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The Church in China

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Ancient Christians

The introduction of Christianity into China has been ascribed not only to the Apostle of India, St. Thomas, but also to St. Bartholomew. In the third century, Arnobius, in "Adversus Gentes", speaks of the Seres , with the Persians and the Medes, as among the nations reached by "that new power which has arisen from the works done by the Lord and his Apostles ". Though there is evidence that Christianity existed in Mesopotamia and Persia during the fourth century, as evidenced by the persecutions which began in 345 under Sapor (309-379), there is no proof that it spread to China. After the condemnation of Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople, at the Council of Ephesus (431) and his banishment, his disciples spread his errors through Asia. They seemed to have reached China in the seventh century, according to the Si-ngan-fu inscription. In should be added that, according to Ebedjesus, some thought that Archæus, Archbishop of Selucia, had created a metropolitan see in China in 411, while others said that the metropolitans of China dated only from Saliba Zacha, patriarch of the Nestorians from 714 to 728. According to Pauthier, the T'ang Emperor, Hiuan T'sung issued in 745 an edict wherein it was stated that the temples of the religion from Ta Ta'in being known popularly as Persian temples, it was ordered that, this being inaccurate, thenceforth the latter name should be changed to Ta Ts'in temples.

Si-ngan-fu Inscription

In the year 1625 the Jesuits in Peking were informed that a slab referring to the Christian religion had been found not long before, possibly in 1623, at Ch'ang-ngan (Si-ngan-fu). Father Nicolas Trigault was sent to inspect the stone, which had been discovered at Cheu-che, some distance from Ch'ang-ngan. It was one of the monuments called by the Chinese antiquaries pei . The French traveller, Grenard, who visited Si-ngan-fu a few years ago gives the following measurements: height, 7 ft., 9 ins., width 2 ft. 9 ins., thickness 10 ins. At the top a cross is incised, under which nine large characters in three columns for the heading, which reads as follows: Monument commemorating the introduction and propagation of the noble law of Ta T' sin in the Middle Kingdom. According to the text of the inscription, Olopen arrived from Ta T' sin at Ch'ang-ngan in the ninth year of the period Chang-kwan (635); Emperor T'ai Tsung sent his minster, Duke Fang Huan-ling, to receive him and conduct him to the palace; the Scriptures were translated, and the Emperor, becoming convinced of the correctness and truth of Olopen's religion, gave special orders for its propagation, and in the seventh month of the twelfth year of Chang-kwan (638), in the autumn, issued a proclamation: a Ta T' sin monastery was built, etc. The conclusion of the inscription runs as follows: Erected in the second year of the period Kien-chung (781) of the great T'ang dynasty, the year star being in Tso-yo, on the seventh day of the first month, being Sunday. The inscription consists of 1780 characters; in addition to the Chinese characters, at the foot and on the sides, the stele also exhibits a series of data in the Syriac language, in Estrangelo characters. Sir Henry Yule (Marco Polo, II, 27) thinks that Olopen is only a Chinese form of rabban , a monk, while Prof. Hirth makes Olopen stand for Ruben, or Rupen. It appears from a paper by J. Takakusu (Ts'ung-pao, VII, 589-591) that Adam ( King-tsing ) who erected the monument under Te-tsung, under the same emperor, translated, with a Buddhist, a Buddhist Sûtrç, the "Satpâramitâ", from a Hu text.

The question of the authenticity of the inscription has been formerly often raised, but today no one can doubt the genuineness of this most important document for the history of the propagation of the Faith in the Far East; we fully agree with A. Wylie, who writes: If the Nestorian tablet can be proved a forgery, there are few existing memorials of bygone dynasties which can withstand the same type of arguments. This inscription is generally considered as emanating from Nestorians ; but this is supported only by circumstantial evidence, for it must be remarked that nothing in it is characteristic of Nestorianism.

Nestorians

The Nestorians were successful in converting the Keraits to Christianity at the beginning of the eleventh century, as related by the Christian historian, Bar Hebræus. The Keraits remained Christians till the time of Jenghiz Khan, as is attested by Rashiduddin; Their head is spoken of by Rubruck and Marco Polo as Ung Khan (Wang Khan), identified with Prester John ; when Wang Khan was defeated by Jenghiz, his niece, Sorhabyani, married Tuli, the fourth son of the conqueror, and became the mother of Kublai. When Kublai removed his capital to Peking, he founded in 1280 the chief Christian consistory, under the name of Ch'ung-fu-tze ; the priests of the Nestorian sect were known as Erkeun (Ye-li Ko-wen). but this term was later applied to Christians in general, who were called by the Mohammedans Tersa (transcribed Tie-sie ). The last name, however, disappeared with the removal of the capital to Peking. Mar Sergius, a Nestorian, and other Christians are mentioned in a description of Chin-kiang-fu. The Nestorians had a number of bishoprics throughout Asia and two archbishoprics, one at Cambalue (Peking), one at Tangut (Tanchet); there is even a record of a Chinese Nestorian, Mar Jabalaha (b. 1245), a pupil of another Nestorian, Rabban Sauma (b. in Peking), being appointed Patriarch of Persia when Denha died, though he was unacquainted with the Syriac tongue. This is a proof of the influence of the Mongols of China. Buddhism, however, prevailed at court, and two of the Nestorian churches were converted to heathen temples. The prosperity of the Nestorians in China continued through the Mongol period. We may judge their numbers and influence by the fact that friar Oderic, about 1324, found three Nestorian churches in the city of Yang-chou, but soon afterwards they fell into decay. Evidence of their existence was found by the Jesuits at the beginning of the seventeenth century.

Medieval Catholic Missions

The great religious crusade in Asia during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries dates from the Council of Lyons held in 1245 by Pope Innocent IV. The interests of Christendom were threatened by the Mongolian conquest, and it became necessary to send ambassadors to the Tatar chief to find out his intentions. Two mendicant orders, the Franciscans and the Dominicans, who had been instituted at the beginning of the thirteenth century, were ready to furnish the agents for the mission. John of Plano Carpini, a Franciscan, accompanied by Friar Stephen of Bohemia, left Lyons on 16 April, 1245, and was joined at Breslau by Friar Benedict, a Pole. They went by way of Moscow and Kieff, and in February, 1246, reached the camp of Batu, grandson of Jenghiz, on the Volga; thence they went to Karakorum to the to the court of Kuyuk Khan. On 13 November they began their return voyage with the Mongol chief's reply to the papal letter and reached Avignon in 1247. As a reward, Carpini was appointed Archbishop of Antivari. Four Dominican friars, Anselm of Lombardy, Simon of Saint-Quentin, Alberic, and Alexander, joined at Toflis by Andrew of Longjumeau and Guichard of Cremona, were sent on a mission to the Mongol general, Baïju, in Persia, but were received badly, and dismissed on 25 July, 1245, with a haughty letter for the pope. St. Louis, King of France, sent the Franciscan, William of Rubruck (known as Rubruquis), to the court of Mangu Khan, successor of Kuyuk; he returned to his convent at Acre (1255), were he wrote an account of his voyage. Speaking of Carpini and Rubruck, Yule says (Cathay, I, p. CXXIII): These were the first, so far as I know, to bring to western Europe the revived knowledge of a great and civilized nation lying in the extreme east upon the shores of the ocean. To this kingdom they gave the name, now first heard in Europe, of Cathay. Though the first missionaries went sent to the court of Kublai by Nicholas III (1277-80), the real founder of the mission of Cambalue was John of Montecorvino, a Franciscan friar (b. at Salerno, 1247), sent by Nicholas IV. Giovanni probably reached the Mongol capital before the death of the Great Khan. In 1307 Clement V sent seven friars having the rank of bishop, who were to consecrate Montecorvino as Archbishop of Cambalue and Primate of the Far East; only Andrew of Perugia, Gerard, and Peregrinus reached China in 1308 and consecrated Montecorvino; a bishopric was erected at Zaitun in Fu-kien, which was occupied in turn by Gerard (d. 1313), Peregrinus (d. 1322), and Andrew of Perugia ; Montecorvino died in 1333 and was succeeded by Nicholas, a Paris theologian, who arrived in China with twenty-six friars and six lay brothers. A mission was also created at Ili-baluc in Central Asia with Richard of Burgundy as its bishop, but it was destroyed. In 1362 the fifth bishop of Zaitun, James of Florence, was massacred. In 1370, William of Prato, professor of the University of Paris, was appointed to the See of Peking. An apostolic legate, Francisco di Podio, with twelve companions, was sent out in 1371, but they were never heard from; all the Christian missions disappeared in the turmoil which followed the fall of the Mongols and the accession of the Ming dynasty (1368).

Modern Missions

If the Dominican friar, Gaspar da Cruz, was actually the first modern missionary to China, where, however, he stayed but a short time, the Jesuits under Matteo Ricci were the first to give a solid basis to the missions in the Celestial Empire. They spread through the Kwang-tung province to the central provinces, Nan-king, Shanghai, Hang-chou, endeavoring to reach Peking. In 1602 the Jesuit, Benedict de Goæs, started from Agra in an attempt to reach Peking by land. He arrived at the frontier town of Su-chou, where he died, 18 March, 1606, from the fatigue of his long journey. The Jesuits soon found eager competitors in the Dominicans and the Franciscans, who arrived in 1633, but where expelled from China four years later.

In August, 1635, Li, Prefect of Kiang-chou, issued a proclamation which was in reality an apology for the Christian religion, praising Kao (Father Alfonso Vagnoni, b. in the Diocese of Turin, 1566; d. at Kiang-chou, 19 April, 1640). In July, 1641, Tsuo, Sub-prefect of Kien-ning-hien in Fu-kien mentions Aleni as a master eminent among the learned men of the West, and speaks in high terms of the Christian religion. The conquest of China by the Manchus (1644) was a cause of great suffering to the Church. The celebrated Jesuit, Johann Adam Schall von Bell , head of the Board of Mathematics, was thrown into prison, but he soon regained favor under the first Manchu emperor, Shun-che. In 1664, during the minority of K'ang-hi, Yang Kwei-sien, a Mohammedan astronomer, in charge of the Board of Mathematics, accused Schall, then old and paralyzed, of hostility to Chinese traditions, and obtained against him a sentence of death (15 April, 1665), which was not carried out; when K'ang-hi took the power in hand, the errors of Yang were discovered, thanks to the Belgian Father, Ferdinand Verbiest, who was appointed in Yang's place head of the Board of Mathematics. It was Verbiest and not Schall who cast the astronomical instruments of the Peking observatory, some of which date from the Mongol period. The arrival of the priests of the Missions Etrangères of Paris and of the French Jesuits sent by Louis XIV to Peking gave a new emphasis to the Christian missions.

In March, 1692, Ku Pa-tai, President of the Board of Rites and some of his colleagues addressed to the emperor a note to the effect that as the Europeans were not guilty of any breach of the law, it seemed unfair to prohibit their religion; that it would be proper therefore to let churches subsist and to allow persons bearing perfumes and other offerings freedom to enter them. An imperial decree approved of this note, and copies were sent to all the provincial governors. The Jesuits, as astronomers or interpreters, were in high favor at court and the question of rites which was disadvantageous to other missionaries, did not impair their credit during the reign of K'ang-hi. Matters were different under Yung Cheng, son and successor of K'ang-hi, who in 1724 issued an edict exiling to Canton all missionaries except those occupying various offices at Court; in 1736, an edict of K'ien Lung, son and successor of Yung Cheng, prohibited the teaching of Christian doctrine under penalty of death. On 25 June, 1746, a cruel persecution broke out in Fu-kien, during which the vicar Apostolic, Bishop Sanz, and four other Spanish Dominicans, Serrano, Alcobar, Royo, and Diaz were martyred. The Jesuits Attimis and Henriquez were put to death at Su-chou on 12 Sept., 1748. A great change was made in the Christian Church at Peking, the Jesuits being replaced by the Lazarists.

During the Kia K'ing period (1796-1820), persecution was very severe. A decree was issued 4 Sept., 1811, prescribing a search for foreign preachers. There were but seven Europeans residing at Court, Ferreira (Fu Wen-kao); Riberio (Li Hung-chen); Serra (Kao Shéu-kien), all Portuguese Lazarists in charge of the observatory; Nan Mi-te, interpreter of the Privy Council; Cajetan Pires (Pei Ho-yuan), a mathematician, and two other missionaries too old to be sent home. Monsignor Dufresse, Bishop of Tabraca and vicar Apostolic of Sze-ch'wan, was beheaded 14 Sept., 1825; Father Clet, a French Lazarist. was strangled at Wu-ch'ang (Hu-pe), 18 Feb., 1820. On Sept. 11, 1840, Father Jean-Gabriel Perboyre, a Lazarist, was martyred at Wu-ch'ang. Brighter days were looked for after the signing of a treaty at Wham-poa (1844) by the French ambassador, Théodose de Lagrené, expectations which were fulfilled after the Peking convention of 1860.

In an edict of 20 Feb., 1846, Tao-kwang ordered that the establishments belonging formerly to Christians be restored to their owners, and that henceforward officers searching for and arresting harmless Christians should be tried. The edict was not sent to all the governors, and the same year the missionaries, Hue and Gabet, were arrested at Lhassa and the Franciscan Father Navarro in Hu-pe, and all were taken under escort to Canton and Macao ; it was not till the war of 1860 that the churches of Peking were surrendered to Bishop Mouly. The murder of Auguste Chapdelaine (Missions Etrangères de Paris ) at Si-lin-hien, in Kwang-si on 29 Feb., 1856, was the pretext chosen by France to join England in a military action against China. Special privileges were awarded to missions by Art. XIII of the French treaty of T'ien-tsin (1858) and Art. VI of the French Peking Convention (1860). The old churches of the capital were restored to the Lazarists, and passports for inland travel or sojourn issued to twenty-eight missionaries. Korea, already ill-famed on account of the massacre of Monsignor Imbert and Fathers Chastan and Maubant on 21 Sept., 1839, was the scene of a terrible persecution in 1866; Bishop Berneux, with Fathers de Bretenières, Beaulieu, and Dorie (8 March), Pourthié and Petitnicolas (11 March), the coadjutor Bishop Daveluy, and Fathers Aumaætre (30 March) were all decapitated. Of the flourishing establishment of the Missions Etrangères de Paris, there were only Fathers Ridel, later on vicar Apostolic, Féron, and Calais. This led to an intervention of France in Korea which did not, however, achieve any great degree of success. Things were going from bad to worse in China. In Kwang-tung Fathers Verchère (1867), Dejean (1868), Delavay (1868), were persecuted ; in Sze-ch'wan, Fathers Mabileau (29 Aug., 1865) and Rigaud (2 Jan., 1869) were murdered at Yeu-yang-chou, near Kwei-chou, and Fathers Gilles and Lebrun were ill-treated (1869-70); anti-foreign placards were posted up in Hu-nan (1869); the French minister, Count de Rochechouart, was nearly murdered at T'ai-yuan, in the Shan-si province (1869). Finally came the massacre of T'ien-tsin, 21 June, 1870. Fontanier. The French consul, Simon, his chancellor, Thomassin, the interpreter and his wife, the Lazarist father Chevier and the Cantonese priest Hu, Challemaison, a merchant and his wife, ten sisters of St. Vincent of Paul, Bassoff and Protopopoff, Russian merchants, and the wife of the latter--in all twenty-two persons were put to death with great barbarity.

The Franco-Prussian War prevented France from taking any energetic action in China, but a special mission, headed by the High Commissioner, Ch'ung Hou, was sent to Paris to apologize. The lack of retaliation on the part of France encouraged Prince Kung to send the foreign ministers at Peking (1871) a memorandum relating to missions and regulations to be applied to Christian missionaries. This circular note met with a protest, not only from the French Minister Rochechouart (14 Nov. 1871), but also from Mr. Wade, British Minister. The murder of the German missionaries, Nies and Henle (1 Nov., 1897), in the Shang-tung province, led to the occupation of Kiao-chou by the Germans. On 14 Oct., 1898, Chanès was murdered at Pak-tung (Kwang-tung); Victorin Delbrouck, a Belgian, was killed in Hu-pe (11 Dec., 1898); satisfaction was given by the Chinese for these crimes, which had been perpetrated in the face of two imperial decrees that same year, dated 12 July and 6 October. The Boxer rebellion brought sad days for the missions. The list of martyrs is lengthy. The following bishops were put to death : Fatosati of Northern Hu-nan, Grassi and Fogolla of Shan-si, Italian Franciscans ; Guillon, Missions Etrangères of Manchuria, Hamer (Dutch) of Kan-su (burnt to death), and the Franciscans, Ceseda and Joseph (Hu-nan); Facchini, Saccani, Balat, and Egide (Shan-si); Ebert (Hu-pe); the Jesuits, Andlauer, Isoré, Denn, and Mangin (Chi-li); the Lazarists d'Addosio, Garrigues, Doré, Chavanne (Peking); Emonet, Viaud, Agnius, Bayart, Bourgeois, Leray, le Guéval, Georjon, Souvignet, of Manchuria, all of the Missions Etrangères de Paris ; Segers, Heirman, Mallet, Jaspers, Zylmans, Abbeloos, Dobbe, of Mongolia, all of the Congregation of Scheut.

Mention should be made of the fact that in 1895, the French Minister Gérard made an agreement with the Tsung-li Yamen that all passages in the official code disadvantageous to the Christian religion should be erased. The Berthemy Convention, finally settled by M. Gérard (spoken of below), and the reorganization of the protectorates and the hierarchy, treated of hereafter, are the chief events of the last few years.

THE QUESTION OF RITES

Father Ricci, the first superior of the Jesuits in China, had remarkable success in his work of evangelizing because of the great tolerance he showed the cult rendered by the Chinese to Heaven, to Confucius, and to ancestors. Indeed, mandarins being obliged to honor officially Heaven and Confucius on certain days, it would have been difficult to convert any of them if they had not been allowed to carry out the functions of their office. Ancestor worship is, practically, the principal religion of China. Ricci's successor, Longobardi, was of a different mind and finally in 1628, when Emmanuel Diaz (Junior) was vice-provincial, a meeting was called to study the question, but no decision was reached. Affairs reached a crisis when the Dominican, Moralez, and the Franciscan, Santa Maria, arrived in China (1633). Excess of zeal, ignorance of local customs, or some such reason was the cause of the expulsion of the Dominicans and Franciscans (1637). In addition to different views about the religion of the Chinese, there was another cause of discord between the Jesuits and the Dominicans. The former were protected by Portugal and their protectors were at Macao. The latter were Spaniards, and they looked for support to Manila. In 1639, Moralez addressed to Diaz Senior, then Visitor of the Jesuit mission, a memorandum in twelve articles regarding Chinese practices. Diaz having delayed his answer, Moralez went to Rome, and on 12 Sept., 1645, obtained from Innocent X a decree condemning the Jesuits. The Jesuits thereupon dispatched to Rome Martin Martini, who after a stormy voyage was carried to the Norwegian coast, and was obliged to cross Holland and Germany to Italy. He succeeded in having a contradictory decree issued by Alexander VII (23 March, 1656). Then followed a new memorandum of Moralez to the Sacred Congregation (1661), and a new decree of Clement IX against the Jesuits (20 Nov., 1669). Moralez died (1664) but his successor as prefect of the Dominicans in China, Domingo Fernandez Navarrette , published his "Tratados historicos"; the Dominicans, however, found an adversary among themselves. The Chinese Dominican, Gregorio Lopez, Bishop of Basilea and vicar Apostolic of Nan-king, sent to the Sacred Congregation a memoir in favour of the Jesuits.

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New elements were brought into the discussion when French Jesuits and priests of the Missions Etrangères arrived in China. The publication in Paris, in 1682, of a work entitled "La Morale pratique des Jésuites", a bitter criticism of the Jesuits, acted as a firebrand. Père le Tellier answered with "Défense des Nouveaux Chrétiens" (1687), which was later censured at Rome (23 May, 1694). On 26 March, 1693, Charles Maigrot, of the Missions Etrangères, vicar Apostolic of Fu-kien, and later titular bishop of Conon, issued a mandate condemning the Chinese Rites. Following the example of the Dominicans, the Missions Etrangères sent to Rome Louis de Quemener, who presented the pope with Maigrot's mandate (1696). Nicolas Charmot, Maigrot's envoy, obtained a brief from Innocent XII (15 Jan., 1697) and a decree from the Holy Office (3 July, 1697). The works of Jesuit Father Comte. "Mémoires sur la Chine" and "Lettre ê Mgr le Due du Maine sur les cérémonies de la Chine", added fuel to the flame and were censured by the Faculty of Theology of Paris (18 Oct., 1700), together with the "Hist. de l'edit de l'Empereur de la Chine" by Père Le Gobin, S.J. Finally, the Holy Office published a decree prohibiting the Chinese ceremonies (20 Nov., 1704). This was approved by Clement XI who appointed as legatus a latere Charles Thomas de Tournon, Patriarch of Antioch, to carry the decree to China. Tournon arrived at Canton 8 April and was received at Peking by the Emperor K'ang-hi, who was favorable to the Jesuits (31 Dec., 1705). After various controversies in which Maigrot and the Jesuit Visdelou sided with the legate, K'ang-hi, who found the Jesuits better informed about China than their adversaries, ordered Tournon to leave Peking (28 Aug., 1705) and banished Maigrot (17 Dec., 1705). Tournon issued a mandate at Nan-king (25 Jan., 1707). When he arrived at Macao he was thrown into a prison where he died (8 June 1710) immediately after being named a cardinal. On 19 March, 1715, Clement XI issued the Bull "Ex illâ die". A new legate, Mezzabarba, Patriarch of Alexandria, was sent to China. He arrived at Macao (26 Sept., 1720), went to Peking and was received by the emperor, who refused to accede to his demands. Finally, the whole knotty question was settled (11 July, 1742) by a Bull of Benedict XIV, "Ex quo singulari" condemning the Chinese ceremonies and choosing the expression T'ien-chu which was to be used exclusively to designate God. Missionaries to China had to take an oath not to discuss at any time the terms of the Bull. The bitterness of this celebrated quarrel was greatly increased by various causes: the rivalry of Portugal and France for the protectorate of the missions, the disputes between the Jansenists and the Jesuits, and the Bull "Unigenitus" ; while the final decision was delayed as much by the question of episcopal sees in China as the rites themselves. Rome having spoken, no more can be said here on the question, but it may be noted that the Bull "Ex quo singulari" was a terrible blow to the missions in China ; there are fewer Christians than formerly and none among the higher classes, as were the princes and mandarins of the court of K'ang-hi.

CREATION OF VICARIATES APOSTOLIC

In 1577 Gregory XIII created for China, Japan, and the Far Eastern Islands, the Diocese of Macao, which was divided in 1587 into two diocese, Macao and Funay (Japan). On 9 Sept., 1659, Alexander VII erected from the territory included within the Diocese of Macao , two vicariates Apostolic , one including besides Tong-king the Chinese provinces of Yun-nan, Kwei-chou, Hu-kwang (now Hu-pe and Hu-nan), Sze-ch'wan, Kwang-si, and Laos, the other including, in addition to Cochin-China, the Chinese provinces of Che-kiang, Fu-kien, Kwang-tung, Kiang-si, and the island of Hai-nan. In 1690, Alexander VIII, to satisfy the Portuguese, created the Diocese of Peking, including Chi-li, Shang-tung, Shan-si, Shen-si, Ho-nan, Lao-tung, Korea, and Tatary, and the Diocese of Nan-king, both diocese being under the Archbishop of Goa. By a Bull of 15 Oct, 1696, Innocent XII erected the vicariates Apostolic of Shen-si and Shan-si by taking part of the territory included in the Diocese of Peking (Chi-li, Shang-tung, Lao-tung, Korea, and Tatary), and limited the Diocese of Nan-king to Kiang-nan and Ho-nan. The following vicariates were created out of the Diocese of Nan-king (1696): Hu-kwang, Fu-kien, Che-kiang, Kiang-si, Yun-nan, Sze-ch'wan, Kwai-chou; in 1737, these last two provinces were joined into one vicariate, to which Yu-nan was added in 1781. In 1840, Yun-nan was again detached, and in 1846 Kwei-chou became independent. In 1858 Sze-ch'wan was subdivided into Eastern and Western Sze-ch'wan. In 1860, Eastern Sze-ch'wan, with part of Western Sze-ch'wan, was divided into the vicariates Apostolic of Southern Sze-ch'wan and Eastern Sze-ch'wan. In 1790, Fu-kien, Che-kiang, and Kiang-se were combined into one vicariate, but in 1838 divided into the vicariates of Fu-kien and Che-kiang Kiang-se. In 1883, Amoy was separated from Fu-kien; in 1846 Kiang-se was separated from Che-kiang; in 1879 the vicariates of Northern and Southern Kiang-se were erected; in 1885 the vicariate of Eastern Kiang-se was created. In 1762, Hu-kwang was amalgamated with Shan-si and Shen-si but separated in 1838. Out of Hu-kwang were formed in 1856 the vicariates of Hu-nan and Hu-pe; in 1879 Hu-nan was divided into the vicariates of Northern and Southern Hu-nan; in 1876, Hu-pe was divided into Eastern, Western, and Northern Hu-pe. In 1843 Shen-si and Shan-si were separated; in 1885 Shen-si was divided into two vicariates, and in 1890 Shan-si was divided in a similar manner.

From the Diocese of Peking, Korea was detached in 1831, Liao-tung, Manchuria, etc. in 1838, and Shang-tung in 1839; in 1856 the Diocese of Peking was divided into three vicariates: Northern, South-Western, and South-Eastern Chi-li; from the last-named, eastern Chi-li was separated in 1899. In 1883, Shan-tung was divided into Northern and Southern Shan-tung ; Eastern Shan-tung was detached in 1894. In 1840 the vicariates of Mongolia and Kang-su were separated from Manchuria and later sub-divided; in 1843, Hong-Kong was taken from Macao ; at first a prefecture, it was erected into a vicariate in 1874; the two provinces of Kwang-tung and Kwang-si were detached from Macao in 1856 and formed into a prefecture, but were erected into separate prefectures in 1878. In 1856 Ho-nan was divided from the Diocese of Nan-king, and was erected into a vicariate which was later subdivided.

RELIGIOUS ORDERS

The Society of Jesus

The Jesuits are the true founders of the missions in China. St. Francis Xavier , after evangelizing India and Japan, died in December, 1552, on the island of Shang-ch'wan (St. John's) before he could reach Macao or Canton. His successors, Alessandro Valignani (d. 20 Jan., 1606), Michele Ruggierei (d. 11 May, 1607), and Francisco Pasio (d. 30 Aug., 1612) did not penetrate beyond these two places and Chao-k'ing in the same province. Matteo Ricci had the honor of being the pioneer missionary at Peking; he was born at Macerata, Italy, 6 Oct., 1552, and arrived at Macao in 1583, meeting there with Ruggieri. From Chou-k'ing Father Ricci went to Nan-ch'ang (1595); he visited Peking twice (1595 and 1598) where he finally settled, leaving Nan-king for the last time 18 May, 1600. He left behind him Lazzaro Cattaneo and Joïo da Rocha, who in 1603 baptized, under the name of Paul, the celebrated Siu kwang-k'i. The latter on going to Peking showed himself a stanch supporter of Ricci, who died 11 May, 1610. Ricci was the first superior of the Peking mission. His two successors, Nicolò Longobardi (1610) and Joïo do Rocha (1622) held the same office; Emmanuel Diaz (Junior) was the first vice-provincial. Ricci, under the Chinese name of Li Ma-teu, wrote many works still appreciated by the Chinese, among them "T'ien-chu Shi-yi" (the true doctrine of God ), published in 1601, translated into Manchu, Korean, Japanese, and French; "Ki-ho Yuan-pun", the first six books of Euclid, etc. The following are the names of some of the best-known members of this mission: Emmanuel Diaz Junior (Yang Ma-no), b. in Portugal, 1574; arrived in China, 1610; d. at Hang-chou, 4 March, 1659; author of "T'ang-king kiao-pei-sung-cheng-ts'iuen", a translation of the celebrated inscription of Si-ngan-fu. Nicolas Trigault (Kiu Ni-ko), b. at Douai, 3 March, 1577; arrived in China, 1610; d. at Hang-chou, 14 Nov., 1628; author of the life of Ricci (De Christianç Expeditione apud Sinas, 1615), a dictionary (Si-ju-eul-mu-tze), and a translation of Æsop's Fables (Hwang-yi). Giulio Aleni (Ngai Ju-lio), b. at Brescia, 1582; arrived in China, 1613; d. at Fu-chou, 3 Aug., 1649; author of no less than twenty-five works in Chinese, including a life of Christ. Johann Adam Schall von Bell (T'ang Jo-wang), b. at Cologne, 1591; arrived in China, 1622; d. at Peking, 15 Aug. 1666; a celebrated mathematician. Luigi Buglio (Li Lei-sse), b. at Minco (Sicily) 26 Jan., 1606; arrived at China, 1637; d. at Peking, 7 Oct., 1682; author of twenty-one works in Chinese, of which a "Missale romanum" (Mi-sa King-tien, 1670), a "Breviarium romanum" (Ji-k'o kai-yao, 1674), a "Manuale ad Sacramenta ministranda" (Sheng-sse-li-tien, 1675), still remain. Gabriel de Magalhaens (Ngan Wen-see), b. at Pedrogïo, 1611; arrived in China, 1640; d. at Peking, 6 May, 1677; author of a good description of China which was translated into English (1688). Martino Martini (Wei Kwang-kwo), b. at Trent, 1614; arrived in China, 1643; d. at Hang-chou, 6 June, 1661; who published in 1655 the first good atlas of China. Ignaco da Costa (Kouo Na-tsio), b. at Fayal, Azores, 1599; arrived in China, 1634; d. at Canton, May, 1666; the translator, with Intorcetta, of the "Lun-yu" and "Ta-hio" of Confucius (1662). Prospero Intocetta (In To-che), b. at Piazza, Sicily, 28 August, 1628; arrived in China, 1659; d. at Hang-chou, 3 Oct. 1696. Phillippe Couplet (pe Ing-li), b. at Mechlin, 31 May 1622; arrived in China, 1659; died at sea, 16 May, 1693; he made known to Europeans the works of Confucius (1672). Albert Dorville and Johann Gtüber, who visited Tibet. Ferdinand Verbiest (Nan Hwai-jen); b. at Pitthem, 9 Oct., 1623; arrived at China, 1659; d. at Peking, 29 Jan., 1688; a great astronomer, who cast some of the instruments of the Peking observatory and guns for the war against the Eleuths. Franïois Noæl (Wei Fang-tsi), b. at Hesdrud (Hainault), 18 Aug., 1651; arrived in China in 1687; d. at Lille, Sept., 1729; astronomer and translator of the Confucian classics. Ignaz Kögler (Tai Tsin-hien), b. at Landsberg, 11 May, 1680; arrived in China, 30 Aug.,1716; d. at Peking, 29 March, 1746. Augustin von Hallerstein, b. at Laibach, 2 Aug., 1703; arrived in China in 1738; d. 29 October, 1774. The last two named were mathematicians.

Most of the Jesuits of this mission were Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, German, Swiss, or Belgian ; but few were French. In 1685, however, Louis XIV, king of France, sent six French Jesuits to the Far East: Guy Tachard remained in Siam, but Jean de Fontaney, Joachim Bouvet , Louis de Comte, Jean-François Gerbillion and Claude de Visdelou, who reached China 23 July, 1687, laid the foundation of the celebrated French Peking mission, which lasted till the suppression of the Society .

Their mission under the protectorate of the French king was distinct from the mission of the other Jesuits, who were known in a general manner as "Portuguese", to distinguish them from their French brethren. the superiors of the French mission were: Jean de Fontaney (1687), Gerbillion (1699), Dentrecolles (1706), Julien-Placide Hervieu (1719), Joseph Labbe (1736), Hervieu, a second time (1740), Valentin Châlier (1745), Jean Sylvain de Neuvialle (1747), Louis-Marie Du Gad (1752), Neuvialle, a second time (1757), Joseph-Louis Le Febrve (1762), John-Baptiste de la Roche (1769), and Franïois Bourgeois.

The following are the names of the most remarkable among the French Jesuits :

  • Jean-Franïois Gerbillion (Chang Ch'eng) , b. at Verdun, 21 Jan., 1654; arrived at China, 1687; died at Peking, 22 March 1707. Having been superior of the house at Peking he was appointed, 3 Nov., 1700, superior of all the French Jesuits in China. He was the interpreter for the treaty signed with Russia at Nerchinsk in 1689, and the author of a Manchu grammar.
  • Claude de Visdelou (Liu-in), b. 12 Aug., 1656, in Brittany; d. at Pondicherry, 11 Nov. 1737. He arrived in China in 1687. He left the Society, was appointed vicar Apostolic of Kwei-chou and Bishop of Claudiopolis (12 Feb., 1707). His very valuable "Historie de la Tartarie" was published as an appendix to B. d'Herbelot's "Bibliothèque orientale" (1780).
  • Joachim Bouvet (Pe-tain), b. at Man, 18 July, 1656; arrived in China, 1687; d. at Peking, 28 June, 1730; a man of great activity.
  • Franïois-Xavier Detrecolles (in Hong-siu), b. at Lyons, 5 Feb. 1663; arrived in China, 1698; d. 2 July, 1741; authors of various papers of scientific value.
  • Joseph-Marie de Prémare (Ma Jo-shi), b. at Hâvre-de-Grâce, 17 July, 1666; arrived in China, 1698; died at Macao, 17 Sept., 1736; author of the well-known "Notitia Linguæ Sinicæ", published at Malacca in 1831 at the expense of Lord Kingsborough.
  • Dominique Parrenin (Pa-To-ming), b. at Russey, 14 Sept., 1665; arrived in China in 1698; d. at Peking, 29 Sept., 1741; a learned and influential man, author of the Chinese lives of St. Aloysius Gonzaga (Tsi-mei-pien) and St. Stanislaus Kostka (Te-hing-p'u).
  • Antoine Gaubil (Sun-kiun-yung), b. at Gaillac, 14 July, 1689; arrived in China in 1722; died at Peking, 24 July, 1759; remarkable as astronomer, historian, and geographer.
  • Pierre d'Incarville (T'ang), b. 21 Aug., 1706; arrived in China, 1740; d. at Peking, 12 May, 1757; well known as a botanist.
  • Jose-Marie-Anne de Moyria de Mailla (Fung Pin-cheng), b. at Moirans (Isère), 16 Dec., 1669; arrived in China, in 1703; died at Peking, 28 June, 1748; translator into French of the huge Chinese historical work "T'ung-kien-kang-mu" (ed. Grossier, 13 vols. 4to, Paris, 1777-1785).
  • Jean-Joseph-Marie Amiot (Tsien Teh-ming), b. at Toulon, 1718; arrived in China in 1750; d. at Peking, 9 Oct., 1793; the most active contributor to the "Mémoires concernant les Chinois" and a regular correspondent of the French Minister Bertin.
Numerous and important works were compiled or written by these hard-working missionaries. Among these are: (1) Maps of China. This labour was undertaken by order of the Emperor K'ang-hi and executed between 1708 and 1718, under the direction of Father Jartoux, by Bouvet, Cardoso, Bonjour (Augustinian), Mailla, Hinderer, de Tartre, and especially Fridelli and Régis. They were the basis of d'Anville's celebrated maps issued between 1729 and 1734. (2) "Déscription geographique de la Chine" by J. B. Du Halde (Paris, 1735), compiled from materials sent by twenty-seven missionaries in China. (3) "Lettres édifiantes et curieuses", a collection of letters from missionaries in all parts of the world, begun in 1702 by Charles Le Gobien , and after his death by Du Halde, Patouillet, and Ambrose Maréchal (34 vols., 1703-76). This work was reprinted in 1780-83 by Yves-Mathurin-Marie de Querbeuf. There have been numerous editions and translations since. (4) "Memoires concernant l'histoire, les sciences . . . des Chinois" (Paris, 1776-1814), containing a mass of information sent mainly by Amiot and Cibot, and edited by Brotier, Bréquigney, and others; the last volume, containing the end of the history of the T'ang dynasty, was edited by Sylvestre de Sacy. (5) Sixteen plates drawn by order of Emperor K'ien-lung to commemorate his conquests in Central Asia. The artists at Peking were Jean-Denis Attiret (d. 8 Dec., 1768), Jean Damascène, Giuseppe Castiglioni, Ignaz Sichelbarth, all Jesuits except Damascène, an Augustinian. The plates were engraved at Paris under the direction of C.N. Cochin. Besides Attiret there was another Jesuit painter at the imperial court, Giuseppe Panzi (b. at Cremons, 2 May, 1734).

The Jesuits had four churches at Peking. The Northern or French church ( Pe-t'ang ), the Southern or Portuguese church ( Nun-t'ang ), the Western church ( Si-t'ang ), and the Eastern church ( Tung-t'ang ), the old house of Adam Schall. The two beautiful cemeteries of the Jesuits outside the walls of Peking, one Portuguese (Sha-la-eul or Téng-kong-che-lan), the other French (Ch'eng-fu-sse), were destroyed by the Boxers in 1900. The Jesuits had residences in the provinces of Chi-li, Shan-si, Shen-si, Shan-tung, Ho-nan, Sze-ch'wan, Hu-kwang, Kiang-si, Kiang-nan, Che-kiang, Fu-kien, Kwang-tung, and Kwang-si. The Jesuits, on their suppression in 1773, were replaced by the Lazarists. The Jesuit Archbishop of Nan-king, Xavier von Laimbeckhoven, an Austrian, died 22 May, 1787, near Su-chou. There were but few fathers at Peking when the news of the suppression of the Society reached the Chinese capital, Sept., 1774. Hallerstein and Benolt died of grief; the last member, Louis de Poirot, died before Oct., 1815.

In 1841, Luigi de Besi, Vicar Apostolic of Shan-tung and Ho-nan, was also placed temporarily in charge of the diocese of Nan-king. The work was too heavy for one man, and Monsignor de Besi wrote to the General of the Jesuits (18 Sept., 1841), asking that some missionaries be sent to help him as soon as possible. The Christians of Kiang-nan had already applied to the general, the Very Rev. Father Roothan (25 April, 1832) to the Queen of Portugal (1838), and to Pope Gregory XVI

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Temnus

Temnus

A titular see in Asia, a suffragan of Ephesus. Temnus was a little town of Æolia, near ...
Tempel, Wilhelm

Wilhelm Tempel

(ERNEST LEBERECHT) German astronomer, b. 4 December, 1821, at (Nieder-) Cunnersdorf near ...
Temperance

Temperance

(Latin temperare , to mingle in due proportions; to qualify). Temperance is here considered ...
Temperance Movements

Temperance Movements

EUROPE Reasons for a temperance movement exist to a greater or less degree in all the countries ...
Templars, The Knights

The Knights Templar

The Knights Templars were the earliest founders of the military orders, and are the type on which ...
Temple

Temple

The Latin form, templum , from which the English temple is derived, originally signified an ...
Temple of Jerusalem

Temple of Jerusalem

The word "temple" is derived from the Latin templum , signifying an uncovered place affording a ...
Temple, Sisters of the

Sisters of the Temple

The Sisters of the Temple (whose full title is S ISTERS OF THE F INDING OF J ESUS IN THE T ...
Temptation

Temptation

( Latin tentare , to try or test). Temptation is here taken to be an incitement to sin ...
Temptation of Christ

Temptation of Christ

In the Catholic translation of the Bible , the word "temptation" is used in various senses, ...
Ten Commandments, The

The Ten Commandments

Called also simply THE COMMANDMENTS, COMMANDMENTS OF GOD, or THE DECALOGUE (Gr. deka , ten, ...
Ten Thousand Martyrs, The

The Ten Thousand Martyrs

On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. On 18 March: ...
Tencin, Pierre-Guérin de

Pierre-Guerin Tencin

French statesman and cardinal, b. at Grenoble, 22 August, 1680; d. at Lyons, 2 March, 1758. ...
Tenebræ

Tenebrae

Tenebræ is the name given to the service of Matins and Lauds belonging to the last three ...
Tenebrae Hearse

Tenebrae Hearse

The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...
Tenedos

Tenedos

A titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades. The island, called in Turkish ...
Teneriffe

Teneriffe

DIOCESE OF TENERIFFE (TENERIFENSIS). Suffragan of Seville, formerly called Nivariensis from ...
Teniers, David

David Teniers

The name of two eminent Flemish landscape painters ; the elder, born at Antwerp in 1582; ...
Tennessee

Tennessee

The State of Tennessee lies between 35° and 36°30' N. lat. and 81°37' and 90°38' ...
Tenney, William Jewett

William Jewett Tenney

An author, editor, born at Newport, Rhode Island, 1814; died at Newark, New Jersey, 20 Sept., ...
Tentyris

Tentyris

(TENTYRA) Seat of a titular suffragan see of Ptolemais in Thebaid Secunda. The city was ...
Tenure, Ecclesiastical

Ecclesiastical Tenure

I. In the feudal system an ecclesiastical fief followed all the laws laid down for temporal ...
Teos

Teos

Titular see ; suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. A city of Caria situated on a peninsula ...
Tepic

Tepic

DIOCESE OF TEPIC (TEPICENSIS) A diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the ...
Tepl

Tepl

A Premonstratensian abbey in the western part of Bohemia, included in the Archdiocese of Prague ...
Teramo

Teramo

Diocese in southern Italy. In the past the city was injured by earthquakes. It is situated at ...
Terce

Terce

The origin of Terce, like that of Sext and None, to which it bears a close relationship, dates ...
Terenuthis

Terenuthis

Titular see, suffragan of Antinoë in Thebais Prima. Le Quien (Oriens christ., II, 611) ...
Teresa of Avila, Saint

St. Teresa of Jesus (Teresa of Avila)

Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada Born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at ...
Teresa of Lisieux, Saint

Saint Therese of Lisieux

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...
Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed

The Martyrs of Compiegne

Guillotined at the Place du Trône Renversé (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 ...
Terill, Anthony

Anthony Terill (Bonville)

English theologian, b. at Canford, Dorsetshire, in 1623; d. at Liège, 11 Oct., 1676. His ...
Termessus

Termessus

A titular see, suffragan of Perge in Pamphylia Secunda. This is one of the most ancient cities ...
Termoli

Termoli

(THERMULARUM) Located on the Italian coast of the Adriatic, having a small harbour near the ...
Ternan, Saint

St. Ternan

Bishop of the Picts, flourished in the sixth century. Much obscurity attaches to his history, and ...
Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

(TERRACINENSIS, SETINENSIS ET PRIVERNENSIS) Located in the Province of Rome. The city of ...
Terrasson, André

Andre Terrason

A French preacher, born at Lyons in 1669; died at Paris, 25 April, 1723. He was the eldest son ...
Terrestrial Paradise

The Garden of Eden

( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...
Terrien, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Terrien

Dogmatic theologian, born at St-Laurent-des-Autels, Maine-et-Loire, 26 Aug., 1832; d. at ...
Tertiaries

Tertiaries

(From the Latin tertiarius , the relative adjective of tertius , third ). Tertiaries, or ...
Tertullian

Tertullian

(Q UINTUS S EPTIMIUS F LORENS T ERTULLIANUS ). Ecclesiastical writer in the second and ...
Teruel

Teruel

(TUROLENSIS) A suffragan of Saragossa, comprises the civil province of the same name, ...
Test-Oath, Missouri

Missouri Test-Oath

In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...
Testament, New

New Testament

I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...
Testament, Old

Old Testament

I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...
Testem Benevolentiae

Testem Benevolentiae

An Apostolic Letter of Leo XIII addressed to Cardinal Gibbons, 22 January, 1899. It opens by ...
Tetzel, Johann

Johann Tetzel

First public antagonist of Luther, b. at Pirna in Meissen, 1465; d. at Leipzig, 11 Aug., 1519. ...
Teuchira

Teuchira

A titular see in Libyan Pentapolis. Teuchira ( Teucheira ) neuter plural, was a city on the ...
Teutonic Order

Teutonic Order

A medieval military order modelled on the Hospitallers of St. John, which changed its residence ...
Tewdrig

Tewdrig

(THEODORIC) A Welsh saint, son of King Ceithfalt of Morganwg or Southern Wales, flourished ...
Texas

Texas

S TATE OF T EXAS . The name, Texas, is probably derived from Tejas, the name of a ...
Textual Criticism

Biblical Criticism

The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...
Thænæ

Thaenae

A titular see in Africa Byzacena. It is mentioned in numerous ancient geographical documents ...
Thébaud, Augustus

Augustus Thebaud

Jesuit educator and publicist, b. at Nantes, France, 20 Nov., 1807; d. at St. John's College, ...
Thénard, Louis-Jacques, Baron

Baron Louis-Jacques Thenard

Chemist, b. at Louptière, near Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube, France, on 4 May, 1777; d. at Paris, ...
Théophane Vénard

Bl. Theophane Venard

(JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...
Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint

Saint Therese of Lisieux

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...
Thabor, Mount

Mount Thabor

The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...
Thabraca

Thabraca

A titular see of Numidia near the sea, between the Armua and the Tusca. Thabraca was the last ...
Thacia Montana

Thacia Montana

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. An inscription discovered in the ...
Thagaste

Thagaste

(TAGASTE) Thagaste, a titular see in Numidia, was a rather important municipality. It is ...
Thagora

Thagora

(Tagora) Titular see in Numidia, mentioned by the "Rabula Peutingeriana", which calls it ...
Thais, Saint

Saint Thais

(THAISIS or THAISIA). A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century. In the Greek menology her ...
Thalberg, Sigismond

Sigismond Thalberg

Musical composer and pianist, b. at Geneva, 1812; d. at Posilipo, Italy, 27 April, 1871. The ...
Thalhofer, Valentin

Valentin Thalhofer

German theologian, b. at Unterroth, near Ulm, 21 January, 1825; d. at the same place, 17 ...
Thangmar

Thangmar

(THANKMAR) Historian, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. probably at Hildesheim ...
Thanksgiving before and after Meals

Grace Before Meals

The word grace , which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English ...
Thanksgiving Day

Thanksgiving Day

A civil holiday observed annually in the United States of America on the last Thursday in ...
Thapsus

Thapsus

A titular see in Byzacene Africa. It was a Phoenician market on the coast of Byzacium in ...
Thasos

Thasos

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. The island of Thasos was anciently ...
Thaumaci

Thaumaci

A titular see in Thessaly, suffragan of Larissa, commanding the defile of Coele at the ...
Thayer, John

John Thayer

Missionary, convert, first native of New England ordained to the priesthood, b. Boston, ...
Theatines

Theatines

(CLERICS REGULAR) A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo ...
Theatre, The

The Theatre

Considering the tone of what is preserved to us of the works of the Greek tragedians and even of ...
Thebaid

Thebaid

The valley of the Nile, under Roman domination, was divided into four provinces: Lower and Upper ...
Thebes

Thebes (Achaia Secunda)

(THEBAE) A metropolitan titular see of Achaia Secunda. The city was founded by the ...
Thebes

Thebes (Thebais Secunda)

(THEBAE) Titular see of Thebais Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais, and the seat of a Coptic ...
Thecla, Saint

St. Thecla

Benedictine Abbess of Kitzingen and Ochsenfurt; date of birth unknown; d. at Kitzingen about 790 ...
Thecla, Saints

Sts. Thecla

I. Thecla of Iconium The reputed pupil of the Apostle Paul , who is the heroine of the ...
Theft

Theft

Theft is the secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other. ...
Thegan (Degan) of Treves

Thegan

Chronicler, d. about 850. Very little is known of his life; all that is certain is that he was ...
Theiner, Augustin

Augustin Theiner

Theologian and historian, b. at Breslau, 11 April, 1804; d. at Civitavecchia, 8 Aug., 1874. He was ...
Thelepte

Thelepte

A titular see in Byzacene. From an inscription we learn that it was a colony. An important ...
Themiscyra

Themiscyra

A titular see, suffragan of Amasea in the Hellespont. There was a town of this name near the ...
Themisonium

Themisonium

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. Themisonium was a city of Phrygia, ...
Thennesus

Thennesus

A titular suffragan see of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima. Cassian (Collat., XI, 1-3) gives a ...
Theobald

Theobald

(T EDBALD .) Archbishop of Canterbury ; d. 18 April, 1161. He was a Norman by descent and ...
Theobald, Saint

Saint Theobald

Born at Provins in the Province of Champagne, France, in 1017; died at Salanigo in Italy 30 June, ...
Theocracy

Theocracy

A form of civil government in which God himself is recognized as the head. The laws of the ...
Theodard, Saint

Saint Theodard

Archbishop of Narbonne, b. at Montauban about 840; d. at the same place 1 May, 893. He seems to ...
Theodicy

Theodicy

Etymologically considered theodicy ( théos díe ) signifies the justification of ...
Theodore I, Pope

Pope Theodore I

Pope from 642 to 649; the date of his birth is unknown. He was a Greek of Jerusalem and the ...
Theodore II, Pope

Pope Theodore II

Son of Photius. His pontificate lasted only twenty days; neither the date of his birth nor of his ...
Theodore of Amasea, Saint

St. Theodore of Amasea

Surnamed Tyro (Tiro), not because he was a young recruit, but because for a time he belonged to ...
Theodore of Gaza

Theodore of Gaza

A fifteenth-century Greek Humanist and translator of Aristotle, b. at Thessalonica early in ...
Theodore of Studium, Saint

Theodore of Studium

A zealous champion of the veneration of images and the last geat representative of the unity ...
Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

Seventh Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Tarsus in Cilicia about 602; d. at Canterbury 19 ...
Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia

Theodore of Mopsuestia

Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer; b. at Antioch about 350 (thus also ...
Theodoret

Theodoret

Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457. He says ...
Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

A Platonist philosopher of the twelfth century, b. in France at the beginning of the twelfth ...
Theodoric the Great

Theodoric the Great

King of the Ostrogoths, born A.D. 454 (?); died 26 August, 526. He was an illegitimate son of ...
Theodorus and Theophanes, Saints

Sts. Theodorus and Theophanes

(Called Grapti , "written upon", graptoi ) Theodorus, b. about 775; d. about 842-43; ...
Theodorus Lector

Theodorus Lector

A lector attached to the Church of St. Sophia of Constantinople in the early part of the sixth ...
Theodosiopolis

Theodosiopolis

A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Prima. In the beginning the city was called Apros, or ...
Theodosius Florentini

Theodosius Florentini

Born at Münster, in the Grisons, Switzerland, 23 May, 1808; died at Heiden, in Appenzell, ...
Theodosius I

Theodosius I

Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 ...
Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint

St. Theodotus of Ancyra

Martyr. On 18 May the Roman Martyrology says: "At Ancyra, in Galatia, the martyr Saint Theodotus ...
Theodulf

Theodulf

(Theodulfus, Theodulfe), Bishop of Orléans, a writer skilled in poetic forms and a ...
Theology of Christ (Christology)

Christology

Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ. In its full extent ...
Theology, Ascetical

Ascetical Theology

Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of ...
Theology, Dogmatic

Dogmatic Theology

Dogmatic theology is that part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith ...
Theology, History of Dogmatic

History of Dogmatic Theology

The imposing edifice of Catholic theology has been reared not by individual nations and men, ...
Theology, Moral

Moral Theology

Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...
Theology, Mystical

Mystical Theology

Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...
Theology, Pastoral

Pastoral Theology

Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...
Theonas

Theonas

Bishop of Alexandria from about 283 to 301 ( Eusebius, "Chronicle", Ann. Abr. 2299, St. Jerome's ...
Theophanes Kerameus

Theophanes Kerameus

( Kerameus , potter). Archbishop of Rossano in Calabria (1129-52), a celebrated homiletic ...
Theophanes, Saint

St. Theophanes

Chronicler, born at Constantinople, about 758; died in Samothracia, probably 12 March, 817, on ...
Theophilanthropists

Theophilanthropists

("Friends of God and Man") A deistic sect formed in France during the latter part of the ...
Theophilus

Theophilus

Bishop of Antioch. Eusebius in his "Chronicle" places the name of Theophilus against that of ...
Theophilus

Theophilus

Patriarch of Alexandria (385-412). Concerning the extraction and early life of Theophilus we ...
Theosophy

Theosophy

( Theosophia = "wisdom concerning God ") Theosophy is a term used in general to designate ...
Theotocopuli, Domenico

El Greco

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...
Thera (Santorin)

Thera

DIOCESE OF THERA (SANTORINO) Diocese in the Cyclades. About the year 2000 B.C., the ...
Thermae Basilicae

Thermae Basilicae

A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. The Greek "Notitiae episcopatuum" ...
Thermopylae

Thermopylae

A titular see and suffragan of Athens in Achaia Prima. It is the name of a defile about 4 ...
Thessalonians, Epistles to the

Epistles to the Thessalonians

Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul. This article will treat the Church of ...
Thessalonica

Thessalonica

(SALONIKI) Titular metropolis in Macedonia. It was at first a village called Alia, situated ...
Theveste

Theveste

Titular see of Numidia. The city seems to have had some importance even prior to Christianity. ...
Thibaris

Thibaris

Titular see in Byzacena ( Africa ), not mentioned by any ancient author. The official list of ...
Thibaut de Champagne

Thibaut de Champagne

Thibaut IV, count of Champagne and King of Navarre, a French poet, b. 1201, at Troyes ; d. 8 ...
Thierry of Freburg

Thierry of Freiburg

( Or Thierry of Saxony). A philosopher and physician of the Middle Ages, and a member of ...
Thiers, Louis-Adolphe

Louis-Adolphe Thiers

French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic, b. at Marseilles, ...
Thignica

Thignica

A titular see in Numidia. The Roman Curia's official list of titular sees places Thignica in ...
Thijm, Joseph Albert Alberdingk

Joseph Albert Alberdingk Thijm

Born at Amsterdam, 8 July, 1820; d. there, 17 March, 1889. After finishing his studies in his ...
Thijm, Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk

Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk Thijm

Brother of Joseph Alberdingk Thijm , b. at Amsterdam, 21 Oct., 1827, d. at Louvain, 1 Feb., ...
Thimelby, Richard

Richard Thimelby

( Alias ASHBY) Missionary priest, b. in Lincolnshire, England, 1614; d. at St. Omer's, ...
Third Orders

Third Orders

I. GENERAL Third Orders signify in general lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women ...
Thirty Years War

The Thirty Years War

The Thirty Years War (1618-48), though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance ...
Thmuis

Thmuis

A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium ; a city of Lower Egypt, on the ...
Thomas á Jesu

Thomas a Jesu

(Diaz Sanchez de Avila). Discalced Carmelite, writer on mystical theology, born at Baeza, ...
Thomas à Kempis

Thomas a Kempis

Author of the "Imitation of Christ" , born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; ...
Thomas Abel, Blessed

Blessed Thomas Abel

(Also ABLE, or ABELL.) Priest and martyr, born about 1497; died 30 July, 1540. He was ...
Thomas Alfield, Venerable

Ven. Thomas Alfield

(AUFIELD, ALPHILDE, HAWFIELD, OFFELDUS; alias BADGER). Priest, born at Gloucestershire; ...
Thomas Aquinas, Saint

St. Thomas Aquinas

Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church ( Angelicus Doctor ), patron of Catholic ...
Thomas Atkinson, Venerable

Ven. Thomas Atkinson

Martyred at York, 11 March, l6l6. He was born in the East Riding of Yorkshire, was ordained ...
Thomas Becket, Saint

St. Thomas Becket

Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, born at London, 21 December, 1118 (?); died at Canterbury, 29 ...
Thomas Belchiam, Venerable

Venerable Thomas Belchiam

A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537. He ...
Thomas Christians, Saint

St. Thomas Christians

An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent ...
Thomas Cottam, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Cottam

Martyr, born 1549, in Lancashire; executed at Tyburn, 30 May, 1582. His parents, Laurence cottam ...
Thomas Ford, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Ford

Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...
Thomas Garnet, Saint

St. Thomas Garnet

Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...
Thomas Johnson, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Johnson

Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...
Thomas More, Saint

St. Thomas More

Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...
Thomas of Beckington

Thomas of Beckington

(BEKYNTON.) Bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Beckington, Somerset, about 1390; died at ...
Thomas of Bradwardine

Thomas of Bradwardine

(BRAGWARDIN, BRANDNARDINUS, BREDWARDYN, BRADWARDYN, DE BREDEWARDINA). Born about 1290; died in ...
Thomas of Cantimpré

Thomas of Cantimpre

Medieval writer, preacher, and theologian, born of noble parentage at Leuw St. Pierre near ...
Thomas of Celano

Thomas of Celano

Friar Minor, poet, andhagiographical writer, born at Celano in the Province of the Abruzzi, about ...
Thomas of Dover

Thomas of Dover

Martyr ; died 2 or 5 August, 1295. On the above date the French ravaged Dover with fire and ...
Thomas of Hereford

St. Thomas of Hereford

(THOMAS DE CANTELUPE). Born at Hambledon, Buckinghamshire, England, about 1218; died at ...
Thomas of Jesus

Thomas of Jesus

(THOMAS DE ANDRADA). Reformer and preacher, born at Lisbon, 1529; died at Sagena, Morocco, 17 ...
Thomas of Jorz

Thomas of Jorz

(Often but erroneously called JOYCE and frequently referred to as ANGLUS or ANGLICUS). ...
Thomas of Strasburg

Thomas of Strasburg

A fourteenth-century scholastic of the Augustinian Order, born, according to some writers, at ...
Thomas of Villanova, Saint

St. Thomas of Villanova

Educator, philanthropist, born at Fuentellana, Spain, 1488; died at Valencia, 8 September, 1555. ...
Thomas Percy, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Percy

Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...
Thomas Sherwood, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Sherwood

Martyr, born in London, 1551; died at Tyburn, London, 7 February, 1578. His parents also ...
Thomas the Apostle, Saint

St. Thomas the Apostle

Little is recorded of St. Thomas the Apostle, nevertheless thanks to the fourth Gospel his ...
Thomas Thwing, Venerable

Ven. Thomas Thwing

Martyr. Born at Heworth Hall, near York, in 1635; suffered at York, 23 Oct., 1680. His father was ...
Thomas Woodhouse, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Woodhouse

Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...
Thomas, Charles L.A.

Charles L.A. Thomas

French composer, born at Metz, 5 August, 1811; died at Paris, 12 February, 1896. He gained the ...
Thomassin, Louis

Louis Thomassin

Theologian and French Oratorian, b. at Aix-en-Provence 28 Aug., 1619; d. in Paris, 24 Dec., ...
Thomism

Thomism

In a broad sense, Thomism is the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. ...
Thompson River Indians

Thompson River Indians

(THOMPSON INDIANS). An important tribe of British Columbia of Salishan linguistic stock, also ...
Thompson, Blessed James

Bl. James Thompson

(Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...
Thompson, Edward Healy and Harriet Diana

Edward and Harriet Thompson

The name of two English converts : (1) Edward Healy and (2) Harriet Diana. Edward Healy ...
Thompson, Francis

Francis Thompson

Poet, b. at Preston, Lancashire, 18 Dec., 1859; d. in London, 13 Nov., 1907. He came from the ...
Thompson, Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David

Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David Thompson

Jurist and first Catholic Premier of Canada, b. at Halifax, Nova Scotia , 10 Nov., 1844; d. ...
Thonissen, Jean-Joseph

Jean-Joseph Thonissen

Professor of law at the University of Louvain, minister in the Belgian Government, b. at ...
Thorlaksson, Arni

Arni Thorlaksson

An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297. While a deacon, he visited ...
Thorney Abbey

Thorney Abbey

(i.e. "the isle of thorns", anciently called ANCARIG). Thorney Abbey, in Cambridgeshire, ...
Thorns, Crown of

Crown of Thorns

Although Our Saviour's Crown of Thorns is mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded ...
Thorns, Feast of the Crown of

Feast of the Crown of Thorns

The first feast in honour of the Crown of Thorns ( Festum susceptionis coronae Domini ) was ...
Thorpe, Venerable Robert

Venerable Robert Thorpe

Priest and martyr, b. in Yorkshire; suffered at York, 15 May, 1591. He reached the English ...
Thou, Jacques-Auguste de

Jacques-Auguste de Thou

French historian, b. at Paris, 8 October, 1553; d. there, 7 May, 1617. The son of Christophe de ...
Thou, Nicolas de

Nicolas de Thou

Bishop of Chartres, uncle of the historian Jacques-Auguste de Thou, b. at Paris, 1528; d. at ...
Three Chapters

Three Chapters

The Three chapters ( trîa kephálaia ) were propositions anathematizing : (1) the ...
Three Rivers

Three Rivers (Quebec)

DIOCESE OF THREE RIVERS (TRIFLUVIANENSIS) Formed from the Archdiocese of Quebec , to which it ...
Throne

Throne

(Latin thronus, cathedra, sedes episcopalis ), the seat the bishop uses when not engaged at ...
Thuburbo Minus

Thuburbo Minus

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Thuburbo Minus is mentioned in ...
Thugga

Thugga

Titular see of Numidia, perhaps the Numidian fortress of Tocai mentioned about 305 B.C. by ...
Thugut, Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula

Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula Thugut

Austrian statesman, born at Linz, 31 March, 1736; died at Vienna, 28 May, 1818. He was the son of ...
Thulis, Venerable John

Ven. John Thulis

English martyr, born at Up Holland, Lancashire, probably about 1568; suffered at Lancaster, 18 ...
Thun-Hohenstein, Count Leo

Count Leo Thun-Hohenstein

Austrian statesman, b. at the family castle of Tetschen in Bohemia, 7 April, 1811; d. at Vienna, ...
Thundering Legion

Thundering Legion

( Legio fulminata , or fulminea , not fulminatrix ). The story of the Thundering Legion ...
Thuringia

Thuringia

The name Thuringia is given to a large part of Central Germany, bounded on the west by the ...
Thurmayr, Johannes

Johannes Thurmayr

(Called AVENTINUS from the place of his birth) Born at Abensberg, Bavaria, 4 July, 1477; died ...
Thyatira

Thyatira

A titular suffragan see of Sardes in Lydia. According to Stephanus Byzantius, the name was ...
Thynias

Thynias

A titular see, suffragan of Nicomedia, in Bithynia Prima. It is an island situated in the Black ...
Thyräus, Hermann

Hermann Thryaus

German Jesuit, b. at Neuss on the Rhine, 1532; d. at Mainz, 26 October, 1591. He studied first ...
Tiara

Tiara

The papal crown, a costly covering for the head, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, ...
Tibaldi, Pellegrino

Pellegrino Tibaldi

Known also as Pellegrino da Bologna and as Pellegrino Pellegrini; decorator, mural painter, and ...
Tiberias

Tiberias

Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda. The town of Tiberias was founded on ...
Tiberias, Sea of

Sea of Galilee

So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1 ), otherwise known as "the sea of Galilee" ( Matthew 4:18 ; Mark ...
Tiberiopolis

Tiberiopolis

Titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana. Tiberiopolis is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, 2, 25); Socrates ...
Tiberius

Tiberius

The second Roman emperor ( A. D. 14-37), b. 16 November, 42 B. C. , d. 16 March, A. D. 37. ...
Tibet

Tibet

A vast plateau, about 463,320 square miles, about 1240 miles in its greatest length from east to ...
Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints

Sts. Tiburtius and Susanna

Roman martyrs, feast 11 August. The story is related in the legend of St. Sebastian that ...
Ticelia

Ticelia

Titular see, suffragan of Cyrene, in the Libya Pentapolis. Under this name it is not found in any ...
Tichborne, Ven. Nicholas

Ven. Nicholas Tichborne

Martyr, b. at Hartley Mauditt, Hampshire; suffered at Tyburn, London, 24 Aug., 1601. He was a ...
Tichborne, Ven. Thomas

Ven. Thomas Tichborne

Born at Hartley, Hampshire, 1567; martyred at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1602. He was educated ...
Ticonius

Ticonius

(Also TYCONIUS, TYCHONIUS, etc.) An African Donatist writer of the fourth century who ...
Ticuna Indians

Ticuna Indians

A tribe of Indians of some importance, constituting a distinct linguistic stock, inhabiting the ...
Tieffentaller, Joseph

Joseph Tieffentaller

Jesuit missionary and noted geographer in Hindustan, b. at Bozen in the Tyrol, 27 August, 1710; ...
Tiepolo

Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Tiepolo Born in Venice in 1696; died at Madrid, 27 March, 1770. ...
Tierney, Mark Aloysius

Mark Aloysius Tierney

Born at Brighton, Sept., 1795; died at Arundel, 19 Feb., 1862. After his early schooling with the ...
Tigris, Saint

St. Tigris

Irish saint, sister of St. Patrick. Much obscurity attaches to her life, and she has been ...
Tillemont, Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de

Louis-Sebastien Le Nain de Tillemont

French historian and priest, b. at Paris, 30 November, 1637; d. there, 10 January, 1698; he was ...
Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of

Count of Tilly

Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632. He was a member of a noble family of ...
Timbrias

Timbrias

A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. It is called Thymbrium in the official lists ...
Time

Time

The problem of time is one of the most difficult and most keenly debated in the field of natural ...
Timothy and Symphorian, Saints

Sts. Timotheus and Symphorian

Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August. During the pontificate of Melchiades (311-13), ...
Timothy and Titus, Epistles to

Epistles to Timothy and Titus

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...
Timucua Indians

Timucua Indians

A principal group or confederacy of Ancient Florida, notable for the successful missions ...
Tincker, Mary Agnes

Mary Agnes Tincker

Novelist, born at Ellsworth, Maine, 18 July, 1833; died at Boston, Massachusetts, 4 December, ...
Tingis

Tingis

A titular see of Mauretania Tingitana (the official list of the Roman Curia places it in ...
Tinin

See of Tinin (Dalmatia)

SEE OF TININ (KNIN). Located in Dalmatia ; suffragan to Kalocsa-Bacs. Knin is a town on ...
Tinos and Mykonos

Tinos and Mykonos

DIOCESE OF TINOS AND MYKONOS (TINENSIS ET MYCONENSIS) A Latin diocese of the Cyclades, ...
Tintern Abbey

Tintern Abbey

This abbey, in Monmouthshire, England [actually Wales -- Ed. ], was founded in 1131 by ...
Tintoretto, Il

Il Tintoretto

(J ACOPO R OBUSTI ) Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594. His father was a ...
Tipasa

Tipasa

A titular see of Numidia. The Phoenician word signifies passage. Early in its history we find ...
Tiraboschi, Girolamo

Girolamo Tiraboschi

Italian scholar, b. in the region of Bergamo, 1731; d. 3 June, 1794. At an early age he entered ...
Tiraspol

Tiraspol

DIOCESE OF TIRASPOL (or CHERSONESE) (TIRASPOLENSIS; CHERSONENSIS) Diocese in Southern Russia ...
Tisio da Garofalo, Benvenuto

Benvenuto Tisio da Garofalo

An Italian painter of the Ferrarese school ; b. in 1481 at Garofalo, whence, as was the ...
Tissot, James

James Tissot

(JOSEPH-JACQUES TISSOT) French draughtsman and painter, b. at Nantes, 15 Oct., 1836; d. at ...
Tithes

Tithes

(Anglo-Saxon teotha , a tenth). Generally defined as "the tenth part of the increase arising ...
Tithes, Lay

Lay Tithes

Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...
Titian

Titian

(T IZIANO V ECELLI , called T ITIAN ). The greatest of Venetian painters, born at Pieve ...
Titopolis

Titiopolis

(TITIOPOLIS) Titular see, suffragan of Seleucia Trachaea in Isauria. Le Quien (Oriens ...
Titulus

Titulus

In pagan times titulus signified an inscription on stone, and later the stone which marked ...
Titus

Titus

Roman Emperor 79-81, b. 30 Dec., 41; d. 13 Sept., 81; son of the Emperor Vespasian, and from the ...
Titus and Timothy, Epistles to

Epistles to Timothy and Titus

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...
Titus, Bishop of Bostra

Titus, Bishop of Bostra

Born about 362-371. Sozomen (Hist. eccl., III, xiv) names Titus among the great men of the time ...
Tius

Tius

(TIUM) Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in Honorias. According to Strabo (542, 545) the ...
Tivoli

Tivoli

DIOCESE OF TIVOLI (TIBURTINA) Diocese in the Province of Rome. The city in situated where the ...
Tlaxcala

Tlaxcala

(TLAXCALENSIS) A former diocese of the colony of New Spain. It was the fifth diocese ...
Tlos

Tlos

A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Tlos was one of the six cities forming the Lycian ...
Toaldo, Giuseppe

Giuseppe Toaldo

Priest and physicist, b. at Pianezze, 1719; d. at Padua, 1797. In his fourteenth year he entered ...
Toba Indians

Toba Indians

One of the few still unconquered savage tribes of the great Chaco wilderness of South America, and ...
Tobias

Book of Tobias

We shall first enumerate the various Biblical persons and then treat the book of this name. I. ...
Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de

Alexis de Tocqueville

(CHARLES-ALEXIS-HENRI-MAURICE-CLEREL DE TOCQUEVILLE) Writer and statesman, b. at Verneuil, ...
Todi

Todi

(T UDERTINA ). Diocese in Central Italy ; immediately dependent on the Holy See. The city ...
Tokio

Tokio (Tokyo)

(Tokiensis) Archdiocese comprising 21 provinces or 15 departments with a population of over ...
Toledo (Ohio)

Toledo (Ohio)

(Toletana in America) A diocese in Ohio, U.S.A. formed out of the Diocese of Cleveland and ...
Toledo (Spain)

Toledo (Spain)

ARCHDIOCESE OF TOLEDO (TOLETANENSIS) Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost ...
Toledo, Francisco

Francisco Toledo

Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, son of an actuary, b. at Córdova, 4 Oct., 1532; d. ...
Tolentino and Macerata

Macerata and Tolentino

Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...
Toleration, History of

History of Toleration

In any attempt to deal historically with the attitude of the Church towards religious toleration ...
Toleration, Religious

Religious Toleration

Toleration in general signifies patient forbearance in the presence of an evil which one is ...
Tolomei, John Baptist

John Baptist Tolomei

A distinguished Jesuit theologian and cardinal, born of noble parentage, at Camberaia, between ...
Tomb

Tomb

A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons, ...
Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...
Tomb, Altar

Altar Tomb

A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having ...
Tomi

Tomi

A titular metropolitan see in the Province of Scythia, on the Black Sea. It was a Greek colony ...
Tommasi, Blessed Giuseppe Maria

Bl. Giuseppe Maria Tommasi

A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...
Tongerloo, Abbey of

Abbey of Tongerloo

Located near Antwerp, Belgium, founded in 1128 in honour of the Blessed Virgin, by de ...
Tongiorgi, Salvator

Salvator Tongiorgi

Philosopher, born at Rome, Italy, 25 December, 1820; d. there, 12 November, 1865. At the age of ...
Tongues, Gift of

Gift of Tongues (Glossolalia)

(Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...
Tonica Indians

Tonica Indians

(Or TUNICA). A small tribe constituting a distinct linguistic stock living, when first known ...
Tonkawa Indians

Tonkawa Indians

A tribal group or confederacy, of low culture status and constituting a distinct linguistic stock, ...
Tonsure

Tonsure

( Latin tondere , "to shear") A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized ...
Tootell, Hugh

Hugh Tootell

Commonly known as Charles Dodd. Historian, b. in 1671 or 1672, at Durton-in-Broughton, ...
Torah

Torah

I. USE OF WORD Torah, (cf. Hiph. of ), signifies first "direction, instruction", as, for ...
Torbido, Francesco

Francesco Torbido

Often called IL MORO (The Moor). Veronese painter and engraver, b. at Verona about 1486; ...
Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint

St. Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo

Archbishop of Lima ; b. at Mayorga, León, Spain, 1538; d. near Lima Peru, 23 March ...
Tornielli, Girolamo Francesco

Girolamo Francesco Tornielli

Italian Jesuit, preacher and writer, b. at Cameri, 1 Febreuary, 1693, of a distinguished family ...
Torone

Torone

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. Torone was a colony of Chalcideans from ...
Toronto

Toronto

(TORONTINA). Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada. When constituted a diocese, it ...
Torquemada, Tomás de

Tomas de Torquemada

First Grand Inquisitor of Spain, born at Valladolid in 1420; died at Avila, 16 September, ...
Torres Naharro, Bartolemé de

Bartolome de Torres Naharro

Spanish poet and dramatist, b. at Torres, near Badajoz, towards the end of the fifteenth ...
Torres, Francisco

Francisco Torres

(TURRIANUS.) Hellenist and polemicist, born in Herrera, Palencia, about 1509; died at Rome, ...
Torricelli, Evangelista

Evangelista Torricelli

Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 ...
Torrubia, José

Jose Torrubia

Born towards the end of the seventeenth century at Granada, Spain ; died in 1768 in the ...
Tortona

Tortona

DIOCESE OF TORTONA (DERTONENSIS) Diocese in Piedmont, Italy. The city is situated on the ...
Tortosa

Tortosa

DIOCESE OF TORTOSA (DERTHUSENSIS, DERTUSA). Located in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; ...
Toscanella and Viterbo

Viterbo and Toscanella

(VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...
Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo

Paolo Dal Pozzo Toscanelli

Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer, b. at Florence in 1397; d. there, 10 May, 1482. ...
Tosephta

Tosephta

( Hebrew = addition, supplement ) Tosephta is the name of compilation of ...
Tostado, Alonso

Alonso Tostado

(ALONSO TOSTATUS) Exegete, b. at Madrigal, Castile, about 1400; d. at Bonilla de la Sierra, ...
Tosti, Luigi

Luigi Tosti

Benedictine historian, b. at Naples 13 Feb., 1811; d. at Monte Cassino, 24 Sept., 1897. His ...
Totemism

Totemism

Totemism from ote , root ot , possessive form otem , in the Ojibway dialect of the ...
Totonac Indians

Totonac Indians

One of the smaller cultured nations of ancient Mexico, occupying at the time of the Spanish ...
Touchet, George Anselm

George Anselm Touchet

Born at Stalbridge, Dorset; died about 1689. He was second son of Mervyn, twelfth Lord Audley, ...
Toulouse

Toulouse

A RCHDIOCESE OF T OULOUSE (T OLOSENSIS ) Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne. As ...
Tournély, Honoré

Honore Tournely

Theologian, b. Antibes, Provence, 28 August, 1658; d. at Paris, 26 December 1729. His parents ...
Tournai

Tournai

DIOCESE OF TOURNAI (Latin TURNACUM, TORNACUM; Flemish, DOORNIJK — TORNACENSIS) Diocese ...
Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de

Joseph Pitton de Tournefort

French botanist, b. at Aix in Provence, 5 June, 1656; d. at Paris, 28 Dec., 1708. After his ...
Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de

Charles-Thomas Maillard de Tournon

Papal legate to India and China, cardinal, born of a noble Savoyard family at Turin, 21 ...
Touron, Antoine

Antoine Touron

Dominican biographer and historian, born at Graulhet, Tarn, France, on 5 September, 1686; died ...
Tours

Tours

(TURONENSIS.) Comprises the Department of Indre-et-Loire, and was re-established by the ...
Toustain, Charles-François

Charles-Francois Toustain

French Benedictine, and member of the Congregation of St-Maur, born at Repas in the Diocese of ...
Touttée, Antoine-Augustin

Antoine-Augustin Touttee

A French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. at Riom, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, ...
Tower of Babel

Tower of Babel

The "Tower of Babel" is the name of the building mentioned in Genesis 11:19 . History of the ...
Tracy, Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de

Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de Tracy

Viceroy of New France, born in France, 1603, of noble parents ; died there in 1670. A soldier ...
Tradition and Living Magisterium

Tradition and Living Magisterium

The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...
Traditionalism

Traditionalism

A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude. ...
Traducianism

Traducianism

Traducianism ( tradux , a shoot or sprout, and more specifically a vine branch made to take root ...
Trajan

Trajan

Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117. He ...
Trajanopolis

Trajanopolis

Titular metropolitan see of Rhodope. The city owes its foundation or restoration to Trajan. Le ...
Trajanopolis

Trajanopolis

A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. The only geographer who speaks ...
Tralles

Tralles

A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. It was founded, it is said, by the Argians ...
Trani and Barletta

Trani and Barletta

(T RANEN , et Barolen.) Diocese in Italy. The city of Trani is situated on the Adriatic in ...
Transcendentalism

Transcendentalism

The terms transcendent and transcendental are used in various senses, all of which, as a ...
Transept

Transept

A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica. It ...
Transfiguration

Transfiguration

The Transfiguration of Christ is the culminating point of His public life, as His Baptism is ...
Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the

Feast of the Transfiguration of Christ

Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. ...
Transubstantiation

The Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...
Transvaal

Transvaal

Vicariate apostolic ; lies between 23° 3' and 27° 30' S. lat., and 25° and 32° ...
Transylvania

Transylvania

(Also TRANSYLVANIENSIS or ERDELY). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Kalocsa Bács. The ...
Trapani

Trapani

(TREPANENSIS). Diocese in Sicily, suffragan of Palermo. The city is the capital of a ...
Trapezopolis

Trapezopolis

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan to Laodicea. Trapezopolis was a town of Caria ...
Trappists

Trappists

The common name by which the Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de ...
Trasilla and Emiliana, Saints

Sts. Trasilla and Emiliana

Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...
Treason, Accusations of

Accusations of Treason

A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics ...
Trebizond

Trebizond

(TRAPEZUNTINA). An Armenian Catholic diocese. The city owes its ancient name to the fact that ...
Trebnitz

Trebnitz

A former abbey of Cistercian nuns, situated north of Breslau in Silesia. It was founded in ...
Tredway, Lettice Mary

Lettice Mary Tredway

(Called "Lady" Tredway) Born 1595; died Oct., 1677; daughter of Sir Walter Tredway, of Buckley ...
Tregian, Francis

Francis Tregian

Confessor, b. in Cornwall, 1548; d. at Lisbon, 25 Sept., 1608. He was son of Thomas Tregian of ...
Tremithus

Tremithus

Titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. The city is mentioned by Ptolemy (Geog., V, xiii, ...
Trent

Trent

(TRIDENTUM; TRIDENTINA). Diocese ; suffragan of Salzburg. Trent became universally known ...
Trent, Council of

Council of Trent

The nineteenth ecumenical council opened at Trent on 13 December, 1545, and closed there on 4 ...
Trenton

Trenton

(T RENTONENSIS ). Diocese created 15 July, 1881, suffragan of New York, comprises Atlantic, ...
Tresham, Sir Thomas

Sir Thomas Tresham

Knight Bachelor (in or before 1524), Grand Prior of England in the Order of Knights ...
Treviso

Treviso

(TARVISINA). Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The capital is surrounded by the River ...
Tribe, Jewish

Jewish Tribe

( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...
Tricarico, Diocese of

Tricarico

(TRICARICENSIS.) Located in the Province of Potenza in the Basilicata (Southern Italy ), near ...
Tricassin, Charles Joseph

Charles Joseph Tricassin

One of the greatest theologians of the Capuchin Order, b. at Troyes ; d. in 1681. There is but ...
Tricca

Tricca

Titular see, suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. It was an ancient city of Thessaly, near the River ...
Trichinopoly, Diocese of

Trichinopoly

(TRICHINOPOLITAN.) Located in India, suffragan of Bombay, comprises the south east portion of ...
Trichur

Trichur

(TRICHURENSIS.) Vicariate Apostolic in India, one of the three vicariates of the Syro-Malabar ...
Tricomia

Tricomia

Titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palaestina Prima. It is mentioned in George of Cyprus ...
Triduum

Triduum

(Three days). A time frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices, whether ...
Trier

Trier

(TREVIRENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Cologne; includes in the Prussian province of the ...
Triesnecker, Francis a Paula

Francis a Paula Triesnecker

Astronomer, b. at Kirchberg on the Wagram, in Lower Austria, 2 April, 1745; d. at Vienna 29 ...
Triest-Capo d'Istria

Triest-Capo d'Istria

(TERGESTINA ET JUSTINOPOLITANA.) Suffragan diocese of Görz-Gradiska ; exists as a ...
Trincomalee

Trincomalee

(TRINCOMALIENSIS.) Located in Ceylon, suffragan of Colombo, was created in 1893 by a division ...
Trinità di Cava dei Tirrenti, Abbey of

Abbey of Trinita di Cava Dei Tirreni

Located in the Province of Salerno. It stands in a gorge of the Finestre Hills near Cava dei ...
Trinitarians, Order of

Order of Trinitarians

The redemption of captives has always been regarded in the Church as a work of mercy, as is ...
Trinity College

Trinity College

An institution for the higher education of Catholic women, located at Washington, D.C., and ...
Trinity Sunday

Trinity Sunday

The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity. In the early ...
Trinity, The Blessed

The Blessed Trinity

This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...
Triple-Candlestick

Triple-Candlestick

A name given along with several others (e.g. reed, tricereo, arundo, triangulum, lumen Christi ...
Trissino, Giangiorgio

Giangiorgio Trissino

Italian poet and scholar, b. of a patrician family at Vicenza in 1478; d. at Rome, 8 ...
Tritheists

Tritheists

(TRITHEITES). Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity. (1) Those who are ...
Trithemius, John

John Trithemius

A famous scholar and Benedictine abbot, b. at Trittenheim on the Moselle, 1 February, 1462; d. at ...
Trivento

Trivento

(Triventensis) Diocese in southern Italy. The earliest bishop was St. Castus of an uncertain ...
Trivet, Nicholas

Nicholas Trivet

(Or "Trevet" as he himself wrote it) B. about 1258; d. 1328. He was the son of Thomas Trevet, a ...
Troas

Troas

A suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespont. The city was first called Sigia; it was enlarged and ...
Trocmades

Trocmades

(Trocmada) Titular see of Galatia Secunda, suffragan of Pessinus. No geographer or historian ...
Trokelowe, John de

John de Trokelowe

(THROWLOW, or THORLOW) A monastic chronicler still living in 1330, but the dates of whose birth ...
Trondhjem, Ancient See of

Ancient See of Trondhjem

(NIDAROS). In Norway it was the kings who introduced Christianity, which first became ...
Trope

Trope

Definition and Description Trope, in the liturgico-hymnological sense, is a collective name ...
Tropology, Scriptural

Scriptural Tropology

The theory and practice of interpreting the figurative meaning of Holy Writ. The literal meaning, ...
Troy, John Thomas

John Thomas Troy

Archbishop of Dublin ; b. in the parish of Blanchardstown, near Dublin, 10 May, 1739; d. at ...
Troyes

Troyes

(TRECENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Aube. Re-established in 1802 as a suffragan ...
Truce of God

Truce of God

The Truce of God is a temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God ...
Truchsess von Waldburg, Otto

Otto Truchsess von Waldburg

Cardinal-Bishop of Augsburg (1543-73), b. at Castle Scheer in Swabia, 26 Feb., 1514; d. at ...
Trudo, Saint

St. Trudo

(TRON, TROND, TRUDON, TRUTJEN, TRUYEN). Apostle of Hasbein in Brabant; d. 698 (693). Feast 23 ...
Trudpert, Saint

St. Trudpert

Missionary in Germany in the seventh century. He is generally called a Celtic monk from ...
True Cross, The

The True Cross

(AND REPRESENTATIONS OF IT AS OBJECTS OF DEVOTION). (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult ; (2) ...
Trueba, Antonio de

Antonio de Trueba

Spanish poet and folklorist, b. at Montellana, Biscay, in 1821; d. at Bilbao, 10 March, 1889. In ...
Trujillo

Trujillo

Diocese comprising the Departments of Lambayeque, Libertad, Pinra, and the Province of Tumbes, ...
Trullo, Council in

Council in Trullo

This particular council of Constantinople, held in 692 under Justinian II, is generally known as ...
Trumpets, Feast of

Feast of Trumpets

The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...
Trumwin, Saint

Saint Trumwin

(TRIUMWINI, TRUMUINI). Died at Whitby, Yorkshire, England, after 686. He was consecrated by ...
Trustee System

Trustee System

I In the exercise of her inherent right of administering property, the Church often appoints ...
Trusts and Bequests

Trusts and Bequests

A trust has been defined, in its technical sense, as the right enforceable solely in equity to ...
Truth

Truth

Truth (Anglo-Saxon tréow, tryw, truth, preservation of a compact, from a Teutonic base ...
Truth Societies, Catholic

Catholic Truth Societies

This article will treat of Catholic Truth Societies in the chronological order of their ...
Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...
Tschiderer zu Gleifheim, Johann Nepomuk von

Tschiderer Zu Gleifheim

Bishop of Trent, b. at Bozen, 15 Feb., 1777; d. at Trent, 3 Dec., 1860. He sprang from a family ...
Tschupick, John Nepomuk

John Nepomuk Tschupick

A celebrated preacher, b. at Vienna, 7 or 12 April, 1729; d. there, 20 July, 1784. He entered the ...
Tuam

Tuam

(TUAMENSIS). The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly ...
Tuam, School of

School of Tuam

(Irish, Tuaim da Ghualann , or the "Mound of the two Shoulders"). The School of Tuam was ...
Tubunae

Tubunae

A titular see in Mauretania Caesariensis, according to the "Gerachia cattolica", or in Numidia ...
Tucson

Tucson

(T UCSONENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe. It comprises the State of ...
Tucumán

Tucuman

(T UCUMANENSIS ). Suffragan to Buenos Aires, erected from the Diocese of Salta on 15 ...
Tudela

Tudela

(TUTELÆ, TUTELENSIS). Diocese in Spain. The episcopal city has a population of 9213. ...
Tuguegarao

Tuguegarao

(TUGUEGARAONENSIS). Diocese in the Philippines ; situated in the north-eastern section of ...
Tulancingo

Tulancingo

(D E T ULANCINGO ). Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of Mexico. Its area is ...
Tulasne, Louis-René

Louis-Rene Tulasne

A noted botanist, b. at Azay-le-Rideau, Dept of Indre-et-Loire, France, 12 Sept., 1815; d. at ...
Tulle

Tulle

(TUTELENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Corrèze. It was suppressed by the ...
Tunic

Tunic

By tunic is understood in general a vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper ...
Tunis

Tunis

French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa. About the twelfth century before Christ ...
Tunja

Tunja

(T UNQUENENSIS ). Diocese established in 1880 as a suffragan of Bogotá, in the ...
Tunkers

Tunkers

( German tunken , to dip) A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite. ...
Tunstall, Cuthbert

Cuthbert Tunstall

Bishop of London, later of Durham, b. at Hackforth, Yorkshire, in 1474; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...
Tunstall, Venerable Thomas

Ven. Thomas Tunstall

Martyred at Norwich, 13 July, 1616. He was descended from the Tunstalls of Thurland, an ancient ...
Tunsted, Simon

Simon Tunsted

English Minorite, b. at Norwich, year unknown; d. at Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369. Having joined the ...
Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques

Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot

Baron de L' Aulne, French minister, born at Parish, 10 May, 1727; died there, 20 March, 1781. ...
Turin

Turin

(Turino; Taurinensis) The City of Turin is the chief town of a civil province in Piedmont and ...
Turin, Shroud of

The Shroud of Turin

This name is primarily given to a relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that ...
Turin, University of

The University of Turin

The University of Turin was founded in 1404, when the lectures at Piacenza and Pavia were ...
Turkestan

Turkestan

I. CHINESE TURKESTAN When Jenghiz Khan died (1227) his second son, Djagatai, had the greater part ...
Turkish Empire

Turkish Empire

Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the ...
Turnebus, Adrian

Adrian Turnebus

Philologist, b. at Andely in Normandy in 1512; d. in Paris, 12 June, 1565. The accounts of the ...
Turpin

Turpin

Archbishop of Reims, date of birth uncertain; d. 2 Sept., 800. He was a monk of St. Denis ...
Tuscany

Tuscany

Tuscany, a division of central Italy, includes the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, ...
Tuy

Tuy

(Tudensis.) Suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Santiago, comprises the civil provinces ...
Twenge, Saint John

St. John Twenge

Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...
Twiketal of Croyland

Twiketal of Croyland

(THURCYTEL, TURKETUL). Died July, 975. He was a cleric of royal descent, who is said to have ...
Tyana

Tyana

A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Prima. The city must first have been called Thoana, ...
Tychicus

St. Tychicus

A disciple of St. Paul and his constant companion. He was a native of the Roman province of ...
Tynemouth Priory

Tynemouth Priory

Tynemouth Priory, on the east coast of Northumberland, England, occupied the site of an earlier ...
Types in Scripture

Types in Scripture

Types, though denoted by the Greek word typoi , are not coextensive with the meaning of this ...
Tyrannicide

Tyrannicide

Tyrannicide literally is the killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a ...
Tyre

Tyre

(TYRUS.) Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese. The city is called in Hebrew, Zor , ...
Tyrie, James

James Tyrie

Theologian, b. at Drumkilbo, Perthshire, Scotland, 1543; d. at Rome, 27 May, 1597. Educated ...

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