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Nicholas Patrick Wiseman

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Cardinal, first Archbishop of Westminster ; b. at Seville, 2 Aug., 1802; d. in London, 15 Feb., 1865, younger son of James Wiseman, a merchant of Irish family resident in Seville, by his second wife, Xaviera Strange. On his father's death in 1805 he was taken to Ireland by his mother, and after two years at school in Waterford was, with his brother, placed at Ushaw College, Durham, founded seventeen years previously, where the distinguished historian John Lingard , Wiseman's lifelong friend, was then vice-president. At Ushaw Nicholas resolved to embrace the life of a priest, and in 1818 he was chosen as one of the first batch of students for the English College in Rome, which had just been revived after having been closed for twenty years owing to the French occupation. Soon after his arrival he was received in audience, with five other English students, by Pius VII, who made them a kind and encouraging address; and his next six years were devoted to hard and regular study, under the strict discipline of the college. He attained distinction in the natural sciences as well as in dogmatic and scholastic theology, and in July, 1824, took his degree of Doctor of Divinity, after successfully sustaining a public dispuation before a great audience of learned men, including at least one future pope. Eight months later, on 19 March, 1825, he was ordained priest. His particular bent had always been towards Syriac and other Oriental studies, and this was encouraged by his superiors. The learning and research evidenced in his work, "Horae Syriacae", which appeared in 1827, established his reputation as an oriental scholar. Already vice-rector of the English College, and thus enjoying an official status in Rome, he was named by Leo XII, soon after the publication of his book, supernumerary professor of Hebrew and Syro-Chaldaic in the Sapienza University, and soon found himself in communication, by letter or otherwise, with all the great Orientalists of the day, such as Bunsen, Scholz, Ackermann, and Tholuck.

By the pope's wish he undertook at this time a course of English sermons for the benefit of English visitors to Rome, and in June, 1828, while still only in his twenty-sixth year, he became Rector of the English College. This position gave him the status of official representative of the English Catholics in Rome, and brought many external duties into his life, hitherto devoted chiefly to study, lecturing, and preaching. Noted as a linguist -- "he can speak with readiness and point", wrote Newman of him some years later, "in half-a-dozen languages, without being detected for a foreigner in any one of them" -- he received and entertained at the college distinguished visitors from every European country, and was equally popular with them all. Gladstone, Newman, Hurrell Froude, Archbishop Trench, Macaulay, Monckton-Milnes, and Manning were among the eminent Englishmen who made his acquaintance during the twelve years of his rectorship; and he had much interesting intercourse also with Lamennais, then bent on his scheme of reconciling Democracy with Ultramontanism, and his devoted friends Lacordaire, Montalembert, and Rio. Fr. Ignatius Spencer, afterwards the famous Passionist, who entered the English College in 1830, had much to do with the turning of Wiseman's thoughts towards the possible return of England to Catholic unity; and this was deepened by his conversations with Newman and Fronde when they visited Rome in 1833. Meanwhile he was busy with the preparation of his lectures "On the Connection between Science and Revealed Religion", which were delivered in 1835, and greatly added to his reputation, although they embodied some theories which have been superseded since. They won unstinted praise from such critics as Bunsen, Milnes, Döllinger, Lepsius, and Cardinal Mai, and raised Wiseman to perhaps the highest point he was to attain as a student and a man of letters. His quiet life of study was indeed, though he hardly knew it, now practically at an end; and the last thirty years of his career were destined to be largely taken up with an active participation in the events following on the general religious reaction in Europe, of which the Oxford Movement in England was one of the most remarkable fruits. Wiseman's correspondence at this time evinces his keen and ardent sympathy with the widespread religious revival associated with such names as those of Ozanam and Lacordaire in France, Schlegel and Görres in Germany, and Manzoni and others in Italy. He was in constant correspondence with Döllinger (whom he brought into relations with Lingard ), expressed unbounded admiration for his Church History, then being published, and hoped through him to establish co-operation between German and English Catholics.

In the autumn of 1835 Wiseman came to England for a year's sojourn, full of fervent hopes for the future of Catholicism in that country. But he had never lived there himself under the numbing pressure of the penal laws ; and it was a shock to him to realize that the long down-trodden "English papists", from whom that oppression had only recently been removed by the Emancipation Act of 1829, were not in the least ripe for any vigorous forward movement or prominent participation in public life. Nor was any particular encouragement in this direction given to them in the exhortations or pastoral letters of their ecclesiastical superiors, whose chief anxiety seemed to be lest the piety of their flocks might be adversely affected by their new-born liberty of action. Wiseman's enthusiasm, however, was not damped by the somewhat chilly atmosphere of English Catholicism. He began without delay a course of lectures, addressed alike to Catholics and Protestants, which at once attracted large audiences, and from which, wrote a well-qualified critic, dated "the beginning of a serious revival of Catholicism in England." The lectures were resumed in the following year, in the largest Catholic church in London, with even greater success. Some distinguished converts -- among them the eminent architect Welby Pugin -- were received into the Church : Wiseman was presented with a costly testimonial, and was invited to write for a popular encyclopedia an article on the Catholic Church. He gave evidence of his power as a temperate yet forcible apologist, in his admirable defence of Catholicism against a violent attack published by John Poynder -- a defence which W. E. Gladstone described as "a masterpiece of clear and unanswerable argument"; and in the same year, 1836, he took the important step of founding, in association with Daniel O'Connell and Michael Quin (who became the first editor), the "Dublin Review", with the object, as he himself stated, not only of rousing English Catholics to a greater enthusiasm for their religion, but of exhibiting to the representatives of English thought generally the variety, comprehensiveness, and elasticity of the Catholic system as he had been taught to regard it.

In the autumn of 1836 Wiseman returned to Rome, and for four more years held his post of rector of the English College. While in no way slackening in the conscientious performance of his duties, he found himself gradually more and more drawn towards, and personally interested in, the important religious movement developing in England ; and this feeling was strengthened by his intercourse with Macaulay and Gladstone, of whom he saw much when they visited Rome in 1838. He welcomed in them that spirit of outside sympathy with Catholicism which had already seemed to him so striking and encouraging a phenomenon in men like von Ranke, A. W. Schlegel, and even Victor Hugo; and his correspondence during this period shows how in the midst of his multifarious duties in Rome he longed to be at the heart of the movement in England, working for it with all the versatile gifts at his command, and with all the personal influence which he could wield. He visited England in the summer of 1839; and besides his active public engagements at that time -- giving retreats at Oscott and elsewhere, preaching at the opening of the new churches which were rising all over the country, and working, in conjunction with Father Spencer, for the spread of a new spirit of prayer and piety among English Catholics -- there appeared from his pen, in the "Dublin Review", the famous article on St. Augustine and the Donatists which was a turning-point in the Oxford Movement, and pressed home the parallel between the Donatists and the Tractarians with a convincing logic which placed many of the latter, in Newman's famous words, "on their death-bed as regarded the Church of England." Three months after the publication of this momentous article, Wiseman returned to Rome ; but he felt himself, as his letters show, that the future of his life's work was to be not in Rome but in England.

In 1840 Gregory XVI raised the number of English vicars Apostolic from four to eight; and Wiseman was nominated coadjutor to Bishop Walsh of the Central District, and president of Oscott College. After making a retreat with the Passionists he was consecrated on 4 June, in the chapel of the English College, with the title of Bishop of Melipotamus, and held an ordination service next day. He left Rome on 1 Aug., after twenty-two years' residence there, and took up his residence at Oscott, which it was his design from the first to make a centre in the work of drawing the Catholic-minded party in the Anglican Church towards Rome. No encouragement in this idea was forthcoming from his scholastic colleagues in the college, and the only support he received was in the unwavering sympathy of Father Spencer, and the enthusiasm of A.W. Pugin, a constant visitor at Oscott. Other distinguished men visited Wiseman there, such as Lords Spencer and Lyttelton, Daniel O'Connell, the Duc de Bordeaux, and many more; and though not interested in the routine of college life, and a great bishop rather than a successful president, he gave a prestige and distinction to Oscott which no one else could have done. A profound liturgist, he was most particular about the proper carrying-out of the ceremonial of the Church ; and his humour, geniality, and kindness made him an especial favourite with the younger members of the college.

On the publication of the famous Tract 90, written to justify the simultaneous adherence to the Thirty-Nine Articles and to the Decrees of Trent by Anglican clergymen, Wisemen entered upon direct correspondence with Newman ; and after more than four years of perplexity, doubt, and disappointed hopes, he had the happiness of confirming him at Oscott, subsequent to his reception into the Catholic Church. But neither Newman's own conversion, nor that of a large number of his most distinguished disciples, sufficed to break down the wall of reserve and suspicion which had always separated the "Old English" Catholics, such as Lingard and his school, from the leaders of the Oxford Movement. The sincerity of their Catholic leanings had been doubted when they were Protestants ; and the sincerity of their conversion was equally suspected now that they were Catholics. Wiseman, on the other hand, saw in every fresh accession new ground for serious hope for the return of England to Catholic unity. He enlisted the prayers of many Continental bishops for this intention, and worked unceasingly to promote a cordial understanding between new converts and old Catholics, and to make the Oxford neophytes at home in their new surroundings. Many of them found shelter and occupation at Oscott, and the "Dublin Review" was strengthened by an infusion of new writers from their ranks. Deeply interested, as was natural, in the future of Newman and his immediate followers, Wiseman concerned himself closely with the project, ultimately realized in Birmingham, of founding an Oratory in England.

Meanwhile he had himself been appointed pro-vicar Apostolic of the London District, and had (in July, 1847) visited Rome on business of the utmost importance in relation to English Catholicism. He was deputed by his brother bishops to submit to the Holy See the question of revising the constitution of the Church in England, and of substituting for the vicars Apostolic a regular hierarchy, such as had existed in Ireland throughout the darkest days of the penal laws, and had recently been established in Australia. In the changed circumstances of English Catholicism some new code of laws was imperatively called for to supplement the obsolete constitution of 1753; but the project of creating a hierarchy, which Wiseman favoured as the true solution of the question, was strongly opposed by many English Catholics, headed by Cardinal Acton, the only English member of the Sacred College . The negotiations on the matter with the Holy See were interrupted by the exciting and important political events which followed the accession of Pius IX and the national Italian rising against Austria. Wiseman returned to England charged with the duty of appealing to the British Government for support of the Papacy in carrying out its policy of Liberalism. Bishop Ullathorne was sent out to Rome early in 1848 to continue in Wiseman's place the negotiations on the question of the hierarchy for England ; and he left on record his admiration of the calm and detailed consideration given to the subject by the authorities, at a time when revolution and disorder were almost at their height. All the evidence forthcoming seemed to show that the British Government could find no reasonable cause of offence in the proposed measure; and it was on the point of being carried out when the Revolution burst in Rome, and the pope's flight to Gaeta delayed the actual execution of the project for nearly two years.

Soon after Wiseman's return to England he succeeded Dr. Walsh as vicar Apostolic of the London District, and threw himself into his episcopal work with characteristic activity and zeal. The means he relied on for quickening the spiritual life of the district were, first, the frequent giving of retreats and missions both for clergy and laity, and secondly the revival of religious orders, which had of course become entirely extinct in England under the penal laws. Within two years he founded no less than ten religious communities in London, and had the satisfaction of seeing many of the converts either joining one of these communities, or working harmoniously as secular priests with the other clergy of the district. A notable event in the annals of the London Catholics was the opening, at which Wiseman assisted, of the great Gothic Church of St. George's, Southwark, designed by Pugin, in July 1848. Fourteen bishops, 240 priests, and representatives of many religious orders took part in the opening ceremonies, which were described in no unfriendly spirit by the metropolitan Press. A function on this scale in the capital of England indicated, as was said at the time, that the English Catholic Church had indeed "come out of the catacombs "; but Wiseman had still much to content with in the shape of strong opposition, on the part of both clergy and laity of the old school, to what was called the "Romanizing" and "innovating" spirit of the new bishop. In matters of devotion as well as of Church discipline every development was regarded by this party with suspicion and distrust; and no greater proof could be adduced of the tact, prudence, and firmness of Wiseman in his difficult office, than the fact that in less than three years he had practically disarmed his opponents, and had won over to his own views, not only the rank and file, but the leaders of the party which had at first most strenuously resisted him.

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In the spring of 1850, just after the Gorham decision of the Privy Council, declaring the doctrine of baptismal regeneration to be an open question in the Church of England, had resulted in a new influx of distinguished converts to Catholicism, Wiseman received the news of his impending elevation to the cardinalate, carrying with it, as he supposed, the obligation of permanent residence in Rome. Deeply as he regretted the prospect of a lifelong severance from his work in England, he loyally submitted to the pope's behest, and left England, as he thought for ever, on 16 Aug. Meanwhile strong representations were being made at Rome with the view of retaining his services at home; and he was able to write, immediately after his first audience of Pius IX, that it was decided that the English hierarchy was to be proclaimed without delay, and that he was to return to England as its chief. At a consistory held on 30 Sept. Nicholas Wiseman was named a cardinal priest, with the title of St. Pudentiana. The papal Brief re-establishing the hierarchy had been issued on the previous day; and on 7 Oct. the newly-created cardinal Archbishop of Westminster announced the event to English Catholics in his famous pastoral "from outside the Flaminian Gate".

He left Rome a few days later, travelling by Florence, Venice, and Vienna, where he was the emperor's guest; and it was here that he first learned from a leading article in the "Times", worded in the most hostile terms, something of the sudden storm of bitter feeling aroused in England, not by his own elevation of the Sacred College, but by the creation of an English Catholic hierarchy with territorial titles. Wiseman instantly wrote to the Premier, Lord John Russell, to deprecate the misconception in the public mind of the papal act; but by the time he reached England, in Nov., 1850, the fanatical fury of the agitation caused by the so-called "Papal aggression"; was at its height. Every article printed by the "Times" on the subject was more bitter than its predecessor: the premier's famous letter to the Bishop of Durham, inveighing against the pope's action as "insolent and insidious", fanned the flame: Queen Victoria showed her sympathy with the agitation in her reply to an address form the Anglican bishops ; riotous public meetings, and the burning in effigy of pope, cardinals, and prelates, kept the whole country in a state of ferment for several weeks; and Wiseman in his progress through London was frequently hooted, and stones were thrown at the windows of his carriage. Nothing daunted, he instantly set about the composition of his masterly "Appeal to the Reason and Good Feeling of the English people on the subject of the Catholic Hierarchy", a pamphlet of some thirty pages, addressed to the people themselves rather than to the educated minority who in the writer's view had so grossly and inexcusably misled them. The cogency and ability of the appeal was frankly recognized by the English Press, and the political enemies of the government were not slow to point out the inconsistency of its dealings with the Catholics of England and Ireland. The cardinal followed up the publication of his treatise by delivering a course of lectures on the same lines in St. George's Cathedral, and the note struck by him was taken up by Gladstone in the House of Commons. The Ecclesiastical Titles Bill, making the assumption by Catholics of episcopal titles in the United Kingdom a penal offence, was introduced into Parliament early in 1851, and became law on 1 Aug.; but it was a dead letter from the first, as Gladstone had the courage and prescience to declare that it would be. Its provisions were never enforced, and it was repealed during Gladstone's first premiership twenty years later. By the end of 1851 the No-popery agitation, as short-lived as it was violent, was dead and buried, the last nail having been knocked into its coffin by the unrivalled irony and brilliant rhetoric of the lectures on "The Present Position of Catholics ", delivered by Newman in Birmingham in the summer of this year.

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The anti-Catholic storm having been lulled, Wiseman made it his business to endeavour to restore those amicable relations between Catholics and Protestants which had inevitably been somewhat disturbed by the recent outburst. He had many personal friends outside Catholic circles, and his wide range of knowledge on many neutral subjects such as natural science, archaeology, and Oriental studies, made him welcome in general society. No one could be less like the "wily Roman prelate " of anti-popery fiction than the genial and thoroughly English gentleman, whose appearance, bearing, and conversation disarmed the prejudices and enlisted the sympathy of all with whom he was brought into contact. Not only by personal intercourse with his fellow-countrymen, but by his frequent appearances on the lecture-platform, he did much to influence public opinion in favour of Catholics. His lectures were at first chiefly on religious subjects, delivered in Catholic chapels in various parts of the country; but as time went on, and the many- sided character of his attainments became better known to the public, he was frequently asked to give addresses on topics connected with archaeology, art, and literature, not only in London but in Liverpool, Manchester, and other important centres. Large audiences, including many persons of distinction, attended on these occasions; and the speaker's graceful eloquence, genial personality, and sympathetic voice and manner, enhanced the impression wrought by his intimate knowledge of the various subjects with which he dealt. His delivery was fluent and his style brilliant, and characterized by a command of poetic imagery in which probably few public speakers have surpassed or equalled him.

While the cardinal slowly but surely advanced in the popular regard and esteem, as his gifts and qualities became more widely known, he was faced with many internal difficulties in the government of the Church in England. The divergence of views, on questions of church policy and administration, between the old school of ecclesiastics (who were opposed as much to what they call the "importation of modern Roman ideas " as to the influx of converts and the re-establishment of regular orders in England ) and the enthusiastic recruits from Oxford such as Oakley, Talbot, Faber, and Ward, had by no means disappeared. Wiseman himself was regarded, even by some of his brother bishops, as something of an autocrat; and both before and after the first provincial synod held by him at Oscott (when Newman preached his famous sermon on the Second Spring), there was considerable agitation for the appointment of irremoveable parish priests and for the election of bishops by the diocesan clergy. Wiseman met these difficulties with his usual courage, moderation, and tact, steadfastly refusing to be drawn in to party controversies or to allow any public manifestation of party spirit. He went to Rome in the autumn of 1853 to explain matters personally to Pius IX , who showed him every mark of confidence and kindness, and gave full approval to his ecclesiastical policy.

It was during this visit to Rome that Wiseman projected, and commenced to execute, the writing of by far the most popular book that came from his versatile pen -- the beautiful romance of "Fabiola", which was meant to be the first of a series of tales illustrative of different periods of the Church's life. The book appeared at the end of 1854, and its success was immediate and phenomenal. Translations of it were published in almost every European language, and the most eminent scholars of the day were unanimous in its praise. All this greatly consoled the cardinal when troubled and harassed by many vexations, and a spirit of new cheerfulness and courage breathes from a sermon preached by him in May, 1855, dwelling in thankfulness and hope on the revival of Catholicism in England. In the autumn of 1855 he delivered, and afterwards published, four lectures on concordats, in connection with the concordat recently concluded between Austria and the Holy See. The subject was treated with his usual exhaustive eloquence, and the lectures made a great impression, four editions of them being printed, as well as a German version with which the Emperor of Austria expressed himself highly pleased.

The increasing pressure of episcopal and metropolitan duties, as well as his greatly impaired health, induced Wiseman in 1855 to petition Rome for a coadjutor, and Rt. Rev. George Errington, Bishop of Plymouth, was appointed (with right of succession to the archbishop ) in April of that year. He had worked under the cardinal both in Rome and at Oscott, and they were intimate friends; but their differences of character and temperament were so marked that Errington foresaw from the first, if Wiseman did not, that the new relation between them would be one full of difficulty. A rigorous disciplinarian of a somewhat narrow type, the coadjutor was bound, in matters of diocesan administration, to come into collision with a chief who disliked the routine of business, and was apt to decide questions rather as prompted by his own wide and generous impulses than according to the strict letter of the law. Before the year was out Errington had expressed in Rome his dissatisfaction with his position and his readiness to retire from it.

For the moment the difficulties were smoothed over, but they were subsequently accentuated by the rapid rise to prominence in the archdiocese of Henry Edward Manning, who founded in London, in 1856, his congregation of Oblates of St. Charles, and became in the same year provost of the metropolitan chapter. The story of the series of misunderstandings between Wiseman and Manning on one side, and Errington and the Westminster canons on the other, has been told at length, though not with complete accuracy or impartiality, in Purcell's "Life of Manning", and, in more trustworthy fashion, in Ward's "Life of Wiseman" (see also MANNING ). Errington, gravely offended at the charges of anti-Roman spirit brought against him, persistently refused to resign his office; and as it became increasingly manifest that he and the cardinal could not work together with any advantage to the archdiocese, he was removed from the coadjutorship by papal Decree dated 22 July, 1860. He declined the offer of the Archbishop of Trinidad, and spent the rest of his life in retirement in the Diocese of Clifton.

Wiseman's domestic trials during 1858 were agreeably varied by his visit to Ireland in the early autumn of that year -- a visit which the enthusiasm of Irish Catholics transformed into a kind of triumphal progress, and during which he delivered, in different parts of the island, sermons, lectures, and addresses afterwards printed in a volume of four hundred pages. Cheered by the warmth of the welcome accorded him by Irishmen of every class and creed, he returned home, improved in spirits if not in health, to find himself engrossed not only with the affairs of his archdiocese, but with the march of political events in Rome and Italy, in which he was very keenly interested. He had lately published his "Recollections of the Last Four Popes ", which had roused much interest both in England and on the Continent. His fervent loyalty to Pius IX found vent in a pastoral which he addressed from Rome, early in 1860, to the English Catholics asking for contributions to the needs of the Holy See. Later he founded an Academia in London, chiefly at the instance of Manning, who hoped through its means to kindle an enthusiasm for the temporal power of the pope. Wiseman's own idea, reflected in his inaugural lecture in June, 1861, was rather than the new institution should encourage the scholarly and scientific researches which so greatly interested him. Both these objects were advocated in the early papers read at the Academia by Dr. Rock, W.G. Ward, and others. After 1860 Wiseman, realizing that his health was permanently broken, lived chiefly in the country, leaving the conduct of diocesan affairs largely in the hands of Manning who possessed his entire confidence, though he was at this time far from popular in the archdiocese. Wiseman thought it prudent, early in 1861, to remove the Oblates from the diocesan seminary. He visited Rome that year, and again in 1862, in connection with the canonization of the Japanese martyrs, and was treated by Pius IX with special kindness and favour. We find him during the next two years, notwithstanding increasing bodily weakness, working with unabated zeal to redress Catholic grievances, especially with regard to poor schools, and the position of Catholic soldiers and sailors, as well as the inmates of prisons, reformatories, and workhouses. He attended a great Catholic Congress at Mechlin in June, 1863, and gave an address in French dealing with the progress of the Church in England since the Emancipation Act of 1829. Later in the same year he interested himself warmly in the work undertaken by Herbert (afterwards Cardinal) Vaughan , of founding a college for Foreign Missions in England. One of his last public utterances was an indignant pastoral published in May, 1864, in which, with his unfailing loyalty to the Holy See , he protested against the enthusiastic welcome of Garibaldi in England, and especially against the adulation paid by Anglican bishops to a man who had openly avowed his sympathy with Atheism. In the following October he assisted at the consecration of the Bishop of Bruges, and on his return home occupied himself with the writing of a lecture on Shakespeare, which he hoped to deliver at the Royal Institution on 27 Jan., 1865. When that date arrived, however, he was already on his death-bed. His last weeks were spent in religious exercises and preparation for death. The news of his illness and death evoked expressions of general sympathy from men of every class and every creed ; and the practically unanimous voice of the Press testified to the high place he had won for himself in the respect and affections of his fellow-countrymen, to the astonishing change which had been wrought in fifteen years in the feelings entertained towards him by the people of England. His funeral at Kensal Green was made the occasion of an extraordinary popular demonstration, taking place, as the "Times" remarked, "amid such tokens of public interest, and almost of sorrow, as do not often mark the funerals even of our most illustrious dead".

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Article
Nélaton, Auguste

Auguste Nelaton

Famous French surgeon; born in Paris, 17 June, 1807, d. there 21 Sept., 1873. He made his ...
Nève, Felix-Jean-Baptiste-Joseph

Felix-Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Neve

Orientalist and philologist, born at Ath, Belgium, 13 June, 1816; died at Louvain, 23 May, ...
Nîmes

Nimes

(NEMAUSENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Avignon, comprises the civil Department of Gard. By the ...
Nabo

Nabo (Nebo)

( Septuagint, Nabau ). A town mentioned in several passages of the Old Testament, v.g., ...
Nabor and Felix, Saints

Sts. Nabor and Felix

Martyrs during the persecution of Diocletian (303). The relics of these holy witnesses to the ...
Nabuchodonosor

Nabuchodonosor

The Babylonian form of the name is Nabu-kudurri-usur, the second part of which is variously ...
Nacchiante, Giacomo

Giacomo Nacchiante

(Naclantus). Dominican theologian, born at Florence ; died at Chioggia, 6 May, 1569; he ...
Nacolia

Nacolia

(Nacoleia). A titular metropolitan see in Phrygia Salutaris. This town, which took its name ...
Nagasaki

Nagasaki

(Nagasakiensis). Nagasaki, capital of the prefecture ( ken ) of the same name, is situated ...
Nagpur

Nagpur

(Nagpurensis) Diocese in India, suffragan to Madras. Formerly the north-western portion of ...
Nahanes

Nahanes

"People of the Setting Sun", a tribe of the great Dene family of American Indians, whose habitat ...
Nahum

Nahum

One of the Prophets of the Old Testament, the seventh in the traditional list of the twelve ...
Nails, Holy

Holy Nails

The question has long been debated whether Christ was crucified with three or with four nails. ...
Naim

Naim

(NAIN). The city where Christ raised to life the widow's son ( Luke 7:11-17 ). The Midrash ...
Name of Jesus, Religious Communities of the

Religious Communities of the Name of Jesus

(1) Knights of the Name of Jesus, also known as Seraphim, founded in 1334 by the Queens of Norway ...
Name of Mary, Feast of the Holy

Feast of the Holy Name of Mary

We venerate the name of Mary because it belongs to her who is the Mother of God, the holiest of ...
Names of Jesus and Mary, Sisters of the Holy

Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary

A religious congregation founded at Longueuil, Quebec, 8 December, 1844, under the patronage of ...
Names, Christian

Christian Names

" Christian names", says the Elizabethan antiquary, Camden, "were imposed for the distinction of ...
Names, Hebrew

Hebrew Names

To the philosopher a name is an artificial sign consisting in a certain combination of ...
Namur

Namur

Diocese of Namur (Namurcensis), constituted by the Bull of 12 May, 1559, from territory ...
Nancy

Nancy

DIOCESE OF NANCY (NANCEIENISIS ET TULLENSIS). Comprises the Departments of Meurthe and Moselle, ...
Nantes

Nantes

Diocese of Nantes (Nanceiensis). This diocese, which comprises the entire department of Loire ...
Nanteuil, Robert

Robert Nanteuil

French engraver and crayonist, b. Reims, 1623 (1626, or 1630) d. at Paris, 1678. Little is ...
Naples

Naples

The capital of a province in Campania, southern Italy, and formerly capital of the Kingdom of the ...
Napoleon I (Bonaparte)

Napoleon Bonaparte

Emperor of the French, second son of Charles Marie Bonaparte and Maria Lætitia Ramolino, b. ...
Napoleon III

Napoleon III

(Charles-Louis-Napoléon). Originally known as Louis-Napoléon-Bonaparte, Emperor ...
Napper, Venerable George

Ven. George Napper

(Or Napier). English martyr, born at Holywell manor, Oxford, 1550; executed at Oxford 9 ...
Nardò

Nardo

(NERITONENSIS) Diocese in southern Italy. Nardò was already an episcopal see, when, ...
Nardi, Jacopo

Jacopo Nardi

Italian historian; born at Florence, 1476; died at Venice, 11 March, 1563. His father, Salvestro ...
Narni and Terni

Narni and Terni

UNITED DIOCESES OF NARNI AND TERNI (NARNIENSIS ET INTERAMNENSIS) Located in Central Italy. ...
Narthex

Narthex

In early Christian architecture a portion of the church at the west end, separated from the nave ...
Nashville

Nashville

The Diocese of Nashville comprises the entire territory of the State of Tennessee. From its inland ...
Nasoræans

Nasoraeans

Sometimes called M ANDÆANS, S ABIANS, or C HRISTIANS OF S T. J OHN. ...
Natal

Natal

(Vicariate Apostolic of Natal) The history of the Catholic Church in South Africa goes back ...
Natal Day

Natal Day

Both the form natalis (sc. Dies ) and natalicium were used by the Romans to denote what we ...
Natalis, Alexander

Alexander Natalis

(Or NOEL ALEXANDRE). A French historian and theologian, of the Order of St. Dominic, b. at ...
Natchez

Natchez

DIOCESE OF NATCHEZ (NATCHESIENSIS) Established 28 July, 1837; comprises the State of ...
Natchitoches

Natchitoches

Diocese of Natchitoches Former title of the present Diocese of Alexandria (Alexandrinensis), ...
Nathan

Nathan

Nathan (God-given), the name of several Israelites mentioned in the Old Testament. (1) Nathan, ...
Nathanael

Nathanael

One of the first disciples of Jesus, to Whom he was brought by his friend Philip ( John ...
Nathinites

Nathinites

Or N ATHINEANS ( hnthynym , the given ones; Septuagint generally o‘i dedoménoi ...
National Union, Catholic Young Men's

Catholic Young Men's National Union

This association was organized on 22 February, 1875, at a meeting held in Newark, New Jersey, at ...
Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the

Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The earliest document commemorating this feast comes from the sixth century. St.Romanus, the ...
Natural Law

Natural Law

I. ITS ESSENCE In English this term is frequently employed as equivalent to the laws of nature, ...
Naturalism

Naturalism

Naturalism is not so much a special system as a point of view or tendency common to a number of ...
Nature

Nature

Etymologically (Latin natura from nasci , to be born, like the corresponding Greek physis ...
Naturism

Naturism

Naturism is the term proposed by Réville to designate the worship of nature. It differs ...
Nausea, Frederic

Frederic Nausea

(Latinized from the German Grau .) Bishop of Vienna, born c. 1480 at Waischenfeld ( ...
Navajo Indians

Navajo Indians

Navajo Indians, numbering about 20,000, constitute the largest group of Indians belonging to the ...
Navarre

Navarre

The territory formerly known as Navarre now belongs to two nations, Spain and France, according ...
Navarrete, Domingo Fernández

Domingo Fernandez Navarrete

Dominican missionary and archbishop, born c. 1610 at Peñafiel in Old Castile ; died ...
Navarrete, Juan Fernández

Juan Fernandez Navarrete

Spanish painter, b. at Logrono, 1526 and died at Segovia, 1579 (at Toledo, February, 1579 or 28 ...
Navarrete, Martín Fernández

Martin Fernandez Navarrete

Spanish navigator and writer, b. at Avalos (Logrono), 8 November, 1765; d. at Madrid, 8 October, ...
Nave

Nave

Architecturally the central, open space of a church, west of the choir or chancel, and separated ...
Nazarene

Nazarene

( Nazarenos, Nazarenus ). As a name applied to Christ, the word Nazarene occurs only ...
Nazareth

Nazareth

The town of Galilee where the Blessed Virgin dwelt when the Archangel announced to her the ...
Nazareth, Sisters of Charity of

Sisters of Charity of Nazareth

Founded Dec., 1812, by the Rev. B.J.M. David (see D IOCESE OF L OUISVILLE ). Father David, ...
Nazarite

Nazarite

(Hebrew, " consecrated to God "). The name given by the Hebrews to a person set apart and ...
Nazarius and Celsus, Saints

Sts. Nazarius and Celsus

The only historical information which we possess regarding these two martyrs is the discovery of ...
Nazarius and Companions, Saint

St. Nazarius and Companions

In the Roman Martyrology and that of Bede for 12 June mention is made of four Roman martyrs, ...
Nazarius, John Paul

John Paul Nazarius

Dominican theologian, b. in 1556 at Cremonia; d. in 1645 at Bologna. He entered the order at an ...
Nazarius, Saint

St. Nazarius

Fourteenth abbot of the monastery of Lérins, probably sometime during the reign of the ...
Nazianzus

Nazianzus

A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Tertia. Nazianzus was a small town the history which is ...
Neale, Leonard

Leonard Neale

Second Archbishop of Baltimore, b. near Port Tobacco, Charles County, Maryland, 15 Oct., 1746; ...
Nebo

Nabo (Nebo)

( Septuagint, Nabau ). A town mentioned in several passages of the Old Testament, v.g., ...
Nebo, Mount

Mount Nebo

( Septuagint : Nabau ). A mountain of the Abarim range east of Jordan and the Dead Sea, ...
Nebraska

Nebraska

Nebraska, meaning in English, "shallow water", occupies geographically a central location among ...
Necessity

Necessity

Necessity, in a general way, denotes a strict connection between different beings, or the ...
Neckam, Alexander of

Alexander of Neckam

( Or Necham.) English scholar, born in Hertfordshire, 1157; died at Kempsey, Worcestershire, ...
Necrologies

Necrologies

Necrologies, or, as they are more frequently called in France, obituaires , are the registers ...
Necromancy

Necromancy

( nekros , "dead", and manteia , "divination") Necromancy is a special mode of divination ...
Nectarius

Nectarius

( Nechtarios ), Patriarch of Constantinople, (381-397), died 27 Sept, 397, eleventh bishop of ...
Negligence

Negligence

( Latin nec , not, and legere , to pick out). The condition of not heeding. More ...
Nehemiah, Book of

Book of Nehemiah

Also called the second Book of Esdras (Ezra), is reckoned both in the Talmud and in the early ...
Neher, Stephan Jakob

Stephan Jakob Neher

Church historian ; b. at Ebnat, 24 July, 1829; d. at Nordhausen, 7 Oct., 1902. His family were ...
Nemore, Jordanus (Jordanis) de

Jordanus de Nemore

The name given in manuscripts of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries to a mathematician who ...
Nemrod

Nemrod

Also N IMROD ( nmrd of uncertain signification, Septuagint Nebród ). The name of ...
Neo-Platonism

Neo-Platonism

General survey A system of idealistic, spiritualistic philosophy, tending towards mysticism, ...
Neo-Pythagorean Philosophy

Neo-Pythagorean Philosophy

The ethico-religious society founded by Pythagoras, which flourished especially in Magna ...
Neo-Scholasticism

Neo-Scholasticism

Neo-Scholasticism is the development of the Scholasticism of the Middle Ages during the latter ...
Neocæsarea

Neocaesarea (Hierapolis)

A titular see, suffragan of Hierapolis in the Patriarchate of Antioch sometimes called ...
Neocæsarea

Neocaesarea

A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus, at first called Cabira, one of the favourite residences ...
Neophyte

Neophyte

Neophyte ( neophytoi , the newly planted, i.e. incorporated with the mystic Body of Christ), a ...
Nephtali

Nephtali

(A.V., N APHTALI ) Sixth son of Jacob and Bala ( Genesis 30:8 ). The name is explained ...
Nepi and Sutri

Nepi and Sutri

Nepi and Sutri (Nepsin et Sutrin), united sees of the province of Rome, central Italy, in the ...
Nepveu, Francis

Francis Nepveu

Writer on ascetical subjects, b. at St. Malo, 29 April, 1639; entered the novitiate of the ...
Nereus and Achilleus, Domitilla and Pancratius, Saints

Sts. Nereus and Achilleus, Domitilla and Pancratius

The commemoration of these four Roman saints is made by the Church on 12 May, in common, and ...
Neri, Antonio

Antonio Neri

Florentine chemist, born in Florence ln the sixteenth century; died 1614, place unknown. We have ...
Neri, Saint Philip Romolo

St. Philip Romolo Neri

THE APOSTLE OF ROME. Born at Florence, Italy, 22 July, 1515; died 27 May, 1595. Philip's ...
Nerinckx, Charles

Charles Nerinckx

Missionary priest in Kentucky, founder of the Sisters of Loretto at the Foot of the Cross, born ...
Nero

Nero

Nero, the last Roman emperor (reigned 54-68) of the Julian-Claudian line, was the son of Domitius ...
Nerses I-IV

Nerses I-IV

Armenian patriarchs. Nerses I Surnamed "the Great". Died 373. Born of the royal stock, he ...
Nerses of Lambron

Nerses of Lambron

Born 1153 at Lambron, Cilicia; died 1198; son of Oschin II, prince of Lambron and nephew of the ...
Nestorius and Nestorianism

Nestorius and Nestorianism

I. THE HERESIARCH Nestorius, who gave his name to the Nestorian heresy, was born at Germanicia, ...
Netherlands, The

The Netherlands

( German Niederlande ; French Pays Bas ). The Netherlands, or Low Countries, as organized by ...
Netter, Thomas

Thomas Netter

Theologian and controversialist, b. at Saffron Waldon, Essex, England, about 1375; d. at Rouen, ...
Neugart, Trudpert

Trudpert Neugart

Benedictine historian, born at Villingen, Baden, 23 February, 1742; died at St Paul's ...
Neum

Neum

(Latin, neuma, pneuma, or neupma, from Greek pneûma, a nod). A term in medieval ...
Neumann, Johann Balthasar

Johann Balthasar Neumann

Born 1687 at Eger; died 1753 at Würzburg, master of the rococo style and one of the ...
Neumayr, Franz

Franz Neumayr

Preacher, writer on theological, controversial and ascetical subjects, and author of many ...
Neusohl

Neusohl

Diocese of Neusohl (Hung. Beszterczebànya; Lat. Neosoliensis), founded in 1776 by Maria ...
Neutra

Neutra

(Nitria; Nyitha) -- Diocese of Neutra (Nitriensis). Diocese in Western Hungary, a suffragan of ...
Nevada

Nevada

A Western state of the United States , bounded on the North by Oregon and Idaho, on the East ...
Neve

Neve

Titular see of Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. Two of its bishops are known: Petronius, who ...
Nevers

Nevers

(Nivernum) Diocese ; includes the Department of Nièvre, in France. Suppressed by the ...
Neville

Neville

(1) Edmund Neville ( alias Sales), a Jesuit, born at Hopcut, Lancashire, 1605; died in ...
New Abbey

New Abbey

The Abbey of Sweetheart, named New Abbey Pow, or New Abbey, in order to distinguish it, from ...
New Caledonia

New Caledonia

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC New Caledonia, one of the largest islands of Oceania, lies about 900 miles ...
New Guinea

New Guinea

The second largest island and one of the least known countries of the world, lies immediately ...
New Hampshire

New Hampshire

The most northerly of the thirteen original states of the United States, lying between 70°37' ...
New Jersey

New Jersey

One of the original thirteen states of the American Union. It ratified the Federal Constitution ...
New Mexico

New Mexico

A territory of the United States now (Jan., 1911) awaiting only the completion of its ...
New Norcia

New Norcia

A Benedictine abbey in Western Australia, founded on 1 March, 1846, by a Spanish Benedictine, ...
New Orleans

New Orleans

ARCHDIOCESE OF NEW ORLEANS (NOVÆ AURELIÆ). Erected 25 April, 1793, as the Diocese of ...
New Pomerania

New Pomerania

New Pomerania, the largest island of the Bismarck Archipelago, is separated from New Guinea by ...
New Testament

New Testament

I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...
New Testament, Canon of the

Canon of the New Testament

The Catholic New Testament, as defined by the Council of Trent, does not differ, as regards the ...
New Year's Day

New Year's Day

The word year is etymologically the same as hour (Skeat), and signifies a going, movement ...
New York (Archdiocese)

New York

ARCHDIOCESE OF NEW YORK (NEO-EBORACENSIS). See erected 8 April, 1808; made archiepiscopal 19 ...
New York (State)

State of New York

One of the thirteen colonies of Great Britain, which on 4 July, 1776, adopted the Declaration of ...
New Zealand

New Zealand

New Zealand—formerly described as a colony—has, since September, 1907, by royal ...
Newark

Newark

(NOVARCENSIS) Diocese created in 1853, suffragan of New York and comprising Hudson, Passaic, ...
Newbattle

Newbattle

( Neubotle , i.e. new dwelling). Newbattle, in the ancient Diocese of St. Andrews, about ...
Newdigate, Blessed Sebastian

Blessed Sebastian Newdigate

Executed at Tyburn, 19 June, 1535. A younger son of John Newdigate of Harefield Place, Middlesex, ...
Newfoundland

Newfoundland

A British colony of North America (area 42,734 square miles), bounded on the north by the Strait ...
Newhouse, Abbey of

Abbey of Newhouse

The Abbey of Newhouse, near Brockelsby, Lincoln, the first Premonstratensian abbey in England, ...
Newman, John Henry

John Henry Newman

(1801-1890) Cardinal-Deacon of St. George in Velabro, divine, philosopher, man of letters, ...
Newport (England)

Newport (England)

(NEOPORTENSIS) This diocese takes its name from Newport, a town of about 70,000 inhabitants, ...
Newton, John

John Newton

A soldier and engineer, born at Norfolk, Virginia, 24 August, 1823; died in New York City, 1 May, ...
Niagara University

Niagara University

Niagara University, situated near Niagara Falls, New York, is conducted by the Vincentians. It ...
Nicéron, Jean-Pierre

Jean-Pierre Niceron

A French lexicographer, born in Paris, 11 March, 1685, died there, 8 July, 1738. After his ...
Nicaea

Nicaea

Titular see of Bithynia Secunda, situated on Lake Ascanius, in a fertile plain, but very ...
Nicaea, First Council of

First Council of Nicaea

First Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church, held in 325 on the occasion of the heresy of ...
Nicaea, Second Council of

Second Council of Nicaea

Seventh Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church, held in 787. (For an account of the ...
Nicaragua

Nicaragua

(REPUBLIC AND DIOCESE OF NICARAGUA; DE NICARAGUA) The diocese, suffragan of Guatemala, is ...
Nicastro

Nicastro

(NEOCASTRENSIS). A city of the Province of Catanzaro, in Calabria, southern Italy, situated ...
Niccola Pisano

Niccola Pisano

Architect and sculptor, b. at Pisa about 1205-07; d. there, 1278. He was the father of modern ...
Nice

Nice

(NICIENSIS) Nice comprises the Department of Alpes-Maritimes. It was re-established by the ...
Nicene Creed

Nicene Creed

As approved in amplified form at the Council of Constantinople (381), it is the profession of the ...
Nicephorus, Saint

St. Nicephorus

Patriarch of Constantinople, 806-815, b. about 758; d. 2 June, 829. This champion of the orthodox ...
Nicetas

Nicetas

(NICETA) A Bishop of Remesiana (Romatiana) in what is now Servia, born about 335; died ...
Nicetius, Saint

St. Nicetius

A Bishop of Trier, born in the latter part of the fifth century, exact date unknown; died in ...
Niche

Niche

A recess for the reception of a statue, so designed as to give it emphasis, frame it effectively, ...
Nicholas Garlick, Venerable

Ven. Nicholas Garlick

Priest and martyr, born at Dinting, Derbyshire, c. 1555; died at Derby, 24 July, 1588. He ...
Nicholas I, Saint, Pope

Pope Saint Nicholas I

Born at Rome, date unknown; died 13 November, 867. One of the great popes of the Middle ...
Nicholas II, Pope

Pope Nicholas II

(GERHARD OF BURGUNDY) Nicholas was born at Chevron, in what is now Savoy ; elected at Siena, ...
Nicholas III, Pope

Pope Nicholas III

(GIOVANNI GAETANI ORSINI) Born at Rome, c. 1216; elected at Viterbo, 25 November, 1277; died ...
Nicholas IV, Pope

Pope Nicholas IV

(GIROLAMO MASCI) Born at Ascoli in the Rome, 4 April, 1292. He was of humble extraction, ...
Nicholas Justiniani

Nicholas Justiniani

Date of birth unknown, became monk in the Benedictine monastery of San Niccoló del Lido ...
Nicholas of Cusa

Nicholas of Cusa

German cardinal, philosopher, and administrator, b. at Cues on the Moselle, in the Archdiocese ...
Nicholas of Flüe, Blessed

Blessed Nicholas of Flue

(D E R UPE ). Born 21 March, 1417, on the Flüeli, a fertile plateau near Sachseln, ...
Nicholas of Gorran

Nicholas of Gorran

(Or GORRAIN) Medieval preacher, and scriptural commentator; b. in 1232 at Gorron, France ; ...
Nicholas of Lyra

Nicholas of Lyra

( Doctor planus et utilis ) Exegete, b. at Lyra in Normandy, 1270; d. at Paris, 1340. The ...
Nicholas of Myra, Saint

St. Nicholas of Myra

( Also called NICHOLAS OF BARI). Bishop of Myra in Lycia; died 6 December, 345 or 352. ...
Nicholas of Osimo

Nicholas of Osimo

(AUXIMANUS). A celebrated preacher and author, b. at Osimo, Italy, in the second half of the ...
Nicholas of Strasburg

Nicholas of Strasburg

Mystic ; flourished early in the fourteenth century. Educated at Paris, he was later on lector ...
Nicholas of Tolentino, Saint

St. Nicholas of Tolentino

Born at Sant' Angelo, near Fermo, in the Hermits of St. Augustine -- a star above him or on his ...
Nicholas Owen, Saint

St. Nicholas Owen

A Jesuit lay-brother, martyred in 1606. There is no record of his parentage, birthplace, date ...
Nicholas Pieck, Saint

St. Nicholas Pieck

(Also spelled PICK). Friar Minor and martyr, b. at Gorkum, Holland, 29 August, 1534; d. at ...
Nicholas V, Pope

Pope Nicholas V

(TOMMASO PARENTUCELLI) A name never to be mentioned without reverence by every lover of ...
Nichols, Venerable George

Ven. George Nichols

(Or NICOLLS). English martyr, born at Oxford about 1550; executed at Oxford, 19 October, ...
Nicholson, Francis

Francis Nicholson

A controversial writer; b. at Manchester, 1650 ( baptized 27 Oct.); d. at Lisbon, 13 Aug., 1731. ...
Nicodemus

Nicodemus

A prominent Jew of the time of Christ, mentioned only in the Fourth Gospel . The name is of ...
Nicodemus, Gospel of

Acta Pilati

(Or the Gospel of Nicodemus.) This work does not assume to have written by Pilate, but to have ...
Nicolò de' Tudeschi

Nicolo De' Tudeschi

("abbas modernus" or "recentior", "abbas Panormitanus" or "Siculus") A Benedictine canonist, ...
Nicolaï, Jean

Jean Nicolai

Celebrated Dominican theologian and controversialist, b. in 1594 at Mouzay in the Diocese of ...
Nicolaites

Nicolaites Or Nicolaitans

(Also called Nicolaitans), a sect mentioned in the Apocalypse (ii,6,15) as existing in ...
Nicolas, Armella

Armella Nicolas

Popularly known as "La bonne Armelle", a saintly French serving-maid held in high veneration among ...
Nicolas, Auguste

Auguste Nicolas

French apologist, b. at Bordeaux, 6 Jan., 1807; d. at Versailles 18 Jan., 1888. He first studied ...
Nicolaus Germanus

Nicolaus Germanus

(Often called "Donis" from a misapprehension of the title "Donnus" or "Donus" an abbreviated form ...
Nicole, Pierre

Pierre Nicole

Theologian and controversialist, b. 19 October, 1625, at Chartres, d. 16 November, 1695, at ...
Nicolet

Nicolet

(NICOLETANA) Diocese in the Province of Quebec, Canada, suffragan of Quebec. It comprises the ...
Nicomedes, Saint

Saint Nicomedes

Martyr of unknown era, whose feast is observed 15 September. The Roman Martyrologium and the ...
Nicomedia

Nicomedia

Titular see of Bithynia Prima, founded by King Zipoetes. About 264 B.C. his son Nicodemes I ...
Nicopolis

Nicopolis (Armenia Prima)

A titular see, suffragan of Sebasteia, in Armenia Prima. Founded by Pompey after his decisive ...
Nicopolis

Nicopolis

(NICOPOLITANA) Diocese in Bulgaria. The city of Nicopolis (Thrace or Moesia), situated at the ...
Nicopolis

Nicopolis

A titular see and metropolis in ancient Epirus. Augustus founded the city (B.C. 31) on a ...
Nicosia

Nicosia (Sicily)

A city of the Province of Catania, in Sicily situated at a height of about 2800 feet above the ...
Nicosia

Nicosia (Cyprus)

Titular archdiocese in the Province of Cyprus. It is now agreed (Oberhummer' "Aus Cypern" in ...
Nicotera and Tropea

Nicotera and Tropea

(NICOTERENSIS ET TROPEIENSIS) Suffragan diocese of Reggio di Calabria. Nicotera, the ancient ...
Nider, John

John Nider

Theologian, b. 1380 in Swabia; d. 13 August, 1438, at Colmar. He entered the Order of Preachers ...
Nieremberg y Otin, Juan Eusebio

Juan Eusebio Nieremberg y Otin

Noted theologian and polygraphist, b. of German parents at Madrid, 1595; d. there, 1658. ...
Niessenberger, Hans

Hans Niessenberger

An architect of the latter part of the Middle Ages, whose name is mentioned with comparative ...
Niger, Peter George

Peter George Niger

(NIGRI, German SCHWARTZ) Dominican theologian, preacher and controversialist, b. 1434 at ...
Nigeria

Upper and Lower Nigeria

A colony of British East Africa extending from the Gulf of Guinea to Lake Chad (from 4° 30' ...
Nihilism

Nihilism

The term was first used by Turgeniev in his novel, "Fathers and Sons" (in "Russkij Vestnik", Feb., ...
Nihus, Barthold

Barthold Nihus

Convert and controversialist, b. at Holtorf in Hanover, 7 February, 1590 (according to other ...
Nikolaus von Dinkelsbühl

Nikolaus von Dinkelsbuhl

Theologian, b. c. 1360, at Dinkelsbühl; d. 17 March, 1433, at Mariazell in Styria. He ...
Nikon

Nikon

Patriarch of Moscow (1652-1658; d. 1681). He was of peasant origin, born in the district of ...
Nilles, Nikolaus

Nikolaus Nilles

Born 21 June, 1828, of a wealthy peasant family of Rippweiler, Luxemburg ; died 31 January, ...
Nilopolis

Nilopolis

A titular see and a suffragan of Oxyrynchos, in Egypt. According to Ptolemy (IV, v, 26) the ...
Nilus the Younger

Nilus the Younger

Of Rossano, in Calabria; born in 910, died 27 December, 1005. For a time he was married (or ...
Nilus, Saint

St. Nilus

( Neilos ) Nilus the elder, of Sinai (died c. 430), was one of the many disciples and ...
Nimbus

Nimbus

(Latin, related to Nebula, nephele , properly vapour, cloud), in art and archaeology signifies ...
Nimrod

Nemrod

Also N IMROD ( nmrd of uncertain signification, Septuagint Nebród ). The name of ...
Ninian, Saint

Saint Ninian

(NINIAS, NINUS, DINAN, RINGAN, RINGEN) Bishop and confessor ; date of birth unknown; died ...
Nirschl, Joseph

Joseph Nirschl

Theologian and writer, b. at Durchfurth, Lower Bavaria, 24 February, 1823; d. at ...
Nisibis

Nisibis

A titular Archdiocese of Mesopotamia, situated on the Mygdonius at the foot of Mt. Masius. It is ...
Nithard

Nithard

Frankish historian, son of Angilbert and Bertha, daughter of Charlemagne ; died about 843 or ...
Noah

Noah

[Hebrew Nôah , "rest"; Greek Noah ; Latin Noah ]. The ninth patriarch of the ...
Noah's Ark

Noah's Ark

The Hebrew name to designate Noah's Ark, the one which occurs again in the history of Moses' ...
Noailles, Louis-Antoine de

Louis-Antoine de Noailles

Cardinal and bishop, b. at the Château of Teyssiére in Auvergne, France, 27 May, ...
Nobili, Robert de'

Robert De' Nobili

Born at Montepulciano, Tuscany, September, 1577; died at Mylapore, India, in 1656. He entered the ...
Noble, Daniel

Daniel Noble

Physician, b. 14 Jan., 1810; d. at Manchester, 12 Jan, 1885. He was the son of Mary Dewhurst and ...
Nocera

Nocera

DIOCESE OF NOCERA (NUCERINENSIS) Diocese in Perugia, Umbria, Italy, near the sources of the ...
Nocera dei Pagani

Nocera Dei Pagani

(NUCERIN PAGANORUM; dei Pagani ="of the Pagans") Diocese in Salermo, Italy, at the foot of ...
Nocturns

Nocturns

( Nocturni or Nocturna ). A very old term applied to night Offices. Tertullian speaks of ...
Nogaret, Guillaume de

Guillaume de Nogaret

Born about the middle of the thirteenth century at St. Felix-en-Lauragais; died 1314; he was one ...
Nola

Nola

(NOLANA) Diocese ; suffragan of Naples. The city of Nola in the Italian Province of Caserta, ...
Nola, Giovanni Marliano da

Giovanni Marliano da Nola

Sculptor and architect, b., it is said, of a leather merchant named Giuseppe, at Nola, near ...
Nolasco, Saint Peter

St. Peter Nolasco

Born at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, near Castelnaudary, France, in 1189 (or 1182); died at ...
Nollet, Jean-Antoine

Jean-Antoine Nollet

Physicist, b. at Pimpré, Oise, France, 19 November, 1700; d. at Paris, 25 April, 1770. His ...
Nominalism, Realism, Conceptualism

Nominalism, Realism, Conceptualism

These terms are used to designate the theories that have been proposed as solutions of one of the ...
Nomination

Nomination

The various methods of designating persons for ecclesiastical benefices or offices have been ...
Nomocanon

Nomocanon

(From the Greek nomos , law, and kanon , a rule) A collection of ecclesiastical law, the ...
Non Expedit

Non Expedit

("It is not expedient"). Words with which the Holy See enjoined upon Italian Catholics the ...
Non-Jurors

Non-Jurors

The name given to the Anglican Churchmen who in 1689 refused to take the oath of allegiance to ...
Nonantola

Nonantola

A former Benedictine monastery and prelature nullius , six miles north-east of Modena ...
Nonconformists

Nonconformists

A name which, in its most general acceptation, denotes those refusing to conform with the ...
None

None

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Origin of None; II. None from the ...
Nonnotte, Claude-Adrien

Claude-Adrien Nonnotte

Controversialist; b. in Besançon, 29 July, 1711; d. there, 3 September, 1793. At nineteen ...
Nonnus

Nonnus

Nonnus, of Panopolis in Upper Egypt (c. 400), the reputed author of two poems in hexameters; ...
Norbert, Saint

St. Norbert

Born at Kanten on the left bank of the Rhine, near Wesel, c. 1080; died at Magdeburg, 6 June, ...
Norbertines

Premonstratensian Canons

(C ANONICI R EGULARES P RÆMONSTRATENSES ). Founded in 1120 by St. Norbert at ...
Norcia

Norcia

(NORSIN). A diocese and city in Perugia, Italy, often mentioned in Roman history. In the ...
Norfolk, Catholic Dukes of

Post-Reformation Catholic Dukes of Norfolk

(Since the Reformation) Under this title are accounts only of the prominent Catholic Dukes of ...
Noris, Henry

Henry Noris

Cardinal, b. at Verona, 29 August, 1631, of English ancestry; d. at Rome, 23 Feb., 1704. He ...
Normandy

Normandy

An ancient French province, from which five "departments" were formed in 1790: ...
Norris, Sylvester

Sylvester Norris

( Alias SMITH, NEWTON). Controversial writer and English missionary priest ; b. 1570 or ...
Norsemen

Northmen (Vikings)

The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western ...
North Carolina

North Carolina

One of the original thirteen States of the United States, is situated between 33° 53' and ...
North Dakota

North Dakota

One of the United States of America , originally included in the Louisiana Purchase. Little was ...
Northampton

Northampton

(NORTANTONIENSIS) Diocese in England, comprises the Counties of Northampton, Bedford, ...
Northcote, James Spencer

James Spencer Northcote

Born at Feniton Court, Devonshire, 26 May, 1821; d. at Stoke-upon-Trent, Staffordshire, 3 March, ...
Northern Territory

Northern Territory

(Prefecture Apostolic) The Northern Territory, formerly Alexander Land, is that part of ...
Northmen

Northmen (Vikings)

The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western ...
Norton, Christopher

Christopher Norton

Martyr ; executed at Tyburn, 27 May, 1570. His father was Richard Norton of Norton Conyers, ...
Norway

Norway

Norway, comprising the smaller division of the Scandinavian peninsula, is bounded on the east by ...
Norwich, Ancient Diocese of

Ancient Diocese of Norwich

(NORDOVICUM; NORVICUM). Though this see took its present name only in the eleventh century, ...
Notaries

Notaries

( Latin notarius ). Persons appointed by competent authority to draw up official or authentic ...
Notburga

Jean-Baptiste Nothomb

Jean-Baptiste Belgian statesman, b. 3 July, 1805, at Messancy, Luxemburg ; d. at Berlin, 16 ...
Notburga, Saint

St. Notburga

Patroness of servants and peasants, b. c. 1265 at Rattenberg on the Inn; d. c. 16 September, 1313. ...
Nothomb, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Nothomb

Jean-Baptiste Belgian statesman, b. 3 July, 1805, at Messancy, Luxemburg ; d. at Berlin, 16 ...
Notitia Dignitatum

Notitia Dignitatum

(Register of Offices). The official handbook of the civil and military officials in the later ...
Notitia Provinciarum et Civitatum Africae

Notitia Provinciarum Et Civitatum Africae

(List of the Provinces and Cities of Africa). A list of the bishops and their sees in the ...
Notitiae Episcopatuum

Notitiae Episcopatuum

The name given to official documents that furnish for Eastern countries the list and hierarchical ...
Notker

Notker

Among the various monks of St. Gall who bore this name, the following are the most important: ...
Noto

Noto

(NETEN). Noto, the ancient Netum and after the Saracen conquest the capital of one of the ...
Notoriety, Notorious

Notoriety

( Latin Notorietas, notorium , from notus , known). Notoriety is the quality or the ...
Notre Dame de Montreal, Congregation of

Congregation of Notre Dame de Montreal

Marguerite Bourgeoys, the foundress, was born at Troyes, France, 17 April, 1620. She was the ...
Notre Dame, School Sisters of

School Sisters of Notre Dame

A religious community devoted to education. In the United Sates they have conducted parish ...
Notre Dame, Sisters of (of Cleveland, Ohio)

Sisters of Notre Dame (Cleveland, Ohio)

A branch of the congregation founded by Blessed Julie Billiart. In 1850, Father Elting of ...
Notre Dame, University of

University of Notre Dame

(Full name is the University of Notre Dame du Lac ). Notre Dame is located in Northern ...
Notre-Dame de Namur, Institute of

Institute of Notre-Dame de Namur

Founded in 1803 at Amiens, France, by Bl. Julie Billiart (b. 1751 d. 1816) and ...
Notre-Dame de Sion, Congregation of

Congregation of Notre-Dame de Sion

Religious institute of women, founded at Paris in May 1843, by Marie-Théodore and ...
Nottingham

Nottingham

(NOTTINGHAMIEN) One of the original twelve English dioceses created at the time of the ...
Nourrisson, Jean-Felix

Jean-Felix Nourrisson

Philosopher, b. at Thiers, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, 18 July, 1825; d. at Paris, 13 June, ...
Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia

I. GEOGRAPHY Nova Scotia is one of the maritime provinces of Canada. It forms part of what was ...
Novara

Novara

(NOVARIENSIS). A diocese and the capital of the province of Novara, Piedmont, Italy, noted ...
Novatianism

Novatian and Novatianism

Novatian was a schismatic of the third century, and founder of the sect of the Novatians; he ...
Novatus, Saint

St. Novatus

St. Novatus, who is mentioned on 20 June with his brother, the martyr Timotheus, was the son of ...
Novello, Blessed Agostino

Bl. Agostino Novello

(Matteo Di Termini), born in the first half of the thirteenth century, at Termini, a village of ...
Novena

Novena

(From novem , nine.) A nine days' private or public devotion in the Catholic Church to ...
Novice

Novice

I. DEFINITION AND REQUIREMENTS The word novice , which among the Romans meant a newly acquired ...
Nubia

Nubia

Located in North-eastern Africa, extending from Sennar south to beyond Khartoum and including the ...
Nueva Cáceres

Nueva Caceres

(NOVA CACERES) Diocese created in 1595 by Clement VIII ; it is one of the four suffragan ...
Nueva Pamplona

Nueva Pamplona

(NEO-PAMPILONENSIS). Diocese in Colombia, South America, founded in 1549 and a see erected by ...
Nueva Segovia

Nueva Segovia

(NOVAE SEGOBIAE) Diocese in the Philippines, so called from Segovia, a town in Spain. The town ...
Nugent, Francis

Francis Nugent

Priest of the Franciscan Capuchin Order, founder of the Irish and the Rhenish Provinces of said ...
Nugent, James

James Nugent

Philanthropist, temperance advocate and social reformer b. 3 March, 1822 at Liverpool ; d. 27 ...
Numbers, Use of, in the Church

Use of Numbers in the Church

No attentive reader of the Old Testament can fail to notice that a certain sacredness seems to ...
Numismatics

Numismatics

(From the Greek nomisma , "legal currency") Numismatics is the science of coins and of ...
Nun of Kent

Elizabeth Barton

Born probably in 1506; executed at Tyburn, 20 April, 1534; called the "Nun of Kent." The career of ...
Nunc Dimittis

Nunc Dimittis

(The Canticle of Simeon). Found in St. Luke's Gospel (2:29-32) , is the last in historical ...
Nuncio

Nuncio

An ordinary and permanent representative of the pope, vested with both political and ...
Nunez, Pedro

Pedro Nunez (Nonius)

(Pedro Nonius). Mathematician and astronomer, b. at Alcacer-do-Sol, 1492; d. at Coimbra, ...
Nuns

Nuns

I. ORIGIN AND HISTORY The institution of nuns and sisters, who devote themselves in various ...
Nuptial Mass

Nuptial Mass

"Missa pro sponso et sponsa", the last among the votive Masses in the Missal. It is composed of ...
Nuremberg

Nuremberg

(NÜRNBERG) The second largest city in Bavaria, situated in a plain on both sides of the ...
Nusco

Nusco

(N USCANA ) Diocese in the province of Avellino, Italy, suffragan of Salerno ; dates from ...
Nussbaum, Johannn Nepomuk von

Johann Nepomuk von Nussbaum

German surgeon, b. at Munich 2 Sept., 1829; d. there 31 Oct., 1890. He made his studies in the ...
Nutter, Robert, Ven.

Ven. Robert Nutter

English martyr ; b. at Burnley, Lancashire, c. 1550; executed at Lancaster, 26 July, 1600. He ...
Nuyens, Wilhelmus

Wilhelmus Nuyens

Historian, b. 18 August, 1823, at Avenhorn in Holland ; d. 10 December, 1894, at Westwoud near ...
Nyassa

Nyassa

Vicariate Apostolic in Central Africa, bounded north by the Anglo-German frontier, east by Lake ...
Nympha, Tryphon, and Respicius

Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...
Nyssa

Nyassa

Vicariate Apostolic in Central Africa, bounded north by the Anglo-German frontier, east by Lake ...
Nyssa

Nyssa (Cappadocia Prima)

A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. It is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, vii, ...

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