found in the fragments of the Celtic Rite in the books of private devotion, such as the Book of Cerne, Harl. manuscript 7635, and manuscript Reg. 2. A. xx, which are either Irish or have been composed under Irish influence, is still under discussion. The Turin Fragment and the Bangor Antiphoner (See BANGOR, ANTIPHONARY OF) contain for the most part pieces that are either not found elsewhere or are only found in other Irish books. The Book of Cerne is very eclectic, and pieces therein can also be traced the Gelasian, Gregorian, Gallican, and Spanish origins, and the Stowe Missal has pieces which are found not only in the Bobbio Missal, but also in the Gelasian, Gregorian, Gallican, Spanish, and even Ambrosian books. The general conclusion seems to be that, while the Irish were not above borrowing from other Western nations, they originated a good deal themselves, much of which eventually passed into that composite rite which is now known as Roman. This seems to be a rough statement of the opinion of Mr. Edmund Bishop, who is the soundest English authority on the subject, which involves the much larger question of the origin and development of all the Western rites.

II. MANUSCRIPT SOURCES

The following manuscripts contain fragments of the Celtic Rite:

British (i.e. Welsh, Cornish, or Breton)

None. There is a Mass in Bodl. manuscript 572 (at Oxford), in honour of St. Germanus , which appears to be Cornish and relates to "Ecclesia Lanaledensis", which has been considered to be the monastery of St. Germanus, in Cornwall, a few miles on the western side of the Tamar. There is no other evidence of the name, which was also the Breton name of Aleth, now part of Saint-Malo. The manuscript, which contains also certain glosses, possibly Cornish or Breton-it would be impossible to distinguish between them at that date-but held by Professor Loth to be Welsh, is probably of the ninth century, and the Mass is quite Roman in type, being probably written after that part of Cornwall had come under Saxon influence. There is a very interesting Proper Preface.

Irish (whether insular or continental)

(1) The Turin Fragment. A manuscript Of the seventh century in the Turin Library. It was published by W. Mayer, with a dissertation comparing it with the Bangor Antiphoner, in the Gottingen "Nachrichen" of 1903. Mayer considers the fragment to have been written at Bobbio. It consists of six leaves and contains the canticles, "Cantemus Domino", "Benedicite", and "Te Deum", with collects to follow those and the Laudate psalms (cxlvii-cl) and the "Benedictus", the text of which is not given, two hymns with collects to follow them, and two other prayers. There is a facsimile of one page and a description in "Collezione paleografica Bobbiese", Vol. I.

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(2) The Bangor Antiphoner. A manuscript from the monastery of Bangor, in Down, written or copied from a manuscript written during the time of Abbot Cronan (680-91). It is now in the Ambrosian Library at Milan. It has been edited, in facsimile, for the Henry Bradshaw Society (1895-96) by F.E. Warren, having been already printed in Muratori's "Anecdota Bibl. Ambros.", IV, pp. 121-59, in Migne's "Patrologia Lat.", LXXII, 579, and in the "Ulster Journal of Archaeology", 1853. It contains a large collection of canticles, hymns, collects, and antiphons, all, with very few exceptions, relating to the Divine Office. All but two of the twenty-one pieces in the Turin fragment are found in this manuscript also. (See BANGOR, ANTIPHONARY OF.)

(3) The Bobbio Missal. A manuscript Of the seventh century found by Mabillon at Bobbio in North Italy now in the Biblotheque Nationale at Paris (Lat. 13,246). Published by Mabillon (Lit. Rom. Vet., II) and by Neale and Forbes (Ancient Liturgies of the Gallican Church ). There is an analysis of it by Dom Cagin in "Paeographie musicale", V. By Neale and Forbes it is entitled "Missale Vesontionense seu Sacramentarium Gallicanum", its attribution to Besançon being due to the presence of a Mass in honour of St. Sigismund. Monseigneur Duchesne appears to consider it to be more or less Ambrosian, but Mr. Edmund Bishop (liturgical note to Kuypers' "Book of Cerne") considers it to be "an example of the kind of book in vogue in the second age of the Irish Saints", and connects it with the undoubtedly Irish Stowe Missal. It contains a "Missa Romensis cottidiana" and Masses for various days and intentions, with the Order of Baptism and the "Benedictio Cerei".

(4) The Stowe Missal. A manuscript of the late eighth or early ninth century, with alterations in later hands, most of them written by one Moelcaich, who signs his name at the end of the Canon, and whom Dr. MacCarthy identifies, not very convincingly, with Moelcaich MacFlann, c. 750. It was discovered abroad, in the eighteenth century, by John Grace of Nenah, from whom it passed to the Duke of Buckingham's library at Stowe. It was bought by the late Earl of Ashburnham in 1849, and from his collection it went to the Royal Irish Academy. It contains part of the Gospel of St. John, probably quite unconnected with what follows, bound up with the Ordinary and Canon of the Mass, three Masses, the Order of Baptism and of the Visitation, Unction, and Communion of the Sick, and a treatise in Irish on the Mass, of which a variant is found in the "Leabhar Breac". The liturgical parts are in Warren's "Celtic Church ". It was edited for the Royal Irish Academy in 1885 by Dr. B. MacCarthy, and is now being re-edited (a facsimile having been already issued) for the Henry Bradshaw Society, by Mr. G.F. Warner, to whose work the present writer is indebted for much help. A translation, by J. Charleston, of the Ordinary and Canon of the Mass appeared in the "Transactions" of the Glasgow Ecclesiological Society, in 1898.

(5) The Carlsruhe Fragment A.--Four pages in an Irish hand of the late eighth or early ninth century in the Library of Carlsruhe. It contains parts of three Masses, one of which is "pro captivis". The arrangement resembles that of the Bobbio Missal, in that the Epistles and Gospels seem to have preceded the other variables under the title of "lectiones ad misam".

(6) The Carlsruhe Fragment. B.--Four pages in an Irish hand probably of the ninth century. It contains fragments of Masses, and includes a variant of the intercessions inserted in the Intercession for the Living in the Stowe Missal and in Witzel's extracts from the Fulda Manuscript. There are also some fragments of Irish in it.

(7) The Piacenza Fragment. Four pages (of which the two outer are illegible) in an Irish hand, possibly of the tenth century. The two inner pages contain parts of three Masses, one of which is headed "ordo missae sanctae mariae". In the others are contained the Prefaces of two of the Sunday Masses in the Bobbio Missal, one of which is used on the eighth Sunday after the Epiphany in the Mozarabic. [The text of these three fragments (5-7), with a dissertation on them by the Rev. H. M. Bannister, is given in the "Journal of Theological Studies", October, 1903.]

(8) The Book of Dimma. A manuscript probably of the eighth century now at Trinity College, Dublin. It contains the Four Gospels and has an order for the Unction and Communion of the Sick written between the Gospels of St. Luke and St. John. This last is printed in Warren's "Celtic Church ".

(9) The Book of Mulling. A manuscript, probably of the eighth century, in Trinity College, Dublin. It contains the Four Gospels, an Office for the Unction and Communion of the Sick, and a fragmentary directory or plan of a service. These have been printed, with a dissertation, in Lawlor's "Chapters on the Book of Mulling", and the Unction and Communion Office in Warren's "Celtic Church ".

(10) The St. Gall Fragments. These are eighth- and ninth-century fragments in Manuscripts 1394 and 1395 in the Library of St. Gallen. The first book (1394) contains part of an ordinary of the Mass, which as far as it goes resembles that in the Stowe Missal. The second (1395) contains the confession and litany, which also begin the Stowe Missal, a fragment of a Mass of the Dead, a prayer at the Visitation of the Sick, and three forms for the blessing of salt and water. All these are given in Warren's "Celtic Church ".

(11) The Basle Fragment. (A. vii. 3 in the Basle Library ). This is a ninth-century Greek Psalter with a Latin interlinear translation. On a fly-leaf at the beginning are two hymns in honour of Our Lady and of St. Bridget, a prayer to Our Lady and to the Angels and Saints, and a long prayer "De conscientiae reatu ante altare". The last is printed in Warren's "The Celtic Church ".

(12) The Zurich Fragment (Public Library, Zurich ). This is a tenth-century leaf containing part of an office for the profession of a nun. It is printed in Warren's "The Celtic Church ".

(13) The Liber Hymnorum. This is not exactly a liturgical book, but a collection of forty hymns in Latin and Irish, almost all of Irish origin, with canticles and "ccclxv orationes quas beatus Gregorius de toto psalterio congregavit". There are explanatory prefaces in Irish or Latin to each hymn. Some of the hymns are found in the Bangor Antiphoner, the "Leabhar Breac", and the Book of Cerne. There are two manuscripts of this collection, not agreeing exactly, one in trinity College, Dublin, of the eleventh century, an done in the Franciscan Convent at Dublin, of somewhat later date. A combination of both manuscripts has been edited for the Henry Bradshaw Society (1897-98) by Dr. J. H. Bernard and Dr. R. Atkinson.

Scottish

The Book of Deer. A Book of the Gospels of the tenth century formerly belonging to the Monastery of Deer in Buchan, and now in the Cambridge University Library. It contains part of an order for the communion of the Sick, with a Gaelic rubric, written in a hand of perhaps the end of the eleventh century. This is printed in Warren's "The Celtic Church ". The whole manuscript was edited by Dr. Stuart for the Spalding Club in 1869.

Other manuscripts

Besides these manuscripts there are certain others bearing on the subject which are not liturgical, and some of which are not Celtic, though they show signs of Celtic influences. Among these are:

(1) The Book of Cerne. A large collection of prayers, etc., for private use, associated with the name of Aethelwald the Bishop, possibly a Bishop of Lindisfarne (712-40), but perhaps a later Bishop of Lichfield (818-30). This late eighth- or early ninth-century manuscript, which once belonged to the Abbey of Cerne in Dorset, but is now in the University Library at Cambridge, though actually Northumbrian or Mercian in origin, is full of Irish, Gelasian, and Hispano-Gallican matter. It has been edited (with a most valuable "Liturgical Note" by Mr. E. Bishop ) by Dom A.B. Kuypers (Cambridge, 1902).

(2) Harl. manuscript 7653, British Museum. A fragment of seven leaves of an Irish manuscript of the ninth century, containing a litany, the Te Deum, and a number of private devotions. It has been edited by Mr. W. de G. Birch, with The Book of Nunnaminster, for the Hampshire Record Society (1889), and by Mr. Warren in his monograph on the Bangor Antiphoner (Vol. II, p 83).

(3) Reg. 2. A. xx, British Museum. An eighth-century manuscript of probably Northumbrian origin, containing selections from the Gospels, collects, hymns, canticles, private devotions, etc. It has been fully described in Mr. Warren's "Bangor Antiphoner" (Vol. II, p. 97).

(4) The Leabhar Breac, or Speckled Book. An Irish manuscript of the fourteenth century, belonging to the Royal Irish Academy, and containing a very large collection of ecclesiastical and religious pieces in Irish. The contents are not as a rule of a liturgical character, but the book contains a variant of the Irish tract of the Mass which is also in the Stowe Missal. This has been printed, with a translation, in Dr. MacCarthy's edition of the Stowe Missal, and in "Transactions of the Aberdeen Ecclesiological Society ", with translation and notes by Mr. D. Macgregor (1898). The whole book has been published in facsimile, but without transliteration or translation, though with a detailed table of contents, by the Royal Irish Academy (1876), and the Passions and Homilies contained in it have been edited with a translation and glossary by Dr. R. Atkinson in the Todd Lecture series of the same Academy (1887).

III. THE DIVINE OFFICE

The chief evidences as to the nature and origin of the Celtic Divine Office are found in the Rule of St. Columbanus, in the Turin fragment and the Bangor Antiphoner, in the eighth-century tract in Cott. manuscript Nero A. II., and in allusions in the "Catalogus Sanctorum Hiberniae". The Rule of St. Columbanus give directions as to the number of psalms to be recited at each hour, the Turin fragment, and the Bangor Antiphoner give the text of canticles, hymns, collects, and antiphons, and the Cottonian tract gives what was held in the eighth century to be the origin of the "Cursus Scottorum". ( Cursus psalmorum and Synaxis are terms used for the Divine Office in the Rule of St. Colmubanus.) the last differentiates between the "Cursus Gallorum", which it derives imaginatively from Ephesus and St. John, through St. Polycarp and St. Irenæus, and this "Cursus Scottorum", which, according to this writer, probably an Irish monk in France, originated with St. Mark at Alexandria. With St. Mark it came to Italy. St. Gregory of Nazianzus , St. Basil, and the hermits St. Anthony, St. Paul, St. Macarius , St. John, and St. Malchus used it. St. Cassian, St. Honoratus, and St. Porcarius of Lérins, St. Caesarius of Arles, St. Germanus, and St. Lupus also used it, and St. Germanus taught it to St. Patrick, who brought it to Ireland. There "Wandilochus Senex" and "Gomorillus" (Comgall) used it, and St. Wandilochus and Columbanus brought it to Luxeuil. The part of the story from St. Germanus onwards may possibly be founded in fact. The other part is not so probable. The statements of the "Catalogus" concerning "unam celebrationem" in the first, and "diversas regulas" during the second and third, ages of the saints probably refer to the original cursus of St. Patrick and to the introduction of other cursus , partly (perhaps with the Mass of Sts. David, Gildas and Cadoc) from Britain; and it does not quite follow that what St. Columbanus carried to Gaul was the same as that which St. Patrick had brought from Gaul in an earlier age. The Rule of St. Columbanus and the Bangor book distinguish eight Hours, "ad duodecimam" [ Vespers, called "ad Vespertinam" and "ad Vesperam" in the Bangor book] Adamnan's Life of St. Columba calls it once (iii,23) "Vespertinalis missa"], "ad initium noctis (answering to Complin ), "ad nocturnam", or "ad medium noctis", "ad matutinam" ( Lauds ), "ad secundam" (answering to Prime ), "ad tertiam", "ad sextam", and "ad nonam". At the four lesser Hours St. Columanus orders three psalms each; at Vespers, "ad initium noctis", and "ad medium noctis" twelve each, and "ad matutinam", a very curious and intricate arrangement of psalmody varying in length with the longer and shorter nights. On Saturdays and Sundays from 1 November to 25 March, seventy-five psalms were recited on each day, under one antiphon for every three psalms. From 25 March to 24 June these were diminished by three psalms weekly to a minimum of thirty-six psalms. It would seem, though it does not say so, that the minimum was used for about five weeks, for a gradual increase of the same amount arrives at the maximum by 1 November. On other days of the week there was a maximum of thirty-six and a minimum of twenty-four. The Rule does not say how the Psalter was distributed, but from the Bangor book it seems that the "Laudate" psalms (cxlvii-cl) were said together, doubtless, as in all other rites, Eastern or Western, except certain eighteenth-century French uses, at Lauds and that "Domine, Refugium" (Ps. lxxxix) was said "ad secundam". Adamnan mentions that St. Columba sang Psalm 44 , "Eructavit cor meum", at Vespers on one occasion. The psalms at the lesser Hours were to be accompanied by a number of intercessory versicles. In the Bangor book these, somewhat expanded from the list in the Rule, but certainly to be identified with them, are given in the form of one, two, or three antiphons and a collect for each intercession. There are six canticles given in the Bangor Antiphoner:

  • "Audite, coeli", headed "Canticum Moysi". This has no antiphons, but a repetition of the first verse at intervals, after the manner of the Invitatory to the "Venite" in the Roman Rite.
  • "Cantemus Domino", also headed "Canticum Moysi".
  • "Benedictus, also called "Benedictio trium Puerorum".
  • "Te Deum, preceded by Ps. cxii, 1, "Laudate, pueri".
  • "Benedicitus", also called "Evangelium".
  • "Gloria in excelsis", followed by psalm and other verses similar to those which, with it, make up the Doxologia megale of the Greek Rite. It is ordered to be used "ad vesperum et matutinam", resembling the Greek Rite use of it at Complin ( Apodeipnon ) and Lauds ( Orthros ). When the Stowe Missal was written the Irish used this canticle at Mass also, in its Roman position.
  • The Bangor Antiphoner gives sets of collects to be used at each hour. One set is in verse (cf. the Mass in hexameters in the Reichenau Gallican fragment). It also gives several sets of collects, not always complete, but always in the same order. It may be conjectured that these sets show some sort of skeleton of the Bangor Lauds. The order always is: (1) "Post canticum" (evidently from the subjects, which, like those of the first ode of a Greek canon, refer to the Crossing of the Red Sea, Cantemus Domino"); (2) "Post Benedictionem trium Puerorum"; (3) "Post tres Psalmos", or "Post Laudate Dominum de coelis" (Ps. cxlvii-cl); (4) "Post Evangelium" (clearly meaning "benedictus", which is the only gospel canticle in the book

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    Titular see ; suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. A city of Caria situated on a peninsula ...
    Tepic

    Tepic

    DIOCESE OF TEPIC (TEPICENSIS) A diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the ...
    Tepl

    Tepl

    A Premonstratensian abbey in the western part of Bohemia, included in the Archdiocese of Prague ...
    Teramo

    Teramo

    Diocese in southern Italy. In the past the city was injured by earthquakes. It is situated at ...
    Terce

    Terce

    The origin of Terce, like that of Sext and None, to which it bears a close relationship, dates ...
    Terenuthis

    Terenuthis

    Titular see, suffragan of Antinoë in Thebais Prima. Le Quien (Oriens christ., II, 611) ...
    Teresa of Avila, Saint

    St. Teresa of Jesus (Teresa of Avila)

    Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada Born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at ...
    Teresa of Lisieux, Saint

    Saint Therese of Lisieux

    (Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...
    Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed

    The Martyrs of Compiegne

    Guillotined at the Place du Trône Renversé (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 ...
    Terill, Anthony

    Anthony Terill (Bonville)

    English theologian, b. at Canford, Dorsetshire, in 1623; d. at Liège, 11 Oct., 1676. His ...
    Termessus

    Termessus

    A titular see, suffragan of Perge in Pamphylia Secunda. This is one of the most ancient cities ...
    Termoli

    Termoli

    (THERMULARUM) Located on the Italian coast of the Adriatic, having a small harbour near the ...
    Ternan, Saint

    St. Ternan

    Bishop of the Picts, flourished in the sixth century. Much obscurity attaches to his history, and ...
    Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

    Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

    (TERRACINENSIS, SETINENSIS ET PRIVERNENSIS) Located in the Province of Rome. The city of ...
    Terrasson, André

    Andre Terrason

    A French preacher, born at Lyons in 1669; died at Paris, 25 April, 1723. He was the eldest son ...
    Terrestrial Paradise

    The Garden of Eden

    ( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...
    Terrien, Jean-Baptiste

    Jean-Baptiste Terrien

    Dogmatic theologian, born at St-Laurent-des-Autels, Maine-et-Loire, 26 Aug., 1832; d. at ...
    Tertiaries

    Tertiaries

    (From the Latin tertiarius , the relative adjective of tertius , third ). Tertiaries, or ...
    Tertullian

    Tertullian

    (Q UINTUS S EPTIMIUS F LORENS T ERTULLIANUS ). Ecclesiastical writer in the second and ...
    Teruel

    Teruel

    (TUROLENSIS) A suffragan of Saragossa, comprises the civil province of the same name, ...
    Test-Oath, Missouri

    Missouri Test-Oath

    In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...
    Testament, New

    New Testament

    I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...
    Testament, Old

    Old Testament

    I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...
    Testem Benevolentiae

    Testem Benevolentiae

    An Apostolic Letter of Leo XIII addressed to Cardinal Gibbons, 22 January, 1899. It opens by ...
    Tetzel, Johann

    Johann Tetzel

    First public antagonist of Luther, b. at Pirna in Meissen, 1465; d. at Leipzig, 11 Aug., 1519. ...
    Teuchira

    Teuchira

    A titular see in Libyan Pentapolis. Teuchira ( Teucheira ) neuter plural, was a city on the ...
    Teutonic Order

    Teutonic Order

    A medieval military order modelled on the Hospitallers of St. John, which changed its residence ...
    Tewdrig

    Tewdrig

    (THEODORIC) A Welsh saint, son of King Ceithfalt of Morganwg or Southern Wales, flourished ...
    Texas

    Texas

    S TATE OF T EXAS . The name, Texas, is probably derived from Tejas, the name of a ...
    Textual Criticism

    Biblical Criticism

    The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...
    Thænæ

    Thaenae

    A titular see in Africa Byzacena. It is mentioned in numerous ancient geographical documents ...
    Thébaud, Augustus

    Augustus Thebaud

    Jesuit educator and publicist, b. at Nantes, France, 20 Nov., 1807; d. at St. John's College, ...
    Thénard, Louis-Jacques, Baron

    Baron Louis-Jacques Thenard

    Chemist, b. at Louptière, near Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube, France, on 4 May, 1777; d. at Paris, ...
    Théophane Vénard

    Bl. Theophane Venard

    (JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...
    Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint

    Saint Therese of Lisieux

    (Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...
    Thabor, Mount

    Mount Thabor

    The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...
    Thabraca

    Thabraca

    A titular see of Numidia near the sea, between the Armua and the Tusca. Thabraca was the last ...
    Thacia Montana

    Thacia Montana

    A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. An inscription discovered in the ...
    Thagaste

    Thagaste

    (TAGASTE) Thagaste, a titular see in Numidia, was a rather important municipality. It is ...
    Thagora

    Thagora

    (Tagora) Titular see in Numidia, mentioned by the "Rabula Peutingeriana", which calls it ...
    Thais, Saint

    Saint Thais

    (THAISIS or THAISIA). A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century. In the Greek menology her ...
    Thalberg, Sigismond

    Sigismond Thalberg

    Musical composer and pianist, b. at Geneva, 1812; d. at Posilipo, Italy, 27 April, 1871. The ...
    Thalhofer, Valentin

    Valentin Thalhofer

    German theologian, b. at Unterroth, near Ulm, 21 January, 1825; d. at the same place, 17 ...
    Thangmar

    Thangmar

    (THANKMAR) Historian, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. probably at Hildesheim ...
    Thanksgiving before and after Meals

    Grace Before Meals

    The word grace , which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English ...
    Thanksgiving Day

    Thanksgiving Day

    A civil holiday observed annually in the United States of America on the last Thursday in ...
    Thapsus

    Thapsus

    A titular see in Byzacene Africa. It was a Phoenician market on the coast of Byzacium in ...
    Thasos

    Thasos

    A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. The island of Thasos was anciently ...
    Thaumaci

    Thaumaci

    A titular see in Thessaly, suffragan of Larissa, commanding the defile of Coele at the ...
    Thayer, John

    John Thayer

    Missionary, convert, first native of New England ordained to the priesthood, b. Boston, ...
    Theatines

    Theatines

    (CLERICS REGULAR) A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo ...
    Theatre, The

    The Theatre

    Considering the tone of what is preserved to us of the works of the Greek tragedians and even of ...
    Thebaid

    Thebaid

    The valley of the Nile, under Roman domination, was divided into four provinces: Lower and Upper ...
    Thebes

    Thebes (Achaia Secunda)

    (THEBAE) A metropolitan titular see of Achaia Secunda. The city was founded by the ...
    Thebes

    Thebes (Thebais Secunda)

    (THEBAE) Titular see of Thebais Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais, and the seat of a Coptic ...
    Thecla, Saint

    St. Thecla

    Benedictine Abbess of Kitzingen and Ochsenfurt; date of birth unknown; d. at Kitzingen about 790 ...
    Thecla, Saints

    Sts. Thecla

    I. Thecla of Iconium The reputed pupil of the Apostle Paul , who is the heroine of the ...
    Theft

    Theft

    Theft is the secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other. ...
    Thegan (Degan) of Treves

    Thegan

    Chronicler, d. about 850. Very little is known of his life; all that is certain is that he was ...
    Theiner, Augustin

    Augustin Theiner

    Theologian and historian, b. at Breslau, 11 April, 1804; d. at Civitavecchia, 8 Aug., 1874. He was ...
    Thelepte

    Thelepte

    A titular see in Byzacene. From an inscription we learn that it was a colony. An important ...
    Themiscyra

    Themiscyra

    A titular see, suffragan of Amasea in the Hellespont. There was a town of this name near the ...
    Themisonium

    Themisonium

    A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. Themisonium was a city of Phrygia, ...
    Thennesus

    Thennesus

    A titular suffragan see of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima. Cassian (Collat., XI, 1-3) gives a ...
    Theobald

    Theobald

    (T EDBALD .) Archbishop of Canterbury ; d. 18 April, 1161. He was a Norman by descent and ...
    Theobald, Saint

    Saint Theobald

    Born at Provins in the Province of Champagne, France, in 1017; died at Salanigo in Italy 30 June, ...
    Theocracy

    Theocracy

    A form of civil government in which God himself is recognized as the head. The laws of the ...
    Theodard, Saint

    Saint Theodard

    Archbishop of Narbonne, b. at Montauban about 840; d. at the same place 1 May, 893. He seems to ...
    Theodicy

    Theodicy

    Etymologically considered theodicy ( théos díe ) signifies the justification of ...
    Theodore I, Pope

    Pope Theodore I

    Pope from 642 to 649; the date of his birth is unknown. He was a Greek of Jerusalem and the ...
    Theodore II, Pope

    Pope Theodore II

    Son of Photius. His pontificate lasted only twenty days; neither the date of his birth nor of his ...
    Theodore of Amasea, Saint

    St. Theodore of Amasea

    Surnamed Tyro (Tiro), not because he was a young recruit, but because for a time he belonged to ...
    Theodore of Gaza

    Theodore of Gaza

    A fifteenth-century Greek Humanist and translator of Aristotle, b. at Thessalonica early in ...
    Theodore of Studium, Saint

    Theodore of Studium

    A zealous champion of the veneration of images and the last geat representative of the unity ...
    Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

    Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

    Seventh Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Tarsus in Cilicia about 602; d. at Canterbury 19 ...
    Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia

    Theodore of Mopsuestia

    Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer; b. at Antioch about 350 (thus also ...
    Theodoret

    Theodoret

    Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457. He says ...
    Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

    Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

    A Platonist philosopher of the twelfth century, b. in France at the beginning of the twelfth ...
    Theodoric the Great

    Theodoric the Great

    King of the Ostrogoths, born A.D. 454 (?); died 26 August, 526. He was an illegitimate son of ...
    Theodorus and Theophanes, Saints

    Sts. Theodorus and Theophanes

    (Called Grapti , "written upon", graptoi ) Theodorus, b. about 775; d. about 842-43; ...
    Theodorus Lector

    Theodorus Lector

    A lector attached to the Church of St. Sophia of Constantinople in the early part of the sixth ...
    Theodosiopolis

    Theodosiopolis

    A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Prima. In the beginning the city was called Apros, or ...
    Theodosius Florentini

    Theodosius Florentini

    Born at Münster, in the Grisons, Switzerland, 23 May, 1808; died at Heiden, in Appenzell, ...
    Theodosius I

    Theodosius I

    Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 ...
    Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint

    St. Theodotus of Ancyra

    Martyr. On 18 May the Roman Martyrology says: "At Ancyra, in Galatia, the martyr Saint Theodotus ...
    Theodulf

    Theodulf

    (Theodulfus, Theodulfe), Bishop of Orléans, a writer skilled in poetic forms and a ...
    Theology of Christ (Christology)

    Christology

    Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ. In its full extent ...
    Theology, Ascetical

    Ascetical Theology

    Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of ...
    Theology, Dogmatic

    Dogmatic Theology

    Dogmatic theology is that part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith ...
    Theology, History of Dogmatic

    History of Dogmatic Theology

    The imposing edifice of Catholic theology has been reared not by individual nations and men, ...
    Theology, Moral

    Moral Theology

    Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...
    Theology, Mystical

    Mystical Theology

    Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...
    Theology, Pastoral

    Pastoral Theology

    Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...
    Theonas

    Theonas

    Bishop of Alexandria from about 283 to 301 ( Eusebius, "Chronicle", Ann. Abr. 2299, St. Jerome's ...
    Theophanes Kerameus

    Theophanes Kerameus

    ( Kerameus , potter). Archbishop of Rossano in Calabria (1129-52), a celebrated homiletic ...
    Theophanes, Saint

    St. Theophanes

    Chronicler, born at Constantinople, about 758; died in Samothracia, probably 12 March, 817, on ...
    Theophilanthropists

    Theophilanthropists

    ("Friends of God and Man") A deistic sect formed in France during the latter part of the ...
    Theophilus

    Theophilus

    Bishop of Antioch. Eusebius in his "Chronicle" places the name of Theophilus against that of ...
    Theophilus

    Theophilus

    Patriarch of Alexandria (385-412). Concerning the extraction and early life of Theophilus we ...
    Theosophy

    Theosophy

    ( Theosophia = "wisdom concerning God ") Theosophy is a term used in general to designate ...
    Theotocopuli, Domenico

    El Greco

    One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...
    Thera (Santorin)

    Thera

    DIOCESE OF THERA (SANTORINO) Diocese in the Cyclades. About the year 2000 B.C., the ...
    Thermae Basilicae

    Thermae Basilicae

    A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. The Greek "Notitiae episcopatuum" ...
    Thermopylae

    Thermopylae

    A titular see and suffragan of Athens in Achaia Prima. It is the name of a defile about 4 ...
    Thessalonians, Epistles to the

    Epistles to the Thessalonians

    Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul. This article will treat the Church of ...
    Thessalonica

    Thessalonica

    (SALONIKI) Titular metropolis in Macedonia. It was at first a village called Alia, situated ...
    Theveste

    Theveste

    Titular see of Numidia. The city seems to have had some importance even prior to Christianity. ...
    Thibaris

    Thibaris

    Titular see in Byzacena ( Africa ), not mentioned by any ancient author. The official list of ...
    Thibaut de Champagne

    Thibaut de Champagne

    Thibaut IV, count of Champagne and King of Navarre, a French poet, b. 1201, at Troyes ; d. 8 ...
    Thierry of Freburg

    Thierry of Freiburg

    ( Or Thierry of Saxony). A philosopher and physician of the Middle Ages, and a member of ...
    Thiers, Louis-Adolphe

    Louis-Adolphe Thiers

    French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic, b. at Marseilles, ...
    Thignica

    Thignica

    A titular see in Numidia. The Roman Curia's official list of titular sees places Thignica in ...
    Thijm, Joseph Albert Alberdingk

    Joseph Albert Alberdingk Thijm

    Born at Amsterdam, 8 July, 1820; d. there, 17 March, 1889. After finishing his studies in his ...
    Thijm, Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk

    Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk Thijm

    Brother of Joseph Alberdingk Thijm , b. at Amsterdam, 21 Oct., 1827, d. at Louvain, 1 Feb., ...
    Thimelby, Richard

    Richard Thimelby

    ( Alias ASHBY) Missionary priest, b. in Lincolnshire, England, 1614; d. at St. Omer's, ...
    Third Orders

    Third Orders

    I. GENERAL Third Orders signify in general lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women ...
    Thirty Years War

    The Thirty Years War

    The Thirty Years War (1618-48), though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance ...
    Thmuis

    Thmuis

    A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium ; a city of Lower Egypt, on the ...
    Thomas á Jesu

    Thomas a Jesu

    (Diaz Sanchez de Avila). Discalced Carmelite, writer on mystical theology, born at Baeza, ...
    Thomas à Kempis

    Thomas a Kempis

    Author of the "Imitation of Christ" , born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; ...
    Thomas Abel, Blessed

    Blessed Thomas Abel

    (Also ABLE, or ABELL.) Priest and martyr, born about 1497; died 30 July, 1540. He was ...
    Thomas Alfield, Venerable

    Ven. Thomas Alfield

    (AUFIELD, ALPHILDE, HAWFIELD, OFFELDUS; alias BADGER). Priest, born at Gloucestershire; ...
    Thomas Aquinas, Saint

    St. Thomas Aquinas

    Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church ( Angelicus Doctor ), patron of Catholic ...
    Thomas Atkinson, Venerable

    Ven. Thomas Atkinson

    Martyred at York, 11 March, l6l6. He was born in the East Riding of Yorkshire, was ordained ...
    Thomas Becket, Saint

    St. Thomas Becket

    Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, born at London, 21 December, 1118 (?); died at Canterbury, 29 ...
    Thomas Belchiam, Venerable

    Venerable Thomas Belchiam

    A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537. He ...
    Thomas Christians, Saint

    St. Thomas Christians

    An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent ...
    Thomas Cottam, Blessed

    Bl. Thomas Cottam

    Martyr, born 1549, in Lancashire; executed at Tyburn, 30 May, 1582. His parents, Laurence cottam ...
    Thomas Ford, Blessed

    Bl. Thomas Ford

    Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...
    Thomas Garnet, Saint

    St. Thomas Garnet

    Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...
    Thomas Johnson, Blessed

    Bl. Thomas Johnson

    Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...
    Thomas More, Saint

    St. Thomas More

    Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...
    Thomas of Beckington

    Thomas of Beckington

    (BEKYNTON.) Bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Beckington, Somerset, about 1390; died at ...
    Thomas of Bradwardine

    Thomas of Bradwardine

    (BRAGWARDIN, BRANDNARDINUS, BREDWARDYN, BRADWARDYN, DE BREDEWARDINA). Born about 1290; died in ...
    Thomas of Cantimpré

    Thomas of Cantimpre

    Medieval writer, preacher, and theologian, born of noble parentage at Leuw St. Pierre near ...
    Thomas of Celano

    Thomas of Celano

    Friar Minor, poet, andhagiographical writer, born at Celano in the Province of the Abruzzi, about ...
    Thomas of Dover

    Thomas of Dover

    Martyr ; died 2 or 5 August, 1295. On the above date the French ravaged Dover with fire and ...
    Thomas of Hereford

    St. Thomas of Hereford

    (THOMAS DE CANTELUPE). Born at Hambledon, Buckinghamshire, England, about 1218; died at ...
    Thomas of Jesus

    Thomas of Jesus

    (THOMAS DE ANDRADA). Reformer and preacher, born at Lisbon, 1529; died at Sagena, Morocco, 17 ...
    Thomas of Jorz

    Thomas of Jorz

    (Often but erroneously called JOYCE and frequently referred to as ANGLUS or ANGLICUS). ...
    Thomas of Strasburg

    Thomas of Strasburg

    A fourteenth-century scholastic of the Augustinian Order, born, according to some writers, at ...
    Thomas of Villanova, Saint

    St. Thomas of Villanova

    Educator, philanthropist, born at Fuentellana, Spain, 1488; died at Valencia, 8 September, 1555. ...
    Thomas Percy, Blessed

    Bl. Thomas Percy

    Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...
    Thomas Sherwood, Blessed

    Bl. Thomas Sherwood

    Martyr, born in London, 1551; died at Tyburn, London, 7 February, 1578. His parents also ...
    Thomas the Apostle, Saint

    St. Thomas the Apostle

    Little is recorded of St. Thomas the Apostle, nevertheless thanks to the fourth Gospel his ...
    Thomas Thwing, Venerable

    Ven. Thomas Thwing

    Martyr. Born at Heworth Hall, near York, in 1635; suffered at York, 23 Oct., 1680. His father was ...
    Thomas Woodhouse, Blessed

    Bl. Thomas Woodhouse

    Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...
    Thomas, Charles L.A.

    Charles L.A. Thomas

    French composer, born at Metz, 5 August, 1811; died at Paris, 12 February, 1896. He gained the ...
    Thomassin, Louis

    Louis Thomassin

    Theologian and French Oratorian, b. at Aix-en-Provence 28 Aug., 1619; d. in Paris, 24 Dec., ...
    Thomism

    Thomism

    In a broad sense, Thomism is the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. ...
    Thompson River Indians

    Thompson River Indians

    (THOMPSON INDIANS). An important tribe of British Columbia of Salishan linguistic stock, also ...
    Thompson, Blessed James

    Bl. James Thompson

    (Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...
    Thompson, Edward Healy and Harriet Diana

    Edward and Harriet Thompson

    The name of two English converts : (1) Edward Healy and (2) Harriet Diana. Edward Healy ...
    Thompson, Francis

    Francis Thompson

    Poet, b. at Preston, Lancashire, 18 Dec., 1859; d. in London, 13 Nov., 1907. He came from the ...
    Thompson, Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David

    Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David Thompson

    Jurist and first Catholic Premier of Canada, b. at Halifax, Nova Scotia , 10 Nov., 1844; d. ...
    Thonissen, Jean-Joseph

    Jean-Joseph Thonissen

    Professor of law at the University of Louvain, minister in the Belgian Government, b. at ...
    Thorlaksson, Arni

    Arni Thorlaksson

    An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297. While a deacon, he visited ...
    Thorney Abbey

    Thorney Abbey

    (i.e. "the isle of thorns", anciently called ANCARIG). Thorney Abbey, in Cambridgeshire, ...
    Thorns, Crown of

    Crown of Thorns

    Although Our Saviour's Crown of Thorns is mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded ...
    Thorns, Feast of the Crown of

    Feast of the Crown of Thorns

    The first feast in honour of the Crown of Thorns ( Festum susceptionis coronae Domini ) was ...
    Thorpe, Venerable Robert

    Venerable Robert Thorpe

    Priest and martyr, b. in Yorkshire; suffered at York, 15 May, 1591. He reached the English ...
    Thou, Jacques-Auguste de

    Jacques-Auguste de Thou

    French historian, b. at Paris, 8 October, 1553; d. there, 7 May, 1617. The son of Christophe de ...
    Thou, Nicolas de

    Nicolas de Thou

    Bishop of Chartres, uncle of the historian Jacques-Auguste de Thou, b. at Paris, 1528; d. at ...
    Three Chapters

    Three Chapters

    The Three chapters ( trîa kephálaia ) were propositions anathematizing : (1) the ...
    Three Rivers

    Three Rivers (Quebec)

    DIOCESE OF THREE RIVERS (TRIFLUVIANENSIS) Formed from the Archdiocese of Quebec , to which it ...
    Throne

    Throne

    (Latin thronus, cathedra, sedes episcopalis ), the seat the bishop uses when not engaged at ...
    Thuburbo Minus

    Thuburbo Minus

    A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Thuburbo Minus is mentioned in ...
    Thugga

    Thugga

    Titular see of Numidia, perhaps the Numidian fortress of Tocai mentioned about 305 B.C. by ...
    Thugut, Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula

    Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula Thugut

    Austrian statesman, born at Linz, 31 March, 1736; died at Vienna, 28 May, 1818. He was the son of ...
    Thulis, Venerable John

    Ven. John Thulis

    English martyr, born at Up Holland, Lancashire, probably about 1568; suffered at Lancaster, 18 ...
    Thun-Hohenstein, Count Leo

    Count Leo Thun-Hohenstein

    Austrian statesman, b. at the family castle of Tetschen in Bohemia, 7 April, 1811; d. at Vienna, ...
    Thundering Legion

    Thundering Legion

    ( Legio fulminata , or fulminea , not fulminatrix ). The story of the Thundering Legion ...
    Thuringia

    Thuringia

    The name Thuringia is given to a large part of Central Germany, bounded on the west by the ...
    Thurmayr, Johannes

    Johannes Thurmayr

    (Called AVENTINUS from the place of his birth) Born at Abensberg, Bavaria, 4 July, 1477; died ...
    Thyatira

    Thyatira

    A titular suffragan see of Sardes in Lydia. According to Stephanus Byzantius, the name was ...
    Thynias

    Thynias

    A titular see, suffragan of Nicomedia, in Bithynia Prima. It is an island situated in the Black ...
    Thyräus, Hermann

    Hermann Thryaus

    German Jesuit, b. at Neuss on the Rhine, 1532; d. at Mainz, 26 October, 1591. He studied first ...
    Tiara

    Tiara

    The papal crown, a costly covering for the head, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, ...
    Tibaldi, Pellegrino

    Pellegrino Tibaldi

    Known also as Pellegrino da Bologna and as Pellegrino Pellegrini; decorator, mural painter, and ...
    Tiberias

    Tiberias

    Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda. The town of Tiberias was founded on ...
    Tiberias, Sea of

    Sea of Galilee

    So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1 ), otherwise known as "the sea of Galilee" ( Matthew 4:18 ; Mark ...
    Tiberiopolis

    Tiberiopolis

    Titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana. Tiberiopolis is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, 2, 25); Socrates ...
    Tiberius

    Tiberius

    The second Roman emperor ( A. D. 14-37), b. 16 November, 42 B. C. , d. 16 March, A. D. 37. ...
    Tibet

    Tibet

    A vast plateau, about 463,320 square miles, about 1240 miles in its greatest length from east to ...
    Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints

    Sts. Tiburtius and Susanna

    Roman martyrs, feast 11 August. The story is related in the legend of St. Sebastian that ...
    Ticelia

    Ticelia

    Titular see, suffragan of Cyrene, in the Libya Pentapolis. Under this name it is not found in any ...
    Tichborne, Ven. Nicholas

    Ven. Nicholas Tichborne

    Martyr, b. at Hartley Mauditt, Hampshire; suffered at Tyburn, London, 24 Aug., 1601. He was a ...
    Tichborne, Ven. Thomas

    Ven. Thomas Tichborne

    Born at Hartley, Hampshire, 1567; martyred at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1602. He was educated ...
    Ticonius

    Ticonius

    (Also TYCONIUS, TYCHONIUS, etc.) An African Donatist writer of the fourth century who ...
    Ticuna Indians

    Ticuna Indians

    A tribe of Indians of some importance, constituting a distinct linguistic stock, inhabiting the ...
    Tieffentaller, Joseph

    Joseph Tieffentaller

    Jesuit missionary and noted geographer in Hindustan, b. at Bozen in the Tyrol, 27 August, 1710; ...
    Tiepolo

    Tiepolo

    Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Tiepolo Born in Venice in 1696; died at Madrid, 27 March, 1770. ...
    Tierney, Mark Aloysius

    Mark Aloysius Tierney

    Born at Brighton, Sept., 1795; died at Arundel, 19 Feb., 1862. After his early schooling with the ...
    Tigris, Saint

    St. Tigris

    Irish saint, sister of St. Patrick. Much obscurity attaches to her life, and she has been ...
    Tillemont, Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de

    Louis-Sebastien Le Nain de Tillemont

    French historian and priest, b. at Paris, 30 November, 1637; d. there, 10 January, 1698; he was ...
    Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of

    Count of Tilly

    Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632. He was a member of a noble family of ...
    Timbrias

    Timbrias

    A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. It is called Thymbrium in the official lists ...
    Time

    Time

    The problem of time is one of the most difficult and most keenly debated in the field of natural ...
    Timothy and Symphorian, Saints

    Sts. Timotheus and Symphorian

    Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August. During the pontificate of Melchiades (311-13), ...
    Timothy and Titus, Epistles to

    Epistles to Timothy and Titus

    (T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...
    Timucua Indians

    Timucua Indians

    A principal group or confederacy of Ancient Florida, notable for the successful missions ...
    Tincker, Mary Agnes

    Mary Agnes Tincker

    Novelist, born at Ellsworth, Maine, 18 July, 1833; died at Boston, Massachusetts, 4 December, ...
    Tingis

    Tingis

    A titular see of Mauretania Tingitana (the official list of the Roman Curia places it in ...
    Tinin

    See of Tinin (Dalmatia)

    SEE OF TININ (KNIN). Located in Dalmatia ; suffragan to Kalocsa-Bacs. Knin is a town on ...
    Tinos and Mykonos

    Tinos and Mykonos

    DIOCESE OF TINOS AND MYKONOS (TINENSIS ET MYCONENSIS) A Latin diocese of the Cyclades, ...
    Tintern Abbey

    Tintern Abbey

    This abbey, in Monmouthshire, England [actually Wales -- Ed. ], was founded in 1131 by ...
    Tintoretto, Il

    Il Tintoretto

    (J ACOPO R OBUSTI ) Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594. His father was a ...
    Tipasa

    Tipasa

    A titular see of Numidia. The Phoenician word signifies passage. Early in its history we find ...
    Tiraboschi, Girolamo

    Girolamo Tiraboschi

    Italian scholar, b. in the region of Bergamo, 1731; d. 3 June, 1794. At an early age he entered ...
    Tiraspol

    Tiraspol

    DIOCESE OF TIRASPOL (or CHERSONESE) (TIRASPOLENSIS; CHERSONENSIS) Diocese in Southern Russia ...
    Tisio da Garofalo, Benvenuto

    Benvenuto Tisio da Garofalo

    An Italian painter of the Ferrarese school ; b. in 1481 at Garofalo, whence, as was the ...
    Tissot, James

    James Tissot

    (JOSEPH-JACQUES TISSOT) French draughtsman and painter, b. at Nantes, 15 Oct., 1836; d. at ...
    Tithes

    Tithes

    (Anglo-Saxon teotha , a tenth). Generally defined as "the tenth part of the increase arising ...
    Tithes, Lay

    Lay Tithes

    Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...
    Titian

    Titian

    (T IZIANO V ECELLI , called T ITIAN ). The greatest of Venetian painters, born at Pieve ...
    Titopolis

    Titiopolis

    (TITIOPOLIS) Titular see, suffragan of Seleucia Trachaea in Isauria. Le Quien (Oriens ...
    Titulus

    Titulus

    In pagan times titulus signified an inscription on stone, and later the stone which marked ...
    Titus

    Titus

    Roman Emperor 79-81, b. 30 Dec., 41; d. 13 Sept., 81; son of the Emperor Vespasian, and from the ...
    Titus and Timothy, Epistles to

    Epistles to Timothy and Titus

    (T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...
    Titus, Bishop of Bostra

    Titus, Bishop of Bostra

    Born about 362-371. Sozomen (Hist. eccl., III, xiv) names Titus among the great men of the time ...
    Tius

    Tius

    (TIUM) Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in Honorias. According to Strabo (542, 545) the ...
    Tivoli

    Tivoli

    DIOCESE OF TIVOLI (TIBURTINA) Diocese in the Province of Rome. The city in situated where the ...
    Tlaxcala

    Tlaxcala

    (TLAXCALENSIS) A former diocese of the colony of New Spain. It was the fifth diocese ...
    Tlos

    Tlos

    A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Tlos was one of the six cities forming the Lycian ...
    Toaldo, Giuseppe

    Giuseppe Toaldo

    Priest and physicist, b. at Pianezze, 1719; d. at Padua, 1797. In his fourteenth year he entered ...
    Toba Indians

    Toba Indians

    One of the few still unconquered savage tribes of the great Chaco wilderness of South America, and ...
    Tobias

    Book of Tobias

    We shall first enumerate the various Biblical persons and then treat the book of this name. I. ...
    Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de

    Alexis de Tocqueville

    (CHARLES-ALEXIS-HENRI-MAURICE-CLEREL DE TOCQUEVILLE) Writer and statesman, b. at Verneuil, ...
    Todi

    Todi

    (T UDERTINA ). Diocese in Central Italy ; immediately dependent on the Holy See. The city ...
    Tokio

    Tokio (Tokyo)

    (Tokiensis) Archdiocese comprising 21 provinces or 15 departments with a population of over ...
    Toledo (Ohio)

    Toledo (Ohio)

    (Toletana in America) A diocese in Ohio, U.S.A. formed out of the Diocese of Cleveland and ...
    Toledo (Spain)

    Toledo (Spain)

    ARCHDIOCESE OF TOLEDO (TOLETANENSIS) Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost ...
    Toledo, Francisco

    Francisco Toledo

    Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, son of an actuary, b. at Córdova, 4 Oct., 1532; d. ...
    Tolentino and Macerata

    Macerata and Tolentino

    Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...
    Toleration, History of

    History of Toleration

    In any attempt to deal historically with the attitude of the Church towards religious toleration ...
    Toleration, Religious

    Religious Toleration

    Toleration in general signifies patient forbearance in the presence of an evil which one is ...
    Tolomei, John Baptist

    John Baptist Tolomei

    A distinguished Jesuit theologian and cardinal, born of noble parentage, at Camberaia, between ...
    Tomb

    Tomb

    A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons, ...
    Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

    Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

    The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...
    Tomb, Altar

    Altar Tomb

    A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having ...
    Tomi

    Tomi

    A titular metropolitan see in the Province of Scythia, on the Black Sea. It was a Greek colony ...
    Tommasi, Blessed Giuseppe Maria

    Bl. Giuseppe Maria Tommasi

    A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...
    Tongerloo, Abbey of

    Abbey of Tongerloo

    Located near Antwerp, Belgium, founded in 1128 in honour of the Blessed Virgin, by de ...
    Tongiorgi, Salvator

    Salvator Tongiorgi

    Philosopher, born at Rome, Italy, 25 December, 1820; d. there, 12 November, 1865. At the age of ...
    Tongues, Gift of

    Gift of Tongues (Glossolalia)

    (Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...
    Tonica Indians

    Tonica Indians

    (Or TUNICA). A small tribe constituting a distinct linguistic stock living, when first known ...
    Tonkawa Indians

    Tonkawa Indians

    A tribal group or confederacy, of low culture status and constituting a distinct linguistic stock, ...
    Tonsure

    Tonsure

    ( Latin tondere , "to shear") A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized ...
    Tootell, Hugh

    Hugh Tootell

    Commonly known as Charles Dodd. Historian, b. in 1671 or 1672, at Durton-in-Broughton, ...
    Torah

    Torah

    I. USE OF WORD Torah, (cf. Hiph. of ), signifies first "direction, instruction", as, for ...
    Torbido, Francesco

    Francesco Torbido

    Often called IL MORO (The Moor). Veronese painter and engraver, b. at Verona about 1486; ...
    Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint

    St. Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo

    Archbishop of Lima ; b. at Mayorga, León, Spain, 1538; d. near Lima Peru, 23 March ...
    Tornielli, Girolamo Francesco

    Girolamo Francesco Tornielli

    Italian Jesuit, preacher and writer, b. at Cameri, 1 Febreuary, 1693, of a distinguished family ...
    Torone

    Torone

    A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. Torone was a colony of Chalcideans from ...
    Toronto

    Toronto

    (TORONTINA). Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada. When constituted a diocese, it ...
    Torquemada, Tomás de

    Tomas de Torquemada

    First Grand Inquisitor of Spain, born at Valladolid in 1420; died at Avila, 16 September, ...
    Torres Naharro, Bartolemé de

    Bartolome de Torres Naharro

    Spanish poet and dramatist, b. at Torres, near Badajoz, towards the end of the fifteenth ...
    Torres, Francisco

    Francisco Torres

    (TURRIANUS.) Hellenist and polemicist, born in Herrera, Palencia, about 1509; died at Rome, ...
    Torricelli, Evangelista

    Evangelista Torricelli

    Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 ...
    Torrubia, José

    Jose Torrubia

    Born towards the end of the seventeenth century at Granada, Spain ; died in 1768 in the ...
    Tortona

    Tortona

    DIOCESE OF TORTONA (DERTONENSIS) Diocese in Piedmont, Italy. The city is situated on the ...
    Tortosa

    Tortosa

    DIOCESE OF TORTOSA (DERTHUSENSIS, DERTUSA). Located in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; ...
    Toscanella and Viterbo

    Viterbo and Toscanella

    (VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...
    Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo

    Paolo Dal Pozzo Toscanelli

    Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer, b. at Florence in 1397; d. there, 10 May, 1482. ...
    Tosephta

    Tosephta

    ( Hebrew = addition, supplement ) Tosephta is the name of compilation of ...
    Tostado, Alonso

    Alonso Tostado

    (ALONSO TOSTATUS) Exegete, b. at Madrigal, Castile, about 1400; d. at Bonilla de la Sierra, ...
    Tosti, Luigi

    Luigi Tosti

    Benedictine historian, b. at Naples 13 Feb., 1811; d. at Monte Cassino, 24 Sept., 1897. His ...
    Totemism

    Totemism

    Totemism from ote , root ot , possessive form otem , in the Ojibway dialect of the ...
    Totonac Indians

    Totonac Indians

    One of the smaller cultured nations of ancient Mexico, occupying at the time of the Spanish ...
    Touchet, George Anselm

    George Anselm Touchet

    Born at Stalbridge, Dorset; died about 1689. He was second son of Mervyn, twelfth Lord Audley, ...
    Toulouse

    Toulouse

    A RCHDIOCESE OF T OULOUSE (T OLOSENSIS ) Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne. As ...
    Tournély, Honoré

    Honore Tournely

    Theologian, b. Antibes, Provence, 28 August, 1658; d. at Paris, 26 December 1729. His parents ...
    Tournai

    Tournai

    DIOCESE OF TOURNAI (Latin TURNACUM, TORNACUM; Flemish, DOORNIJK — TORNACENSIS) Diocese ...
    Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de

    Joseph Pitton de Tournefort

    French botanist, b. at Aix in Provence, 5 June, 1656; d. at Paris, 28 Dec., 1708. After his ...
    Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de

    Charles-Thomas Maillard de Tournon

    Papal legate to India and China, cardinal, born of a noble Savoyard family at Turin, 21 ...
    Touron, Antoine

    Antoine Touron

    Dominican biographer and historian, born at Graulhet, Tarn, France, on 5 September, 1686; died ...
    Tours

    Tours

    (TURONENSIS.) Comprises the Department of Indre-et-Loire, and was re-established by the ...
    Toustain, Charles-François

    Charles-Francois Toustain

    French Benedictine, and member of the Congregation of St-Maur, born at Repas in the Diocese of ...
    Touttée, Antoine-Augustin

    Antoine-Augustin Touttee

    A French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. at Riom, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, ...
    Tower of Babel

    Tower of Babel

    The "Tower of Babel" is the name of the building mentioned in Genesis 11:19 . History of the ...
    Tracy, Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de

    Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de Tracy

    Viceroy of New France, born in France, 1603, of noble parents ; died there in 1670. A soldier ...
    Tradition and Living Magisterium

    Tradition and Living Magisterium

    The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...
    Traditionalism

    Traditionalism

    A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude. ...
    Traducianism

    Traducianism

    Traducianism ( tradux , a shoot or sprout, and more specifically a vine branch made to take root ...
    Trajan

    Trajan

    Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117. He ...
    Trajanopolis

    Trajanopolis

    Titular metropolitan see of Rhodope. The city owes its foundation or restoration to Trajan. Le ...
    Trajanopolis

    Trajanopolis

    A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. The only geographer who speaks ...
    Tralles

    Tralles

    A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. It was founded, it is said, by the Argians ...
    Trani and Barletta

    Trani and Barletta

    (T RANEN , et Barolen.) Diocese in Italy. The city of Trani is situated on the Adriatic in ...
    Transcendentalism

    Transcendentalism

    The terms transcendent and transcendental are used in various senses, all of which, as a ...
    Transept

    Transept

    A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica. It ...
    Transfiguration

    Transfiguration

    The Transfiguration of Christ is the culminating point of His public life, as His Baptism is ...
    Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the

    Feast of the Transfiguration of Christ

    Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. ...
    Transubstantiation

    The Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist

    In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...
    Transvaal

    Transvaal

    Vicariate apostolic ; lies between 23° 3' and 27° 30' S. lat., and 25° and 32° ...
    Transylvania

    Transylvania

    (Also TRANSYLVANIENSIS or ERDELY). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Kalocsa Bács. The ...
    Trapani

    Trapani

    (TREPANENSIS). Diocese in Sicily, suffragan of Palermo. The city is the capital of a ...
    Trapezopolis

    Trapezopolis

    A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan to Laodicea. Trapezopolis was a town of Caria ...
    Trappists

    Trappists

    The common name by which the Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de ...
    Trasilla and Emiliana, Saints

    Sts. Trasilla and Emiliana

    Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...
    Treason, Accusations of

    Accusations of Treason

    A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics ...
    Trebizond

    Trebizond

    (TRAPEZUNTINA). An Armenian Catholic diocese. The city owes its ancient name to the fact that ...
    Trebnitz

    Trebnitz

    A former abbey of Cistercian nuns, situated north of Breslau in Silesia. It was founded in ...
    Tredway, Lettice Mary

    Lettice Mary Tredway

    (Called "Lady" Tredway) Born 1595; died Oct., 1677; daughter of Sir Walter Tredway, of Buckley ...
    Tregian, Francis

    Francis Tregian

    Confessor, b. in Cornwall, 1548; d. at Lisbon, 25 Sept., 1608. He was son of Thomas Tregian of ...
    Tremithus

    Tremithus

    Titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. The city is mentioned by Ptolemy (Geog., V, xiii, ...
    Trent

    Trent

    (TRIDENTUM; TRIDENTINA). Diocese ; suffragan of Salzburg. Trent became universally known ...
    Trent, Council of

    Council of Trent

    The nineteenth ecumenical council opened at Trent on 13 December, 1545, and closed there on 4 ...
    Trenton

    Trenton

    (T RENTONENSIS ). Diocese created 15 July, 1881, suffragan of New York, comprises Atlantic, ...
    Tresham, Sir Thomas

    Sir Thomas Tresham

    Knight Bachelor (in or before 1524), Grand Prior of England in the Order of Knights ...
    Treviso

    Treviso

    (TARVISINA). Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The capital is surrounded by the River ...
    Tribe, Jewish

    Jewish Tribe

    ( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...
    Tricarico, Diocese of

    Tricarico

    (TRICARICENSIS.) Located in the Province of Potenza in the Basilicata (Southern Italy ), near ...
    Tricassin, Charles Joseph

    Charles Joseph Tricassin

    One of the greatest theologians of the Capuchin Order, b. at Troyes ; d. in 1681. There is but ...
    Tricca

    Tricca

    Titular see, suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. It was an ancient city of Thessaly, near the River ...
    Trichinopoly, Diocese of

    Trichinopoly

    (TRICHINOPOLITAN.) Located in India, suffragan of Bombay, comprises the south east portion of ...
    Trichur

    Trichur

    (TRICHURENSIS.) Vicariate Apostolic in India, one of the three vicariates of the Syro-Malabar ...
    Tricomia

    Tricomia

    Titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palaestina Prima. It is mentioned in George of Cyprus ...
    Triduum

    Triduum

    (Three days). A time frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices, whether ...
    Trier

    Trier

    (TREVIRENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Cologne; includes in the Prussian province of the ...
    Triesnecker, Francis a Paula

    Francis a Paula Triesnecker

    Astronomer, b. at Kirchberg on the Wagram, in Lower Austria, 2 April, 1745; d. at Vienna 29 ...
    Triest-Capo d'Istria

    Triest-Capo d'Istria

    (TERGESTINA ET JUSTINOPOLITANA.) Suffragan diocese of Görz-Gradiska ; exists as a ...
    Trincomalee

    Trincomalee

    (TRINCOMALIENSIS.) Located in Ceylon, suffragan of Colombo, was created in 1893 by a division ...
    Trinità di Cava dei Tirrenti, Abbey of

    Abbey of Trinita di Cava Dei Tirreni

    Located in the Province of Salerno. It stands in a gorge of the Finestre Hills near Cava dei ...
    Trinitarians, Order of

    Order of Trinitarians

    The redemption of captives has always been regarded in the Church as a work of mercy, as is ...
    Trinity College

    Trinity College

    An institution for the higher education of Catholic women, located at Washington, D.C., and ...
    Trinity Sunday

    Trinity Sunday

    The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity. In the early ...
    Trinity, The Blessed

    The Blessed Trinity

    This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...
    Triple-Candlestick

    Triple-Candlestick

    A name given along with several others (e.g. reed, tricereo, arundo, triangulum, lumen Christi ...
    Trissino, Giangiorgio

    Giangiorgio Trissino

    Italian poet and scholar, b. of a patrician family at Vicenza in 1478; d. at Rome, 8 ...
    Tritheists

    Tritheists

    (TRITHEITES). Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity. (1) Those who are ...
    Trithemius, John

    John Trithemius

    A famous scholar and Benedictine abbot, b. at Trittenheim on the Moselle, 1 February, 1462; d. at ...
    Trivento

    Trivento

    (Triventensis) Diocese in southern Italy. The earliest bishop was St. Castus of an uncertain ...
    Trivet, Nicholas

    Nicholas Trivet

    (Or "Trevet" as he himself wrote it) B. about 1258; d. 1328. He was the son of Thomas Trevet, a ...
    Troas

    Troas

    A suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespont. The city was first called Sigia; it was enlarged and ...
    Trocmades

    Trocmades

    (Trocmada) Titular see of Galatia Secunda, suffragan of Pessinus. No geographer or historian ...
    Trokelowe, John de

    John de Trokelowe

    (THROWLOW, or THORLOW) A monastic chronicler still living in 1330, but the dates of whose birth ...
    Trondhjem, Ancient See of

    Ancient See of Trondhjem

    (NIDAROS). In Norway it was the kings who introduced Christianity, which first became ...
    Trope

    Trope

    Definition and Description Trope, in the liturgico-hymnological sense, is a collective name ...
    Tropology, Scriptural

    Scriptural Tropology

    The theory and practice of interpreting the figurative meaning of Holy Writ. The literal meaning, ...
    Troy, John Thomas

    John Thomas Troy

    Archbishop of Dublin ; b. in the parish of Blanchardstown, near Dublin, 10 May, 1739; d. at ...
    Troyes

    Troyes

    (TRECENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Aube. Re-established in 1802 as a suffragan ...
    Truce of God

    Truce of God

    The Truce of God is a temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God ...
    Truchsess von Waldburg, Otto

    Otto Truchsess von Waldburg

    Cardinal-Bishop of Augsburg (1543-73), b. at Castle Scheer in Swabia, 26 Feb., 1514; d. at ...
    Trudo, Saint

    St. Trudo

    (TRON, TROND, TRUDON, TRUTJEN, TRUYEN). Apostle of Hasbein in Brabant; d. 698 (693). Feast 23 ...
    Trudpert, Saint

    St. Trudpert

    Missionary in Germany in the seventh century. He is generally called a Celtic monk from ...
    True Cross, The

    The True Cross

    (AND REPRESENTATIONS OF IT AS OBJECTS OF DEVOTION). (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult ; (2) ...
    Trueba, Antonio de

    Antonio de Trueba

    Spanish poet and folklorist, b. at Montellana, Biscay, in 1821; d. at Bilbao, 10 March, 1889. In ...
    Trujillo

    Trujillo

    Diocese comprising the Departments of Lambayeque, Libertad, Pinra, and the Province of Tumbes, ...
    Trullo, Council in

    Council in Trullo

    This particular council of Constantinople, held in 692 under Justinian II, is generally known as ...
    Trumpets, Feast of

    Feast of Trumpets

    The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...
    Trumwin, Saint

    Saint Trumwin

    (TRIUMWINI, TRUMUINI). Died at Whitby, Yorkshire, England, after 686. He was consecrated by ...
    Trustee System

    Trustee System

    I In the exercise of her inherent right of administering property, the Church often appoints ...
    Trusts and Bequests

    Trusts and Bequests

    A trust has been defined, in its technical sense, as the right enforceable solely in equity to ...
    Truth

    Truth

    Truth (Anglo-Saxon tréow, tryw, truth, preservation of a compact, from a Teutonic base ...
    Truth Societies, Catholic

    Catholic Truth Societies

    This article will treat of Catholic Truth Societies in the chronological order of their ...
    Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

    Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

    Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...
    Tschiderer zu Gleifheim, Johann Nepomuk von

    Tschiderer Zu Gleifheim

    Bishop of Trent, b. at Bozen, 15 Feb., 1777; d. at Trent, 3 Dec., 1860. He sprang from a family ...
    Tschupick, John Nepomuk

    John Nepomuk Tschupick

    A celebrated preacher, b. at Vienna, 7 or 12 April, 1729; d. there, 20 July, 1784. He entered the ...
    Tuam

    Tuam

    (TUAMENSIS). The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly ...
    Tuam, School of

    School of Tuam

    (Irish, Tuaim da Ghualann , or the "Mound of the two Shoulders"). The School of Tuam was ...
    Tubunae

    Tubunae

    A titular see in Mauretania Caesariensis, according to the "Gerachia cattolica", or in Numidia ...
    Tucson

    Tucson

    (T UCSONENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe. It comprises the State of ...
    Tucumán

    Tucuman

    (T UCUMANENSIS ). Suffragan to Buenos Aires, erected from the Diocese of Salta on 15 ...
    Tudela

    Tudela

    (TUTELÆ, TUTELENSIS). Diocese in Spain. The episcopal city has a population of 9213. ...
    Tuguegarao

    Tuguegarao

    (TUGUEGARAONENSIS). Diocese in the Philippines ; situated in the north-eastern section of ...
    Tulancingo

    Tulancingo

    (D E T ULANCINGO ). Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of Mexico. Its area is ...
    Tulasne, Louis-René

    Louis-Rene Tulasne

    A noted botanist, b. at Azay-le-Rideau, Dept of Indre-et-Loire, France, 12 Sept., 1815; d. at ...
    Tulle

    Tulle

    (TUTELENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Corrèze. It was suppressed by the ...
    Tunic

    Tunic

    By tunic is understood in general a vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper ...
    Tunis

    Tunis

    French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa. About the twelfth century before Christ ...
    Tunja

    Tunja

    (T UNQUENENSIS ). Diocese established in 1880 as a suffragan of Bogotá, in the ...
    Tunkers

    Tunkers

    ( German tunken , to dip) A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite. ...
    Tunstall, Cuthbert

    Cuthbert Tunstall

    Bishop of London, later of Durham, b. at Hackforth, Yorkshire, in 1474; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...
    Tunstall, Venerable Thomas

    Ven. Thomas Tunstall

    Martyred at Norwich, 13 July, 1616. He was descended from the Tunstalls of Thurland, an ancient ...
    Tunsted, Simon

    Simon Tunsted

    English Minorite, b. at Norwich, year unknown; d. at Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369. Having joined the ...
    Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques

    Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot

    Baron de L' Aulne, French minister, born at Parish, 10 May, 1727; died there, 20 March, 1781. ...
    Turin

    Turin

    (Turino; Taurinensis) The City of Turin is the chief town of a civil province in Piedmont and ...
    Turin, Shroud of

    The Shroud of Turin

    This name is primarily given to a relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that ...
    Turin, University of

    The University of Turin

    The University of Turin was founded in 1404, when the lectures at Piacenza and Pavia were ...
    Turkestan

    Turkestan

    I. CHINESE TURKESTAN When Jenghiz Khan died (1227) his second son, Djagatai, had the greater part ...
    Turkish Empire

    Turkish Empire

    Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the ...
    Turnebus, Adrian

    Adrian Turnebus

    Philologist, b. at Andely in Normandy in 1512; d. in Paris, 12 June, 1565. The accounts of the ...
    Turpin

    Turpin

    Archbishop of Reims, date of birth uncertain; d. 2 Sept., 800. He was a monk of St. Denis ...
    Tuscany

    Tuscany

    Tuscany, a division of central Italy, includes the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, ...
    Tuy

    Tuy

    (Tudensis.) Suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Santiago, comprises the civil provinces ...
    Twenge, Saint John

    St. John Twenge

    Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...
    Twiketal of Croyland

    Twiketal of Croyland

    (THURCYTEL, TURKETUL). Died July, 975. He was a cleric of royal descent, who is said to have ...
    Tyana

    Tyana

    A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Prima. The city must first have been called Thoana, ...
    Tychicus

    St. Tychicus

    A disciple of St. Paul and his constant companion. He was a native of the Roman province of ...
    Tynemouth Priory

    Tynemouth Priory

    Tynemouth Priory, on the east coast of Northumberland, England, occupied the site of an earlier ...
    Types in Scripture

    Types in Scripture

    Types, though denoted by the Greek word typoi , are not coextensive with the meaning of this ...
    Tyrannicide

    Tyrannicide

    Tyrannicide literally is the killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a ...
    Tyre

    Tyre

    (TYRUS.) Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese. The city is called in Hebrew, Zor , ...
    Tyrie, James

    James Tyrie

    Theologian, b. at Drumkilbo, Perthshire, Scotland, 1543; d. at Rome, 27 May, 1597. Educated ...

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