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Norway, comprising the smaller division of the Scandinavian peninsula, is bounded on the east by Lapland and Sweden, and on the west by the Atlantic. The surface is generally a plateau from which rise precipitous mountains, as Snähätten (7566 feet) and Stora Galdhöppigen (about 8399 feet). The west coast is deeply indented by fiords. In eastern and southern Norway the valleys are broader and at times form extensive, fruitful plains. There are several navigable rivers, as the Glommen and Vormen, and lakes, of which the largest is Lake Myösen. The numerous islands along the coast, some wooded and some bare, promote shipping and fishing; in the Lofoten Islands alone twenty million cod are annually caught. The climate is only relatively mild, with rain almost daily. Agriculture consists largely in raising oats and barley, but not enough for home consumption. Rye and wheat are grown only in sheltered spots. Bread is commonly made of oats. The cultivation of the potato is widespread, a fact of much importance. There are in the country only about 160,000 horses; these are of a hardy breed. Cattle-raising is an important industry, the number of cattle being estimated at a million, that of sheep and goats at over two millions. Of late attention has been paid to the raising of pigs. The Lapps of the north maintain over a hundred thousand reindeer in the grassy pasture land of the higher plateaus. The most important trees are pine, fir, and birch; oak and beech are not so common.

Forestry was long carried on unscientifically; considerable effort has been made to improve conditions, and wood is now exported chiefly as wrought or partly wrought timber. Silver is mined at Kongsberg, and iron at Röraas, but the yield of minerals is moderate. Coal is altogether lacking. The peasants are skilful wood-carvers, and in isolated valleys still make all necessary household articles, besides spinning and weaving their apparel. The Northmen were always famous seamen, and Norwegians are now found on the ships of all nations. The merchant marine of about 8000 vessels is one of the most important of the world. Good roads and railways have greatly increased traffic. A constantly increasing number of strangers are attracted by the natural beauties. Although in this way a great deal of money is brought into the country, the morals and honesty of the people unfortunately suffer in consequence. The area is 123,843 sq. miles; the population numbers 2,250,000 persons.

The great majority belong officially to the Lutheran state Church, but on account of liberal laws there is a rapid development of sects. Catholics did not regain religious liberty until the middle of the nineteenth century. Reports as to their numbers vary from 1500, as given in the Protestant "Tägliche Rundschau", to 100,000, as given in the Catholic "Germania" (see below). Norway is a constitutional monarchy, its ruler since 18 November, 1905, has been King Haakon VII, a Danish prince. The colours of the flag are red, white, and blue. The country is divided into 20 counties and 56 bailiwicks. Justice is administered by district courts ( sörenskrifverier ). Eccleciastically the country is divided into 6 dioceses, with 83 provosts or deans, and 450 pastors. The largest city and the royal residence is Christiania (230,000 inhabitants), the seat of government, of the Parliament (Storthing), of the chief executive, of the state university, and of other higher schools. The most important commercial city is Bergen (80,000 inhabitants), important even in the Middle Ages and for a long time controlled by the Hanseatic League. Trondhjem, formerly Nidaros, a city of 40,000 inhabitants, was earlier the see of the Catholic archbishops, and the place where the Catholic kings were crowned and buried. Its fine cathedral, now in process of restoration, contains the bones of St. Olaf, the patron saint of Norway. The army is not highly trained; men between twenty-three and thirty-three years of age are liable for military duty. The modest well-manned navy is only used for coast defence.

HISTORY

Unlike the Swedes and Danes, the Norwegians were not organized even so late as the ninth century. The name of king was borne by the chiefs and heads of separate clans, but their authority was limited and the rights of the subjects very extensive. Only by marauding expeditions were the Vikings able to gain honour and wealth, and at times also to acquire control of extensive districts. Their early history is lost in the fabulous tales of the bards. In 872, Harold Haarfager (Fair-Haired), after a decisive sea-fight near Stavanger, established his authority over all the clans. Those refusing to submit left the country and their possessions were confiscated. When Harold divided his kingdom among several sons, its permanence seemed once more uncertain, but Hakon the Good restored a transient unity and procured an entrance for Christianity. Olaf Trygvesson continued the work of union after Hakon's death, and promoted the spread of the new faith, but in a sea-fight with the united forces of the Danes and Swedes he was killed about 1000 near Svalder (of uncertain location). The kingdom now fell apart, some portions coming under Cnut the Great of Denmark.

Finally Olaf, son of Harold Grenske and a descendant of Harold Haarfager (1015), re-established the boundaries of Norway, and aided Christianity to its final victory. At a later date Olaf became the patron saint of Norway. His severity so embittered the great families that they combined with Cnut and forced him to flee the country. Returning with a small army from Sweden, he was defeated and killed in the battle of Stiklestad (29 July, 1030). His heroic death and the marvellous phenomena that occurred in connexion with his body completely changed the feeling of his opponents. His son, Magnus the Good, was unanimously chosen his successor (1035), and the Danish intruders were driven away. Magnus died childless in 1047, and the kingdom went to his father's half-brother Harold, son of Sigurd. Harold had won fame and wealth as a viking, and had been an important personage at the Byzantine Court. On account of his grimness he was called Hardrada (the Stem). Impelled by ambition, he first waged a bloody war with Denmark and then attacked England. On an incursion into Northumberland, he was defeated at the battle of Stamford Bridge (1066). His son, Olaf the Quiet, repaired the injuries caused the country by Harold Hardrada's policy. Olaf's successor, Magnus, conquered the Scotch islands, waged successful war with Sweden, and even gained parts of Ireland, where he was finally killed. One of his sons, Sigurd Jorsalafari (the traveller to Jerusalem), went on a crusade to the Holy Land, while another son, Eystein, peacefully acquired Jemtland, a part of Sweden. With Sigurd's death (1130) the kingdom entered upon a period of disorder caused partly by strife between claimants to the throne, partly by rivalry between the secular and ecclesiastical dignitaries , whose partisans (known as the Birkebeinar and the Baglar) perpetrated unbelievable outrages and cruelty on each other. The power of the king sank steadily, while that of the bishops increased. For a time Sverre (1177-1202) seemed successful, but lasting peace was not attained until the reign of his grandson, Hakon the Old (1217-63). Hakon ruled with wisdom and force and was highly regarded by the rulers of other countries. During his reign Norway reached its greatest extent, including Greenland and Iceland. He died in the Orkney Islands (1263) while returning from an expedition against the Scotch.

His peace-loving son Magnus Lagoboête (the Law-Mender) tried to establish law and order and prepared a book of laws. His efforts to promote commerce and intercourse resulted unfortunately, as the Hanseatic League, to which he granted many privileges, used these to the detriment of the country, and gradually brought it into a state of grievous dependence. With the death (1319) of the vigorous younger son of Magnus, Hakon V, the male line of Harold Harfager became extinct. The crown went to the three year old King Magnus Eriksson of Sweden, son of Hakon's daughter, Ingeborg; this brought about for the first time a close union between the two kingdoms of northern Scandinavia. When King Magnus assumed the government (1332), it was soon evident that, although possessing many good qualities, he lacked force. He seldom came to Norway, and the Norwegians felt themselves neglected. They forced him, when holding court at Varberg (1343), to send his younger son Hakon as viceroy to Norway, where Hakon soon gathered an independent court, and in 1335 became the actual ruler. Seven years later he was elected King of Sweden by a part of the Swedish nobility, but had to yield to Duke Albert of Mecklenburg, chosen by an opposing faction. In 1363 Hakon married Margaret, daughter of King Waldemar of Denmark, and won with her a claim to the Danish throne. As Waldemar, when he died in 1375, left no male descendants, he was succeeded by their son, Olaf. Olaf also became King of Norway upon the death of his father, and died in 1387. His mother, an able and energetic ruler, entered at once upon the administration of Denmark. In Norway she was not only made ruler for life, but her nephew, Eric of Pomerania, was acknowledged as the lawful heir. Meanwhile, Albert of Mecklenburg, greatly disliked in Sweden and the estates, entered into negotiations with Margaret, whose troops took him prisoner (1389). The same year Eric was acknowledged King of Norway, and in 1395-6 as King of Denmark and Sweden. In 1397 the chief men of the three countries met at Kalmar to arrange a basis for a permanent legal confederation (the Union of Galmar). The plan failed, as no one country was willing to make the sacrifice necessary for the interest of all, but Eric was crowned king of the three united lands.

Up to 1408 Margaret was the real ruler. With unwearied activity she journeyed everywhere, watched over the administration of law and government, cut down the great estates of the nobles for the benefit of the crown, and protected the ordinary freeman. Denmark was always her first interest. She placed Danish officials in Sweden and forced the Church of that country to accept Danish bishops ; the result was often unfortunate, as in the appointment of the Archbishop of Upsala (1408). Margaret's efforts to re-gain former possessions of the three Scandinavian countries were successful only in one case; she purchased the Island of Gotland from the Teutonic Knights. She died suddenly (1412) in the harbour of Flensburg whither she had gone to obtain Schleswig from the Counts of Holstein. Left to himself, the headstrong and hot-tempered Eric made one mistake after another and soon found all the Hanseatic towns on the Baltic against him. Conditions were still worse after the death of his one faithful counsellor, his wife Philippa, daughter of Henry IV of England. In Sweden increasing taxes, constant disputes with the clergy, and the appointment of bad officials aroused a universal discontent, which led later to dangerous outbreaks. Vain attempts were made (1436) to restore the tottering union. Disregarding his promises, Eric withdrew to Gotland, where he remained inactive. In 1438 his deposition was declared by Norway and Sweden, and his nephew, Duke Christopher of Bavaria, was elected king. Upon Christopher's early death (1448) the union was virtually dissolved: the Swedes chose Karl Knutsson as king, and the Danes called Count Christian of Oldenburg to the throne. At first Norway wavered between the two, but Christian was able to retain control.

Of Christian's two sons Hans was at first only ruler of Denmark and Norway, but, by an agreement made at Calmar, he was able to gain Sweden also. Yet it was only after defeating Sten Sture that his position in Sweden was secure. King Hans I was succeeded (1513) in Denmark and Norway by his son, Christian II. Christian's cruelty to the conquered Swedes prepared the way for the defection of that country to Gustavus Vasa; consequently, he was indirectly responsible for the withdrawal of Sweden from Catholic unity. Christian soon aroused dissatisfaction in his own country. Undue preference granted to the lower classes turned the nobility against him, and his undisguised efforts to open the way for the teachings of Luther repelled loyal Catholics. Serious disorders followed in Jutland, and Christian, losing courage, sought to save himself by flight. With the aid of the Hanseatic League his uncle, Duke Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein, soon acquired possession of his kingdoms. The new king and his son, Christian III, were fanatical adherents of the new doctrine, and by craft and force brought about its victory in Denmark (1539). In Norway Archbishop Olaf of Trondhjem laboured in vain for the maintenance of Catholicism and the establishment of national independence. The majority of the peasants were indifferent and the impoverished nobility, who hoped to benefit by the introduction of the "pure Gospel", urged Christian on. After the departure of the church dignitaries Christian acquired the mastery of the country (1537). Norway now ceased to be an independent state. While retaining the name of kingdom it was for nearly three hundred years (until 1814) only a Danish province, administered by Danish officials and at times outrageously plundered. Here, as in Sweden and Denmark, people were gradually and systematically turned away from the Catholic Faith, though it was long before Catholicism was completely extinguished. The last Bishop of Holum in Iceland, Jon Arason, died a martyr. The king and the nobility seized the lands of the Church. The chief nobles acquired inordinate influence, and the landed proprietors, once so proud of their independence, fell under the control of foreign tyrants.

As regards territorial development in the Middle Ages, Norway had a number of tributary provinces--in the north, Finmark, inhabited by heathen Lapps ; various groups of islands south-west of Norway as: the Farve Islands, the Orkneys, the Shetlands, and the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea, to which were added later Iceland and Greenland. During the period of the union, Norway also included Bohuslän, Härjedalen, Jemtland, and some smaller districts, all now belonging to Sweden. With these islands and outlying territories the monarchy comprised about 7000 square miles. The Scotch islands were lost towards the end of the fifteenth century, and at a later period the colonies in Greenland were totally neglected. Originally the kingdom had consisted of four provinces, each with its own laws but when a system of law for the entire country was introduced, it was divided into eleven judicial districts. The most closely settled districts were the fertile lowlands on the inlets of the sea, now Christiania and Trondhjem fiords. The waterway from Trondhjem to Oslo, near the present Christiania, was the most important route for traffic. There was also much intercourse by water between Oslo and Bergen. Through the mountain districts huts for the convenience of travellers (Spälastugor) were erected, and developed later into inns and taverns. The country was unprepared for war. The topography and economic conditions made it difficult to mobilize the land forces. The soldiers were not paid, but only fed. The chief state officials lived in Bohus, Akershus, Tunsberg, and the royal fortified castles on the harbours of Bergen and Trondhjem. Ecclesiastically, Norway was at first under the direction of the Archbishop of Lund (1103); later (1152) under the Archbishop of Trondhjem, who had jurisdiction over the Bishops of Bergen, Stavanger, Oslo, Hamar, Farvê, Kirkwall (Orkney Islands), Skalholt and Holar (Holum) in Iceland, and Gardar (Garde) in Greenland. Jerntland was subject to the Swedish Archdiocese of Upsala. There were a thousand well-endowed churches, thirty monasteries, and various orders of women : Benedictines, Cistercians, Præmonstratensians, Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians, and Brigittines. Schools were attached to the cathedrals and to most of the monasteries. For higher education Norwegians went to foreign universities, especially to Paris.

From the reign of Christian III Norway shared the fortunes of Denmark. Christian's son, Frederick II (1559-88), paid no attention to Norway, but much was done for the country during the long reign of Christian IV (1588-1648), who endeavoured to develop the country by encouraging mining at Konsberg and Röraas, and to protect it from attack by improving the army. Jerntland and Herjudalen, however, had to be ceded to Sweden. Frederick III (1648-70) was also obliged to cede Bohuslan. Frederick V (1746-66) encouraged art, learning, commerce, and manufactures. Prosperity strengthened the self-reliance of the people and their desire for political independence. In 1807 they were granted autonomous administration, and in 1811 a national university was founded at Christiania. Political events enabled Sweden to force Denmark in the Treaty of Keil to relinquish Norway. Many of the Norwegians not being in favour of this, a national diet, held at Eidsvold (17 May, 1814), agreed upon a constitution and chose as king the popular Danish prince, Christian Frederick. But the Powers interfered and ratified the union with Sweden. The Swedish monarchs, Charles John XIV, Oscar I, Charles XV, and Oscar II, had a difficult position to maintain in Norway. Notwithstanding zealous and successful efforts to promote the material and intellectual prosperity of the land, they never attained popularity, nor could they reconcile national dislikes. Friction increased, the Norwegian parliament growing steadily more radical and even becoming the exponent of republican ideas. From 1884 the Storthing, which now possessed the real power, steadfastly urged the dissolution of the union, and on 7 June, 1905, declared it to be dissolved. The Swedish Government naturally was unwilling to consent to this revolutionary action. Negotiations were successfully concluded at the Convention of Karlstad, 23 September, 1905. The Norwegians elected as king Prince Charles of Denmark, who, under the title of Hakon VII, has since then reigned over the country.

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY

Little is known of the religious ideas of the heathen Norwegians, and this little rests on later sources, chiefly on the Eddas of the thirteenth century. It seems certain that not only animals, but also human beings (even kings), were sacrificed to the gods, of whom first Thor (later Odin) was the most important. The early Norwegians were characterized by reckless courage and a cruelty that alternated with generosity and magnanimity. Hakon the Good and Olaf Tryggoesson laboured to introduce Christianity, and during the reign of Olaf Haroldsson Christianity became, nominally at least, the prevailing religion. Olaf Haroldsson was a zealous adherent of the new faith. He built churches, founded schools, and exerted influence by his personal example. After his death he was revered as a saint: the church built at Nidaros (now Trondhjem ) over his grave was replaced later by the cathedral of Trondhjem, the finest building in Norway. The Dioceses of Nidaros, Bergen, Oslo, and Stavanger were soon founded, monks and nuns carried on successful missionary work, and in a short time the land was covered with wooden churches (Stovkirken) of singular architecture; the few that remain still arouse admiration. Gradually stone churches with a rich equipment were erected.

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The Norwegian bishops were under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan of Lund until 1152, when the papal legate, Nicholas of Albano, transferred the jurisdiction over the Norwegian Church to the Bishop of Trondhjem and his successors. The suffragans of the new archbishopric were: Hamar, Farve, and Kirkwall in the Orkneys, Skalholt, and Holar in Iceland, and Gardar in Greenland. The tithes, legally established before 1130 in the reign of Sigurd Jonsalafari, made possible the foundation of a large number of new parishes and strengthened those already existing. The Diocese of Oslo contained the largest number, namely 300 parishes ; Nidaros had 280. There was a chapter for each see. Not much is known of the morals and religious spirit of the people; it is certain that in the Catholic period much more in proportion was given for purposes of religion than after the Reformation. There are few details of the pastoral labours of bishops and clergy, but the works of Christian charity, hospices, lazarettos, inns for pilgrims, bear ready testimony to their efforts for the advancement of civilization. Nor was learning neglected. As early as the twelfth century the monk Dietrich of Trondhjem wrote a Latin chronicle of the country, and in 1250 a Franciscan wrote an account of his journey to the Holy Land. Norwegian students who desired degrees went to the Universities of Paris and Bologna, or, at a later period, attended a university nearer home, that of Rostock in Mecklenburg. With the abandonment of the old Faith and its institutions was associated the loss of national independence in 1537. As early as 1519 Christian II had begun to suppress the monasteries, and Christian III abetted the cause of Lutheranism. Archbishop Olaf Engelbrechtsen and other dignitaries of the Church were forced to flee; Mogens Lawridtzen, Bishop of Hamar, died in prison in 1542, and Jon Arason of Holar was executed on 7 November, 1550.

The large landed possessions of the Church went to the king and his favourites. Many churches were destroyed, others fell into decay, and the number of parishes was greatly reduced. The salaries of the preachers, among whom were very objectionable persons, were generally a mere pittance. Fanatics of the new belief thundered from the pulpit against idolatry and the cruelty of the "Roman Antichrist "; whatever might preserve the memory of earlier ages was doomed to destruction; the pictures of the Virgin were cut to pieces, burned, or thrown into the water; veneration of saints was threatened with severe punishment. Notwithstanding this, it was only slowly and by the aid of deception that the people were seduced from the ancestral faith. Catholicism did not die out in Norway until the beginning of the seventeenth century. The pope entrusted the spiritual care of Norway, first to the Nunciature of Cologne, and then to Brussels, but the Draconian laws of Denmark made Catholic ministration almost impossible. Whether the Jesuits appointed to Norway ever went there is unknown. A Dominican who reached the country was expelled after a few weeks. The Norwegian convert Rhugius was permitted to remain, but was not allowed to exercise his office. Conditions remained the same later, when the supervision was transferred from Brussels to Cologne, from Cologne to Hildersheim, and thence to Osnabrück.

There was no change until the nineteenth century when the laws of 1845 and succeeding years released all dissenters, including Catholics who had come into the country, from the control of the Lutheran state Church. From the time of its foundation the Lutheran Church had wavered between orthodoxy and rationalism, and was finally much affected by the Pietistic movement, led by Haugue. In 1843 a small Catholic parish was formed in Christiania, and from this centre efforts were made to found new stations. In 1869 Pius IX created an independent prefecture Apostolic for Norway. The first prefect was a Frenchman, Bernard, formerly prefect of the North Pole mission. He was followed by the Luxemburg priest Fallize, later Bishop of Alusa, under whom the mission has steadily developed, although not yet large. Especially noteworthy among the men who of late years have been reconciled to the Church are the former gymnasial rector Sverenson, and the author Kroogh-Tonning, doctor of theology, originally a Lutheran pastor at Christiania. All monastic orders, Jesuits excepted, are allowed, but there are no monasteries for men. On the other hand the missionaries of the female congregations, Sisters of St. Elizabeth, Sisters of St. Francis, and Sisters of St. Joseph of Chambéry, numbering about thirty, have gained useful and active fellow-workers. There are a few thousands of Catholics, for whom there are churches in Christiania (St. Olaf and Halvard), in Bergen, Trondhjem, Fredrikshald, Tromsö, Fredrikstad, Altengaard, Hamerfest. Catholic hospitals exist in Christiania, Bergen, Drammen, and Christiansand, and there is a number of Catholic schools towards which the Protestant population has shown itself friendly. In 1897, for the first time in three hundred years, the feast of St. Olaf was celebrated at Trondhjem.

HISTORY OF ART

During the Middle Ages art was closely connected with religion, and its chief task was the building and embellishment of churches. Some twenty old wooden churches (Stavkirker), still in existence, show with what skill Norwegians made use of the wood furnished by their forests. At a comparatively early date, stone was used, first in the Romanesque, then in the Gothic buildings. Some of the work thus produced has a singular and characteristic charm. Besides primitive churches of one aisle with rude towers and belfries, as at Vossevanger, there are in existence churches of three aisles with pleasing, and at times relatively rich ornamentation. The façades of some of these are flanked by two towers, as at Akers, Bergen, and Stavanger. The most striking achievements of Norwegian architecture are the cathedral of St. Magnus at Kirkwall in the Orkneys, and, what is even finer, the cathedral at Trondhjem. The latter has had a chequered history. Built originally in 1077 by Olaf the Quiet ( Kyrre ) as a "Christ Church " of one aisle over the bones of St. Olaf, it served at first as the burial place of the kings. When in 1152 Trondhjem (Nidaros) was made an archdiocese, it became a place of pilgrimage for the entire kingdom, and the gifts of the faithful made possible the necessary enlargement of the cathedral. In 1161 Archbishop Eystein Erlandson began its restoration in the Romanesque style. Obliged to flee from King Sverri, he became acquainted during his stay in England with Gothic architecture and made use of this style on his return. This is especially evident in the unique octagon erected over St. Olaf's grave, evidently an imitation of "Becket's Crown" in Canterbury cathedral. Eystein's successors completed the building according to his plans. The cathedral was twice damaged by fire but each time was repaired (in 1328 and in 1432). It fell into almost complete ruin after the great fire of 5 May, 1531, and for several hundred years no attention was paid to it. A change came with the awakening of national pride, and the restoration of the cathedral is now nearing completion. Its most valuable treasures, the body of the great Apostle of Norway St. Olaf and the costly shrine that enclosed it, have disappeared. In 1537 the shrine was taken to Copenhagen, robbed of its jewels, and melted, while the bones of the saint were buried by fanatics in some unknown place to put an end forever to the veneration of them. The wood-carvings, paintings, and other objects of art, which formerly adorned Norwegian churches, have been either carried off or destroyed.

This was not so frequently the case in the northern part of the country, and in other districts some few objects escaped. Among the works of art especially interesting may be mentioned: (in wood-carvig; the altar of the Virgin in the Church of Our Lady at Bergen, and the altar in the Ringsacker church on Lake Nysen; (in painting ) the antependium at Gal; (in relief work) the doorways of the churches at Hyllestad and Hemsedal; the baptismal font at Stavanger, reliquaries, as at Hedal; censers, as at Hadsel; crucifixes and vestments. The finest medieval secular building is King Haakon's Hall, a part of the former royal palace at Bergen. Beautifully carved chairs, rich tapestries, and fine chased work are further proof of the degree of culture attained by Catholic Norway.

HISTORY OF LITERATURE

Norway can hardly be said to have an indigenous literature. As regards material and arrangement, the chronicles and narratives are very much the same both in the north and the South (for Icelandic Sagas see ICELANDIC LITERATURE). We here treat specifically Protestant literature only so far as individual writers, such as the brothers Munch, refer in poetry or prose to the Catholic era in Norway, and thus indirectly further the interests of the Church. The historical investigations and writings of Bang, Dietrichson, Daae, and Bugge have overthrown many historical misstatements and judgments prejudicial to Catholicism. These works have influenced even Protestant theology in Norway, so that its position towards Rome is relatively more friendly than in other countries. If heretofore no Norwegian Catholic has made a great contribution to the national literature the reason is obvious. Of late years, however, various books have been published of an edifying, apologetic, or of a polemical nature. There is a Catholic weekly, the "St. Olav".

More Volume: N 287

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Article
Nélaton, Auguste

Auguste Nelaton

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Felix-Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Neve

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Nîmes

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Nabo

Nabo (Nebo)

( Septuagint, Nabau ). A town mentioned in several passages of the Old Testament, v.g., ...
Nabor and Felix, Saints

Sts. Nabor and Felix

Martyrs during the persecution of Diocletian (303). The relics of these holy witnesses to the ...
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Nabuchodonosor

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Nacchiante, Giacomo

Giacomo Nacchiante

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Nahum

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Nails, Holy

Holy Nails

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Naim

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Name of Jesus, Religious Communities of the

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Name of Mary, Feast of the Holy

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We venerate the name of Mary because it belongs to her who is the Mother of God, the holiest of ...
Names of Jesus and Mary, Sisters of the Holy

Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary

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Namur

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Nancy

Nancy

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Nantes

Nantes

Diocese of Nantes (Nanceiensis). This diocese, which comprises the entire department of Loire ...
Nanteuil, Robert

Robert Nanteuil

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Naples

Naples

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Napoleon I (Bonaparte)

Napoleon Bonaparte

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Napoleon III

Napoleon III

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Napper, Venerable George

Ven. George Napper

(Or Napier). English martyr, born at Holywell manor, Oxford, 1550; executed at Oxford 9 ...
Nardò

Nardo

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Nardi, Jacopo

Jacopo Nardi

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Narni and Terni

Narni and Terni

UNITED DIOCESES OF NARNI AND TERNI (NARNIENSIS ET INTERAMNENSIS) Located in Central Italy. ...
Narthex

Narthex

In early Christian architecture a portion of the church at the west end, separated from the nave ...
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Nasoræans

Nasoraeans

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Natal

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Natal Day

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Natalis, Alexander

Alexander Natalis

(Or NOEL ALEXANDRE). A French historian and theologian, of the Order of St. Dominic, b. at ...
Natchez

Natchez

DIOCESE OF NATCHEZ (NATCHESIENSIS) Established 28 July, 1837; comprises the State of ...
Natchitoches

Natchitoches

Diocese of Natchitoches Former title of the present Diocese of Alexandria (Alexandrinensis), ...
Nathan

Nathan

Nathan (God-given), the name of several Israelites mentioned in the Old Testament. (1) Nathan, ...
Nathanael

Nathanael

One of the first disciples of Jesus, to Whom he was brought by his friend Philip ( John ...
Nathinites

Nathinites

Or N ATHINEANS ( hnthynym , the given ones; Septuagint generally o‘i dedoménoi ...
National Union, Catholic Young Men's

Catholic Young Men's National Union

This association was organized on 22 February, 1875, at a meeting held in Newark, New Jersey, at ...
Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the

Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The earliest document commemorating this feast comes from the sixth century. St.Romanus, the ...
Natural Law

Natural Law

I. ITS ESSENCE In English this term is frequently employed as equivalent to the laws of nature, ...
Naturalism

Naturalism

Naturalism is not so much a special system as a point of view or tendency common to a number of ...
Nature

Nature

Etymologically (Latin natura from nasci , to be born, like the corresponding Greek physis ...
Naturism

Naturism

Naturism is the term proposed by Réville to designate the worship of nature. It differs ...
Nausea, Frederic

Frederic Nausea

(Latinized from the German Grau .) Bishop of Vienna, born c. 1480 at Waischenfeld ( ...
Navajo Indians

Navajo Indians

Navajo Indians, numbering about 20,000, constitute the largest group of Indians belonging to the ...
Navarre

Navarre

The territory formerly known as Navarre now belongs to two nations, Spain and France, according ...
Navarrete, Domingo Fernández

Domingo Fernandez Navarrete

Dominican missionary and archbishop, born c. 1610 at Peñafiel in Old Castile ; died ...
Navarrete, Juan Fernández

Juan Fernandez Navarrete

Spanish painter, b. at Logrono, 1526 and died at Segovia, 1579 (at Toledo, February, 1579 or 28 ...
Navarrete, Martín Fernández

Martin Fernandez Navarrete

Spanish navigator and writer, b. at Avalos (Logrono), 8 November, 1765; d. at Madrid, 8 October, ...
Nave

Nave

Architecturally the central, open space of a church, west of the choir or chancel, and separated ...
Nazarene

Nazarene

( Nazarenos, Nazarenus ). As a name applied to Christ, the word Nazarene occurs only ...
Nazareth

Nazareth

The town of Galilee where the Blessed Virgin dwelt when the Archangel announced to her the ...
Nazareth, Sisters of Charity of

Sisters of Charity of Nazareth

Founded Dec., 1812, by the Rev. B.J.M. David (see D IOCESE OF L OUISVILLE ). Father David, ...
Nazarite

Nazarite

(Hebrew, " consecrated to God "). The name given by the Hebrews to a person set apart and ...
Nazarius and Celsus, Saints

Sts. Nazarius and Celsus

The only historical information which we possess regarding these two martyrs is the discovery of ...
Nazarius and Companions, Saint

St. Nazarius and Companions

In the Roman Martyrology and that of Bede for 12 June mention is made of four Roman martyrs, ...
Nazarius, John Paul

John Paul Nazarius

Dominican theologian, b. in 1556 at Cremonia; d. in 1645 at Bologna. He entered the order at an ...
Nazarius, Saint

St. Nazarius

Fourteenth abbot of the monastery of Lérins, probably sometime during the reign of the ...
Nazianzus

Nazianzus

A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Tertia. Nazianzus was a small town the history which is ...
Neale, Leonard

Leonard Neale

Second Archbishop of Baltimore, b. near Port Tobacco, Charles County, Maryland, 15 Oct., 1746; ...
Nebo

Nabo (Nebo)

( Septuagint, Nabau ). A town mentioned in several passages of the Old Testament, v.g., ...
Nebo, Mount

Mount Nebo

( Septuagint : Nabau ). A mountain of the Abarim range east of Jordan and the Dead Sea, ...
Nebraska

Nebraska

Nebraska, meaning in English, "shallow water", occupies geographically a central location among ...
Necessity

Necessity

Necessity, in a general way, denotes a strict connection between different beings, or the ...
Neckam, Alexander of

Alexander of Neckam

( Or Necham.) English scholar, born in Hertfordshire, 1157; died at Kempsey, Worcestershire, ...
Necrologies

Necrologies

Necrologies, or, as they are more frequently called in France, obituaires , are the registers ...
Necromancy

Necromancy

( nekros , "dead", and manteia , "divination") Necromancy is a special mode of divination ...
Nectarius

Nectarius

( Nechtarios ), Patriarch of Constantinople, (381-397), died 27 Sept, 397, eleventh bishop of ...
Negligence

Negligence

( Latin nec , not, and legere , to pick out). The condition of not heeding. More ...
Nehemiah, Book of

Book of Nehemiah

Also called the second Book of Esdras (Ezra), is reckoned both in the Talmud and in the early ...
Neher, Stephan Jakob

Stephan Jakob Neher

Church historian ; b. at Ebnat, 24 July, 1829; d. at Nordhausen, 7 Oct., 1902. His family were ...
Nemore, Jordanus (Jordanis) de

Jordanus de Nemore

The name given in manuscripts of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries to a mathematician who ...
Nemrod

Nemrod

Also N IMROD ( nmrd of uncertain signification, Septuagint Nebród ). The name of ...
Neo-Platonism

Neo-Platonism

General survey A system of idealistic, spiritualistic philosophy, tending towards mysticism, ...
Neo-Pythagorean Philosophy

Neo-Pythagorean Philosophy

The ethico-religious society founded by Pythagoras, which flourished especially in Magna ...
Neo-Scholasticism

Neo-Scholasticism

Neo-Scholasticism is the development of the Scholasticism of the Middle Ages during the latter ...
Neocæsarea

Neocaesarea (Hierapolis)

A titular see, suffragan of Hierapolis in the Patriarchate of Antioch sometimes called ...
Neocæsarea

Neocaesarea

A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus, at first called Cabira, one of the favourite residences ...
Neophyte

Neophyte

Neophyte ( neophytoi , the newly planted, i.e. incorporated with the mystic Body of Christ), a ...
Nephtali

Nephtali

(A.V., N APHTALI ) Sixth son of Jacob and Bala ( Genesis 30:8 ). The name is explained ...
Nepi and Sutri

Nepi and Sutri

Nepi and Sutri (Nepsin et Sutrin), united sees of the province of Rome, central Italy, in the ...
Nepveu, Francis

Francis Nepveu

Writer on ascetical subjects, b. at St. Malo, 29 April, 1639; entered the novitiate of the ...
Nereus and Achilleus, Domitilla and Pancratius, Saints

Sts. Nereus and Achilleus, Domitilla and Pancratius

The commemoration of these four Roman saints is made by the Church on 12 May, in common, and ...
Neri, Antonio

Antonio Neri

Florentine chemist, born in Florence ln the sixteenth century; died 1614, place unknown. We have ...
Neri, Saint Philip Romolo

St. Philip Romolo Neri

THE APOSTLE OF ROME. Born at Florence, Italy, 22 July, 1515; died 27 May, 1595. Philip's ...
Nerinckx, Charles

Charles Nerinckx

Missionary priest in Kentucky, founder of the Sisters of Loretto at the Foot of the Cross, born ...
Nero

Nero

Nero, the last Roman emperor (reigned 54-68) of the Julian-Claudian line, was the son of Domitius ...
Nerses I-IV

Nerses I-IV

Armenian patriarchs. Nerses I Surnamed "the Great". Died 373. Born of the royal stock, he ...
Nerses of Lambron

Nerses of Lambron

Born 1153 at Lambron, Cilicia; died 1198; son of Oschin II, prince of Lambron and nephew of the ...
Nestorius and Nestorianism

Nestorius and Nestorianism

I. THE HERESIARCH Nestorius, who gave his name to the Nestorian heresy, was born at Germanicia, ...
Netherlands, The

The Netherlands

( German Niederlande ; French Pays Bas ). The Netherlands, or Low Countries, as organized by ...
Netter, Thomas

Thomas Netter

Theologian and controversialist, b. at Saffron Waldon, Essex, England, about 1375; d. at Rouen, ...
Neugart, Trudpert

Trudpert Neugart

Benedictine historian, born at Villingen, Baden, 23 February, 1742; died at St Paul's ...
Neum

Neum

(Latin, neuma, pneuma, or neupma, from Greek pneûma, a nod). A term in medieval ...
Neumann, Johann Balthasar

Johann Balthasar Neumann

Born 1687 at Eger; died 1753 at Würzburg, master of the rococo style and one of the ...
Neumayr, Franz

Franz Neumayr

Preacher, writer on theological, controversial and ascetical subjects, and author of many ...
Neusohl

Neusohl

Diocese of Neusohl (Hung. Beszterczebànya; Lat. Neosoliensis), founded in 1776 by Maria ...
Neutra

Neutra

(Nitria; Nyitha) -- Diocese of Neutra (Nitriensis). Diocese in Western Hungary, a suffragan of ...
Nevada

Nevada

A Western state of the United States , bounded on the North by Oregon and Idaho, on the East ...
Neve

Neve

Titular see of Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. Two of its bishops are known: Petronius, who ...
Nevers

Nevers

(Nivernum) Diocese ; includes the Department of Nièvre, in France. Suppressed by the ...
Neville

Neville

(1) Edmund Neville ( alias Sales), a Jesuit, born at Hopcut, Lancashire, 1605; died in ...
New Abbey

New Abbey

The Abbey of Sweetheart, named New Abbey Pow, or New Abbey, in order to distinguish it, from ...
New Caledonia

New Caledonia

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC New Caledonia, one of the largest islands of Oceania, lies about 900 miles ...
New Guinea

New Guinea

The second largest island and one of the least known countries of the world, lies immediately ...
New Hampshire

New Hampshire

The most northerly of the thirteen original states of the United States, lying between 70°37' ...
New Jersey

New Jersey

One of the original thirteen states of the American Union. It ratified the Federal Constitution ...
New Mexico

New Mexico

A territory of the United States now (Jan., 1911) awaiting only the completion of its ...
New Norcia

New Norcia

A Benedictine abbey in Western Australia, founded on 1 March, 1846, by a Spanish Benedictine, ...
New Orleans

New Orleans

ARCHDIOCESE OF NEW ORLEANS (NOVÆ AURELIÆ). Erected 25 April, 1793, as the Diocese of ...
New Pomerania

New Pomerania

New Pomerania, the largest island of the Bismarck Archipelago, is separated from New Guinea by ...
New Testament

New Testament

I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...
New Testament, Canon of the

Canon of the New Testament

The Catholic New Testament, as defined by the Council of Trent, does not differ, as regards the ...
New Year's Day

New Year's Day

The word year is etymologically the same as hour (Skeat), and signifies a going, movement ...
New York (Archdiocese)

New York

ARCHDIOCESE OF NEW YORK (NEO-EBORACENSIS). See erected 8 April, 1808; made archiepiscopal 19 ...
New York (State)

State of New York

One of the thirteen colonies of Great Britain, which on 4 July, 1776, adopted the Declaration of ...
New Zealand

New Zealand

New Zealand—formerly described as a colony—has, since September, 1907, by royal ...
Newark

Newark

(NOVARCENSIS) Diocese created in 1853, suffragan of New York and comprising Hudson, Passaic, ...
Newbattle

Newbattle

( Neubotle , i.e. new dwelling). Newbattle, in the ancient Diocese of St. Andrews, about ...
Newdigate, Blessed Sebastian

Blessed Sebastian Newdigate

Executed at Tyburn, 19 June, 1535. A younger son of John Newdigate of Harefield Place, Middlesex, ...
Newfoundland

Newfoundland

A British colony of North America (area 42,734 square miles), bounded on the north by the Strait ...
Newhouse, Abbey of

Abbey of Newhouse

The Abbey of Newhouse, near Brockelsby, Lincoln, the first Premonstratensian abbey in England, ...
Newman, John Henry

John Henry Newman

(1801-1890) Cardinal-Deacon of St. George in Velabro, divine, philosopher, man of letters, ...
Newport (England)

Newport (England)

(NEOPORTENSIS) This diocese takes its name from Newport, a town of about 70,000 inhabitants, ...
Newton, John

John Newton

A soldier and engineer, born at Norfolk, Virginia, 24 August, 1823; died in New York City, 1 May, ...
Niagara University

Niagara University

Niagara University, situated near Niagara Falls, New York, is conducted by the Vincentians. It ...
Nicéron, Jean-Pierre

Jean-Pierre Niceron

A French lexicographer, born in Paris, 11 March, 1685, died there, 8 July, 1738. After his ...
Nicaea

Nicaea

Titular see of Bithynia Secunda, situated on Lake Ascanius, in a fertile plain, but very ...
Nicaea, First Council of

First Council of Nicaea

First Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church, held in 325 on the occasion of the heresy of ...
Nicaea, Second Council of

Second Council of Nicaea

Seventh Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church, held in 787. (For an account of the ...
Nicaragua

Nicaragua

(REPUBLIC AND DIOCESE OF NICARAGUA; DE NICARAGUA) The diocese, suffragan of Guatemala, is ...
Nicastro

Nicastro

(NEOCASTRENSIS). A city of the Province of Catanzaro, in Calabria, southern Italy, situated ...
Niccola Pisano

Niccola Pisano

Architect and sculptor, b. at Pisa about 1205-07; d. there, 1278. He was the father of modern ...
Nice

Nice

(NICIENSIS) Nice comprises the Department of Alpes-Maritimes. It was re-established by the ...
Nicene Creed

Nicene Creed

As approved in amplified form at the Council of Constantinople (381), it is the profession of the ...
Nicephorus, Saint

St. Nicephorus

Patriarch of Constantinople, 806-815, b. about 758; d. 2 June, 829. This champion of the orthodox ...
Nicetas

Nicetas

(NICETA) A Bishop of Remesiana (Romatiana) in what is now Servia, born about 335; died ...
Nicetius, Saint

St. Nicetius

A Bishop of Trier, born in the latter part of the fifth century, exact date unknown; died in ...
Niche

Niche

A recess for the reception of a statue, so designed as to give it emphasis, frame it effectively, ...
Nicholas Garlick, Venerable

Ven. Nicholas Garlick

Priest and martyr, born at Dinting, Derbyshire, c. 1555; died at Derby, 24 July, 1588. He ...
Nicholas I, Saint, Pope

Pope Saint Nicholas I

Born at Rome, date unknown; died 13 November, 867. One of the great popes of the Middle ...
Nicholas II, Pope

Pope Nicholas II

(GERHARD OF BURGUNDY) Nicholas was born at Chevron, in what is now Savoy ; elected at Siena, ...
Nicholas III, Pope

Pope Nicholas III

(GIOVANNI GAETANI ORSINI) Born at Rome, c. 1216; elected at Viterbo, 25 November, 1277; died ...
Nicholas IV, Pope

Pope Nicholas IV

(GIROLAMO MASCI) Born at Ascoli in the Rome, 4 April, 1292. He was of humble extraction, ...
Nicholas Justiniani

Nicholas Justiniani

Date of birth unknown, became monk in the Benedictine monastery of San Niccoló del Lido ...
Nicholas of Cusa

Nicholas of Cusa

German cardinal, philosopher, and administrator, b. at Cues on the Moselle, in the Archdiocese ...
Nicholas of Flüe, Blessed

Blessed Nicholas of Flue

(D E R UPE ). Born 21 March, 1417, on the Flüeli, a fertile plateau near Sachseln, ...
Nicholas of Gorran

Nicholas of Gorran

(Or GORRAIN) Medieval preacher, and scriptural commentator; b. in 1232 at Gorron, France ; ...
Nicholas of Lyra

Nicholas of Lyra

( Doctor planus et utilis ) Exegete, b. at Lyra in Normandy, 1270; d. at Paris, 1340. The ...
Nicholas of Myra, Saint

St. Nicholas of Myra

( Also called NICHOLAS OF BARI). Bishop of Myra in Lycia; died 6 December, 345 or 352. ...
Nicholas of Osimo

Nicholas of Osimo

(AUXIMANUS). A celebrated preacher and author, b. at Osimo, Italy, in the second half of the ...
Nicholas of Strasburg

Nicholas of Strasburg

Mystic ; flourished early in the fourteenth century. Educated at Paris, he was later on lector ...
Nicholas of Tolentino, Saint

St. Nicholas of Tolentino

Born at Sant' Angelo, near Fermo, in the Hermits of St. Augustine -- a star above him or on his ...
Nicholas Owen, Saint

St. Nicholas Owen

A Jesuit lay-brother, martyred in 1606. There is no record of his parentage, birthplace, date ...
Nicholas Pieck, Saint

St. Nicholas Pieck

(Also spelled PICK). Friar Minor and martyr, b. at Gorkum, Holland, 29 August, 1534; d. at ...
Nicholas V, Pope

Pope Nicholas V

(TOMMASO PARENTUCELLI) A name never to be mentioned without reverence by every lover of ...
Nichols, Venerable George

Ven. George Nichols

(Or NICOLLS). English martyr, born at Oxford about 1550; executed at Oxford, 19 October, ...
Nicholson, Francis

Francis Nicholson

A controversial writer; b. at Manchester, 1650 ( baptized 27 Oct.); d. at Lisbon, 13 Aug., 1731. ...
Nicodemus

Nicodemus

A prominent Jew of the time of Christ, mentioned only in the Fourth Gospel . The name is of ...
Nicodemus, Gospel of

Acta Pilati

(Or the Gospel of Nicodemus.) This work does not assume to have written by Pilate, but to have ...
Nicolò de' Tudeschi

Nicolo De' Tudeschi

("abbas modernus" or "recentior", "abbas Panormitanus" or "Siculus") A Benedictine canonist, ...
Nicolaï, Jean

Jean Nicolai

Celebrated Dominican theologian and controversialist, b. in 1594 at Mouzay in the Diocese of ...
Nicolaites

Nicolaites Or Nicolaitans

(Also called Nicolaitans), a sect mentioned in the Apocalypse (ii,6,15) as existing in ...
Nicolas, Armella

Armella Nicolas

Popularly known as "La bonne Armelle", a saintly French serving-maid held in high veneration among ...
Nicolas, Auguste

Auguste Nicolas

French apologist, b. at Bordeaux, 6 Jan., 1807; d. at Versailles 18 Jan., 1888. He first studied ...
Nicolaus Germanus

Nicolaus Germanus

(Often called "Donis" from a misapprehension of the title "Donnus" or "Donus" an abbreviated form ...
Nicole, Pierre

Pierre Nicole

Theologian and controversialist, b. 19 October, 1625, at Chartres, d. 16 November, 1695, at ...
Nicolet

Nicolet

(NICOLETANA) Diocese in the Province of Quebec, Canada, suffragan of Quebec. It comprises the ...
Nicomedes, Saint

Saint Nicomedes

Martyr of unknown era, whose feast is observed 15 September. The Roman Martyrologium and the ...
Nicomedia

Nicomedia

Titular see of Bithynia Prima, founded by King Zipoetes. About 264 B.C. his son Nicodemes I ...
Nicopolis

Nicopolis (Armenia Prima)

A titular see, suffragan of Sebasteia, in Armenia Prima. Founded by Pompey after his decisive ...
Nicopolis

Nicopolis

(NICOPOLITANA) Diocese in Bulgaria. The city of Nicopolis (Thrace or Moesia), situated at the ...
Nicopolis

Nicopolis

A titular see and metropolis in ancient Epirus. Augustus founded the city (B.C. 31) on a ...
Nicosia

Nicosia (Sicily)

A city of the Province of Catania, in Sicily situated at a height of about 2800 feet above the ...
Nicosia

Nicosia (Cyprus)

Titular archdiocese in the Province of Cyprus. It is now agreed (Oberhummer' "Aus Cypern" in ...
Nicotera and Tropea

Nicotera and Tropea

(NICOTERENSIS ET TROPEIENSIS) Suffragan diocese of Reggio di Calabria. Nicotera, the ancient ...
Nider, John

John Nider

Theologian, b. 1380 in Swabia; d. 13 August, 1438, at Colmar. He entered the Order of Preachers ...
Nieremberg y Otin, Juan Eusebio

Juan Eusebio Nieremberg y Otin

Noted theologian and polygraphist, b. of German parents at Madrid, 1595; d. there, 1658. ...
Niessenberger, Hans

Hans Niessenberger

An architect of the latter part of the Middle Ages, whose name is mentioned with comparative ...
Niger, Peter George

Peter George Niger

(NIGRI, German SCHWARTZ) Dominican theologian, preacher and controversialist, b. 1434 at ...
Nigeria

Upper and Lower Nigeria

A colony of British East Africa extending from the Gulf of Guinea to Lake Chad (from 4° 30' ...
Nihilism

Nihilism

The term was first used by Turgeniev in his novel, "Fathers and Sons" (in "Russkij Vestnik", Feb., ...
Nihus, Barthold

Barthold Nihus

Convert and controversialist, b. at Holtorf in Hanover, 7 February, 1590 (according to other ...
Nikolaus von Dinkelsbühl

Nikolaus von Dinkelsbuhl

Theologian, b. c. 1360, at Dinkelsbühl; d. 17 March, 1433, at Mariazell in Styria. He ...
Nikon

Nikon

Patriarch of Moscow (1652-1658; d. 1681). He was of peasant origin, born in the district of ...
Nilles, Nikolaus

Nikolaus Nilles

Born 21 June, 1828, of a wealthy peasant family of Rippweiler, Luxemburg ; died 31 January, ...
Nilopolis

Nilopolis

A titular see and a suffragan of Oxyrynchos, in Egypt. According to Ptolemy (IV, v, 26) the ...
Nilus the Younger

Nilus the Younger

Of Rossano, in Calabria; born in 910, died 27 December, 1005. For a time he was married (or ...
Nilus, Saint

St. Nilus

( Neilos ) Nilus the elder, of Sinai (died c. 430), was one of the many disciples and ...
Nimbus

Nimbus

(Latin, related to Nebula, nephele , properly vapour, cloud), in art and archaeology signifies ...
Nimrod

Nemrod

Also N IMROD ( nmrd of uncertain signification, Septuagint Nebród ). The name of ...
Ninian, Saint

Saint Ninian

(NINIAS, NINUS, DINAN, RINGAN, RINGEN) Bishop and confessor ; date of birth unknown; died ...
Nirschl, Joseph

Joseph Nirschl

Theologian and writer, b. at Durchfurth, Lower Bavaria, 24 February, 1823; d. at ...
Nisibis

Nisibis

A titular Archdiocese of Mesopotamia, situated on the Mygdonius at the foot of Mt. Masius. It is ...
Nithard

Nithard

Frankish historian, son of Angilbert and Bertha, daughter of Charlemagne ; died about 843 or ...
Noah

Noah

[Hebrew Nôah , "rest"; Greek Noah ; Latin Noah ]. The ninth patriarch of the ...
Noah's Ark

Noah's Ark

The Hebrew name to designate Noah's Ark, the one which occurs again in the history of Moses' ...
Noailles, Louis-Antoine de

Louis-Antoine de Noailles

Cardinal and bishop, b. at the Château of Teyssiére in Auvergne, France, 27 May, ...
Nobili, Robert de'

Robert De' Nobili

Born at Montepulciano, Tuscany, September, 1577; died at Mylapore, India, in 1656. He entered the ...
Noble, Daniel

Daniel Noble

Physician, b. 14 Jan., 1810; d. at Manchester, 12 Jan, 1885. He was the son of Mary Dewhurst and ...
Nocera

Nocera

DIOCESE OF NOCERA (NUCERINENSIS) Diocese in Perugia, Umbria, Italy, near the sources of the ...
Nocera dei Pagani

Nocera Dei Pagani

(NUCERIN PAGANORUM; dei Pagani ="of the Pagans") Diocese in Salermo, Italy, at the foot of ...
Nocturns

Nocturns

( Nocturni or Nocturna ). A very old term applied to night Offices. Tertullian speaks of ...
Nogaret, Guillaume de

Guillaume de Nogaret

Born about the middle of the thirteenth century at St. Felix-en-Lauragais; died 1314; he was one ...
Nola

Nola

(NOLANA) Diocese ; suffragan of Naples. The city of Nola in the Italian Province of Caserta, ...
Nola, Giovanni Marliano da

Giovanni Marliano da Nola

Sculptor and architect, b., it is said, of a leather merchant named Giuseppe, at Nola, near ...
Nolasco, Saint Peter

St. Peter Nolasco

Born at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, near Castelnaudary, France, in 1189 (or 1182); died at ...
Nollet, Jean-Antoine

Jean-Antoine Nollet

Physicist, b. at Pimpré, Oise, France, 19 November, 1700; d. at Paris, 25 April, 1770. His ...
Nominalism, Realism, Conceptualism

Nominalism, Realism, Conceptualism

These terms are used to designate the theories that have been proposed as solutions of one of the ...
Nomination

Nomination

The various methods of designating persons for ecclesiastical benefices or offices have been ...
Nomocanon

Nomocanon

(From the Greek nomos , law, and kanon , a rule) A collection of ecclesiastical law, the ...
Non Expedit

Non Expedit

("It is not expedient"). Words with which the Holy See enjoined upon Italian Catholics the ...
Non-Jurors

Non-Jurors

The name given to the Anglican Churchmen who in 1689 refused to take the oath of allegiance to ...
Nonantola

Nonantola

A former Benedictine monastery and prelature nullius , six miles north-east of Modena ...
Nonconformists

Nonconformists

A name which, in its most general acceptation, denotes those refusing to conform with the ...
None

None

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Origin of None; II. None from the ...
Nonnotte, Claude-Adrien

Claude-Adrien Nonnotte

Controversialist; b. in Besançon, 29 July, 1711; d. there, 3 September, 1793. At nineteen ...
Nonnus

Nonnus

Nonnus, of Panopolis in Upper Egypt (c. 400), the reputed author of two poems in hexameters; ...
Norbert, Saint

St. Norbert

Born at Kanten on the left bank of the Rhine, near Wesel, c. 1080; died at Magdeburg, 6 June, ...
Norbertines

Premonstratensian Canons

(C ANONICI R EGULARES P RÆMONSTRATENSES ). Founded in 1120 by St. Norbert at ...
Norcia

Norcia

(NORSIN). A diocese and city in Perugia, Italy, often mentioned in Roman history. In the ...
Norfolk, Catholic Dukes of

Post-Reformation Catholic Dukes of Norfolk

(Since the Reformation) Under this title are accounts only of the prominent Catholic Dukes of ...
Noris, Henry

Henry Noris

Cardinal, b. at Verona, 29 August, 1631, of English ancestry; d. at Rome, 23 Feb., 1704. He ...
Normandy

Normandy

An ancient French province, from which five "departments" were formed in 1790: ...
Norris, Sylvester

Sylvester Norris

( Alias SMITH, NEWTON). Controversial writer and English missionary priest ; b. 1570 or ...
Norsemen

Northmen (Vikings)

The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western ...
North Carolina

North Carolina

One of the original thirteen States of the United States, is situated between 33° 53' and ...
North Dakota

North Dakota

One of the United States of America , originally included in the Louisiana Purchase. Little was ...
Northampton

Northampton

(NORTANTONIENSIS) Diocese in England, comprises the Counties of Northampton, Bedford, ...
Northcote, James Spencer

James Spencer Northcote

Born at Feniton Court, Devonshire, 26 May, 1821; d. at Stoke-upon-Trent, Staffordshire, 3 March, ...
Northern Territory

Northern Territory

(Prefecture Apostolic) The Northern Territory, formerly Alexander Land, is that part of ...
Northmen

Northmen (Vikings)

The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western ...
Norton, Christopher

Christopher Norton

Martyr ; executed at Tyburn, 27 May, 1570. His father was Richard Norton of Norton Conyers, ...
Norway

Norway

Norway, comprising the smaller division of the Scandinavian peninsula, is bounded on the east by ...
Norwich, Ancient Diocese of

Ancient Diocese of Norwich

(NORDOVICUM; NORVICUM). Though this see took its present name only in the eleventh century, ...
Notaries

Notaries

( Latin notarius ). Persons appointed by competent authority to draw up official or authentic ...
Notburga

Jean-Baptiste Nothomb

Jean-Baptiste Belgian statesman, b. 3 July, 1805, at Messancy, Luxemburg ; d. at Berlin, 16 ...
Notburga, Saint

St. Notburga

Patroness of servants and peasants, b. c. 1265 at Rattenberg on the Inn; d. c. 16 September, 1313. ...
Nothomb, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Nothomb

Jean-Baptiste Belgian statesman, b. 3 July, 1805, at Messancy, Luxemburg ; d. at Berlin, 16 ...
Notitia Dignitatum

Notitia Dignitatum

(Register of Offices). The official handbook of the civil and military officials in the later ...
Notitia Provinciarum et Civitatum Africae

Notitia Provinciarum Et Civitatum Africae

(List of the Provinces and Cities of Africa). A list of the bishops and their sees in the ...
Notitiae Episcopatuum

Notitiae Episcopatuum

The name given to official documents that furnish for Eastern countries the list and hierarchical ...
Notker

Notker

Among the various monks of St. Gall who bore this name, the following are the most important: ...
Noto

Noto

(NETEN). Noto, the ancient Netum and after the Saracen conquest the capital of one of the ...
Notoriety, Notorious

Notoriety

( Latin Notorietas, notorium , from notus , known). Notoriety is the quality or the ...
Notre Dame de Montreal, Congregation of

Congregation of Notre Dame de Montreal

Marguerite Bourgeoys, the foundress, was born at Troyes, France, 17 April, 1620. She was the ...
Notre Dame, School Sisters of

School Sisters of Notre Dame

A religious community devoted to education. In the United Sates they have conducted parish ...
Notre Dame, Sisters of (of Cleveland, Ohio)

Sisters of Notre Dame (Cleveland, Ohio)

A branch of the congregation founded by Blessed Julie Billiart. In 1850, Father Elting of ...
Notre Dame, University of

University of Notre Dame

(Full name is the University of Notre Dame du Lac ). Notre Dame is located in Northern ...
Notre-Dame de Namur, Institute of

Institute of Notre-Dame de Namur

Founded in 1803 at Amiens, France, by Bl. Julie Billiart (b. 1751 d. 1816) and ...
Notre-Dame de Sion, Congregation of

Congregation of Notre-Dame de Sion

Religious institute of women, founded at Paris in May 1843, by Marie-Théodore and ...
Nottingham

Nottingham

(NOTTINGHAMIEN) One of the original twelve English dioceses created at the time of the ...
Nourrisson, Jean-Felix

Jean-Felix Nourrisson

Philosopher, b. at Thiers, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, 18 July, 1825; d. at Paris, 13 June, ...
Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia

I. GEOGRAPHY Nova Scotia is one of the maritime provinces of Canada. It forms part of what was ...
Novara

Novara

(NOVARIENSIS). A diocese and the capital of the province of Novara, Piedmont, Italy, noted ...
Novatianism

Novatian and Novatianism

Novatian was a schismatic of the third century, and founder of the sect of the Novatians; he ...
Novatus, Saint

St. Novatus

St. Novatus, who is mentioned on 20 June with his brother, the martyr Timotheus, was the son of ...
Novello, Blessed Agostino

Bl. Agostino Novello

(Matteo Di Termini), born in the first half of the thirteenth century, at Termini, a village of ...
Novena

Novena

(From novem , nine.) A nine days' private or public devotion in the Catholic Church to ...
Novice

Novice

I. DEFINITION AND REQUIREMENTS The word novice , which among the Romans meant a newly acquired ...
Nubia

Nubia

Located in North-eastern Africa, extending from Sennar south to beyond Khartoum and including the ...
Nueva Cáceres

Nueva Caceres

(NOVA CACERES) Diocese created in 1595 by Clement VIII ; it is one of the four suffragan ...
Nueva Pamplona

Nueva Pamplona

(NEO-PAMPILONENSIS). Diocese in Colombia, South America, founded in 1549 and a see erected by ...
Nueva Segovia

Nueva Segovia

(NOVAE SEGOBIAE) Diocese in the Philippines, so called from Segovia, a town in Spain. The town ...
Nugent, Francis

Francis Nugent

Priest of the Franciscan Capuchin Order, founder of the Irish and the Rhenish Provinces of said ...
Nugent, James

James Nugent

Philanthropist, temperance advocate and social reformer b. 3 March, 1822 at Liverpool ; d. 27 ...
Numbers, Use of, in the Church

Use of Numbers in the Church

No attentive reader of the Old Testament can fail to notice that a certain sacredness seems to ...
Numismatics

Numismatics

(From the Greek nomisma , "legal currency") Numismatics is the science of coins and of ...
Nun of Kent

Elizabeth Barton

Born probably in 1506; executed at Tyburn, 20 April, 1534; called the "Nun of Kent." The career of ...
Nunc Dimittis

Nunc Dimittis

(The Canticle of Simeon). Found in St. Luke's Gospel (2:29-32) , is the last in historical ...
Nuncio

Nuncio

An ordinary and permanent representative of the pope, vested with both political and ...
Nunez, Pedro

Pedro Nunez (Nonius)

(Pedro Nonius). Mathematician and astronomer, b. at Alcacer-do-Sol, 1492; d. at Coimbra, ...
Nuns

Nuns

I. ORIGIN AND HISTORY The institution of nuns and sisters, who devote themselves in various ...
Nuptial Mass

Nuptial Mass

"Missa pro sponso et sponsa", the last among the votive Masses in the Missal. It is composed of ...
Nuremberg

Nuremberg

(NÜRNBERG) The second largest city in Bavaria, situated in a plain on both sides of the ...
Nusco

Nusco

(N USCANA ) Diocese in the province of Avellino, Italy, suffragan of Salerno ; dates from ...
Nussbaum, Johannn Nepomuk von

Johann Nepomuk von Nussbaum

German surgeon, b. at Munich 2 Sept., 1829; d. there 31 Oct., 1890. He made his studies in the ...
Nutter, Robert, Ven.

Ven. Robert Nutter

English martyr ; b. at Burnley, Lancashire, c. 1550; executed at Lancaster, 26 July, 1600. He ...
Nuyens, Wilhelmus

Wilhelmus Nuyens

Historian, b. 18 August, 1823, at Avenhorn in Holland ; d. 10 December, 1894, at Westwoud near ...
Nyassa

Nyassa

Vicariate Apostolic in Central Africa, bounded north by the Anglo-German frontier, east by Lake ...
Nympha, Tryphon, and Respicius

Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...
Nyssa

Nyassa

Vicariate Apostolic in Central Africa, bounded north by the Anglo-German frontier, east by Lake ...
Nyssa

Nyssa (Cappadocia Prima)

A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. It is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, vii, ...

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