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Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius

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A short work composed by St. Ignatius of Loyola and written originally in Spanish.

THE TEXT

The autograph Manuscript of this "Spiritual Exercises" has unfortunately been lost. What is at present called the "autograph" is only a quarto copy made by a secretary but containing corrections in the author's handwriting. It is now reproduced by phototypy (Rome, 1908). Two Latin translations were made during the lifetime of St. Ignatius. There now remain:

  • the ancient Latin translation, antiqua versio latina , a literal version probably made by the saint ;
  • a free translation by Father Frusius, more elegant and more in accordance with the style of the period, and generally called the "Vulgate".

The antiqua versio is dated by the copyist "Rome, 9 July, 1541"; the vulgate version is later than 1541, but earlier than 1548, when the two versions were together presented to Paul III for approval. The pope appointed three examiners, who praised both versions warmly. The Vulgate, more carefully executed from a literary point of view, was only chosen for printing, and was published at Rome on 11 September, 1548, under the simple title: "Exercitia spiritualia". This princeps edition was also multiplied by phototypy (Paris, 1910). Besides these two Latin translations there exist two others. One is the still unpublished text left by Bl. Peter Faber to the Carthusians of Cologne before 1546; it holds a middle place between the literal version and the Vulgate. The second is a new literal translation by Father Roothaan, twenty-first general of the Society of Jesus , who, on account of the differences between the Vulgate and the Spanish autograph, wished to retranslate the "Exercises" into Latin, as accurately as possible, at the same time making use of the versio antiqua . His intention was not to supplant the Vulgate, and he therefore published the work of Frusius along with his own in parallel columns (1835).

The Spanish autograph text was not printed until long after the Vulgate, by Bernard de Angelis, secretary of the Society of Jesus (Rome, 1615); it has often been republished. The most noteworthy English versions are:

  • "The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius. With Approbation of Superiours. At Saint Omers; Printed by Nicolas Joseph Le Febvre." This translation bears no date but it can be traced back to 1736; the printer was a lay brother of the Society.
  • "The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius. Translated from the Authorized Latin; with extracts from the literal version and notes of the Rev. Father Rothaan [ sic ] by Charles Seager, M.A., to which is prefixed a Preface by the Right Rev. Nicholas Wiseman, D.D., bishop of Melipotamus" (London, Dolman, 1847); which was republished by Murphy at Baltimore, about 1850.
  • "The Text of the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius, translated from the original Spanish", by Father John Morris, S.J., published by Burns and Gates (London, 1880).

The reader of the "Exercises" need not look for elegance of style. "St. Ignatius", says F. Astrain, "writes in coarse, incorrect, and laboured Castilian, which only at times arrests the attention by the energetic precision and brevity with which certain thoughts are expressed." There are outpourings of the soul in different colloquies, but their affecting interest does not lie in words; it is wholly in the keen situation, created by the author, of the sinner before the crucifix, the knight before his king, etc.

COMPOSITION OF THE EXERCISES

The book is composed of documents or spiritual exercises, reduced to the order most fitted to move the minds of the faithful to piety, as was remarked in the Brief of approval. We find in this work documents (instructions, admonitions, warnings), exercises ( prayers, meditations examination of conscience, and other practices), and the method according to which they are arranged. The sources of the book are the Sacred Scriptures and the experiences of spiritual life. Ignatius indeed was little by little prepared by Divine Providence to write his book. From 1521 the thoughts which precede his conversion, the progress of his repentance, the pious practices which he embraces at Montserrat and at Manresa helped to give him a knowledge of asceticism. His book is a work lived by himself and later on lived by others under his eyes. But a book so lived is not composed all at once; it requires to be retouched, corrected, and added to frequently. These improvements, which neither Polanco nor Bartoli hide, are revealed by a simple examination of the Spanish text, where along with the Castilian there are found Latin or Italian expressions together with Scholastic terms which the writer could not have used before, at least, the beginning of his later studies. Ignatius himself admitted this to Father Luis Gonzales: "I did not compose the Exercises all at once. When anything resulting from my own experience seemed to me likely to be of use to others, I took note of it". Father Nadal, Ignatius's friend and contemporary, writes of the final redaction: "After having completed his studies, the author united his first attempts of the Exercises, made many additions, put all in order, and presented his work for the examination and judgment of the Apostolic See ".

It seems probable that the "Exercises" were completed while St. Ignatius was attending lectures at the University of Paris. The copy of Bl. Peter Faber, written undoubtedly about the time when he followed the Exercises under Ignatius's direction (1533), contains all the essential parts. Moreover, some parts of the book bear their date. Such are: the "Rules for the distribution of alms ", intended for beneficed clergymen, masters, or laureates of the university, in which occurs a citation of the Council of Carthage, thus leading one to suppose that the writer had studied theology ; the "Rules for thinking with the Church ", which appear to have been suggested by the measures taken by an assembly of theologians at Valladolid in 1527 against the Erasmists of Spain, or by the Faculty of Paris in 1535, 1542, against the Protestants. The final completion of the "Exercises" may be dated from 1541, when a fair copy of the versio antiqua , which St. Ignatius calls "Todos exercicios breviter en latin", was made. It may be asked how far the work of composition was carried out during the residence of the saint at Manresa. This spot, where Ignatius arrived in March, 1522, must always be considered as the cradle of the "Exercises". The substance of the work dates from Manresa. Ignatius found there the precious metal which for a long time he wrought and polished. "A work," as Fr. Astrain rightly says, 'which contributes throughout so admirably to realize the fundamental idea set up by the author, is evidently not an invention made by parts, or composed of passages written at various times or under varying circumstances." The "Exercises" clearly bear the mark of Manresa. The mind of Ignatius, during his retirement there, was full of military memories and of thoughts of the future; hence the double characteristic of his book, the chivalrous note and the march towards the choice of a state of life. The ideas of the knight are those of the service due to a sovereign, of the shame that clings to the treason of a vassal (first week), and in the kingdom, those of the crusade formed against the infidels, and of the confrontation of the Two Standards (second week). But during his convalescence at the castle, the reading of the lives of the saints gave a mystical turn to his chivalrous ideas ; the great deeds to be imitated henceforth are no longer those of a Roland, but of a Dominic or a Francis.

To help him in his outline of evangelical perfection, Ignatius received a special assistance, which Polanco and Ribadeneira call the unction of the Holy Ghost. Without this grace, the composition of the "Exercises" remains a mystery. How could a rough and ignorant soldier conceive and develop a work so original, so useful for the salvation and the perfection of souls, a book which astonishes one by the originality of its method and the powerful efficacy of its virtue ? We ought not, however, to consider this Divine assistance as a complete revelation. What St. Ignatius knew of spiritual ways, he had learned chiefly from personal experience and by the grace of God, Who treated him "as the schoolmaster does a child". It does not mean that he had not the advice of a confessor to guide him, for he was directed by John Chanones at Montserrat; nor does it mean that he had read nothing himself, as we know that he had books at hand. We must therefore consider the revelation of the "Exercises" not as a completely supernatural manifestation of all the truths contained in the work, but as a kind of inspiration, or special Divine assistance, which prevented all essential error, and suggested many thoughts useful for the salvation of the author, and of readers at all times. This inspiration is the more admissible as Ignatius was favoured with great light in Divine things. Ribadeneira, writing from Madrid, 18 April, 1607, to Fr. Girón, rector of Salamanca, dwells on the wonderful fruits of the "Exercises", fruits foreseen and willed by God. Such a result could not be the effect of merely human reading and study, and he adds: "This has been the general opinion of all the old fathers of the Society of us all who have lived and conversed with our blessed father".

Another tradition concerns the part taken by the Blessed Virgin in the composing of the "Exercises" at Manresa. It is not based on any written testimony of the contemporaries of St. Ignatius, though it became universal in the seventeenth century. Possibly it is founded upon earlier oral testimony, and upon a revelation made in 1600 to the Venerable Marina de Escobar and related in the "Life of Father Balthazar Alvarez ". This tradition has often been symbolized by painters, who represent Ignatius writing from the Blessed Virgin's dictation.

Although Ignatius had been educated just like the ordinary knights of his time, he was fond of calligraphy and still more of reading; his convalescence at Loyola enabled him to gratify this double inclination. We know that he wrote there, in different coloured inks, a quarto book of 300 folios in which he seems to have gathered together extracts from the only two books to be found in the castle which were "The Flower of the Saints" in Spanish and "The Life of Jesus Christ " by Ludolph of Saxony or the Carthusian, published in Spanish at Alcalá, 1502 to 1503. "The Flower of the Saints" has left no apparent trace in the "Exercises", except an advice to read something similar after the second week. Ludolph's influence is more noticeable in expressions, ascetic principles, and methodic details. The part of the "Exercises" treating of the life of Christ, is especially indebted to him.

Ignatius, having recovered his health and determined to lead a hermit's life, left Loyola for Montserrat and Manresa. He spent the greater part of the year 1522 in the latter town, three leagues distant from Montserrat, under the direction of his confessor, Dom John Chanones. According to a witness in the process of canonization Ignatius went to see Chanones every Saturday. He could moreover have met him or other Benedictines at the priory of Manresa, which was dependent on Montserrat. It is possible that he received from them a copy of the "Imitation of Christ" in Spanish for he certainly had that book at Manresa; they must have given him also the "Ejercitatorio de la vida espiritual", of Dom Garcia de Cisneros, published at Montserrat in 1500. Ribadeneira in his letter to Fr. Girón thinks it very probable that St. Ignatius was acquainted with this Castilian work, that he availed himself of it for prayer and meditation, that Chanones explained different parts to him, and that the title "Exercises" was suggested to him by the "Ejercitatorio". The Benedictines made use of this book for the conversion or edification of the pilgrims of Montserrat; in fact the tradition of the monastery relates that Chanones communicated it to his penitent. The "Exercises" borrow very little expressly from the "Imitation of Christ" . There is, however, to be noticed a general concordance of its doctrine and that of the "Exercises", and an invitation to read it.

Was the "Ejercitatorio" more closely followed? In trying to solve this question it is not sufficient to draw conclusions from the resemblance of the titles, or to establish a parallel with a few details; it is necessary above all to compare the plans and methods of the two works. Whilst the "Exercises" consider the word "week" in its metaphorical sense and give liberty to add or to omit days, the "Ejercitatorio" presents a triple series of seven meditations, one and not several for each day of the real week. The whole series of twenty-one meditations is exhausted in just three weeks, which answer to the three lives: the purgative, the illuminative, and the unitive . The author seeks only to raise the "exercitador" gradually to the contemplative life, whereas St. Ignatius leads the exercitant to determine for himself the choice of a state of life amongst those most pleasing to God. The "Ejercitatorio" does not mention anything of the foundation, nor of the kingdom, of the particular examination, of the election, of the discernment of spirits , nor of the rules for rightly regulating one's food and for thinking with the Orthodox Church , nor of the three methods of praying. Only a few counsels of Cisneros have been adopted by St. Ignatius in the annotations 2, 4,13, 18, 19, 20, and the additions 2, 4. Some of Cisneros's ideas are to be found in the meditations of the first week. The other weeks of St. Ignatius are entirely different. The similarities are so reduced in fact to a very small number.

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But the work of Cisneros itself is only a compilation. Cisneros admits having reproduced passages from Cassian, Bernard, Bonaventure, Gerson etc.; moreover, he does not give the names of the contemporaries from whom he copied. Amongst other books Cisneros read and copied the "De spiritualibus ascensionibus" of Gerard Zerbolt of Zutphen (1367-98) and the "Rosetum exercitiorum spiritualium" of John Mombaer, or Mauburnus (died 1502), who was also indebted to Gerard. Almost all in Cisneros that pertains to the method of spiritual exercises is extracted from the "Rosetum". The different ways of exercising oneself in the contemplation of the life and passion of Jesus Christ are taken from the "De spiritualibus ascensionibus". All Cisneros's borrowings were disclosed by Fr. Watrigant (see bibliography). Zutphen and Mombaer, like Thomas à Kempis, belonged to the Society of the Brothers of Common Life , founded towards the end of the fourteenth century by Gerard de Groote and Florence Radewyns. This society caused a revival of spiritual life by the publication of numerous ascetic treatises, several of which appeared under the title of "Spiritual Exercises". The Brothers of Common Life, or the Devoti, devoted themselves also to the reform of the clergy and monasteries. The Benedictine Congregation of Valladolid, on which Montserrat was dependent, had been under the influence of Lewis Barbo, who was connected with the brothers. We must therefore conclude that Ignatius may have profited by the result of Zutphen's and Mauburnus's labours whilst he read Cisneros or listened to Chanones's explanations at Manresa. Later, when he understood Latin, during his studies at the Universities of Alcalá and Paris, or while travelling in Flanders he may himself have become acquainted with the works of the Devoti. A greater analogy is to be noticed between Zutphen and Ignatius, two practical minds, than between Loyola and Cisneros.

ORIGINALITY OF THE WORK

We may therefore look upon the question of a supposed plagiarism on the part of St. Ignatius to the detriment of Cisneros, as being definitively settled. This question was raised by Dom Constantine Cajetan, or rather by some one who assumed his name, in a treatise published at Venice in 1641: "De reigiosa S. Ignatii . . . per patres Benedictinos institutione . . .". The Jesuit John Rho answered him in his "Achates" (Lyons, 1644). Both the attack and reply were put on the Index, no doubt on account of their excessive acrimony. Besides, the general assembly of the Congregation of Monte Cassino which met at Ravenna in 1644, by a decree dissociated itself from the aggressor. The quarrel was afterwards renewed on several occasions, chiefly by the heterodox, but always without success. Benedictines and Jesuits agree to acknowledge that if St. Ignatius owes anything to Montserrat, he has retained his entire originality. Whatever may be said about the works he read and what he borrowed, his book is truly his own. A writer is never blamed for having previously searched and studied, if his own work is impressed with his personality, and treats the subject from a new point of view. This has been successfully accomplished by St. Ignatius, and with all the greater merit, as he could not change anything of the traditional truths of Christianity or pretend to invent mental prayer.

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Ignatius's originality appears at first sight in the selection and co-ordination of his material. To select some of the great truths of religion, to drive them deeply into the heart, until man thoroughly impressed falls at the Lord's feet, crying out like another Saul "Domine, quid me vis facere?", such is the genius, the ascetic character, of St. Ignatius. But to bring about this result it was necessary for the selected truths to be linked together in a logical series and animated by a progressive movement. The methodic order and irresistible deduction of the "Exercises" distinguish them from a large number of spiritual works. Above all the originality of St. Ignatius is displayed in the care with which he combines the subjects of meditation and ascetic principles, and the minute advice that guides and moderates, when necessary, the application of the "Exercises". We find in the annotations at the beginning, in the notes strewn here and there, in the rules for the discernment of spirits a real system of spiritual training, that makes adequate provision for the different states of soul of the exercitant, and warns him, or rather his director, of what is most fitting, according to the circumstances of the case. Nothing is left to chance. One sees how to adapt the general progress of the retreat to different persons, according to their occupation" the degree of their fervour, and the advantage they derive from the "Exercises", This art of proportioning spiritual instruction to the powers of the soul and to Divine grace was entirely new, at least under the precise and methodic form given to it by St. Ignatius.

DOCTRINE OF THE BOOK

The two words that form the general title of St. Ignatius's book bespeak at once the soul's action and labour, and the interior struggle. The still more explicit title which we find immediately after the annotations leaves one no doubt : "Spiritual Exercises to conquer oneself and regulate one's life, and to avoid coming to a determination through any inordinate affection". A method is here offered, which with God's grace teaches and helps one to overcome oneself, that is to say one's unruly passions, and by gaining control over every conscious act, to acquire inward peace — a method of self-conquest and self-government. A general idea of the "Exercises" may best be gained from Diertins's summary: After setting forth the end for which God created man and all other things, the book, ever considering this truth as the first foundation, leads us in a short time by the way known as the purgative way to acknowledge the ugliness of the sins which have caused us to stray shamefully from the end, and to cleanse our souls from sin. Setting before us the example of Christ, our King and Leader, the author then invites us, in what is termed the illuminative life, to avoid the devil's standard and to follow the standard of this very good and wise Chief, and to imitate His virtues ; indeed he almost forces us to do so by the meditation of the three classes, or grades, of men (the first of which is reluctant to follow Christ, the second eager to do so, but with limitations, and the last bent on following Him at once wholly and always). These resolutions are strengthened more and more in the third week, at the sight of Jesus Christ walking before us with His cross. Lastly, in the unitive way, which comprises the fourth week, he enkindles in our hearts a desire for the glory of Jesus risen, and for His purest love. To this are joined annotations, additions, preludes, colloquies, examinations, modes of election, rules for rightly regulating one's food, for discerning spirits, for the scrupulous, for thinking with the Orthodox Church, etc. The whole, if applied in the prescribed order possesses the incredible strength of leading one to solid virtue and to eternal salvation. The four weeks have been summed up still more briefly in as many sentences:

  • deformata reformare;
  • reformata conformare;
  • conformata confirmare;
  • confirmata transformare;
  • that is:

  • to reform what has been deformed by sin ;
  • to make what is thus reformed conform to the Divine model, Jesus ;
  • to strengthen what thus conforms'
  • to transform by love the already strengthened resolutions.
  • This method of spiritual progress had already been traced by St. Paul ( Hebrews 12:1-2 ). It cannot be repeated too often that, if St. Ignatius displayed his originality in uniting and co-ordinating the materials of his book, he did not compose the matter itself. He derived it from the ever open treasury of the Catholic Church, from Scripture and Tradition, from the Bible and the Fathers. The Gospel is the marrow of the "Exercises". The spirituality of St. Ignatius is in constant harmony with the teachings of Christ and His Apostles. What is the "homo vincat seipsum" but an echo of the "abneget semstipsum"? And whence came Loyola's idea of giving us the soldier's theory, a warlike book which contains all the plan of a campaign of man's struggle against himself, if not from the Saviour's words, which are a declaration of war : "Do not think that I came to send peace upon earth: I came not to send peace, but the sword" ( Matthew 10:34 ). The spirituality of the "Exercises" belongs, therefore, to the active and militant kind. We must also remark that the work is not a mere book for reading or a mere manual of devotion; it gives us in the high sense of the word a psychological and pedagogic method. Mr. Orby Shipley, a convert from Protestantism to Catholicism, judged them rightly, when he said in the preface of his edition (London, 1870): "This treatise is not so much a manual as a method — and a method the value, the extraordinary power, of which does not appear at first sight. One of its great marvels consists in the fact that it has done so very much by such very simple means . . . They are no mere theoretical compositions, but they have been framed upon the closest study of the human mind ; . . . they enter into its several emotions, encounter its numberless difficulties, and probe to their very depths its several springs of thought and action".

    To obtain the desired result St. Ignatius uses only a few words, but these are so selected as to make a deep impression on the mind and, if seriously meditated on by the exercitant and fostered in his soul, will soon develop into powerful thoughts and become a source of great spiritual enlightenment and consequently of earnest energetic resolutions. However, though the method of St. Ignatius leaves the exercitant to think for himself, the author does not intend that the latter should use it without guidance. He places the "Book of Exercises" in the hands of a director, and entrusts him with applying it to the exercitant. He teaches him how to guide a soul in the choice of a state of life and in the work of self-reform. The annotations, which provide a key to the "Exercises", are intended more especially for the director. The greater part of them — the second, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, a total of twelve out of twenty — is written for "el que da los Exercicios" (the person who gives the exercises). The fifteenth advises him to proceed with great discretion, so as not to interfere between the Creator and the creature, and to abstain especially in the case of a retreat of election, from any suggestion regarding the determination to be taken, even should it be, strictly speaking, for the very best. This advice shows how falsely some critics of the Exercises represent them as bringing undue influence to bear on the will, with a view to enslaving or paralyzing it. From this also appears the absurdity of Muller's thesis in "Les origines de la Compagnie de Jésus" (Paris, 1898), in which he strives to show the Mohammedan origin of the Exercises and of the Society of Jesus. In this way, therefore, the director in compliance with the author's desire respects the soul's freedom, a freedom already regulated by the authority of the Church, of which he is the representative. He also considers the soul's capacity; the Exercises contain in themselves matters useful to all, but taken altogether they may not be suitable to every one. The eighteenth annotation forbids them to be given indiscriminately; without considering who the exercitant is. Finally to sum up, all St. Ignatius's spirituality lies in traditional Catholic instruction, in a method favourable to personal activity, and in the importance of prudent direction.

    The commentators who have attempted to explain and penetrate the doctrine of the "Exercises are theorists who consider either the entire book or certain parts of it, and show the book's order and connexion and when necessary justify the thought. Several of them, not satisfied with simply discussing the method, deal also with the practice. Those whose names we give here belong to the Society of Jesus, but they did not write solely for their order: sixteenth century — Achille Gagliardi ; seventeenth century — Francisco Francisco Suárez, Antoine Le Gaudier, Luis de la Palma, Giovanni Bucellani, Tobias Lohner, Ignatius Diertins; eighteenth century — Claude Judde , Jean-Joseph Petitdidier, Baltasar de Moncada, Peter Ferrusola; nineteenth century — Johann Philipp Roothaan , Pierre Jennesseaux, Antoine Denis, Marin de Boylesve, Jaime Nonell, James Clare. Franz de Hummelauer, Jaime Gutiérrez.

    CRITICISM UNFAVOURABLE AND FAVOURABLE

    We refer the reader to Diertins's narration of the "persecutions" to which the "Exercises" were subjected during the lifetime of St. Ignatius. He counts no less than twelve. The first attacks may be attributed to the surprise felt by ecclesiastics at the sight of a layman treating of spiritual matters, before having made his theological studies; the others arose from some difficulty of interpretation or from erroneous judgments as to the meaning of the text. These malevolent or over-zealous censurers were answered by Nadal and Francisco Suárez, who were justified by the approbation of the Holy See. The attacks of the present day are generally unscientific, inspired by passion, and made without any preliminary examination of the question. When the adversary's mind conceives a caricature of the "Exercises" either because he has not read them, or because before reading them he has been influenced by the erroneous statements of other hostile critics, the attack appears legitimate; in reality it will be found to refer to something that is not in the "Exercises". Besides the attacks by their mutual opposition destroy one another. The "Exercises" cannot have, simultaneously, a machiavellian and an anodyne character, or be rapt in the clouds and yet crawl upon the soil. Long ago they were, and today are, charged with being a clever machinery destined to strike and move the imagination and finally through hallucination produce ecstasies. Michelet and Quinet in their too famous lectures revived this calumny, which has been answered by Fr. Cahour in his pamphlet: "Des jésuites par un jésuite". To this charge of charlantanry one reply will suffice, the answer made by a young religious, Rodrigo de Menezès, on being asked whether he had not been favoured with any kind of vision: "Yes, I witnessed a very affecting sight; the state of my soul, the nothingness of this world and the misfortune of losing God for ever".

    This sight, if it can move a sinner to conversion, is not one likely to cause a steady mind to wander. And yet W. James mentions, as the culminating point of the "Exercises", "a half-hallucinated monoideism" ("L'Expérience reigieuse", Paris, 1906, p. 345). Certain critics have reproached the "Exercises" with favouring private inspiration, in the Protestant sense, and with opening a path to illuminism. This criticism was emphasized in the beginning by Thomas de Pedroche, O.P and arose from an erroneous interpretation of the fifteenth annotation, in which St. Ignatius advises the director not to substitute his own views for those God may have upon the exercitant. There is no question of leaving him an exaggerated liberty which might draw him beyond the limits laid down by the Church. We therefore see that some find in Ignatius's method illuminism, hallucination, and phantasmagoria; others see in it nothing dazzling, but rather dulness and insipidity. "There are people," said the Abbé Guetée, "who consider this book a masterpiece, and others find it but very ordinary" ("Histoire des Jésuites", Paris, 1858, I, 12). This charge appears again under a different form, — the "Exercises" afford but a scanty method, "a Japanese culture of counterfeited dwarfish trees" ( Huysmans, "En Route", Paris, 1896, p. 398). Finally, some Catholics see in it only a book for beginners, a retreat for the time of conversion, and a suitable means to guide one's first steps in the way of perfection. A Protestant clergyman, Rev. Mr. Carter, observes, on the contrary, that the method is rather wide and free, since "one of the first rules laid down by St. Ignatius for the director of a retreat is, that he is to adapt the Exercises to the age, the capacity, the strength of the person about to perform them" ("Retreats with notes of addresses", London, 1893, p. xxv).

    The praise bestowed on the "Exercises" far exceeds the adverse criticism. As they are considered a school of sanctity, it is interesting to know what the saints thought of them. The practice of Saints Philip Romolo Neri, Charles Borromeo, Francis de Sales, and Alphonsus Liguori is more eloquent testimony in favour of the "Exercises" than anything they have written; and it will be sufficient to recall the words of St. Leonard of Port-Maurice : "During these holy days we must exercise ourselves in the Divine art of making secure the great important affair of our salvation. As God has inspired the glorious founder of the illustrious Society of Jesus with this precious art, we have but to follow the method laid down by him in his admirable book of the Exercises." Since the approbation given by Paul III in 1548, the "Exercises" have often been favoured by the sovereign pontiffs ; the praises they have bestowed on them are mingled with recommendations of retreats, the usage of which, according to St. Francis de Sales, was revived by St. Ignatius. We need mention only Alexander VII, Clement XII, Benedict XIV, Clement XIII, and Pius IX. All their eulogies have been resumed by Leo XIII in his Brief of 8 February, 1900: "The importance of St. Ignatius's book with regard to the eternal welfare of souls has been proved by an experience of three centuries and by the evidence of those remarkable men, who, during this lapse of time, have distinguished themselves in the ascetic paths of life or in the practice of sanctity."

    Mgr Camus, Bishop of Belley, calls the "Exercises" a book, a "Golden book of pure gold, more precious than either gold or topaz" ("Direction à l'Oraison mentale", Lyons, 1623, c. xix, p. 157); Mgr Freppel "A book that I should call the work of a man of genius, if it were not that of a saint, a wonderful book, which, with the ' Imitation of Christ ', is perhaps of all books written by man the one which gains the most souls to God " ("Discours-Panégyriques", Paris, 1882, II, 36, 37); and Cardinal Wiseman : "There are many books from which the reader is taught to expect much; but which, perused, yield him but little profit. Those are few and most precious, which, at first sight, and on slender acquaintance, seem to contain but little; but the more they are studied, the more instruction, the more solid benefit they bestow; which are like a soil that looks bare and unadorned, but which contains beneath its surface rich treasures that must be digged out and drawn from a great depth. To this second class I know no book that so justly belongs as the little work here presented to the public" (Preface to Fr. ed. of the "Exercises" by Seager, London, 1847, p. xi). Janssen says: "This little book, considered by the Protestants themselves as a first class psychological masterpiece, has been for the German nation, and towards the history of its faith and civilization, one of the most important writings of modern times. . . . It has worked such extraordinary influence over souls, that no other ascetic work may be compared to it" ("L'Allemagne et la Réforme", Fr. ed., IV, 402).

    Non-Catholics also praise it. "The Spiritual", according to Macaulay, "is a manual of conversion, proposing a plan of interior discipline, by means of which, in neither more nor less than four weeks, the metamorphosis of a sinner into a faithful servant of Christ is realized, step by step" ("Edinburgh Review", November, 1842, p. 29). More recently, the Canon Charles Bodington, praising the Jesuit missionaries, so lavish of their sweat and blood, really "worthy of hearty admiration and respect", added: "Probably the noble and devotional side of the lives of these remarkable men has been largely sustained by the use of the method of the spiritual exercises left to them by their founder" ("Books of Devotion", London, 1903, p. 130). Finally, a short time ago Karl Holl (see bibliography), a German, declared the "Exercises" to be a masterpiece of pedagogy, which instead of annihilating personality serves to elevate the spirit. The Positivist P. Lafitte, in the lectures delivered by him at the Collège de France, declares: "These Exercises are to my mind a real masterpiece of political and moral wisdom and merit careful study. . . . The destination of these Exercises is to so organize the moral life of the individual that by a prolonged, solitary, and personal labour he himself realizes the most perfect balance of the mind " ("Revue occidentale", 1 May, 1894, p. 309).

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    Sámar and Leyte

    Samar and Leyte

    The names of two civil provinces in the Visayan group of the Philippines, which include the ...
    Sánchez, Alonzo

    Alonzo Sanchez

    Born in Mondejar, Guadalajara, Spain, in 1547; died at Alcalá, 27 May, 1593. He entered ...
    Sánchez, Alonzo Coello

    Alonzo Coello Sanchez

    Born at Benyfayro, Valenciz, Spain, in 1513 or 1515; died at Madrid, 1590. His name Coello is ...
    Sánchez, José Bernardo

    Jose Bernardo Sanchez

    Born at Robledillo, Old Castile, Spain, 7 September, 1778; d. at San Gabriel, California, 15 ...
    São Carlos do Pinhal

    Sao Carlos Do Pinhal

    (S. CAROLI PINHALENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of the Archdiocese of São Paulo, Brazil, ...
    São Luiz de Cáceres

    Sao Luiz de Ciceres

    (SANCTI ALOYSII DE CACERES). Diocese in Brazil, suffragan of Cuyabá, from which ...
    São Luiz de Maranhão

    Sao Luiz de Maranhao

    (SANCTI LUDOVICI DE MARAGNANO). Diocese ; suffragan of Belém de Pará, comprises ...
    São Paulo

    Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    (S. PAULI IN BRASILIA). The ecclesiastical province of São Paulo, in the Republic of ...
    São Salvador de Bahia de Todos os Santos

    Sao Salvador de Bahia de Todos Os Santos

    (SANCTI SALVATORIS OMNIUM SANCTORUM). A Brazilian see erected by Julius III, 25 Feb., 1551, ...
    São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro

    Sao Sebastiao Do Rio de Janeiro

    (S. SEBASTIAN FLUMINIS JANUARII). The ecclesiastical province of Rio de Janeiro, the third ...
    São Thiago de Cabo Verde

    Sao Thiago de Cabo Verde

    (SANCTI JACOBI CAPITIS VIRIDIS). This diocese has the seat of its bishopric on the Island ...
    Séez

    Seez

    (SAGIUM.) Diocese embracing the Department of Orne. Re-established by the Concordat of 1802, ...
    Ségur, Louis Gaston de

    Louis Gaston de Segur

    Prelate and French apologist, born 15 April, 1820, in Paris ; died 9 June, 1881, in the same ...
    Ségur, Sophie Rostopchine, Comtesse de

    Sophie Rostopchine, Comtesse de Segur

    Born 1797; died 1874. Her father was General Rostopchine who ordered the city of Moscow to be ...
    Sénanque

    Senanque

    Cistercian monastery and cradle of the modern Cistercians of the Immaculate Conception, ...
    Sévigné, Madame de

    Madame de Sevigne

    (Marie de Rabutin-Chantal). Writer, b. at Paris, 6 Feb., 1626; d. at Grignan, 18 April, 1696. ...
    Sa, Manoel de

    Manoel de Sa (Saa)

    Portuguese theologian and exegete, b. at Villa do Conde (Province Entre-Minho-e-Douro), 1530; d. ...
    Saavedra Remírez de Baquedano, Angel de

    Angel de Saavedra Remirez de Baquedano

    Spanish poet and statesman, b. at Cordova, 10 March, 1791; d. at Madrid, 22 June, 1865. He ...
    Saavedra, Fajardo Diego de

    Fajardo Diego de Saavedra

    Statesman and author, b. at Algezares, Murcia, Spain, in 1584; d. at Madrid in 1648. He made his ...
    Saba and Sabeans

    Saba and Sabeans

    This Saba (Sheba) must not be confounded with Saba (Seba) in Ethiopia of Is., xliii, 3; xlv, 14. ...
    Sabaoth

    Sabaoth

    (In Hebrew, plural form of "host" or "army"). The word is used almost exclusively in conjunction ...
    Sabbas, Saint

    St. Sabbas

    ( Also spelled Sabas). Hermit, born at Mutalaska near Caesarea in Cappadocia, 439; died in ...
    Sabbatarians, Sabbatarianism

    Sabbatarians, Sabbatarianism

    (Hebrew Shabot rest). The name, as appears from its origin, denotes those individuals or ...
    Sabbath

    Sabbath

    ( Hebrew shabbath , cessation, rest; Greek Sabbaton ; Latin Sabbatum ). The seventh day ...
    Sabbatical Year

    Sabbatical Year

    ( Shenath shabbathon , "Year of rest"; Septuagint eniautos anapauseos ; Vulgate annus ...
    Sabbatine Privilege

    Sabbatine Privilege

    The name Sabbatine Privilege is derived from the apocryphal Bull "Sacratissimo uti culmine" ...
    Sabina, Saint

    St. Sabina

    Widow of Valentinus and daughter of Herod Metallarius, suffered martyrdom about 126. According to ...
    Sabinianus, Pope

    Pope Sabinianus

    The date of his birth is unknown, but he was consecrated pope probably 13 Sept., 604, and ...
    Sabran, Louis de

    Louis de Sabran

    Jesuit ; born in Paris, 1 March, 1652; died at Rome, 22 Jan., 1732. His father, afterwards a ...
    Sabrata

    Sabrata

    A titular see in Tripolitana. Sabrata was a Phoenician town on the northern coast of Africa, ...
    Sacchoni, Rainerio

    Raneiro Sacchoni

    (Reiner.) A learned and zealous Dominican, born at Piacenza about he beginning of the ...
    Sacra Jam Splendent

    Sacra Jam Splendent

    The opening words of the hymn for Matins of the Feast of the Holy Family. The Holy See ...
    Sacrament, Reservation of the Blessed

    Reservation of the Blessed Sacrament

    The practice of preserving after the celebration of the Liturgy a portion of the consecrated ...
    Sacramentals

    Sacramentals

    In instituting the sacraments Christ did not determine the matter and form down to the ...
    Sacraments

    Sacraments

    Sacraments are outward signs of inward grace, instituted by Christ for our sanctification ...
    Sacred Heart of Jesus, Devotion to the

    Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus

    The treatment of this subject is divided into two parts: I. Doctrinal Explanations;II. Historical ...
    Sacred Heart of Jesus, Missionaries of the

    Missionaries of the Sacred Heart of Jesus

    (Issoudun). A religious congregation of priests and lay brothers with the object of ...
    Sacred Heart of Jesus, Missionary Sisters of the

    Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus

    A religious congregation having its general mother house at Rome, founded in 1880 by Mother ...
    Sacred Heart of Jesus, Society of the

    Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (Paccanarists)

    (PACCANARISTS). This society was founded by two young seminarists of Saint-Sulpice who had ...
    Sacred Heart of Jesus, Society of the

    The Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus

    An institution of religious women, taking perpetual vows and devoted to the work of education, ...
    Sacred Heart, Brothers of the

    Brothers of the Sacred Heart

    A congregation founded in 1821 by Père André Coindre, of the Diocese of Lyons, ...
    Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, Congregation of the

    Congregation of Picpus

    Better known as the Congregation of Picpus, was founded by Father Coudrin, b. at Coursay-les-Bois, ...
    Sacrifice

    Sacrifice

    (Latin sacrificium; Italian sacrificio; French sacrifice .) This term is identical with ...
    Sacrifice of the Mass

    Sacrifice of the Mass

    The word Mass ( missa ) first established itself as the general designation for the ...
    Sacrilege

    Sacrilege

    (Latin sacrilegium , robbing a temple, from sacer , sacred, and legere , to purloin.) ...
    Sacris Solemniis

    Sacris Solemniis

    The opening words of the hymn for Matins of Corpus Christi and of the Votive Office of the ...
    Sacristan

    Sacristan

    An officer who is charged with the care of the sacristy, the church, and their contents. In ...
    Sacristy

    Sacristy

    (Latin sacrastia , vestry). A room in the church or attached thereto, where the vestments, ...
    Sadducees

    Sadducees

    A politico-religious sect of the Jews during the late post-Exile and New-Testament period. The ...
    Sadler, Thomas Vincent Faustus

    Thomas Vincent Faustus Sadler

    Born 1604; died at Dieulward, Flanders, 19 Jan., 1680-1. He was received into the Church at the ...
    Sadlier, Mary Anne Madden

    Mary Anne Madden Sadlier

    Authoress, b. at Cootehill, Co. Cavan, Ireland, 30 Dec., 1820; d. at Montreal, Canada, 5 April, ...
    Sadoleto, Jacopo

    Jacopo Sadoleto

    Cardinal, humanist, and reformer, b. at Modena, 1477; d. at Rome, 1547. His father, a ...
    Sagalassus

    Sagalassus

    A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. Sagalassus was one of the chief towns of ...
    Sagard, Théodat-Gabriel

    Theodat-Gabriel Sagard

    Recollect lay brother, missionary, and historian, b. in France at the end of the sixteenth ...
    Sahagún, Bernardino de

    Bernardino de Sahagun

    Missionary and Aztec archeologist, b. at Sahagún, Kingdom of Leon, Spain, in or before ...
    Sahaptin Indians

    Sahaptin Indians

    A prominent tribe formerly holding a considerable territory in Western Idaho and adjacent ...
    Sahara, Vicariate Apostolic of

    Vicariate Apostolic of Sahara

    The Sahara is a vast desert of northern Africa, measuring about 932 miles from north to south ...
    Sailer, Johann Michael

    Johann Michael Sailer

    Professor of theology and Bishop of Ratisbon, b. at Aresing in Upper Bavaria 17 October, ...
    Sainctes, Claude de

    Claude de Sainctes

    French controversialist, b. at Perche, 1525; d. at Crèvecoeur, 1591. At the age of fifteen ...
    Saint Albans, Abbey of

    Abbey of Saint Albans

    Located in Hertfordshire, England ; founded about 793 by Offa, king of the Mercians. Venerable ...
    Saint Albert

    Saint Albert

    (SANCTI ALBERTI). The immense territories, known today as the Provinces of Manitoba, ...
    Saint Andrews and Edinburgh

    Saint Andrews and Edinburgh

    (S. A NDREAE ET E DINBURGENSIS ). Archdiocese. The exact date of the foundation of the ...
    Saint Andrews, Priory of

    Priory of Saint Andrews

    The Priory of Saint Andrews priory was one of the great religious houses in Scotland and ...
    Saint Andrews, University of

    University of Saint Andrews

    The germ of the university is to be found in an association of learned ecclesiastics, formed in ...
    Saint Asaph, Ancient Diocese of

    Ancient Diocese of Saint Asaph

    (ASSAVENSIS, originally ELVIENSIS) This diocese was founded by St. Kentigern about the ...
    Saint Augustine, Abbey of

    Abbey of Saint Augustine

    A Benedictine monastery, originally dedicated to Sts. Peter and Paul, founded in 605 outside of ...
    Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

    Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

    This massacre of which Protestants were the victims occurred in Paris on 24 August, 1572 (the ...
    Saint Benedict, Medal of

    Medal of Saint Benedict

    A medal, originally a cross, dedicated to the devotion in honour of St. Benedict. One ...
    Saint Bonaventure, College of Saint

    College of Saint Bonaventure

    At Quaracchi, near Florence, Italy, famous as the centre of literary activity in the Order of ...
    Saint Boniface

    St. Boniface

    (SANCTI BONIFACII) Archdiocese ; the chief ecclesiastical division of the Canadian West, ...
    Saint Cloud

    Saint Cloud

    (SANCTI CLODOALDI). A suffragan of the Archdiocese of St. Paul, Minnesota , comprises the ...
    Saint Francis Mission

    Saint Francis Mission

    (Properly Saint François de Sales, Quebec) A noted Catholic Indian mission village ...
    Saint Francis Xavier's College, University of

    University of St. Francis Xavier's College

    The University of St. Francis, Antigonish, Nova Scotia, was founded in 1885, under the name of ...
    Saint Gall

    Saint Gall

    (The Diocese of Saint Gall; S ANGALLENSIS ) A Swiss bishopric directly subject to the Holy ...
    Saint George's

    Saint George's

    (SANCTI GEORGII) Diocese in Newfoundland. Beginning at Garnish it takes in the western ...
    Saint George, Orders of

    Orders of St. George

    Knights of St. George appear at different historical periods and in different countries as ...
    Saint Hyacinthe

    Saint Hyacinthe

    (SANCTI HYACINTHI) Diocese in the Province of Quebec, suffragan of Montreal. In answer to a ...
    Saint Isidore, College of

    College of Saint Isidore

    The College of Saint Isidore, in Rome, was originally founded for the use of Spanish ...
    Saint James of Compostela, Order of

    Order of Saint James of Compostela

    (SANTIAGO DE LA ESPADA). Founded in the twelfth century, owes its name to the national patron ...
    Saint John

    Saint John (Canada)

    (SANCTI JOANNIS) Diocese in the Province of New Brunswick, Canada. The diocese includes the ...
    Saint John's University

    Saint John's University

    The legal title of a Catholic boarding-school at Collegeville, Minnesota, conducted by the ...
    Saint Joseph's College, University of

    University of St. Joseph's College (Canada)

    Memramcook, New Brunswick, Canada Founded in 1864 by Rev. Camille Lefebvre, C.S.C. The ...
    Saint Joseph, Diocese of

    Saint Joseph, Missouri

    (S ANCTI J OSEPHI ) The City of St. Joseph, Missouri, was founded by Joseph Robidoux, a ...
    Saint Louis (Missouri)

    Saint Louis (Missouri)

    (SANCTI LUDOVICI) Created a diocese 2 July, 1826; raised to the rank of an archdiocese 20 ...
    Saint Louis, University of

    University of Saint Louis

    The University of St. Louis, probably the oldest university west of the Mississippi River, was ...
    Saint Lucius, Monastery of

    Monastery of Saint Lucius

    (LUZI) Located in Chur, Switzerland. The Church of St. Lucius was built over the grave of ...
    Saint Mark, University of

    University of Saint Mark

    The highest institution of learning in Peru, located at Lima, under the official name of ...
    Saint Omer, College of

    College of Saint Omer

    The well-known Jesuit college at St. Omer -- oftener spoken of under the anglicized form of ...
    Saint Paul (Minnesota)

    Saint Paul

    (SANCTI PAULI) Archdiocese comprising the counties of Ramsey, Hennepin, Chisago, Anoka, Dakota, ...
    Saint Paul-without-the Walls

    St. Paul-Without-The-Walls

    ( San Paolo fuori le mura ). An abbey nullius. As early as 200 the burial place of the ...
    Saint Peter, Basilica of

    Basilica of Saint Peter

    TOPOGRAPHY The present Church of St. Peter stands upon the site where at the beginning of the ...
    Saint Peter, Tomb of

    Tomb of St. Peter

    The history of the relics of the Apostles Peter and Paul is one which is involved in ...
    Saint Petersburg

    Saint Petersburg

    Saint Petersburg, the imperial residence and second capital of Russia, lies at the mouth of the ...
    Saint Sylvester, Order of

    Order of Saint Sylvester

    The Order of Saint Sylvester is neither monastic nor military but a purely honorary title ...
    Saint Thomas of Guiana

    Saint Thomas of Guiana

    (GUAYANA; DE GUAYANA). Diocese ; suffragan of Caracas, erected by Pius VI on 19 Dec., 1791, ...
    Saint Thomas of Mylapur

    Saint Thomas of Mylapur

    DIOCESE OF SAINT THOMAS OF MYLAPUR (SANCTI THOMAE DE MELIAPOR). Suffragan to the primatial See ...
    Saint Thomas, Diocese of

    Saint Thomas

    (SANCTI THOMAE IN INSULA) The Diocese of Saint Thomas, comprising the Islands of São ...
    Saint Thomas, University of

    University of Saint Thomas

    (SANTO TOMÁS) University in Manila, founded in 1619 by the Dominican Miguel de ...
    Saint Vincent de Paul, Society of

    Society of Saint Vincent de Paul

    An international association of Catholic laymen engaging systematically in personal service of ...
    Saint-Brieuc

    Saint-Brieuc

    (B RIOCUM ) Diocese ; comprises the Department of the Côtes du Nord. Re-established by ...
    Saint-Claude

    Saint-Claude

    (S ANCTI C LAUDII ). The Diocese of Saint-Claude comprised in the eighteenth century only ...
    Saint-Cosme, Jean-François Buisson de

    Jean-Francois Buisson de Saint-Cosme

    (Or JEAN-FRANÇOIS BISSON DE SAINT-COSME) Born in Quebec, Canada, February, 1667; ...
    Saint-Denis

    Saint-Denis

    Diocese erected in 1850 as suffragan of Bordeaux, includes the Island of Réunion in the ...
    Saint-Denis, Abbey of

    Abbey of Saint-Denis

    The Abbey of Saint-Denis is situated in a small town to which it has given its name, about four ...
    Saint-Dié

    Saint-Die

    (SANCTI DEODATI) Diocese comprising the Department of the Vosges. Suppressed by the Concordat ...
    Saint-Flour

    Saint-Flour

    (F LOROPOLIS ) Diocese comprising the Department of Cantal, and is suffragan of the ...
    Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne

    Saint-Jean-De-Maurienne

    (DIOCESE OF MAURAMANENSIS) Includes the arrondissement of Saint Jean-de-Maurienne in the ...
    Saint-John, Ambrose

    Ambrose Saint-John

    Oratorian; b. 1815; d. at Edgbaston, Birmingham, 24 May, 1875; son of Henry St. John, descended ...
    Saint-Ouen, Abbey of

    Abbey of Saint-Ouen

    Located in Rouen, France, this abbey was a Benedictine monastery of great antiquity dating ...
    Saint-Pierre and Miquelon

    Saint-Pierre and Miquelon

    (INSULARUM S. PETRI ET MIQUELONENSIS). Prefecture apostolic comprising the only French ...
    Saint-Simon and Saint-Simonism

    Saint-Simon and Saint-Simonism

    Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, was born in Paris, 17 Oct., 1760; died there, 19 ...
    Saint-Simon, Louis de Rouvroy, Duc de

    Duc de Saint-Simon

    Born 16 January, 1675; died in Paris, 2 March, 1755. Having quitted the military service in 1702, ...
    Saint-Sulpice, Society of

    Society of Saint-Sulpice

    Founded at Paris by M. Olier (1642) for the purpose of providing directors for the seminaries ...
    Saint-Vallier, Jean-Baptiste de

    Jean-Baptiste de Saint-Vallier

    Second Bishop of Quebec, b. at Grenoble, France, 14 Nov. 1653; d. at Quebec, Canada, 26 Dec., ...
    Saint-Victor, Abbey of

    Abbey of Saint-Victor

    In the year 1108, the famous William of Champeaux , archdeacon of Notre-Dame in Paris, who ...
    Saint-Victor, Achard de

    Achard de Saint-Victor

    Canon regular, Abbot of St-Victor, Paris, and Bishop of Avranches, b. about 1100; d. 1172. By ...
    Sainte Anne d'Auray

    Sainte Anne d'Auray

    A little village three miles from the town of Auray (6,500 inhabitants), in the Diocese of ...
    Sainte Anne de Beaupré

    Sainte Anne de Beaupre

    Devotion to Saint Anne , in Canada, goes back to the beginning of New France, and was brought ...
    Sainte-Claire Deville, Charles

    Charles Sainte-Claire Deville

    Geologist, b. at St. Thomas, West Indies, 26 February, 1814; d. in Paris 10 October, 1876. Going ...
    Sainte-Claire Deville, Henri-Etienne

    Henri-Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville

    Chemist, b. at St. Thomas, West Indies, 11 March, 1818; d. at Boulogne, 1 July, 1881; brother of ...
    Sainte-Geneviève, Abbey of

    Abbey of Sainte-Genevieve

    The Abbey of Sainte-Geneviève, in Paris, was founded by King Clovis who established there ...
    Saints Vincent and Anastasius, Abbey of

    Saints Vincent and Anastasius

    (TRIUM FONTIUM AD AQUAS SALVIAS, TRE FONTANE, or THREE FOUNTAINS). Located near Rome. ...
    Saints, Canonization of

    Beatification and Canonization

    HISTORY According to some writers the origin of beatification and canonization in the Catholic ...
    Saints, Communion of

    Communion of Saints

    ( communo sanctorum , a fellowship of, or with, the saints). The doctrine expressed in the ...
    Saints, Legends of the

    Legends of the Saints

    Under the term legend the modern concept would include every untrue tale. But it is not so ...
    Sala, George Augustus Henry

    George Augustus Henry Sala

    Journalist, b. in London, 24 Nov., 1828; d. at Brighton, 8 Dec., 1895, having been received into ...
    Salamanca

    Salamanca

    (SALMANTICENSIS, SALMANTINA, SALMANTICAE). Diocese in Spain ; comprises the civil Provinces ...
    Salamanca, University of

    University of Salamanca

    This university had its beginning in the Cathedral School under the direction, from the ...
    Salamis

    Salamis

    A titular see in Cyprus. Salamis was a maritime town on the eastern coast of Cyprus, situated ...
    Salamis, Epiphanius of

    Epiphanius of Salamis

    Born at Besanduk, near Eleutheropolis, in Judea, after 310; died in 403. While very young he ...
    Salamon, Louis-Siffren-Joseph

    Louis-Siffren-Joseph Salamon

    Bishop of Saint-Flour ; b. at Carpentras, 22 Oct., 1759; d. at Saint-Flour, 11 June, 1829. ...
    Salazar, Domingo de

    Domingo de Salazar

    Born in La Rioja, in the village of La Bastida on the banks of the Ebro, 1512; died in Madrid, 4 ...
    Sale

    Sale

    (SALIENSIS) Diocese in Victoria, Australia, comprises all the territory known as Gippsland. ...
    Salem

    Salem

    (SALMANSWEILER) Also called Salomonis Villa on account of the resemblance of its primitive ...
    Salerno

    Salerno

    Diocese in Campania, Southern Italy. The city is situated on the gulf of the same name, backed by ...
    Salesian Society, The

    The Salesian Society

    The Salesian Society, founded by Saint John Bosco, takes its distinctive name from its patron, ...
    Salford

    Salford

    (SALFORDIENSIS) The Diocese of Salford comprises the Hundreds of Salford and Blackburn, in ...
    Salimbene degli Adami

    Salimbene Degli Adami

    (OGNIBENE). Chronicler, b. at Parma, 9 Oct., 1221; d. probably at Montefalcone about 1288. He ...
    Salisbury, Ancient Diocese of

    Salisbury

    (SARUM, SARISBURIENSIS). The diocese was originally founded by Birinus, who in 634 ...
    Saliva Indians

    Saliva Indians

    The principal of a small group of tribes constituting a distinct linguistic stock (the Salivan), ...
    Salle, Saint John Baptist de la

    St. John Baptist de la Salle

    Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools , educational reformer, and ...
    Salmanticenses and Complutenses

    Salmanticenses and Complutenses

    These names designate the authors of the courses of Scholastic philosophy and theology, and of ...
    Salmas

    Salmas

    A Chaldean see, included in the ancient Archdiocese of Adhorbigan, or Adherbaidjan; we know ...
    Salmeron, Alphonsus

    Salmeron

    Jesuit Biblical scholar, born at Toledo, 8 Sept., 1515; died at Naples, 13 Feb., 1585. He ...
    Salome

    Salome

    (1) The daughter of Herod Philip and Herodias ( Matthew 14:6-8 : Mark 6:22 ; cf. Josephus, ...
    Salt

    Salt

    Salt, always used for the seasoning of food and for the preservation of things from corruption, ...
    Salt Lake, Diocese of

    Salt Lake

    (LACUS SALSIS). Includes the State of Utah, and slightly more than half of the State of ...
    Salta, Diocese of

    Salta

    (SALTENSIS). Comprises the civil Provinces of Salta and Jujuy in the northern part of the ...
    Saltillo, Diocese of

    Saltillo

    (SALTILLENSIS). Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of Linares, or Monterey. Its ...
    Salto

    Salto

    (SALTENSIS). Diocese in Uruguay, suffragan to Montevideo. This diocese with that of Melo ...
    Salutati, Coluccio di Pierio di

    Coluccio di Pierio di Salutati

    Italian Humanist b. in Tuscany, 1331; d. 4 May, 1406. He studied at Bologna and went to Rome ...
    Saluzzo

    Saluzzo

    (SALUCLIAE, SALUTIENSIS) Diocese in the Province of Cuneo, Piedmont, Upper Italy. The city of ...
    Salvatierra, Juan Maria

    Juan Maria Salvatierra

    Born at Milan, 15 November, 1648; died at Guadalajara, 17 July, 1717. His family was of ...
    Salvation

    Salvation

    (Greek soteria ; Hebrew yeshu'ah ). Salvation has in Scriptural language the general ...
    Salve Mundi Salutare

    Salve Mundi Salutare

    A poem in honour of the various members of Christ on the Cross. A fifteenth-century manuscript ...
    Salve Regina

    Salve Regina

    The opening words (used as a title) of the most celebrated of the four Breviary anthems of the ...
    Salvete Christi Vulnera

    Salvete Christi Vulnera

    The Roman Breviary hymn at Lauds of the feast of the Most Precious Blood, is found in the ...
    Salvianus

    Salvianus

    A Latin writer of Gaul, who lived in the fifth century. Born of Christian parents, he married a ...
    Salzburg

    Salzburg

    (SALISBURGENSIS) The Archdiocese of Salzburg is conterminous with the Austrian crown-land of ...
    Salzmann, Joseph

    Joseph Salzmann

    Founder of St. Francis Provincial Seminary (St. Francis, Wisconsin ) known as the "Salesianum", ...
    Samaria

    Samaria

    A titular see, suffragan of Cæsarea in Palestine Prima. In the sixth year of his reign ...
    Samaritan Language and Literature

    Samaritan Language and Literature

    I. LANGUAGE The original language of the Samaritans was the vernacular of Palestine, that is ...
    Sambuga, Joseph Anton

    Joseph Anton Sambuga

    Theologian, b. at Walldorf near Heidelberg, 9 June; 1752; d. at Nymphenburg near Munich 5 June, ...
    Samoa

    Samoa

    (Or NAVIGATORS' ISLANDS). A group of islands situated in latitude 13§30' and 14§30' ...
    Samogitia

    Samogitia

    (SAMOGITIENSIS) A Russian diocese, also called Telshi (Telshe), including the part of ...
    Samos

    Samos

    Titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades. The island, called in Turkish Soussan-Adassi ...
    Samosata

    Samosata

    a titular see in Augusta Euphratensis, suffragan of Hierapolis, capital of Commagenum, whose ...
    Sampson, Richard

    Richard Sampson

    Bishop of Chichester and subsequently of Coventry and Lichfield ; d. at Eccleshall, ...
    Samson

    Samson

    (Derived from the Hebrew for "sun"). The last and most famous of the Judges of Israel. The ...
    Samson

    Samson

    Abbot of St. Edmunds, b. at Tottington, near Thetford, in 1135; d. 1211. After taking his M.A. ...
    Samson, Saint

    St. Samson

    Bishop and confessor, born in South Wales ; died 28 July, 565 (?). The date of his birth is ...
    Samuco Indians

    Samuco Indians

    (Zamuco). The collective name of a group of tribes in southwestern Bolivia, speaking dialects ...
    Samuel, First and Second Books of

    First and Second Samuel

    (Also know as the F IRST AND S ECOND B OOKS OF S AMUEL. For the First and Second Books of ...
    San Antonio, Diocese of

    San Antonio

    (Sancti Antonii). Comprises all that portion of the State of Texas between the Colorado and ...
    San Carlos de Ancud

    San Carlos de Ancud

    (Sancti Caroli Ancudiæ). The most southern of the Chilian dioceses. It extends from the ...
    San Francisco

    San Francisco

    (SANCTI FRANCISCI) Archdiocese established 29 July 1853 to include the Counties of San ...
    San Gallo

    San Gallo

    A celebrated family of architects, sculptors, painters, and engravers, which flourished in ...
    San José de Costa Rica

    San Jose de Costa Rica

    (SANCTI JOSEPHI DE COSTARICA). The Republic of Costa Rica , Central America, constitutes this ...
    San Juan

    San Juan (Argentina)

    (SANCTI JOANNIS DE CUYO). Diocese in the Argentine Republic at the foot of the Cordillera of ...
    San León del Amazonas

    San Leon Del Amazonas

    Prefecture Apostolic in Peru. Though the section of Peru lying on the eastern side of the Andes ...
    San Luis Potosí

    San Luis Potosi

    (SANCTI LUDOVICI POTOSIENSIS) Diocese in Mexico, erected by Pius IX in 1854. It includes the ...
    San Marco and Bisignano

    San Marco and Bisignano

    (SANCTI MARCI ET BISINIANENSIS) Diocese in the Province of Cosenza in Calabria, Italy. San ...
    San Marino

    San Marino

    An independent republic lying between the Italian Provinces of Forli, Pasaro, and Urbino, having ...
    San Martino al Cimino

    San Martino Al Cimino

    A prelature nullius in the territory of the Diocese of Viterbo, Province of Rome. The district ...
    San Miniato

    San Miniato

    A city and diocese in the Province of Florence, Central Italy. It is first mentioned in the ...
    San Salvador

    San Salvador

    The name given by Columbus to his first discovery in the New World . It is one of the Bahama ...
    San Salvador

    San Salvador

    (SANCTI SALVATORIS IN AMERICA CENTRALI) Diocese. The Republic of Salvador, often incorrectly ...
    San Sepolcro, Piero da

    Piero Da San Sepolcro

    Painter, b. at Borgo San-Sepolcro, about 1420; d. there, 1492. The most usual form of his name is ...
    San Severino

    San Severino

    (SANCTI SEVERINI) San Severino is a small town and seat of a bishopric in the Province of ...
    San Severo

    San Severo

    (SANCTI SEVERINI) Diocese in the Province of Foggia (Capitanata), Southern Italy, situated in ...
    San Xavier del Bac, Mission of

    Mission of San Xavier Del Bac

    One of the eight missions founded by the Spanish Padres between 1687 and 1720 in the Pimeria Alta, ...
    Sanchez, Thomas

    Thomas Sanchez

    Born at Cordova, 1550; died in the college of Granada , 19 May, 1610. In 1567 he entered the ...
    Sanctifying Grace

    Sanctifying Grace

    Grace ( gratia, Charis ), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual ...
    Sanction

    Sanction

    ( Latin sancire , same root as sanctus ). Sanction signifies primarily the authoritative ...
    Sanction, Pragmatic

    Pragmatic Sanction

    ( pragmatica sanctio , lex , jussio , also pragmatica or pragmaticum ) Pragmatic ...
    Sanctity

    Sanctity (Mark of the Church)

    The term " sanctity " is employed in somewhat different senses in relation to God, to ...
    Sanctorum Meritis

    Sanctorum Meritis

    The hymn at First and Second Vespers in the Common of the Martyrs in the Roman Breviary. Its ...
    Sanctuary

    Sanctuary

    A consecrated place giving protection to those fleeing from justice or persecution ; or, the ...
    Sanctuary

    Sanctuary

    The space in the church for the high altar and the clergy. It is variously designated apsis ...
    Sanctus

    Sanctus

    I. HISTORY The Sanctus is the last part of the Preface in the Mass, sung in practically every ...
    Sandals, Episcopal

    Episcopal Sandals

    FORM AND PRESENT USE Unlike the ancient sandals, which consisted merely of soles fastened to the ...
    Sandemanians

    Sandemanians

    An English form of the Scottish sect of Glassites, followers of John Glas (b. 1695; d. 1773) ...
    Sandeo, Felino Maria

    Felino Maria Sandeo

    Often quoted under the name of Felinus, Italian canonist of the fifteenth century, b. at Felina, ...
    Sander, Anton

    Anton Sander

    Historian, b. at Antwerp, 1586; d. at Afflighem, Belgium, 10 Jan., 1664. Having become master ...
    Sander, Nicholas

    Nicholas Sander

    (SANDERS). Born at Charlwood, Surrey, in 1530; died in Ireland, 1581. Educated at ...
    Sandhurst

    Sandhurst

    (SANDHURSTENSIS). Diocese in Victoria, Australia ; suffragan of Melbourne. The cathedral ...
    Sandomir

    Sandomir

    (Polish, Sandomierz ; Latin, Sandomiriensis ). The city is very ancient, with still ...
    Sands, Benjamin and James

    Admiral Sands (Benjamin and James)

    Benjamin F. Sands Rear-admiral United States Navy, b. at Baltimore, Md., 11 Feb., 1812; d. at ...
    Sandwich Isands

    Sandwich Islands (Hawaii)

    (H AWAII ) Vicariate Apostolic comprising all the islands of the Hawaiian group. They lie ...
    Sandys, Venerable John

    Ven. John Sandys

    English martyr, born in the Diocese of Chester ; executed at Gloucester, 11 August, 1586. He ...
    Sanetch Indians

    Sanetch Indians

    A sub-tribe of the Songish Indians . They speak a dialect of the Cowichan language of Salishan ...
    Sanhedrin

    Sanhedrin

    The supreme council and court of justice among the Jews. The name Sanhedrin is derived ...
    Sankt Pölten

    Sankt Poelten

    Diocese in Lower Austria, derives its name and origin from Fanum Sancti Hippolyti , a ...
    Sannazaro, Jacopo

    Jacopo Sannazaro

    (Latin, ACTIUS SINCERUS SANNAZARIUS). Italian and Latin poet, b. at Naples, 28 July, 1458; d. ...
    Sanseverino, Gaetano

    Gaetano Sanseverino

    Restorer of the Scholastic philosophy in Italy, b. at Naples, 1811; d. there of cholera, 16 ...
    Sansovino, Andrea Contucci del

    Andrea Contucci Del Sansovino

    Born at Monte San Sovino, Arezzo, 1460; died 1529. He was a sculptor of the transition period at ...
    Sant' Angelo de' Lombardi

    Sant' Angelo De' Lombardi

    (SANCTI ANGELI LOMBARDORUM ET BISACCIENSIS). Diocese in the Province of Avellino, Southern ...
    Sant' Angelo in Vado and Urbania

    Sant' Angelo in Vado and Urbania

    (SANCTI ANGELI IN VADO ET URBANIENSIS). Diocese ; S. Angelo in Vado is a city in the Marches, ...
    Santa Agata dei Goti, Diocese of

    Santa Agata Dei Goti

    (S. AGATHAE GOTHORUM) In the Province of Benevento, Southern Italy ; the city, situated on ...
    Santa Casa di Loreto

    Santa Casa di Loreto (Holy House of Loreto)

    (The Holy House of Loreto). Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the "Holy ...
    Santa Catharina

    Santa Catharina

    (FLORIANOPOLIS; FLORIANOPOLITANA). Diocese ; suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Porto Alegre ...
    Santa Cruz de la Sierra

    Santa Cruz de la Sierra

    (SANCTAE CRUCIS DE SIERRA). Diocese in Bolivia, erected on 6 July, 1605, as suffragan of ...
    Santa Fe (Argentina)

    Santa Fe (Argentina)

    (SANCTAE FIDEI). Diocese in the Argentine Republic, suffragan of Buenos Aires, comprising the ...
    Santa Fe (New Mexico)

    Santa Fe (New Mexico)

    (SANCTAE FIDEI IN AMERICA). Archdiocese in New Mexico, erected by Pius IX in 1850 and ...
    Santa Lucia del Mela

    Santa Lucia Del Mela

    Prelature nullius within the territory of the Archdiocese of Messina , Sicily, now governed ...
    Santa Maria (Brazil)

    Santa Maria (Brazil)

    (SANCTAE MARIAE). A Brazilian see, suffragan of Porto Alegre. The latter, formerly known as ...
    Santa Maria de Monserrato

    Santa Maria de Monserrato

    (BEATAE MARIAE VIRGINIS DE MONTSERRATO). An abbey nullius in Brazil. When it was ...
    Santa Marta

    Santa Marta (Colombia)

    (SANCTA MARTHAE). Diocese in Colombia, erected in 1535, its first bishop being Alfonso do ...
    Santa Severina

    Santa Severina

    (SANCTA SEVERINAE) Diocese in the Province of Catanzaro in Calabria, Southern Italy. Situated ...
    Santander

    Santander

    (SANCTI ANDERII, SANTANDERIENSIS). This diocese in Spain takes its name not from St. Andrew ...
    Santarem

    Santarem

    Prelature nullius created in 1903, in the ecclesiastical Province of Belem do Pará, with ...
    Santiago del Estero

    Santiago Del Estero

    (SANCTI JACOBI DE ESTERO) Diocese in the Argentine Republic, erected 25 March, 1907, ...
    Santiago, University of

    University of Santiago

    It has been asserted by some historians that as early as the ninth century a course of general ...
    Santini, Giovanni Sante Gaspero

    Giovanni Sante Gaspero Santini

    Astronomer, b. at Caprese in Tuscany, 30 Jan., 1787; d. at Padua, 26 June, 1877. He received his ...
    Santo Domingo, Archdiocese of

    Santo Domingo

    (SANCTI DOMINICI) Erected on 8 August, 1511, by Julius II who by the Bull "Pontifex ...
    Santos, João dos

    Joao Dos Santos

    Dominican missionary in India and Africa, b. at Evora, Portugal ; d. at Goa in 1622. His ...
    Sappa

    Sappa

    (SAPPENSIS, SAPPATENSIS, ZAPPATENSIS). Diocese in Albania, established in 1062, by Alexander ...
    Sara

    Sara

    Sara (Hebrew for "princess"; another form, Sarai, the signification of which is doubtful, is ...
    Sarabaites

    Sarabaites

    A class of monks widely spread before the time of St. Benedict. They either continued like the ...
    Saragossa

    Saragossa

    (CAESARAUGUSTANA) Diocese in Spain ; comprises a great part of the civil Province of ...
    Saragossa, University of

    University of Saragossa

    This university was not definitively established until 1585 its real founder being Don Pedro ...
    Sarajevo, Archdiocese of

    Serajevo (Sarajevo)

    (SERAIUM). The healthy growth of the Church in Bosnia was blighted and stunted by ...
    Sarayacú Mission

    Sarayacu Mission

    The chief Franciscan mission of the Ucavali river country, Department of Loreto, north-east ...
    Sarbiewski, Mathias Casimir

    Mathias Casimir Sarbiewski

    The Horace of Poland, b. near Plonsk, in the Duchy of Masovia, 24 February, 1595; d. 2 April, ...
    Sardes

    Sardes

    A titular see of Lydia, in Asia Minor probably the ancient Hyde of Homer (Iliad, II, 844; XX, ...
    Sardica

    Sardica

    A titular metropolitan see of Dacia Mediterranea. The true name of the city (now Sophia, the ...
    Sardica, Council of

    Council of Sardica

    One of the series of councils called to adjust the doctrinal and other difficulties caused by ...
    Sardinia

    Sardinia

    The second largest Italian island in the Mediterranean, lying between 41°15' and 38°51' ...
    Sarepta

    Sarepta

    A titular see in Phoenicia Prima, suffragan of Tyre. It is mentioned for the first time in ...
    Sarkander, Blessed John

    Bl. John Sarkander

    Martyr of the seal of confession, born at Skotschau in Austrian Silesia, 20 Dec., 1576; died at ...
    Sarnelli, Januarius Maria

    Januarius Maria Sarnelli

    One of S. Alphonsus's earliest companions, fourth son of Baron Angelo Sarnelli of Ciorani, b. in ...
    Sarpi, Paolo

    Paolo Sarpi

    A Servite and anti-papal historian and statesman, b. at Venice, 14 August, 1552; d. there 14 or ...
    Sarsfield, Patrick

    Patrick Sarsfield

    Born at Lucan near Dublin, about 1650; died at Huy in Belgium, 1693. On his mother's side he ...
    Sarsina

    Sarsina

    DIOCESE OF SARSINA (SARSINATENSIS) Located in Aemilia, Province of Forli, Italy. Besides ...
    Sarto, Andrea del

    Andrea Del Sarto

    (ANDREA D'AGNOLO) Born at Florence in 1486; d. there in 1531. He received the surname Sarto ...
    Sarum Rite

    Sarum Rite

    (More accurately S ARUM U SE ) The manner of regulating the details of the Roman Liturgy ...
    Sasima

    Sasima

    A titular see in Cappadocia. Sasima is mentioned only in three non-religious documents: "Itiner. ...
    Saskatchewan and Alberta

    Saskatchewan and Alberta

    The twin provinces of the Canadian West, so called because they were formed on the same day (1 ...
    Sassari

    Sassari

    (TURRITANA) Archdiocese in Sardinia, Italy, situated on the River Rossello in a fertile ...
    Sassoferrato, Giovanni Battista Salvi da

    Giovanni Battista Salvi Da Sassoferrato

    Born at Sassoferrato in the Rome, 1689, where he had passed the greater part of his life. His ...
    Satala

    Satala

    A titular see in Armenia Prima, suffragan of Sabastia. Satala according to the ancient ...
    Satan

    Devil

    (Greek diabolos ; Latin diabolus ). The name commonly given to the fallen angels, who are ...
    Satolli, Francesco

    Francesco Satolli

    Theologian, cardinal, first Apostolic delegate to the United States, b. 21 July, 1839, at ...
    Saturninus, Saint

    St. Saturninus

    St. Saturninus was, says Tillemont, one of the most illustrious martyrs France has given to the ...
    Sauatra

    Sauatra

    A titular see of Lycaonia, suffragan or Iconium. Nothing is known of the history of this town, ...
    Saul

    Saul

    Hebrew for postulatus , referring probably to the petition mentioned in 1 Samuel 8:5 . The ...
    Sault Sainte Marie

    Sault Sainte Marie

    (SANCTAE-MARIAE-ORMENSIS) Diocese erected by Decree of 16 September, 1904. It embraces the ...
    Sault St. Louis

    Caughnawaga

    Or SAULT ST. LOUIS. An Iroquois reservation, situated on the south bank of the St. Lawrence, ...
    Savannah

    Savannah

    DIOCESE OF SAVANNAH (SAVANENSIS) The Diocese of Savannah comprises the State of Georgia and ...
    Savaric

    Savaric

    Bishop of Bath and Glastonbury, and cousin of the Emperor Henry VI, date of birth unknown, d. ...
    Savary

    Savary

    A noble French family of the seventeenth century especially devoted to trade and to the ...
    Savigny, Abbey of

    Abbey of Savigny

    Situated on the confines of Normandy and Brittany, Diocese of Coutances, France. Founded by ...
    Savigny, Karl Friedrich

    Karl Friedrich Savigny

    Diplomatist, born at Berlin, 19 Sept., 1814; died at Frankfort-on-the-Main, 11 Feb., 1875. He ...
    Savona and Noli

    Savona and Noli

    (SAVONENSIS ET NAULENSIS) Province of Genoa, on the Gulf of Genoa, having a small but safe ...
    Savonarola, Girolamo

    Girolamo Savonarola

    Born at Ferrara, 21 September, 1452; died at Florence, 23 May, 1498. The Dominican reformer ...
    Savoy

    Savoy

    (Italian S AVOJA ; French S AVOIE ) A district in the south-eastern part of France that ...
    Saxe, Jean de

    Jean de Saxe

    For a long time two astronomers of the Middle Ages were confounded under this name. (1) ...
    Saxe-Altenburg

    Saxe-Altenburg

    One of the Saxon duchies in the east of Thuringia ; situated on the west frontier of the Kingdom ...
    Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

    Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

    One of the Saxon-Thuringian duchies; has an area of 751 sq. miles and two chief divisions, the ...
    Saxe-Meiningen

    Saxe-Meiningen

    A Saxon-Thuringian duchy. It has an area of 953 sq. miles, and 278,792 inhabitants (1910). In 1905 ...
    Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

    Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

    A grand duchy in Thuringia, also known in recent times as the Grand duchy of Saxony. It has ...
    Saxo Grammaticus

    Saxo Grammaticus

    Danish historian of the thirteenth century, author of the "Gesta Danorum". The scanty information ...
    Saxony

    Saxony

    I. THE SAXON TRIBE There arose in Germany during the third and fourth centuries after Christ ...
    Saxony, Albert of

    Albert of Saxony

    (Albert of Helmstädt) Fourteenth-century philosopher ; nicknamed Albertus Parvus, ...
    Scala Sancta (Holy Stairs)

    Scala Sancta (Holy Stairs)

    Consisting of twenty-eight white marble steps, at Rome, near the Lateran; according to tradition ...
    Scaliger, Julius Caesar

    Julius Caesar Scaliger

    (It., DELLA SCALA). Humanist, b. at Riva on Lake Garda in 1484; d. at Agen, France, 21 Oct., ...
    Scalimoli

    Scalimoli

    Theologian, better known by his religious name, ANDREA DI CASTELLANA, from his place of origin in ...
    Scammon, Ellakim Parker

    Ellakim Parker Scammon

    Educator, b. at Whitefield, Maine, U.S.A. 27 Dec., 1816; d. at New York, 7 Dec., 1894. Having ...
    Scandal

    Scandal

    I. NOTION OF SCANDAL According to St. Thomas (II-II, Q. liii, a. 1) scandal is a word or action ...
    Scannabecchi, Filippo

    Filippo Scannabecchi

    [DALMASIO; LIPPO DI DALMASIO; LIPPO DALLE MADONNE; MURATORI(?)]. Bolognese painter, born about ...
    Scapular

    Scapular

    I. NAME, MEANING, AND ORIGIN The scapular (from Latin, scapula , shoulder) forms a part, and ...
    Scaramelli, Giovanni Battista

    Giovanni Battista Scaramelli

    Ascetical writer, b. at Rome, 24 Nov., 1687; d. at Macerata, 11 Jan., 1752. He entered the ...
    Scarampi, Pierfrancesco

    Pierfrancesco Scarampi

    Oratorian, Papal envoy, b. of a noble and ancient family in the Duchy of Monferrato, Piedmont, ...
    Scarlatti, Alessandro

    Alessandro Scarlatti

    Born in Sicily, either at Trapani or at Palermo, in 1659; died at Naples 24 Oct., 1725; ...
    Scarron, Paul

    Paul Scarron

    French poet and dramatist, b. in Paris, 4 July, 1610; d. 7 October, 1660. His father was a judge ...
    Scepticism

    Scepticism

    (Gr. sképsis , speculation, doubt ; sképtesthai, to scrutinize or examine ...
    Schäftlarn

    Schaftlarn

    Formerly a Premonstratensian, now a Benedictine, abbey, situated on the Isar not far from ...
    Schäufelin, Hans Leonhard

    Hans Leonhard Schaufelin

    (Known also as Scheuffelin, Schauffelein, and Scheyffelin). A German wood engraver, pupil of ...
    Schäzler, Constantine, Baron von

    Constantine, Baron von Schazler

    Theologian, b. at Ratisbon, 7 May, 1827; d. at Interlaken, 9 September, 1880. By birth and ...
    Schöffer, Peter

    Peter Schoffer

    Publisher and printer, b. at Gernsheim on the Rine about 1425; d. at Mainz in 1503. As a cleric ...
    Schönborn

    Schonborn

    The name of a German noble family, many members of which were prelates of the Church. (1) ...
    Schöningh

    Schoningh

    The publishing house of Ferdinand Schöningh at Paderborn was founded by Ferdinand Friedrich ...
    Schadow, Friedrich Wilhelm

    Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow

    Painter, b. at Berlin, 1789; d. at Düsseldorf, 1862. He was the son of the sculptor, ...
    Schaepman, Herman

    Herman Schaepman

    Orator, poet, and statesman, b. at Tubbergen, Holland, 2 March, 1844; d. at Rome, 21 Jan., 1903. ...
    Schall von Bell, Johann Adam

    Johann Adam Schall von Bell

    An especially prominent figure among the missionaries to China, b. of an important family at ...
    Schannat, Johann Friedrich

    Johann Friedrich Schannat

    German historian, b. at Luxemburg, 23 July, 1683; d. at Heidleberg, 6 March, 1739. He studied at ...
    Schatzgeyer, Caspar

    Caspar Schatzgeyer

    A foremost opponent of the Protestant Reformers ; b. at Landshut in 1463 or 1464; d. at Munich, ...
    Schaumburg-Lippe

    Schaumburg-Lippe

    A German principality, surrounded by the Prussian province of Westphalia Hanover, and an exclave ...
    Schedel, Hartmann

    Hartmann Schedel

    German Humanist and historian, b. at Nuremberg, 13 February, 1440; d. there on 28 November, ...
    Scheeben, Matthias Joseph

    Matthias Joseph Scheeben

    Theological writer of acknowledged merit, born at Meckenheim near Bonn, 1 March, 1835; died at ...
    Scheffmacher, John James

    John James Scheffmacher

    Jesuit theologian b. at Kientzheim, Alsace, 27 April, 1668; d. at Strasburg, 18 August, 1733. ...
    Scheiner, Christopher

    Christopher Scheiner

    German astronomer, b. at Wald, near Mindelheim, in Swabia, 25 July, 1575; d. at Niesse, in ...
    Schelble, Johann Nepomuk

    Johann Nepomuk Schelble

    Musician, b. 16 May, 1789, at Huffingen in the Black Forest; d. there 6 Aug., 1837. At the age of ...
    Schelstrate, Emmanuel

    Emmanuel Schelstrate

    Theologian, b. at Antwerp, 1649; d. at Rome, 6 April, 1692. While he was a canon of the ...
    Schenkl, Maurus von

    Maurus von Schenkl

    Benedictine theologian and canonist, b. at Auerbach in Bavaria, 4 January 1749; d. at Amberg, 14 ...
    Schenute

    Schenute

    (SCHENUDI, SCHNUDI, SINUTHIUS). A Coptic abbot. The years 332-33-34 and 350 are mentioned as ...
    Scherer, Georg

    Georg Scherer

    Pulpit orator and controversialist, b. at Schwaz, in the Tyrol, 1540, according to Duhr; d. at ...
    Scherer-Boccard, Theodore, Count von

    Theodore, Count von Scherer-Boccard

    A Swiss Catholic journalist and politician; b. at Dornach in the canton of Solothurn, 12 May, ...
    Schinner, Matthæus

    Matthaeus Schinner

    Bishop, cardinal, and statesman, b. at Muhlbach in the Canton of Valais, Switzerland, about ...
    Schism

    Schism

    I. GENERAL IDEAS, MORAL CHARACTER, AND PENAL SANCTIONS Schism (from the Greek schisma , rent, ...
    Schism, Eastern

    Eastern Schism

    From the time of Diotrephes ( 3 John 1:9-10 ) there have been continual schisms, of which the ...
    Schism, Western

    Western Schism

    This schism of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries differs in all points from the Eastern ...
    Schlör, Aloysius

    Aloysius Schlor

    Ascetical writer, b. at Vienna, 17 June, 1805; d. at Graz, 2 Nov., 1852. After completing his ...
    Schlegel, Friedrich von

    Friedrich von Schlegel

    Poet, writer on æsthetics, and literary historian, the "Messias" of the Romantic School, b. ...
    Schleswig

    Schleswig

    Formerly a duchy and diocese of northwestern Germany, now a part of the Prussian Province of ...
    Schlosser, John Frederick Henry

    John Frederick Henry Schlosser

    Jurist, b. at Frankfort-on-the-Main, 30 December, 1780; d. there 22 January, 1851. He studied ...
    Schmalzgrueber, Francis Xavier

    Francis Xavier Schmalzgrueber

    Canonist, b. at Griesbach, Bavaria, 9 Oct., 1663; d. at Dillingen 7 Nov., 1735. Entering the ...
    Schmid, Christoph von

    Christoph von Schmid

    Writer of children's stories and educator, b. at Dinkelsbuehl, in Bavaria, 15 Aug., 1768; d. at ...
    Schmidt, Friedrich von

    Friedrich von Schmidt

    Born at Frickenhofen, 1825; died at Vienna, 1891, After studying at the technical high school ...
    Schneeman, Gerard

    Gerard Schneeman

    Born at Wesel, Lower Rhine, 12 Feb., 1829; d. at Kerkrade, Holland, 20 Nov., 1885. After studying ...
    Schoenberg, Matthias von

    Matthias von Schoenberg

    Author, b. at Ehingen, in the Diocese of Constance, 9 Nov., 1732; d. at Munich, 20 Apr., 1792. Of ...
    Schola Cantorum

    Schola Cantorum

    A place for the teaching and practice of ecclesiastical chant, or a body of singers banded ...
    Scholasticism

    Scholasticism

    Scholasticism is a term used to designate both a method and a system. It is applied to theology ...
    Scholliner, Herman

    Herman Scholliner

    Theologian and historian, b. at Freising in Bavaria, 15 January, 1722; d. at Welchenberg, 16 ...
    Schols, Charles Mathieu

    Charles Mathieu Schols

    Born of Catholic parents at Maastriche, Holland, 28 March, 1849; died at Delft 17 March, 1897. ...
    Scholz, John Martin Augustine

    John Martin Augustine Scholz

    An erudite German Orientalist and exegete, b. at Kapsdorf, near Breslau, 8 Feb., 1794; d. at ...
    Schongauer, Martin

    Martin Schongauer

    (Also known as SCHON). German painter and engraver, b. at Colmar between 1445 and 1450; ...
    Schools

    Schools

    In the Church I. The Christian Church By virtue of her Divine charter, "Going, teach ye all ...
    Schools, Apostolic

    Apostolic Schools

    Where the Church is normally organized the recruitment of the secular clergy is provided for ...
    Schools, Clerks Regular of the Pious

    Clerks Regular of the Pious Schools

    Called also Piarists, Scolopli, Escolapios, Poor Clerks of the Mother of God, and the Pauline ...
    Schorlemer-Alst, Burghard Freiherr von

    Burghard Freiherr von Schorlemer-Alst

    Social reformer, b. at Heringhausen, Westphalia, 21 Oct., 1825; d. at Alst, 17 March, 1895. He ...
    Schott, Gaspar

    Gaspar Schott

    German physicist, b. 5 Feb., 1608, at Königshofen; d. 12 or 22 May, 1666, at Augsburg. He ...
    Schottenklöster

    Schottenkloster

    (Scotch Monasteries). A name applied to the monastic foundations of Irish and Scotch ...
    Schrader, Clement

    Clement Schrader

    Jesuit theologian, b. at Itzum, in Hanover, Nov., 1820; d. at Poitiers 23 Feb., 1875. He studied ...
    Schram, Dominic

    Dominic Schram

    (SCHRAMM). A Benedictine theologian and canonist, b. at Bamberg, 24 October 1722; d. in the ...
    Schrank, Franz Paula von

    Franz Paula von Schrank

    Naturalist, b. at Varnbach near Schärding on the Inn, 21 August, 1747; d. at Munich, 22 ...
    Schraudolph, Johann

    Johann Schraudolph

    Historical painter, b. at Obersdorf in the Allgau, 1808; d. 31 May, 1879. As pupil and assistant ...
    Schubert, Franz

    Franz Schubert

    Composer, b. at Vienna, 31 January, 1797; d. there 19 November, 1829. He studied under his ...
    Schwane, Joseph

    Joseph Schwane

    A theological writer, b. at Dorsten in Westphalia, 2 Aril, 1824; d. at Münster, 6 June, ...
    Schwann, Theodor

    Theodor Schwann

    German physiologist and founder of the theory of the cellular structure of animal organisms; b. at ...
    Schwanthaler, Ludwig von

    Ludwig von Schwanthaler

    Founder of the modern Romantic school of sculpture, b. at Munich in 1802; d there, 1848. He ...
    Schwarz, Berthold

    Berthold Schwarz

    (Schwartz). A German friar, reputed the inventor of gunpowder and firearms. There has been ...
    Schwarzburg

    Schwarzburg

    Two small principalities of Central Germany, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and ...
    Schwarzenberg, Friedrich, Prince of

    Friedrich, Prince of Schwarzenberg

    Cardinal and Prince- Archbishop of Prague, b. at Vienna, 6 April, 1809; d. there, 27 March, ...
    Schwenckfeldians

    Schwenckfeldians

    The name of a Protestant sect founded by the nobleman Caspar von Schwenckfeld (b. at Ossig in ...
    Schwind, Moritz von

    Moritz von Schwind

    Born at Vienna, 1804; died at Munich, 1871. A painter possessing an inexhaustible wealth of ...
    Science and the Church

    Science and the Church

    The words "science" and "Church" are here understood in the following sense: Science is not taken ...
    Scillium

    Scillium (Titular See)

    A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Perhaps the name should be ...
    Scillium, Martyrs of

    Martyrs of Scillium

    In the year 180 six Christians were condemned to death by the sword, in the town of Scillium, ...
    Scopia

    Scopia

    (SCUPI; SCOPIENSIS). Archdiocese, ancient residence of the early Servian rulers is the modern ...
    Scotism and Scotists

    Scotism and Scotists

    I. SCOTISM This is the name given to the philosophical and theological system or school ...
    Scotland

    Scotland

    The term as at present used includes the whole northern portion of the Island of Great Britain, ...
    Scotland, Established Church of

    Established Church of Scotland

    The religious organization which has for three centuries and a half claimed the adherence of the ...
    Scoto-Hibernian Monasteries

    Scoto-Hibernian Monasteries

    A convenient term under which to include the monastic institutions which were founded during the ...
    Scots College, The

    The Scots College

    Clement VIII gave Scotland its college at Rome. The Bull of foundation, dated 5 December, ...
    Scott, Ven. Montford

    Ven. Montford Scott

    English martyr, b. in Norfolk, England ; martyred at Fleet Street, London, on 2 July, 1591. He ...
    Scotus, Blessed John Duns

    Blessed John Duns Scotus

    Surnamed DOCTOR SUBTILIS, died 8 November, 1308; he was the founder and leader of the famous ...
    Scranton

    Scranton

    (Scrantonensis). A suffragan see of Philadelphia, U.S.A. established on 3 March, 1868, ...
    Screen, Altar

    Altar Screen

    The Caerem. Episc (I, xii, n. 13) says that if the High Altar is attached to the wall (or is not ...
    Scribes

    Scribes

    (Greek grammateis, nomodidaschaloi , teachers of the law). In the New-Testament period the ...
    Scriptorium

    Scriptorium

    A scriptorium is commonly a large room set apart in a monastery for the use of the scribes or ...
    Scripture

    Scripture

    Sacred Scripture is one of the several names denoting the inspired writings which make up the Old ...
    Scruple

    Scruple

    (Latin Scrupulus , "a small sharp, or pointed, stone", hence, in a transferred sense, ...
    Scrutiny

    Scrutiny

    (Latin scrutinium from scrutari to search, to investigate) A term variously employed in ...
    Sculpture

    Sculpture

    In the widest sense of the term, sculpture is the art of representing in bodily form men, animals, ...
    Scutari, Archdiocese of

    Scutari

    (SCUTARENSIS) The first known bishop was Bassus (387). The bishops of Scutari were at ...
    Scythopolis

    Scythopolis

    A titular metropolitan of Palaestina Secunda. It is the ancient Bethsan so often mentioned in ...
    Seña, Balthasar

    Balthasar Sena

    Indian missionary and philologist, b. at Barcelona, Spain, about 1590; d. at Guarambare, ...
    Señan, José Francisco de Paula

    Jose Francisco de Paula Senan

    Born at Barcelona, Spain, 3 March, 1760; died at Mission San Buenaventura on 24 Aug., 1823; ...
    Seal

    Seal

    The use of a seal by men of wealth and position was common before the Christian era. It was ...
    Seal of Confession, the Law of the

    The Seal of Confession

    In the "Decretum" of the Gratian who compiled the edicts of previous councils and the principles ...
    Seattle

    Seattle

    DIOCESE OF SEATTLE (SEATTLENSIS). The Diocese of Seattle (Seattlensis) comprises the entire ...
    Sebaste

    Sebaste

    A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. Sebaste is known to us, apart from ...
    Sebastia

    Sebastia

    (SIVAS). An Armenian Catholic diocese. The city, which existed perhaps under another name in ...
    Sebastian Newdigate, Blessed

    Blessed Sebastian Newdigate

    Executed at Tyburn, 19 June, 1535. A younger son of John Newdigate of Harefield Place, Middlesex, ...
    Sebastian, Saint

    St. Sebastian

    Roman martyr ; little more than the fact of his martyrdom can be proved about St. Sebastian. ...
    Sebastopolis

    Sebastopolis

    A titular see in Armenia Prima, suffragan of Sebastia. The primitive name of this city was ...
    Sebenico

    Sebenico

    (SIBINICENSIS). Suffragan of Zara. Sebenico was the seat of a bishop before the ...
    Secchi, Angelo

    Angelo Secchi

    Astronomer, b. at Reggio in Emilia, Italy, 18 June, 1818; d. 26 Feb., 1878. He was the son of a ...
    Sechelt Indians

    Sechelt Indians

    (Properly SICIATL). A small tribe speaking a distinct language of Salishan linguistic stock, ...
    Sechnall, Saint

    St. Sechnall (Secundinus)

    (Secundinus.) Bishop and confessor, b. 372 or 373; d. at Dunshaughlin, 27 Nov., 457. Son of ...
    Seckau

    Seckau

    DIOCESE OF SECKAU (SECOVIENSIS) Diocese in Styria, Austria, suffragan of Salzburg. The See ...
    Secret

    Secret

    The Secret ( Latin Secreta, sc. oratio secreta ) is the prayer said in a low voice by the ...
    Secret, Discipline of the

    Discipline of the Secret

    (Latin Disciplina Arcani ; German Arcandisciplin ). A theological term used to express ...
    Sect and Sects

    Sect and Sects

    I. ETYMOLOGY AND MEANING The word "sect" is not derived, as is sometimes asserted, from secare , ...
    Secular Clergy

    Secular Clergy

    ( Latin clerus sæcularis ) In the language of religious the world (sæculum) is ...
    Secularism

    Secularism

    A term used for the first time about 1846 by George Jacob Holyoake to denote "a form of opinion ...
    Secularization

    Secularization

    ( Latin sæcularizatio ) Secularization, an authorization given to religious with solemn ...
    Sedgwick, Thomas

    Thomas Sedgwick

    Regius professor of divinity at Cambridge, 1557, rector of Stanhope, Durham, and vicar of ...
    Sedia Gestatoria

    Sedia Gestatoria

    The Italian name of the portable papal throne used on certain solemn occasions in the pontifical ...
    Sedilia

    Sedilia

    (Plural of Latin sedile , a seat.) The name given to seats on the south side of the ...
    Seduction

    Seduction

    ( Latin seducere , to lead aside or astray) Seduction is here taken to mean the inducing of ...
    Sedulius

    Sedulius

    Christian poet of the fifth century. The name of Cælius, which at times precedes that of ...
    Sedulius Scotus

    Sedulius Scotus

    An Irish teacher, grammarian and Scriptural commentator, who lived in the ninth century. ...
    Seekers

    Seekers

    An obscure Puritan sect which arose in England in the middles of the seventeenth century. They ...
    Seelos, Francis X.

    Francis X. Seelos

    Born at Füssen, Bavaria, 11 January, 1819; died at New Orleans, La., 4 Oct., 1867. When a ...
    Seerth

    Seerth

    Seerth, a Chaldean see, appears to have succeeded the See of Arzon in the same province, several ...
    Seghers, Charles John

    Charles John Seghers

    Bishop of Vancouver Island (today Victoria ), Apostle of Alaska. b. at Ghent, Belgium, 26 ...
    Segneri, Paolo

    Paolo Segneri, the Elder

    Italian Jesuit, preacher, missionary, ascetical writer, b. at Nettuno, 21 March (cf. Massei) ...
    Segni

    Segni

    (SIGNINSIS). Located in the Province of Rome. The city, situated on a hill in the Monti ...
    Segorbe

    Segorbe

    (Also CASTELLÓN DE LA PLANA; SEGOBIENSIS; CASTETELLIONENSIS) Diocese in Spain, bounded ...
    Segovia

    Segovia

    DIOCESE OF SEGOVIA (SEGOVIENSIS, SEGOVIAE). Diocese in Spain ; bounded on the north by ...
    Sehna, Diocese of

    Sehna

    (SIHNAH or SEHANENSIS). A Chaldean see, governed by a patriarchal administrator with episcopal ...
    Seidl, Johann Gabriel

    Johann Gabriel Seidl

    Poet, author of the present Austrian national hymn, b. at Vienna, 21 June 1804; d. there, 17 ...
    Seitz, Alexander Maximilian

    Alexander Maximilian Seitz

    Painter, b. at Munich, 1811; d. at Rome, 1888. He studied under Cornelius, and two early ...
    Sejny, Diocese of

    Sejny

    (AUGUSTÓWO; SEJNESIS, or AUGUSTOVIENSIS). A diocese in the northwestern part of ...
    Sekanais

    Sekanais

    (Or more properly, Tshé-'kéh-ne, "People on the Rocks", i.e., the Rocky Mountains). ...
    Seleucia Pieria

    Seleucia Pieria

    Titular metropolis of Syria Prima. The city was founded near the mouth of the Orontes, not far ...
    Seleucia Trachea

    Seleucia Trachea

    Metropolitan see of Isauria in the Patriarchate of Antioch. The city was built by Seleucus I, ...
    Seleucians

    Seleucians

    A Gnostic sect who are said to have flourished in Galatia. They derived their name from ...
    Seleucids

    Seleucids

    The name given to the Macedonian dynasty, which was founded by Seleucus, a general under Alexander ...
    Self-Defense

    Self-Defense

    Ethically the subject of self-defense regards the right of a private person to employ force ...
    Selgas y Carrasco, José

    Jose Selgas y Carrasco

    Poet and novelist, b. at Lorca, Murcia, Spain, 1824; d. at Madrid, 5 Feb., 1882, he received his ...
    Selge

    Selge

    A titular see in Pamphylia Prima, suffragan of Side. Situated in a fertile plain on the south ...
    Selinus

    Selinus

    A titular see in Isauria, near the Gulf of Adalia. Selinus, mentioned by Ptolemy, V, 8, 2, ...
    Selvaggio, Giulio Lorenzo

    Giulio Lorenzo Selvaggio

    Canonist and archaeologist, b. at Naples, 10 August, 1728; d. there, November, 1772. He entered ...
    Selymbria

    Selymbria

    A titular see in Thracia Prima, suffragan of Heraclea. Selymbria, or Selybria, the city of ...
    Sem

    Sem (Shem)

    ( Hebrew "name", "fame", "renown"; in Septuagint, Sem ; A.V., Shem .) Son of Noah ; ...
    Semiarians and Semiarianism

    Semiarians and Semiarianism

    A name frequently given to the conservative majority in the East in the fourth century as ...
    Seminary, Ecclesiastical

    Ecclesiastical Seminary

    I. TERMINOLOGY The word seminary (Fr. séminaire, Ger. Seminar ) is sometimes used, ...
    Semipelagianism

    Semipelagianism

    A doctrine of grace advocated by monks of Southern Gaul at and around Marseilles after 428. ...
    Semites

    Semites

    The term Semites is applied to a group of peoples closely related in language, whose habitat is ...
    Semitic Epigraphy

    Semitic Epigraphy

    Semitic epigraphy is a new science, dating only from the past fifty years. At the beginning of ...
    Semmelweis, Ignaz Philipp

    Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis

    Physician and discoverer of the cause of puerperal fever, b. Ofen (Buda), 1 July, 1818; d. at ...
    Semmes, Raphael

    Raphael Semmes

    Naval officer, b. in Charles County, Maryland, U.S.A. 27 September, 1809; d. at Point Clear, ...
    Senan, Saint

    St. Senan

    Bishop and confessor, b. at Magh Lacha, Kilrush, Co. Clare, c. 488; d. 1 March, 560, his ...
    Seneca Indians

    Seneca Indians

    The westernmost and largest of the five tribes of the celebrated Iroquois Confederacy of central ...
    Senefelder, Aloys

    Aloys Senefelder

    Principally known as the inventor of lithography, b. at Prague, 6 Nov., 1771; d. at Munich, 26 ...
    Senegambia

    Senegambia

    (SENEGAMBLE). Vicariate Apostolic, to which is joined the Prefecture Apostolic of Senegal ...
    Sennen and Abdon, Saints

    Sts. Abdon and Sennan

    (Variously written in early calendars and martyrologies Abdo, Abdus; Sennes, Sennis, Zennen.) ...
    Sens

    Sens

    (S ENONIS ) Archdiocese comprising the Department of the Yonne. It was suppressed by the ...
    Sens, Councils of

    Councils of Sens

    A number of councils were held at Sens. The first, about 600 or 601, in conformity with the ...
    Sentence

    Sentence

    (Latin sententia , judgment). In canon law, the decision of the court upon any issue brought ...
    Sept-Fons, Notre-Dame de Saint-Lieu

    Notre-Dame de Saint-Lieu Sept-Fons

    Located in the Diocese of Moulins in France, it was founded (1132) by Guichard and Guillaume de ...
    Septimius Severus

    Septimius Severus

    Founder of the African dynasty of Roman emperors, b. at Leptis Magna in Africa, 11 April, 146; d. ...
    Septuagesima

    Septuagesima

    ( Latin septuagesima , the seventieth). Septuagesima is the ninth Sunday before Easter, ...
    Septuagint Version

    Septuagint Version

    The first translation of the Hebrew Old Testament, made into popular Greek before the Christian ...
    Sepulchre, Holy

    Holy Sepulchre

    Holy Sepulchre refers to the tomb in which the Body of Jesus Christ was laid after His death ...
    Sequence or Prose

    Prose or Sequence

    I. DEFINITION AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION The Sequence ( Sequentia )–or, more accurately as ...
    Serajevo, Archdiocese of

    Serajevo (Sarajevo)

    (SERAIUM). The healthy growth of the Church in Bosnia was blighted and stunted by ...
    Seraphic Crown

    Franciscan Crown

    ( Or Seraphic Rosary.) A Rosary consisting of seven decades in commemoration of the seven ...
    Seraphim

    Seraphim

    The name, a Hebrew masculine plural form, designates a special class of heavenly attendants of ...
    Seraphin of Montegranaro, Saint

    St. Seraphin of Montegranaro

    Born at Montegranaro, 1540; died at Ascoli, 12 October 1604. Felix de Nicola was born of a poor, ...
    Seraphina Sforza, Blessed

    Blessed Seraphina Sforza

    Born at Urbino about 1434; died at Pesaro, 8 September, 1478. Her parents were Guido Antonio ...
    Serapion, Saint

    St. Serapion

    Bishop of Antioch (190-211). Known principally through his theological writings. Of these ...
    Serena, Diocese of La

    La Serena

    (De Serena, Serenopolitana). Embracing Atacama and Coquimbo provinces (Chile), suffragan of ...
    Sergeant, John

    John Sergeant

    Born at Barrow-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire, in 1623; died in 1710, not, as Dodd asserts, in 1707 ...
    Sergeant, Ven. Richard

    Ven. Richard Sergeant

    English martyr, executed at Tyburn, 20 April, 1586. He was probably a younger son of Thomas ...
    Sergiopolis

    Sergiopolis

    A titular see in Augusta Euphratensis, suffragan of Hierapolis. Under its native name Rhesapha, ...
    Sergius and Bacchus

    Sergius and Bacchus

    Martyrs, d. in the Diocletian persecution in Coele-Syria about 303. Their martyrdom is well ...
    Sergius I, Pope Saint

    Pope St. Sergius I

    (Reigned 687-701), date of birth unknown; consecrated probably on 15 Dec., 687; d. 8 Sept., ...
    Sergius II, Pope

    Pope Sergius II

    Date of birth unknown; consecrated in 844, apparently in January; d. 27 Jan., 847. He was of ...
    Sergius III, Pope

    Pope Sergius III

    Date of birth unknown; consecrated 29 Jan., 904; d. 14 April, 911. He was a Roman of noble birth ...
    Sergius IV, Pope

    Pope Sergius IV

    Date of birth unknown; consecrated about 31 July, 1009; d. 12 May, 1012. Peter Pig's Snout ( ...
    Seripando, Girolamo

    Girolamo Seripando

    Italian theologian and cardinal, b. at Troja (Apulia), 6 May, 1493; d. at Trent 17 March, ...
    Seroux d'Agincourt, Jean-Baptiste-Louis-George

    Jean-Baptiste-Louis-George Seroux d'Agincourt

    Born at Beauvais, 5 April, 1730; died at Rome, 24 September, 1814. He was a descendant of the ...
    Serpieri, Alessandro

    Alessandro Serpieri

    Born at S. Giovanni in Marignano, near Rimini, 31 Oct., 1823; died at Fiesole, 22 Feb., 1885. His ...
    Serra, Junípero

    Junipero Serra

    Born at Petra, Island of Majorca, 24 November, 1713; died at Monterey, California, 28 August, ...
    Serrae

    Serrae

    Titular metropolitan see in Macedonia, more correctly Serrhae, is called Siris by Herodotus ...
    Servants of Mary (Order of Servites)

    Servants of Mary (Order of Servites)

    This order was founded on the feast of the Assumption, 1233 when the Blessed Virgin appeared to ...
    Servants of the Most Blessed Sacrament

    Servants of the Most Blessed Sacrament

    An order of nuns, founded by the Venerable Pierre-Julien Eymard in 1858, assisted by Mother ...
    Servia

    Servia (Serbia)

    (S ERBIA ) A European kingdom in the north-western part of the Balkan peninsula. I. ...
    Servites, Order of

    Order of Servites

    (SERVANTS OF MARY). The Order of Servites is the fifth mendicant order, the objects of which ...
    Servus servorum Dei

    Servus Servorum Dei

    (SERVANT OF THE SERVANTS OF GOD.) A title given by the popes to themselves in documents of ...
    Sessa-Aurunca

    Sessa-Aurunca

    (SUESSANA). Diocese in Campania, Province of Caserta (Southern Italy ). The city is situated ...
    Sestini, Benedict

    Benedict Sestini

    Astronomer, mathematician, b. at Florence, Italy, 20 March, 1816; d. at Frederick, Maryland, 17 ...
    Setebo Indians

    Setebo Indians

    A considerable tribe of Panoan linguistic stock formerly centering about the confluence of the ...
    Seton, Saint Elizabeth Ann

    St. Elizabeth Ann Seton

    Foundress and first superior of the Sisters of Charity in the United States ; born in New York ...
    Seton, William

    William Seton

    Author, b. in New York, 28 Jan., 1835; d. there, 15 Mar., 1905. His father was William Seton, ...
    Settignano, Desiderio da

    Desiderio Da Settignano

    Born at Settignano, Tuscany, 1428; died at Florence, 1463. He is said to have been the son of a ...
    Settlement, Act of (Irish)

    Act of Settlement (Irish)

    In 1662 an act was passed by the Irish Parliament, the privileges of which were restored on the ...
    Seven Deacons

    Seven Deacons

    The seven men elected by the whole company of the original Christian community at Jerusalem and ...
    Seven Robbers

    Seven Robbers

    (Septem Latrones), martyrs on the Island of Corcyra (Corfu) in the second century. Their ...
    Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, The

    The Seven Sleepers of Ephesus

    The story is one of the many examples of the legend about a man who falls asleep and years after ...
    Seven-Branch Candlestick

    Seven-Branch Candlestick

    One of the three chief furnishings of the Holy of the Tabernacle and the Temple ( Exodus ...
    Severian

    Severian

    Bishop of Gabala in Syria, flourished in the fourth and fifth centuries. Concerning his life ...
    Severinus, Pope

    Pope Severinus

    The date of his birth is not known. He was consecrated seemingly on 28 May, 640, and died 2 ...
    Severus Sanctus Endelechus

    Severus Sanctus Endelechus

    Christian rhetorician and poet of the fourth century. It is possible that his true name was ...
    Severus, Alexander

    Alexander Severus

    Roman emperor, b. at Acco in Palestine, 208, murdered by his mutinous soldiers at Sicula on the ...
    Seville

    Seville

    ARCHDIOCESE OF SEVILLE (HISPALENSIS). Archdiocese in Spain, is bounded on the north by ...
    Seville, University of

    University of Seville

    In the middle of the thirteenth century the Dominicans, in order to prepare missionaries for work ...
    Sexagesima

    Sexagesima

    ( Latin sexagesima , sixtieth) is the eighth Sunday before Easter and the second before ...
    Sexburga, Saint

    St. Sexburga

    Died about 699. Her sisters, Sts. Ethelburga and Saethrid, were both Abbesses of Faremontier in ...
    Sext

    Sext

    I. MEANING, SYMBOLISM, AND ORIGIN The hora sexta of the Romans corresponded closely with our ...
    Sexton

    Sexton

    (Old English Sexestein, sextein , through the French sacristain from Latin sacrista ). ...
    Sfondrati, Celestino

    Celestino Sfondrati

    Prince-abbot of St. Gall and cardinal, b. at Milan, 10 January, 1644, d. at Rome, 4 September, ...
    Sforza, Blessed Seraphina

    Blessed Seraphina Sforza

    Born at Urbino about 1434; died at Pesaro, 8 September, 1478. Her parents were Guido Antonio ...
    Shakespeare, Religion of

    The Religion of Shakespeare (Was Shakespeare Catholic?)

    Of both Milton and Shakespeare it was stated after their deaths, upon Protestant authority, that ...
    Shamanism

    Shamanism

    (From Shaman or Saman , a word derived by Bantzaroff from Manchu saman , i.e., an excited ...
    Shammai

    Shammai

    (Called ha-Zekan , "the Elder"). A famous Jewish scribe who together with Hillel made ...
    Shan-si, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern

    Vicariate Apostolic of Northern Shan-Si

    The Faith was carried for the first time into the Province of Shan-si. Norhter China, by the ...
    Shan-si, Vicariate Apostolic of Southern

    Vicariate Apostolic of Southern Shan-Si

    Erected in 1890; there are about 6,000,000 inhabitants; the mission is entrusted to the Franciscan ...
    Shan-tung, Vicariate Apostolic of Eastern

    Vicariate Apostolic of Eastern Shan-Tung

    This mission was separated in 1894 from Northern Shan-Tung and erected into a vicariate ...
    Shan-tung, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern

    Vicariate Apostolic of Northern Shan-Tung

    Erected by Gregory XVI in 1839. The first vicar Apostolic was Louis de Besi, formerly ...
    Shan-tung, Vicariate Apostolic of Southern

    Vicariate Apostolic of Southern Shan-Tung

    On 2 Jan., 1882, the then vicar Apostolic of Shan-tung, Rt. Rev. Mgr. D. Cosi, elected as ...
    Sharpe, James

    James Sharpe

    (Alias POLLARD). Born at York, 1577; died at Lincoln, 1630. Converted when young, he made ...
    Shea, John Dawson Gilmary

    John Dawson Gilmary Shea

    Historian, born in New York, 22 July, 1824; died at Elizabeth, New Jersey , 22 February, 1892. ...
    Shea, Sir Ambrose

    Sir Ambrose Shea

    Born in Newfoundland, 17 Sept., 1815; d. in London, 30 July, 1905. At the age of twenty-two he ...
    Sheil, Richard Lalor

    Richard Lalor Sheil

    Dramatist, prose writer, and politician, b. at Drumdowny, County Kilkenny, Ireland, 17 August, ...
    Sheldon, Edward

    Edward Sheldon

    Translator, b. at Beoley, 23 April, 1599; d. in London, 27 March, 1687. He was the third son of ...
    Shelley, Richard

    Richard Shelley

    English confessor ; d. in Marshalsea prison, London, probably in February or March, 1585-6. ...
    Shem

    Sem (Shem)

    ( Hebrew "name", "fame", "renown"; in Septuagint, Sem ; A.V., Shem .) Son of Noah ; ...
    Shen-si, Northern

    Northern Shen-Si

    (V ICARIATE A POSTOLIC ). In 1640 the Christian religion was preached for the first time ...
    Shen-si, Southern

    Vicariate Apostolic of Southern Shen-Si

    The southern part of Shen-si was entrusted in 1885 to the Seminary of Sts. Peter and Paul, ...
    Shepherd, John

    John Shepherd

    Musical composer, born about 1512; died about 1563; one of the great English musicians who rank ...
    Sherborne Abbey

    Sherborne Abbey

    Located in Dorsetshire, England ; founded in 998. Sherborne ( scir-burne , clear brook) was ...
    Sherbrooke

    Sherbrooke

    (S HERBROOKIENSIS ). Diocese in the Province of Quebec, suffragan of the Archdiocese of ...
    Sheridan, Philip Henry

    Philip Henry Sheridan

    Born at Albany, N.Y., U.S.A. 6 March, 1831; died at Nonquitt, Mass, 5 August, 1888. His family ...
    Sherson, Martin

    Martin Sherson

    English priest and confessor, one of the Dilati (see ENGLISH MARTYRS), b. 1563; d. 1588. A ...
    Shert, Blessed John

    Bl. John Shert

    A native of Cheshire; took the degree of B.A. at Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1566. Successively ...
    Sherwin, Blessed Ralph

    Bl. Ralph Sherwin

    English martyr, born 1550 at Rodesley, near Longford, Derbyshire; died at Tyburn, 1 December, ...
    Sherwood, Blessed Thomas

    Bl. Thomas Sherwood

    Martyr, born in London, 1551; died at Tyburn, London, 7 February, 1578. His parents also ...
    Sherwood, William

    William Sherwood

    Bishop of Meath, d. at Dublin, 3 Dec. 1482. He was an English ecclesiastic who obtained the ...
    Shewbreads

    Loaves of Proposition

    Heb. "bread of the faces", i.e. "bread of the presence (of Yahweh )" ( Exodus 35:13 ; 39:35 , ...
    Shi-koku

    Shi-Koku

    One of the four great islands of Japan, has all area of 7009 square miles, not counting the ...
    Shields, James

    James Shields

    Military officer, b. in Dungannon County Tyrone, Ireland, 12 Dec., 1810; d. at Ottumwa, Iowa, 1 ...
    Shire

    Shire

    (SHIRENENSIS). Vicariate apostolic in Nyassaland Protectorate, Africa. The Nyassaland ...
    Shirley, James

    James Shirley

    Poet and dramatist, b. in London, 18 Sept., 1596; d. there Oct., 1666. As a boy he attended the ...
    Shrewsbury

    Shrewsbury

    (SALOPIENSIS). One of the thirteen English dioceses created by Apostolic Letter of Pius IX ...
    Shrines of Our Lady and the Saints in Great Britain and Ireland

    Shrines in Great Britain and Ireland

    I. SANCTUARIES OF OUR LADY A. England (1) Abingdon -- St. Edward the Martyr and St. Dunstan, ...
    Shroud of Turin

    The Shroud of Turin

    This name is primarily given to a relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that ...
    Shrovetide

    Shrovetide

    Shrovetide is the English equivalent of what is known in the greater part of Southern Europe as ...
    Shuswap Indians

    Shuswap Indians

    (Properly SU-KHAPMUH, a name of unknown origin and meaning). A tribe of Salishan linguistic ...
    Siam

    Siam (Thailand)

    Siam, "the land of the White Elephant" or the country of the Muang Thai (the Free), is situated ...
    Sibbel, Joseph

    Joseph Sibbel

    Sculptor, b. at Dulmen, 7 June, 1850; d. in New York, 10 July, 1907. As a boy he evinced the ...
    Siberia

    Siberia

    A Russian possession in Asia forming the northern third of that continent; it extends from the ...
    Sibour, Marie-Dominique-Auguste

    Marie-Dominique-Auguste Sibour

    Born at Saint-Paul-Trois-Chateaux (Drome, France ), 4 August, 1792; died in Paris, 3 January, ...
    Sibylline Oracles

    Sibylline Oracles

    The name given to certain collections of supposed prophecies, emanating from the sibyls or ...
    Sicard

    Sicard

    Bishop of Cremona ( Italy ) in the twelfth century, a member of one of the principal families ...
    Sicca Veneria

    Sicca Veneria

    A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Sicca was an ancient important ...
    Sichem

    Sichem

    (A.V. Shechem ). An Israelite city in the tribe of Ephraim, the first capital of the ...
    Sicilian Vespers

    Sicilian Vespers

    The traditional name given to the insurrection which broke out at Palermo on Easter Tuesday, 31 ...
    Sicily

    Sicily

    The largest island in the Mediterranean. It is triangular in shape and was on that account called ...
    Sick, Anointing of the

    Extreme Unction

    A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect ...
    Side, Altar

    Altar Side

    That part of the altar which faced the congregation, in contradistinction to the side at which ...
    Sidon

    Sidon

    The seat of a Melchite and a Maronite see in Syria. Sidon is the oldest city of the ...
    Sidon

    Sidon

    Titular metropolis of Pamphylia Prima. Sidon, situated on the coast of Pamphylia, was a colony ...
    Sidonius Apollinaris

    Sidonius

    (CAIUS SOLLIUS MODESTUS APOLLINARIS SIDONIUS). Christian author and Bishop of Clermont, b. ...
    Sidyma

    Sidyma

    A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra ; mentioned by Ptolemy, V, 3, 5; Pliny, V, 28; ...
    Siena

    Siena

    (SENENSIS) Archdiocese in Tuscany (Central Italy ). The city is situated on three gently ...
    Siena, University of

    University of Siena

    The earliest notices of an advanced school (of grammar and medicine ) at Siena go back to ...
    Sieni, Cyril

    Cyril Sieni

    (Better known as CYRIL OF BARCELONA). Missionary bishop, b. in Catalonia, date of birth ...
    Sierra Leone

    Sierra Leone

    (SIERRAE LEONIS, SIERRA-LEONENSIS). Comprises the English colony of that name and the ...
    Sigüenza

    Siguenza

    (SEGUNTINA, SEGONTIAE). Diocese in Spain, suffragan of Toledo; bounded on the north by Soria, ...
    Sigebert of Gembloux

    Sigebert of Gembloux

    Benedictine historian, b. near Gembloux which is now in the Province of Namur, Belgium, about ...
    Siger of Brabant

    Siger of Brabant

    Indisputably the leader of Latin Averroism during the sixth and seventh decades of the ...
    Sigismund

    Sigismund

    King of Germany and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, b. 15 February, 1361, at Nuremberg ; d. ...
    Sign of the Cross

    Sign of the Cross

    A term applied to various manual acts, liturgical or devotional in character, which have this at ...
    Signorelli, Luca

    Luca Signorelli

    Italian painter, b. at Cortona about 1441; d. there in 1523. He was a son of Egidio Signorelli, ...
    Sikhism

    Sikhism

    The religion of a warlike sect of India, having its origin in the Punjab and its centre in the ...
    Silandus

    Silandus

    A titular see in Lydia, suffragan of Sardis. It is not mentioned by any ancient geographer or ...
    Silence

    Silence

    All writers on the spiritual life uniformly recommend, nay, command under penalty of total ...
    Silesia

    Silesia

    I. PRUSSIAN SILESIA Prussian Silesia, the largest province of Prussia, has an area of 15,557 ...
    Siletz Indians

    Siletz Indians

    The collective designation for the rapidly dwindling remnant of some thirty small tribes, ...
    Siloe

    Siloe

    (SILOAH, SILOAM). A pool in the Tyropoean Valley, just outside the south wall of Jerusalem, ...
    Silveira, Ven. Goncalo da

    Silveira

    Pioneer missionary of South Africa, b. 23 Feb, 1526, at Almeirim, about forty miles from Lisbon ...
    Silverius, Pope Saint

    Pope St. Silverius

    (Reigned 536-37). Dates of birth and death unknown. He was the son of Pope Hormisdas who had ...
    Silvester, Francis

    Francis Silvester

    (F ERRARIENSIS ). Theologian, b. at Ferrara about 1474; d. at Rennes, 19 Sept., 1526. At ...
    Silvia, Saint

    St. Silvia

    (Also spelled "Sylvia"). Mother of Pope St. Gregory the Great , born about 515 (525?); died ...
    Simeon

    Simeon

    The second son of Jacob by Lia and patronymic ancestor of the Jewish tribe bearing that name. ...
    Simeon of Durham

    Simeon of Durham

    (Symeon). Chronicler, d. 14 Oct., between 1130 and 1138. As a youth he had entered the ...
    Simeon Stylites the Elder, Saint

    St. Simeon Stylites the Elder

    St. Simeon was the first and probably the most famous of the long succession of stylitoe , or ...
    Simeon Stylites the Younger, Saint

    St. Simeon Stylites the Younger

    Born at Antioch in 521, died at the same place 24 May, 597. His father was a native of Edessa, ...
    Simeon, Canticle of

    Nunc Dimittis

    (The Canticle of Simeon). Found in St. Luke's Gospel (2:29-32) , is the last in historical ...
    Simeon, Holy

    Holy Simeon

    The "just and devout" man of Jerusalem who according to the narrative of St. Luke, greeted the ...
    Simla

    Simla

    Archdiocese in India, a new creation of Pius X by a Decree dated 13 September, 1910 formed ...
    Simon Magus

    Simon Magus

    According to the testimony of St. Justin ("First Apolog.", xxvi), whose statement as to this ...
    Simon of Cascia

    Bl. Simon of Cascia

    (SIMEONE FIDATI) Italian preacher and ascetical writer, b. at Cascia, Italy ; d at ...
    Simon of Cramaud

    Simon of Cramaud

    Cardinal, b. near Rochechouart in the Diocese of Limoges before 1360; d. at Poitiers 14 Dec., ...
    Simon of Cremona

    Simon of Cremona

    A theological writer and celebrated preacher belonging to the Order of St. Augustine, date of ...
    Simon of Sudbury

    Simon of Sudbury

    Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Sudbury, Suffolk, England, of middle-class parents, date of ...
    Simon of Tournai

    Simon of Tournai

    Professor in the University of Paris at the beginning of the thirteenth century, dates of birth ...
    Simon Peter

    St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles

    The life of St. Peter may be conveniently considered under the following heads: I. Until the ...
    Simon Stock, Saint

    St. Simon Stock

    Born in the County of Kent, England, about 1165; died in the Carmelite monastery at Bordeaux, ...
    Simon the Apostle, Saint

    St. Simon the Apostle

    The name of Simon occurs in all the passages of the Gospel and Acts, in which a list of the ...
    Simone da Orsenigo

    Simone Da Orsenigo

    A Lombard architect and builder of the fourteenth century whose memory is chiefly connected with ...
    Simonians

    Simonians

    A Gnostic, Antinomian sect of the second century which regarded Simon Magus as its founder and ...
    Simony

    Simony

    (From Simon Magus ; Acts 8:18-24 ) Simony is usually defined "a deliberate intention of ...
    Simplicius, Faustinus and Beatrice

    Simplicius, Faustinus, and Beatrice

    Martyrs at Rome during the Diocletian persecution (302 or 303). The brothers Simplicius and ...
    Simplicius, Pope Saint

    Pope St. Simplicius

    Reigned 468-483; date of birth unknown; died 10 March, 483. According to the "Liber ...
    Simpson, Richard

    Richard Simpson

    Born 1820; died near Rome, 5 April, 1876. He was educated at Oriel College, Oxford, and took ...
    Sin

    Sin

    The subject is treated under these heads: I. Nature of sin II. Division III. Mortal Sin IV. Venial ...
    Sinai

    Sinai

    The mountain on which the Mosaic Law was given. Horeb and Sinai were thought synonymous by ...
    Sinaiticus, Codex

    Codex Sinaiticus

    (The symbol is the Hebrew character Aleph , though Swete and a few other scholars use the ...
    Sinaloa

    Sinaloa

    DIOCESE OF SINALOA (SINALOENSIS) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of the ...
    Singing, Congregational

    Congregational Singing

    In his Instruction on sacred music , commonly referred to as the Motu Proprio (22 Nov., 1903), ...
    Sinigaglia

    Sinigaglia

    (SENIGALLIA), DIOCESE OF SINIGAGLIA (SENOGALLIENSIS) Diocese in the Province of Ancona in the ...
    Sinis

    Sinis

    A titular see in Armenia Secunda, suffragan of Melitene. The catalogue of titular bishoprics ...
    Sinope

    Sinope

    A titular see in Asia Minor, suffragan of Amasea in Helenopontus. It is a Greek colony, ...
    Sion

    Sion

    A titular see in Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. No civil document mentions it. It is ...
    Sion

    Sion

    (Sedunensis) A Swiss bishopric, depending directly on the Holy See. HISTORY The Diocese of ...
    Sioux City

    Sioux City

    DIOCESE OF SIOUX CITY (SIOPOLITAN). Erected 15 Jan., 1902, by Leo XIII . The establishment of ...
    Sioux Falls

    Sioux Falls

    DIOCESE OF SIOUX FALLS (SIOUXORMENSIS). Suffragan of St. Paul , comprises all that part of ...
    Sioux Indians

    Sioux Indians

    The largest and most important Indian tribe north of Mexico, with the single exception of the ...
    Sipibo Indians

    Sipibo Indians

    A numerous tribe of Panoan linguistic stock, formerly centring about the Pisqui and Aguaitia ...
    Sirach, Book of

    Ecclesiasticus (Sirach)

    (Abbrev. Ecclus.; also known as the Book of Sirach.) The longest of the deuterocanonical books ...
    Siricius, Pope Saint

    Pope St. Siricius

    (384-99). Born about 334; died 26 November, 399, Siricius was a native of Rome ; his father's ...
    Sirleto, Gugliemo

    Gugliemo Sirleto

    Cardinal and scholar, born at Guardavalle near Stilo in Calabria, 1514; died at Rome, 6 October, ...
    Sirmium

    Sirmium

    (SZERÉM, SIRMIENSIS) Sirmium, situated near the modern town of Mitrovitz in Slavonia; ...
    Sirmond, Jacques

    Jacques Sirmond

    One of the greatest scholars of the seventeenth century, born at Riom in the Department of ...
    Sisinnius, Pope

    Pope Sisinnius

    Date of birth unknown; died 4 February, 708, Successor of John VII, he was consecrated probably ...
    Sisters of Charity of Cincinnati, Ohio

    Sisters of Charity of Cincinnati

    On 27 October, 1829, at the request of Bishop Fenwick of Cincinnati, several sisters from Mother ...
    Sisters of the Little Company of Mary

    Sisters of the Little Company of Mary

    A congregation founded in 1877 in England to honour in a particular manner the maternal Heart ...
    Sistine Choir

    Sistine Choir

    Although it is known that the Church, from her earliest days, employed music in her cult, it was ...
    Sitifis

    Sitifis

    (Sitifensis). Titular see in Mauretania Sitifensis. Sitifis, situated in Mauretania ...
    Sitjar, Buenaventura

    Buenaventura Sitjar

    Born at Porrera, Island of Majorca, 9 December, 1739; died at San Antonio, California, 3 Sept., ...
    Siunia

    Siunia

    A titular see, suffragan of Sebastia in Armenia Prima. Siunia is not a town, but a province ...
    Six Days of Creation

    Hexaemeron

    Hexaemeron signifies a term of six days, or, technically, the history of the six days' work of ...
    Sixtus I, Pope Saint

    Pope St. Sixtus I

    Pope St. Sixtus I (in the oldest documents, Xystus is the spelling used for the first three ...
    Sixtus II, Pope Saint

    Pope St. Sixtus II

    (XYSTUS). Elected 31 Aug., 257, martyred at Rome, 6 Aug., 258. His origin is unknown. The ...
    Sixtus III, Pope Saint

    Pope St. Sixtus III

    (XYSTUS). Consecrated 31 July, 432; d. 440. Previous to his accession he was prominent among ...
    Sixtus IV, Pope

    Pope Sixtus IV

    (FRANCESCO DELLA ROVERE) Born near Abisola, 21 July, 1414; died 12 Aug., 1484. His parents ...
    Sixtus V, Pope

    Pope Sixtus V

    (FELICE PERETTI). Born at Grottamare near Montalto, 13 December, 1521; elected 24 April, ...
    Skara, Ancient See of

    Ancient See of Skara

    (SCARAE; SKARONENSIS, SCARENSIS). Located in Sweden ; suffragan to Hamburg (990-1104), to ...
    Skarga, Peter

    Peter Skarga

    Theologian and missionary, b. at Grojec, 1536; d. at Cracow, 27 Sept., 1612. He began his ...
    Skoda, Josef

    Josef Skoda

    Celebrated clinical lecturer and diagnostician and, with Rokitansky, founder of the modern ...
    Slander

    Slander

    Slander is the attributing to another of a fault of which one knows him to be innocent. It ...
    Slavery and Christianity

    Slavery and Christianity

    How numerous the slaves were in Roman society when Christianity made its appearance, how hard ...
    Slavery, Ethical Aspect of

    Ethical Aspect of Slavery

    In Greek and Roman civilization slavery on an extensive scale formed an essential element of the ...
    Slaves

    Slaves (Dene Indians)

    (Déné "Men"). A tribe of the great Déné family of American ...
    Slavonic Language and Liturgy

    Slavonic Language and Liturgy

    Although the Latin holds the chief place among the liturgical languages in which the Mass is ...
    Slavs in America

    The Slavs in America

    The Slavic races have sent large numbers of their people to the United States and Canada, and ...
    Slavs, The

    The Slavs

    I. NAME A. Slavs At present the customary name for all the Slavonic races is Slav . This name ...
    Slomšek, Anton Martin

    Anton Martin Slomsek

    Bishop of Lavant, in Maribor, Styria, Austria, noted Slovenian educator, born 1800; died 24 ...
    Slotanus, John

    John Slotanus

    (SCHLOTTANUS, VAN DER SLOOTIEN), (JOHN GEFFEN) Polemical writer; born at Geffen, Brabant; died ...
    Sloth

    Sloth

    One of the seven capital sins. In general it means disinclination to labour or exertion. As a ...
    Slythurst, Thomas

    Thomas Slythurst

    English confessor, born in Berkshire; died in the Tower of London, 1560. He was B.A. Oxon, ...
    Smalkaldic League

    Smalkaldic League

    A politico-religious alliance formally concluded on 27 Feb., 1531, at Smalkalden in Hesse-Nassau, ...
    Smaragdus, Ardo

    Ardo Smaragdus

    Hagiographer, died at the Benedictine monastery of Aniane, Herault, in Southern France, March, ...
    Smith, James

    James Smith

    Journalist, b. at Skolland, in the Shetland Isles, about 1790; d. Jan., 1866. He spent his boyhood ...
    Smith, Richard

    Richard Smith

    Bishop of Chalcedon, second Vicar Apostolic of England ; b. at Hanworth, Lincolnshire, Nov., ...
    Smith, Richard

    Richard Smith

    Born in Worcestershire, 1500; died at Douai, 9 July, 1563. He was educated at Merton College, ...
    Smith, Thomas Kilby

    Thomas Kilby Smith

    Born at Boston, Mass., 23 Sept., 1820; died at New York, 14 Dec., 1887; eldest son of Captain ...
    Smits, William

    William Smits

    Orientalist and exegete, b. at Kevelaer in the Duchy of Geldern, 1704; d. 1 Dec., 1770. He ...
    Smyrna

    Smyrna

    LATIN ARCHDIOCESE OF SMYRNA (SMYRNENSIS), in Asia Minor. The city of Smyrna rises like an ...
    Snorri Sturluson

    Snorri Sturluson

    Historian, born at Hvammr, 1178; died 1241. Snorri, who was the son of Sturla Thortsson (d. 1182), ...
    Snow, Venerable Peter

    Ven. Peter Snow

    English martyr, suffered at York, 15 June, 1598. He was born at or near Ripon and arrived at the ...
    Sobaipura Indians

    Sobaipura Indians

    Once an important tribe of the Piman branch of the great Shoshonean linguistic stock, occupying ...
    Sobieski, John

    John Sobieski

    Born at Olesko in 1629; died at Wilanow, 1696; son of James, Castellan of Cracow and descended by ...
    Social Contract, The

    The Social Contract

    Du Contrat Social, ou Principes du droit politique , is the title of a work written by J.J. ...
    Socialism

    Socialism

    A system of social and economic organization that would substitute state monopoly for private ...
    Socialistic Communities

    Socialistic Communities

    This title comprehends those societies which maintain common ownership of the means of ...
    Societies, Catholic

    Catholic Societies

    Catholic societies are very numerous throughout the world; some are international in scope, some ...
    Societies, Catholic, American Federation of

    American Federation of Catholic Societies

    An organization of the Catholic laity, parishes, and societies under the guidance of the ...
    Societies, Secret

    Secret Societies

    A designation of which the exact meaning has varied at different times. I. DEFINITION "By a ...
    Society

    Society

    Society implies fellowship, company, and has always been conceived as signifying a human relation, ...
    Society of Foreign Missions of Paris

    Society of Foreign Missions of Paris

    The Society of Foreign Missions of Paris was established in 1658-63, its chief founders being ...
    Society of Jesus, The

    The Jesuits (The Society of Jesus)

    (Company of Jesus, Jesuits) See also DISTINGUISHED JESUITS , JESUIT APOLOGETIC, EARLY JESUIT ...
    Society of the Blessed Sacrament, The

    The Society of the Blessed Sacrament

    A congregation of priests founded by Venerable Pierre-Julien Eymard in Paris, 1 June, 1856. ...
    Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, The

    The Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus

    An institution of religious women, taking perpetual vows and devoted to the work of education, ...
    Society, The Catholic Church Extension

    Society

    IN THE UNITED STATES The first active agitation for a church extension or home mission society ...
    Socinianism

    Socinianism

    The body of doctrine held by one of the numerous Antitrinitarian sects to which the ...
    Sociology

    Sociology

    The claims of sociology ( socius , companion; logos , science ) to a place in the hierarchy ...
    Socorro

    Socorro

    (DE SUCCURSU.) Established in 1895 as a suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Bogota, in the ...
    Socrates

    Socrates

    A historian of the Early Church, b. at Constantinople towards the end of the fourth century. ...
    Socrates

    Socrates

    Greek philosopher and educational reformer of the fifth century B.C.; born at Athens, 469 ...
    Sodality

    Sodality

    I The sodalities of the Church are pious associations and are included among the ...
    Sodality (Confraternity)

    Confraternity (Sodality)

    ( Latin confraternitas , confratria ) A confraternity or sodality is a voluntary ...
    Sodom and Gomorrha

    Sodom and Gomorrha

    Sodom, a city of Pentapolis ( Wisdom 10:6 ; Genesis 14:2 ): Sodom, Gomorrha, Adama, Seboim, and ...
    Sodoma

    Sodoma

    (GIOVANNI ANTONIO BAZZI, or DE'BAZZI, often miscalled RAZZI, more usually known by his nickname, ...
    Sodor and Man

    Ancient Diocese of Sodor and Man

    (SODORENSIS). The early history of this see is extremely obscure. The Scandinavian diocese, ...
    Soissons

    Soissons

    Diocese of Soissons (Suessionensis) Includes, with the exception of two hamlets, the entire ...
    Solanus, Saint Francis

    St. Francis Solanus

    South American missionary of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. at Montilla, in the Diocese of ...
    Solari

    Solari

    (SOLARIO) A family of Milanese artists, closely connected with the cathedral and with the ...
    Solemnity

    Solemnity

    (From Latin solet and annus -- a yearly celebration). The word solemnity is here used ...
    Solesmes

    Abbey of St. Solesmes

    A Benedictine monastery in Department of Sarthe, near Sablé, France. It was founded in ...
    Soli

    Soli

    A titular see in Cyprus, suffragan of Salamis. Soli was an important port on the Clarius, on ...
    Solicitation

    Solicitation

    ( Latin sollicitare ) Technically in canon law the crime of making use of the Sacrament of ...
    Solimôes Superiore

    Solimoes Superiore

    A prefecture Apostolic in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, erected by a decree of the Sacred ...
    Solomon

    Solomon

    Our sources for the study of the life, reign, and character of Solomon are 1 Kings 1-9 ; and 2 ...
    Solomon Islands, Northern

    Solomon Islands (Northern)

    (PREFECTURE APOSTOLIC OF THE NORTHERN SOLOMON ISLANDS) Established on 23 May, 1898, by ...
    Solomon Islands, Southern

    Southern Solomon Islands

    PREFECTURE APOSTOLIC OF THE SOUTHERN SOLOMON ISLANDS (INSULARUM SOLOMONIARUM). The Solomon ...
    Solomon, Psalms of

    Psalms of Solomon

    Eighteen apocryphal psalms, extant in Greek, probably translated from a Hebrew, or an Aramaic ...
    Solsona

    Solsona

    DIOCESE OF SOLSONA (CELSONENSIS). Diocese in Lérida, Spain, suffragan of Tarragona, ...
    Somaliland

    Somaliland

    A triangular-shaped territory in the north-eastern extremity of Africa, projecting into the ocean ...
    Somaschi

    Somaschi

    Name of a charitable religious congregation of regular clerics, founded in the sixteenth century ...
    Somerset, Thomas

    Thomas Somerset

    Confessor, born about 1530; died in the Tower of London, 27 May, 1587; second son of Henry, second ...
    Son of God

    Son of God

    IN THE OLD TESTAMENT The title "son of God" is frequent in the Old Testament. The word "son" was ...
    Son of Man

    Son of Man

    In the Old Testament "son of man " is always translated in the Septuagint without the article ...
    Song, Religious

    Religious Song

    (Sacred Song) Religious song is the general designation given to the numerous poetical and ...
    Songish Indians

    Songish Indians

    A tribe of some importance formerly holding the south coast of Vancouver Island, B.C., in the ...
    Sonnius, Franciscus

    Franciscus Sonnius

    Theologian, b. at Zon in Brabant, 12 August, 1506; d. at Antwerp, 30 June, 1576. His real name ...
    Sonora

    Sonora

    (DE SONORA) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico ; suffragan of the Archdiocese of Durango. Its ...
    Sophene

    Sophene

    A titular see, suffragan of Melitene in Armenia Secunda. In the sixth century "Notitiæ ...
    Sophists

    Sophists

    A group of Greek teachers who flourished at the end of the fifth century B.C. They claimed to be ...
    Sophonias

    Sophonias (Zephaniah)

    The ninth of the twelve Minor Prophets of the Canon of the Old Testament ; preached and wrote ...
    Sophronius

    Sophronius

    Sophronius, Bishop of Constantina or Tella in Osrhoene, was a relative of Ibas, Bishop of ...
    Sora

    Sora

    A titular see in Paphlagonia, suffragan of Gangra. Sora must have been an insignificant town; ...
    Sorbait, Paul de

    Paul de Sorbait

    Physician, b. in Hainault, 1624; d. at Vienna, 19 April, 1691. He went to school at Paderborn, ...
    Sorbonne

    Sorbonne

    This name is frequently used in ordinary parlance as synonymous with the faculty of theology of ...
    Sorin, Edward

    Edward Sorin

    The founder of Notre Dame, Indiana ; b. 6 Feb., 1814, at Ahuillé, near Laval, France ; ...
    Sorrento

    Sorrento

    Archdiocese in the Province of Naples, with one suffragan, Castellamare. The city is situated on ...
    Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the Seven

    Feasts of the Seven Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin Mary

    There are two such days: Friday before Palm Sunday, major double; third Sunday in ...
    Soter and Caius, Saints

    Caius and Soter

    They have their feast together on 22 April, on which day they appear in most of the ...
    Soto, Dominic

    Dominic Soto

    Dominican, renowned theologian, b. at Segovia, 1494; d. at Salamanca, 15 Nov., 1560. His first ...
    Soul

    Soul

    (Greek psyche ; Latin anima ; French ame ; German Seele ). The question of the ...
    Soul, Faculties of the

    Faculties of the Soul

    I. MEANING Whatever doctrine one may hold concerning the nature of the human soul and its ...
    South American College in Rome, The

    The South American College in Rome

    (Legal title, COLLEGIO PIO-LATINO-AMERICANO PONTIFICIO). The Rev. Ignatius Victor Eyzaguirre, ...
    South Carolina

    South Carolina

    One of the thirteen original colonies of the United States, has an area of 30,570 square miles ...
    South Dakota

    South Dakota

    The thirty-ninth state, admitted to the Union on 2 November, 1889, is officially bounded as ...
    Southerne, Venerable William

    Ven. William Southerne

    English martyr, suffered at Newcastle-under-Lyme, 30 April, 1618. An alumnus and priest of the ...
    Southwark

    Southwark

    DIOCESE OF SOUTHWARK (SOUTHWARCENSIS) Suffragan of Westminster, England, comprises the ...
    Southwell, Venerable Robert

    Venerable Robert Southwell

    Poet, Jesuit, martyr ; born at Horsham St. Faith's, Norfolk, England, in 1561; hanged at ...
    Southworth, Saint John

    St. John Southworth

    English martyr, b. in Lancashire, 1592, martyred at Tyburn, 28 June, 1654. A member of a junior ...
    Sovana and Pitigliano

    Sovana and Pitigliano

    DIOCESE OF SOVANA AND PITIGLIANO (SUANENSIS ET PITILIANENSIS). The two towns, Sovana and ...
    Sozomen, Salaminius Hermias

    Salminius Hermias Sozomen

    One of the famous historians of the early Church, born at Bethelia, a small town near Gaza in ...
    Sozopolis

    Sozopolis

    Titular see in the Balkans, suffragan of Adrianopolis. The town, at first called Antheia, was ...
    Sozusa

    Sozusa

    A titular see of Palestina Prima, suffragan of Cæsarea. The town, at first called ...
    Space

    Space

    ( Latin spatium ). The idea of space is one of the most important in the philosophy of ...
    Spagni, Andrea

    Andrea Spagni

    Educator and author, born at Florence, 8 Aug., 1716; died at Rome, 16 Sept., 1788. He entered the ...
    Spain

    Spain

    This name properly signifies the whole peninsula which forms the south-western extremity of ...
    Spalato-Macarsca (Salona)

    Spalato-Macarsca

    DIOCESE OF SPALATO-MACARSCA (SPALATENSIS ET MACARSCENSIS). Suffragan of Zara. Salona is the ...
    Spalding, Martin John

    Martin John Spalding

    Seventh Archbishop of Baltimore, b. Bardstown, Kentucky, 23 May, 1810; d., at Baltimore, 7 ...
    Spallanzani

    Lazzaro Spallanzani

    A distinguished eighteenth-century scientist, b. at Scadiano in Modena, Italy, 10 January, 1729; ...
    Spanish Armada, The

    The Spanish Armada

    The Spanish Armada, also called the Invincible Armada ( infra ), and more correctly La Armada ...
    Spanish Language and Literature

    Spanish Language and Literature

    Spanish, a Romance language, that is, one of the modern spoken forms of Latin, is the speech of ...
    Spanish-American Literature

    Spanish-American Literature

    The literature produced by the Spanish-speaking peoples of Mexico, Central America, Cuba and ...
    Spanish-American Universities

    Spanish-American Universities

    The University of St. Mark's at Lima enjoys the reputation of being the oldest in America; ...
    Sparta

    Sparta

    A celebrated town of the Peloponnesus, mentioned several times under this name or under that of ...
    Species

    Species

    In scholastic terminology, Species is the necessary determinant of every cognitive process. ...
    Speckbacher, Josef

    Josef Speckbacher

    A Tyrolean patriot of 1809, born at Gnadenwald, near Hall, in the Tyrol, 13 July, 1767; died at ...
    Speculation

    Speculation

    A term used with reference to business transactions to signify the investing of money at a risk of ...
    Spedalleri, Nicola

    Nicolas Spedalieri

    A priest, theologian, and philosopher, born at Bronte in the Province of Catania, Sicily, 6 ...
    Spee, Friedrich Von

    Friedrich Von Spee

    A poet, opponent of trials for witchcraft, born at Kaiserswerth on the Rhine, 25 February, 1591; ...
    Speed, Blessed John

    Blessed John Speed

    [ alias Spence] English martyr, executed at Durham, 4 Feb., 1593-4, for assisting the ...
    Spencer, The Hon. George

    The Hon. George Spencer

    ( In religion , Ignatius of St. Paul). Passionist, b. at the Admiralty, London, 21 Dec., ...
    Spenser, John

    John Spenser

    ( alias HATCLIFFE and TYRRWHIT) John Spenser, born in Lincolnshire, 1601; died at Grafton, ...
    Spenser, Venerable William

    Venerable William Spenser

    English martyr, b. at Ghisburn, Yorkshire; executed at York, 24 September, 1589. His maternal ...
    Speyer

    Speyer

    DIOCESE OF SPEYER (SPIRA) Diocese in Bavaria. The city dates back to the stronghold of ...
    Speyer, Johann and Wendelin von

    Johann and Wendelin Von Speyer

    German printers in Venice from 1468 to 1477. They were among the first of those who, after 1462, ...
    Spillmann, Joseph

    Joseph Spillman

    Author, b. at Zug, Switzerland, 22 April, 1842; d. at Luxembourg, 20 February, 1905. He attended ...
    Spina, Alphonso de

    Alphonso de Spina

    Spanish Franciscan, date of birth unknown; died about 1491. A convert from Judaism, he was for ...
    Spina, Bartolommeo

    Bartolommeo Spina

    Scholastic theologian, born at Pisa about 1475; died at Rome, 1546. He joined the Dominican ...
    Spinola, Christopher Royas de

    Christopher Royas de Spinola

    Bishop of Wiener-Neustadt, born of a noble Spanish family, near Roermond in Gelderland in ...
    Spinoza, Benedict

    Spinoza

    (d'Espinosa, Despinoza). Born at Amsterdam, 24 Nov., 1632; died at The Hague, 21 Feb., ...
    Spire

    Spire

    (From the Anglo-Saxon word spir , meaning "a stalk" or "shoot"). A tapering construction ...
    Spirit

    Spirit

    ( Latin spiritus , spirare , "to breathe"; Gk. pneuma ; Fr. esprit ; Ger. Geist ). As ...
    Spirit, Holy

    Holy Ghost

    I. SYNOPSIS OF THE DOGMA The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms ...
    Spiritism

    Spiritism

    Spiritism is the name properly given to the belief that the living can and do communicate with ...
    Spirito Santo

    Spirito Santo

    (SPIRITUS SANCTI) Suffragan of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro , established in ...
    Spiritual Direction

    Spiritual Direction

    In the technical sense of the term, spiritual direction is that function of the sacred ministry by ...
    Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius

    Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius

    A short work composed by St. Ignatius of Loyola and written originally in Spanish. THE TEXT ...
    Spiritualism

    Spiritualism

    The term "spiritualism" has been frequently used to denote the belief in the possibility of ...
    Spirituals

    Spirituals

    A general term denoting several groups of Friars Minor, existing in the second half of the ...
    Spokan Indians

    Spokan Indians

    An important tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, closely cognate with the Colville, Coeur ...
    Spoleto

    Spoleto

    ARCHDIOCESE OF SPOLETO (SPOLETANO). Archdiocese in the province of Umbria, Italy. The city is ...
    Spondanus, Henri

    Henri Spondanus

    (DE SPONDE) A convert from Calvinism, Bishop of Pamiers, and one of the continuators of ...
    Spontini, Gasparo Luigi Pacifico

    Gasparo Luigi Pacifico Spontini

    Composer, born at Magolati, near Jesi, Ancona, 14 Nov., 1774; died there, 14 Jan., 1851. He was ...
    Spoons, Apostle

    Apostle Spoons

    A set of thirteen spoons, usually silver, the handles of which are adorned with representations of ...
    Sporer, Patritius

    Patritius Sporer

    Moral theologian, born at Passau, Bavaria ; died there, 29 May, 1683. In 1637 he entered the ...
    Sportelli, Cæsar

    Caesar Sportelli

    Born at Nola in Bari, Italy, 29 March, 1702; died at Pagani, 19 April, 1750. His mother, who ...
    Springfield

    Springfield

    Diocese of Springfield (Campifontis) in Massachusetts, erected in June, 1870. It comprises five ...
    Sprott, Venerable Thomas

    Venerable Thomas Sprott

    (Spratt) English martyr, b. at Skelsmergh, near Kendal, Westmoreland; suffered at Lincoln with ...
    Squamish Indians

    Squamish Indians

    A considerable tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, speaking a distinct language, holding the ...
    Squiers, Herbert Goldsmith

    Herbert Goldsmith Squiers

    Army officer and diplomatist; b. at Madoc, Canada, 20 April, 1859; d. at London, 19 Oct., 1911. ...
    Squillace

    Squillace

    (Squillacensis). Suffragan diocese of Reggio, in Calabria, Southern Italy. The city of ...
    Sri Lanka

    Ceylon

    An island (266 1/2 miles long and 140 1/2 miles broad), to the south-east of India and separated ...
    Stöckl, Albert

    Albert Stoeckl

    A neo-Scholastic philosopher and theologian, born at Möhren, near Freuchtlingen, in Middle ...
    Stabat Mater

    Stabat Mater

    The opening words of two companion hymns, one of which (Stabat Mater Dolorosa) is in liturgical ...
    Stadler, John Evangelist

    John Evangelist Stadler

    A Bavarian hagiographer, b. at Parkstetten, in the Diocese of Ratisbon, 24 Dec., 1804; d. at ...
    Staff, Pastoral

    Crosier

    (Or PASTORAL STAFF). The crosier is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops ...
    Stained Glass

    Stained Glass

    The popular name for the glass used in the making of coloured windows. The term is a misnomer, as ...
    Stalls

    Stalls

    Stalls — seats in a choir, wholly or partly enclosed on the back and sides — are ...
    Stanbrook Abbey

    Stanbrook Abbey

    An abbey of Benedictine nuns, midway between Malvern and Worcester, England. The abbey and ...
    Stanfield, William Clarkson

    William Clarkson Stanfield

    English painter, b. at Sunderland, 1793; d. at Hampstead, near London, 1867. He became a sailor, ...
    Stanislas Kostka, Saint

    St. Stanislas Kostka

    Born at Rostkovo near Prasnysz, Poland, about 28 October, 1550; died at Rome during the night of ...
    Stanislaus of Cracow, Saint

    St. Stanislaus of Cracow

    Bishop and martyr, born at Szczepanów (hence called Szczepanowski), in the Diocese of ...
    Stanislawow

    Stanislawow

    Diocese of Stanislawow (Stanislaopoliensis) Diocese of the Greek-Ruthenian Rite, in Galicia, ...
    Stanley Falls

    Stanley Falls

    Vicariate Apostolic in the Belgian Congo. It is bounded on the east by the meridian 30° E. ...
    Stansel, Valentin

    Valentin Stansel

    Astronomer, b. at Olmütz, Moravia, 1621; d. at Bahia, Brazil, 18 Dec., 1705. He entered the ...
    Stanyhurst, Richard

    Richard Stanyhurst

    Catholic controversialist, historian, and devotional writer, born at Dublin, 1547; died at ...
    Stanza

    Stanza

    An Italian word signifying room, chamber, apartment. In English the term is chiefly used for ...
    Stapf, Joseph Ambrose

    Joseph Ambrose Stapf

    Theologian, born at Fliess in the valley of the Upper Inn in the Tyrol, Austria, 15 August, 1785; ...
    Staphylus, Friedrich

    Friedrich Staphylus

    Theologian, born at Osnabrück, 27 Aug., 1512; died at Ingolstadt, 5 March, 1564. His father, ...
    Stapleton, Theobald

    Theobald Stapleton

    Theobald Stapleton was born in Co. Kilkenny, Ireland, but was English by descent, though not ...
    Stapleton, Thomas

    Thomas Stapleton

    Controversialist, born at Henfield, Sussex, July, 1535; died at Louvain, 12 Oct., 1598. He was the ...
    Starowolski, Simon

    Simon Starowolski

    Born at Stara Wola, near Cracow, 1585; died at Cracow, 1656; studied at Louvain, but took his ...
    Starr, Eliza Allen

    Eliza Allen Starr

    Born at Deerfield, Massachusetts, 29 August, 1824; died at Durand, Illinois, 8 September, 1901. ...
    State and Church

    State and Church

    The Church and the State are both perfect societies, that is to say, each essentially aiming ...
    State or Way

    State Or Way (Purgative, Illuminative, Unitive)

    The word state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers. It may be ...
    State, Allegiance to the

    Civil Allegiance

    By civil allegiance is meant the duty of loyalty and obedience which a person owes to the State ...
    States of the Church

    States of the Church

    ( Italian Lo Stato della Chiese ) Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years ...
    States, Papal

    States of the Church

    ( Italian Lo Stato della Chiese ) Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years ...
    Station Days

    Station Days

    Days on which in the early Church fast was observed until the Hour of None (between twelve and ...
    Stations of the Cross

    Way of the Cross

    (Also called Stations of the Cross, Via Crucis, and Via Dolorosa). These names are used to signify ...
    Statistics of Religions

    Statistics of Religions

    I. DEFINITION This study concerns itself with religious bodies, the number of their members, and ...
    Statistics, Ecclesiastical

    Church Statistics

    In dealing with statistics, both theoretically and practically, it is unimportant whether the men, ...
    Stattler, Benedict

    Benedict Stattler

    Jesuit theologian, born at Kötzting, Bavaria ( Diocese of Ratisbon ), 30 Jan., 1728; died ...
    Staudenmaier, Franz Anton

    Franz Anton Staudenmaier

    A theologian, born at Donzdorf, Würtemberg, 11 Sept., 1800; died at Freiburg im Breisgau, ...
    Staupitz, Johann Von

    Johann von Staupitz

    Abbot, born at Motterwitz near Leisnig (or Moderwitz near Meustadt an der Orla) about 1460; died ...
    Stauropolis

    Stauropolis

    A titular metropolitan see of the Province of Caria. The city, founded by the Leleges, was at ...
    Stavanger, Ancient See of

    Ancient See of Stavanger

    (STAVANGRIA; STAVANGRENSIS) Located in Norway ; included the Provinces of Stavanger, Lister ...
    Stedingers

    Stedingers

    (A word meaning "those living along a shore") A tribe of Frisian peasants in Northern Germany ...
    Stefaneschi, Giacomo Gaetani

    Giacomo Gaetani Stefaneschi

    A cardinal-deacon, born at Rome, about 1270; died at Avignon, 23 June, 1343. He was the son of ...
    Steffani, Agostino

    Agostino Steffani

    A titular Bishop of Spiga, diplomatist and musician, born at Castelfranco in the Province of ...
    Steinamanger

    Steinamanger

    (SZOMBATHELY) Located in Hungary, suffragan of Gran, founded in 1777 under Queen Maria ...
    Steinle, Eduard Von

    Eduard von Steinle

    An historical painter, born at Vienna, 2 July, 1810; died at Frankfort, 19 Sept., 1886. Steinle ...
    Steinmeyer, Ferdinand

    Ferdinand Steinmeyer

    (FARMER) Ferdinand Steinmeyer, Jesuit missionary, born in Swabia, Germany, 13 Oct., 1720; ...
    Steno, Nicolaus

    Nicolaus Steno

    (Niels Steensen) An eminent Danish anatomist and geologist, convert and saintly bishop, ...
    Stephen (II) III, Pope

    Pope Stephen (II) III

    Unanimously elected in St. Mary Major's and consecrated on 26 March (or 3 April), 752; d. 26 ...
    Stephen (III) IV, Pope

    Pope Stephen (III) IV

    Born about 720; died 1 or 3 August, 772. Paul I was not dead when trouble began about the ...
    Stephen (IV) V, Pope

    Pope Stephen (IV) V

    (816-17) Date of birth unknown; died 24 Jan., 817. Stephen, the son of Marinus, was of the same ...
    Stephen (IX) X, Pope

    Pope Stephen (IX) X

    Born probably about the beginning of the eleventh century; died at Florence, 29 March, 1058. ...
    Stephen (V) VI, Pope

    Pope Stephen (V) VI

    (885-91) Date of birth unknown; died in Sept., 891. His father, Hadrian, who belonged to the ...
    Stephen (VI) VII, Pope

    Pope Stephen (VI) VII

    (896-7) Date of birth unknown; died about August, 897. Stephen was a Roman, and the son of ...
    Stephen (VII) VIII, Pope

    Pope Stephen (VII) VIII

    (929-31) Date of birth unknown; died in February or March, 931. He became pope either at the ...
    Stephen (VIII) IX, Pope

    Pope Stephen (VIII) IX

    (939-942) Date of birth unknown; he became pope about 14 July, 939, and died about the end of ...
    Stephen Harding, Saint

    St. Stephen Harding

    Confessor, the third Abbot of Cîteaux, was born at Sherborne in Dorsetshire, England, ...
    Stephen I, Pope Saint

    Pope St. Stephen I

    Although there is some doubt as to the dates connected with the pontificate of Stephen, it is ...
    Stephen II, Pope

    Pope Stephen II

    On the death of Zachary, a certain priest Stephen was unanimously elected to succeed him ...
    Stephen of Autun

    Stephen of Autun

    Bishop, liturgical writer, b. at Bangé (hence surnamed Blagiacus or de Balgiaco) in ...
    Stephen of Bourbon

    Stephen of Bourbon

    Illustrious writer and preacher, especially noted as a historian of medieval heresies, b. at ...
    Stephen of Muret, Saint

    St. Stephen of Muret

    Born 1045; died at Muret, 8 February, 1124, founder of the Abbey and Order of Grandmont. Serious ...
    Stephen of Tournai

    Stephen of Tournai

    Stephen of Tournai, canonist, born at Orléans, 1128; died at Tournai, September, 1203. He ...
    Stephen, Saint

    St. Stephen

    One of the first deacons and the first Christian martyr ; feast on 26 December. In the Acts ...
    Stephen, Saint

    St. Stephen

    First King of Hungary, b. at Gran, 975; d. 15 August, 1038. He was a son of the Hungarian ...
    Stephens, Henry Robert

    Henry Robert Stephens

    Belgian theologian, born of English parentage at Liège, 5 August, 1665; died there, 15 ...
    Stephens, Thomas

    Thomas Stephens

    (Also known in India as PADRE ESTEVÄO or ESTEVAM; less familiarly PADRE BUSTEN, BUSTON, or DE ...
    Steps, Altar

    Altar Steps

    In the beginning altars were not erected on steps. Those in the catacombs were constructed on the ...
    Steuco, Agostino

    Agostino Steuco

    (STEUCHUS) Exegete, born at Gubbio, Umbria, 1496; died at Venice, 1549. At the age of ...
    Stevenson, Joseph

    Joseph Stevenson

    Archivist, born at Berwick-on-Tweed, 27 Nov., 1806; died in London, 8 Feb., 1895. Though his ...
    Stevin, Simon

    Simon Stevin

    Born at Bruges in 1548; died at Leyden in 1620. He was for some years book-keeper in a business ...
    Stifter, Adalbert

    Adalbert Stifter

    Poet and pedagogue, b. at Oberplan in Bohemia, 23 October, 1805; d. at Linz, 28 October, 1868. ...
    Stigmata, Mystical

    Mystical Stigmata

    To decide merely the facts without deciding whether or not they may be explained by supernatural ...
    Stipend

    Stipend

    [ Latin stipendium , a tax, import, tribute; in military use, pay, salary; contraction for ...
    Stockholm

    Stockholm

    Stockholm, the capital of the Kingdom of Sweden, is situated on Lake Maelar at the spot where it ...
    Stoddard, Charles Warren

    Charles Warren Stoddard

    An American author, born 7 August, 1843, at Rochester, N. Y.; died 23 April, 1909, at Monterey, ...
    Stoics and Stoic Philosophy

    Stoics and Stoic Philosophy

    The Stoic School was founded in 322 B.C. by Zeno of Cittium and existed until the closing of the ...
    Stolberg

    Stolberg

    1. Friedrich Leopold, Count zu Stolberg Born at Brammstedt in Holstein (then a part of Denmark ...
    Stole

    Stole

    A liturgical vestment composed of a strip of material from two to four inches wide and about ...
    Stole, Altar

    Altar Stole

    An ornament, having the shape of the ends of a stole, which in the Middle Ages was attached to ...
    Stolz, Alban Isidor

    Alban Isidor Stolz

    Catholic theologian and popular author, b. at Bühl, Baden, 3 Feb., 1808; d. at Freiberg, ...
    Stone, Altar

    Altar Stone

    A solid piece of natural stone, consecrated by a bishop, large enough to hold the Sacred Host ...
    Stone, Corner

    Corner Stone

    (Foundation Stone) A rite entitled "De benedictione et impositione Primarii Lapidis pro ...
    Stone, John, Blessed

    Bl. John Stone

    English martyr, executed at the Dane-John, Canterbury, probably in December, 1539, for denying ...
    Stone, Marmaduke

    Marmaduke Stone

    Jesuit, b. at Draycot, 28 Nov., 1748; d. at St. Helens, 22 Aug., 1834. He was educated at St. ...
    Stone, Mary Jean

    Mary Jean Stone

    Born at Brighton, Sussex, in 1853; died at Battle, Sussex, 3 May, 1908. She was educated at a ...
    Stones, Precious, in the Bible

    Precious Stones in the Bible

    Precious stones are stones remarkable for their colour, brilliancy, or rarity. Such stones have at ...
    Stoning in Scripture

    Stoning in Scripture

    Palestine being a very rocky country, the abundance of stones made it natural to use them as ...
    Stonnes, James

    James Stonnes

    English priest, b. 1513; d. after 1585. He was ordained at Durham by Bishop Tunstall in 1539. ...
    Stonyhurst College

    Stonyhurst College

    The history of Stonyhurst as a school dates back to a period considerably prior to its ...
    Story, Blessed John

    Bl. John Story

    ( Or Storey.) Martyr ; born 1504; died at Tyburn, 1 June, 1571. He was educated at ...
    Stoss, Veit

    Veit Stoss

    Sculptor, b. at Nuremberg in 1438; d there in 1533. In 1477 he established a large work shop at ...
    Stoup

    Holy Water Fonts

    Vessels intended for the use of holy water are of very ancient origin, and archaeological ...
    Stradivari Family, The

    The Stradivari Family

    The name Stradivari goes back to the Middle Ages ; we find it spelt in various ways, Stradivare, ...
    Stradivari, Antonio

    Antonio Stradivari

    The famous Cremonese violin-maker, b. in 1649 or 1650; d. at Cremona, 18 or 19 Dec., 1737. He ...
    Strahov, Abbey of

    Abbey of Strahov

    A Premonstratensian abbey at Prague, Bohemia, founded in 1149 by Bishop Henry Zdik of ...
    Strain, John

    John Strain

    Archbishop of St. Andrews and Edinburgh, born at Edinburgh, 8 December, 1810; died there, 2 July, ...
    Stransham, Venerable Edward

    Edward Stransham

    English martyr, born at Oxford about 1554; suffered at Tyburn, 21 January, 1586. He was educated ...
    Strasburg

    Strasburg

    (ARGENTINENSIS) A German diocese immediately dependent on the Papal See . According to ...
    Stratonicea

    Stratonicea

    A titular see in Caria ( Asia Minor ) suffragan of Stauropolis. Stratoniceia or Stratonicea ...
    Streber, Franz Ignaz Von

    Franz Ignaz von Streber

    Numismatist and theologian, born at Reisbach, Lower Bavaria, 11 Feb., 1758; died at Munich, 26 ...
    Streber, Franz Seraph

    Franz Seraph Streber

    Numismatist and nephew of Franz Ignaz von Streber, born at Deutenkofen, Lower Bavaria, 26 Feb., ...
    Streber, Hermann

    Hermann Streber

    Son of Franz Seraph Streber, b. at Munich, 27 Sept., 1839; d. at Tölz, 9 Aug., 1896. He ...
    Strengnäs, Ancient See of

    Ancient See of Strengnas

    (STRENGAE, STRENGENSIA; STRENGENESIS). Located in Sweden. The diocese consisted of the ...
    Striking of the Breast

    Striking of the Breast

    Striking of the breast as a liturgical act is prescribed in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass ...
    Stripping of an Altar

    Stripping of an Altar

    On Holy Thursday the celebrant, having removed the ciborium from the high altar, goes to the ...
    Strossmayer, Joseph Georg

    Joseph Georg Strossmayer

    (Josip Juraj), Bishop of Diakovár [Djakovo], born at Essegg [Osijek] in ...
    Stuart, Henry Benedict Maria Clement

    Henry Benedict Maria Clement Stuart

    Cardinal, Duke of York, known by the Jacobites as "Henry IX, King of Great Britain, France, ...
    Studion

    Studion

    (Latin Studium ), the most important monastery at Constantinople, situated not far from the ...
    Stuhlweissenburg

    Stuhlweissenburg

    DIOCESE OF STUHLWEISSENBURG (ALBAE REGALENSIS) Diocese in Hungary, and Suffragen of Gran. It ...
    Sturluson, Snorri

    Snorri Sturluson

    Historian, born at Hvammr, 1178; died 1241. Snorri, who was the son of Sturla Thortsson (d. 1182), ...
    Stylites

    Stylites

    Stylites were solitaries who, taking up their abode upon the tops of a pillar ( stylos ), chose ...
    Styria

    Styria

    ( German Steiermark) A duchy and Austrian crownland, divided by the River Mur into Upper and ...
    Suárez, Francisco

    Francisco Suarez

    Doctor Eximius , a pious and eminent theologian, as Paul V called him, born at Granada, 5 ...
    Subdeacon

    Subdeacon

    The subdiaconate is the lowest of the sacred or major orders in the Latin Church. It is defined ...
    Subiaco

    Subiaco

    (SUBLACUM, SUBLACEUM, SUBLAQUEM). A city in the Province of Rome, twenty-five miles from ...
    Subreption

    Subreption

    ( Latin subreptio ). In canon law the concealment or suppression of statements or facts that ...
    Subsidies, Episcopal

    Episcopal Subsidies

    ( Latin subsidia , tribute, pecuniary aid, subvention) Since the faithful are obliged to ...
    Substance

    Substance

    ( Latin sub-stare, substantia ) Substance, the first of Aristotle's categories, signifies ...
    Suburbicarian Dioceses

    Suburbicarian Dioceses

    A name applied to the dioceses nearest Rome, viz. Albano, Frascati (Tusculum), Palestrina, ...
    Sudan

    Sudan

    The Vicariate Apostolic of Sudan or Central-Africa (S UDANENSIS SEU A FRICÆ C ...
    Sufetula

    Sufetula

    A titular see of North Africa. Sufetula seems to be Suthul where Jugurtha had deposited his ...
    Sugar, Venerable John

    Venerable John Sugar

    (Suker). Born at Wombourn, Staffordshire, 1558; suffered at Warwick, 16 July, 1604. He ...
    Suger

    Suger

    Abbot of St-Denis, statesman and historian, b. probably at or near St-Denis, about 1081; d. ...
    Suicide

    Suicide

    This article will treat the subject under the following three heads: I. The notions and ...
    Suidas

    Suidas

    ( Souidas, Soudas ) Author of, perhaps, the most important Greek lexicon or encyclopedia. ...
    Suitbert, Saint

    St. Suitbert

    (Suidbert [or Swithbert]). Apostle of the Frisians, b. in England in the seventh century; d. ...
    Sullivan, Alexander Martin

    Alexander Martin Sullivan

    Irish politician, lawyer and journalist, b. at Bantry in 1830; d. at Dartry Lodge, Rathmines, ...
    Sullivan, Peter John

    Peter John Sullivan

    Soldier, lawyer, born at Cork, Ireland, 15 March, 1821; died at Cincinnati, Ohio, 2 March 1883. ...
    Sully, Maurice de

    Maurice de Sully

    Bishop of Paris, born of humble parents at Sully-sur-Loire (Soliacum), near Orléans, at ...
    Sulpicians in the United States

    Sulpicians in the United States

    The Sulpicians came to the United States at the very rise of the American Hierarchy. When the ...
    Sulpicius Severus

    Sulpicius Severus

    An ecclesiastical writer, born of noble parents in Aquitaine c. 360; died about 420-25. The ...
    Sulpitius

    Sulpitius

    Two bishops of Bourges bore this name. (1) The first, St. Sulpitius the Severe, wrongly ...
    Sumatra

    Prefecture Apostolic of Sumatra

    Sumatra, erected by a Decree of 30 June, 1911, and entrusted to the Dutch Capuchins. Previously ...
    Summæ

    Summae

    (SUMMULÆ) Summæ are compendiums of theology, philosophy, and canon law which ...
    Summer Schools, Catholic

    Catholic Summer Schools

    A Catholic summer school is an assembly of Catholic clergy and laity held during the summer ...
    Sunday

    Sunday

    Sunday (Day of the Sun), as the name of the first day of the week, is derived from Egyptian ...
    Superior

    Superior, Wisconsin

    (SUPERIORENSIS) Situated in the northern part of Wisconsin, Superior comprises the following ...
    Supernatural Adoption

    Supernatural Adoption

    ( Latin adoptare , to choose.) Adoption is the gratuitous taking of a stranger as one's own ...
    Supernatural Gift

    Supernatural Gift

    A supernatural gift may be defined as something conferred on nature that is above all the ...
    Supernatural Order

    Supernatural Order

    The Supernatural Order is the ensemble of effects exceeding the powers of the created universe ...
    Superstition

    Superstition

    [From supersisto , "to stand in terror of the deity " (Cicero, "De Nat. deorum", I, 42, 117); ...
    Supper, The Last

    The Last Supper

    The meal held by Christ and His disciples on the eve of His Passion at which He instituted the ...
    Suppression of Monasteries in Continental Europe

    Suppression of Monasteries in Europe

    Under this title will be treated only the suppressions of religious houses (whether monastic in ...
    Suppression of Monasteries in England

    Suppression of English Monasteries Under Henry VIII

    From any point of view the destruction of the English monasteries by Henry VIII must be ...
    Supremi disciplinæ

    Supremi Disciplinae

    Motu Proprio of Pius X, promulgated 2 July, 1911, relating to Holy Days of obligation. On Holy ...
    Sura

    Sura

    Titular see in Augusta Euphratensis, suffragan of Hierapolis. Sura, situated on the banks of the ...
    Surin, Jean-Joseph

    Jean-Joseph Surin

    Born 1600; died at Bordeaux, 1665. He belonged to the Society of Jesus , and enjoyed great ...
    Surius, Laurentius

    Laurentius Surius

    Hagiologist, born at the Hanseatic city of Lübeck, 1522; died at Cologne, 23 May, 1578. It ...
    Surplice

    Surplice

    A large-sleeved tunic of half-length, made of fine linen or cotton, and worn by all the clergy. ...
    Susa

    Susa

    (Greek Sousan, Sousa ) The capital of the Kingdom of Elam, and from the time of Cyrus, or ...
    Susa

    Susa

    (SEGUSIN; SEGUSIENSIS) Diocese in the Province of Turin, Piedmont, Northern Italy. The city ...
    Susanna and Tiburtius, Saints

    Sts. Tiburtius and Susanna

    Roman martyrs, feast 11 August. The story is related in the legend of St. Sebastian that ...
    Suso, Blessed Henry

    Bl. Henry Suso

    (Also called Amandus , a name adopted in his writings). German mystic, born at Constance on ...
    Suspension (in Canon Law)

    Suspension (In Canon Law)

    Suspension, in canon law, is usually defined as a censure by which a cleric is deprived, ...
    Sutton, Sir Richard

    Sir Richard Sutton

    Co-founder of Brasenose College, Oxford, date of birth unknown; d. September or October, 1524. ...
    Sutton, Ven. Robert

    Venerable Robert Sutton

    Priest, martyr, b. at Burton-on-Trent; quartered at Stafford, 27 July, 1587. He is not to be ...
    Swan, Order of the

    Order of the Swan

    A pious confraternity, indulgenced by the pope, which arose in 1440 in the Electorate of ...
    Sweden

    Sweden

    The largest of the three Scandinavian countries and the eastern half of the Scandinavian ...
    Swedenborgians

    Swedenborgians

    The believers in the religious doctrines taught by Emanuel Swedenborg. As an organized body they ...
    Sweinheim, Konrad

    Arnold Pannartz and Konrad Sweinheim

    See also KONRAD SWEYNHEIM . Both printers; Pannartz died about 1476, Sweinheim in 1477. ...
    Swetchine, Sophie-Jeanne Soymonof

    Sophie-Jeanne Soymonof Swetchine

    Writer, b. at Moscow, 22 Nov., 1782; d. in Paris, 10 Sept., 1857. She was a member of a noble ...
    Sweynheim, Konrad

    Konrad Sweynheim

    See also ARNOLD PANNARTZ AND KONRAD SWEINHEIM . (SCHWEINHEIM) Printer, b. at Schwanheim, ...
    Swinomish Indians

    Swinomish Indians

    A tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, closely connected with the Skagit. They formerly held the ...
    Swithin, Saint

    St. Swithin

    (SWITHUN). Bishop of Winchester ; died 2 July, 862. Very little is known of this saint's ...
    Switzerland

    Switzerland

    (Confederatio Helvetica) A confederation in the central part of Western Europe, made up of ...
    Sydney

    Sydney

    ARCHDIOCESE OF SYDNEY (SYDNEYENSIS). The vast territories formerly known as New Holland and Van ...
    Syene

    Syene

    A titular see in Thebian Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais. Syene (Egyptian, Souanou, Coptic, ...
    Sykes, Edmund

    Edmund Sykes

    Born at Leeds ; martyred at York Tyburn 23 March, 1586-7; was a student at the College at ...
    Syllabus

    Syllabus

    ( syllabos , "collection") The name given to two series of propositions containing modern ...
    Sylvester Gozzolini, Saint

    St. Sylvester Gozzolini

    Founder of the Sylvestrines, b. of the noble family of the Gozzolini at Osimo, 1177; d. 26 ...
    Sylvester I, Pope Saint

    Pope Sylvester I

    Date of birth unknown; d. 31 December, 335. According to the "Liber pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, ...
    Sylvester II

    Pope Sylvester II

    Reigned 999-1003; also called Gerbert. Born at or near Aurillac, Auvergne, France, about 940-950, ...
    Sylvester, Bernard, of Chartres

    Bernard Sylvester of Chartres

    ( More properly , of Tours.) A twelfth-century philosopher of Neo-Platonic tendencies. ...
    Sylvester, Order of Saint

    Order of Saint Sylvester

    The Order of Saint Sylvester is neither monastic nor military but a purely honorary title ...
    Sylvestrines

    Sylvestrines

    A minor monastic order or, strictly speaking, congregation following in general the Rule of St. ...
    Sylvia, Saint

    St. Silvia

    (Also spelled "Sylvia"). Mother of Pope St. Gregory the Great , born about 515 (525?); died ...
    Sylvius, Francis

    Francis Sylvius

    Theologian, born at Braine-le-Comte, Hainault, Belgium, 1581; died at Douai, 22 February, ...
    Symbolism

    Symbolism

    Symbolism may for our present purpose be defined to be the investing of outward things or actions ...
    Symmachus the Ebionite

    Symmachus the Ebionite

    Author of one of the Greek versions of the Old Testament included by Origen in his Hexapla ...
    Symmachus, Pope Saint

    Pope Saint Symmachus

    Date of birth unknown; d. 19, July, 514. According to the "Liber pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, ...
    Symphorian and Timotheus, Saints

    Sts. Timotheus and Symphorian

    Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August. During the pontificate of Melchiades (311-13), ...
    Symphorosa, Saint

    Saint Symphorosa

    Martyred with her seven sons at Tibur (Tivoli) towards the end of the reign of Emperor Hadrian ...
    Synagogue

    Synagogue

    The place of assemblage of the Jews. This article will treat of the name, origin, history, ...
    Synaus

    Synaus

    (SYNAITANSIS) A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. Nothing is known ...
    Synaxarion

    Synaxarion

    ( synaxarion , collection) The name of a liturgical book of the Byzantine Church. The ...
    Synaxis

    Synaxis

    Synaxis ( synaxis from synago ) means gathering, assembly, reunion. It is exactly equivalent ...
    Syncelli

    Syncelli

    ( sygkelloi , from syn , with, and kellion , the Græcized form of the Latin cella ...
    Syncretism

    Syncretism

    From sygkretizein (not from sygkerannynai .) An explanation is given by Plutarch in a ...
    Synderesis

    Synderesis

    Synderesis , or more correctly synteresis , is a term used by the Scholastic theologians to ...
    Syndic, Apostolic

    Apostolic Syndic

    A layman, who in the name, and by the authority, of the Holy See assumes the care and civil ...
    Syndicalism

    Syndicalism

    The term Syndicalism has been derived from the French syndicats , associations of workingmen ...
    Synesius of Cyrene

    Synesius of Cyrene

    Bishop of Ptolomais, neo-Platonist, date of birth uncertain; d. about 414. He was a younger ...
    Synnada

    Synnada

    Titular metropolis in Phrygia Salutaris. Synnada is said to have been founded by Acamas who went ...
    Synod

    Synod

    (Greek synodos , an assembly). A general term for ecclesiastical gatherings under ...
    Synods, National

    National Synods

    According to the recent canon law, national councils are the deliberating assemblies at which all ...
    Synoptics

    Synoptics

    The name given since Griesbach's time (about 1790) to the first three canonical Gospels. It is ...
    Syntagma Canonum

    Syntagma Canonum

    A canonical collection made in 1335 by Blastares, a Greek monk about whose life nothing ...
    Syon Monastery

    Syon Monastery

    Syon Monastery, Middlesex, England, founded in 1415 by King Henry V at his manor of Isleworth. ...
    Syra

    Syra

    DIOCESE OF SYRA (SYRENSIS). A Latin diocese, suffragan of Naxos, comprising the Island of ...
    Syracuse

    Syracuse

    Archdiocese of Syracuse (Syracusana) in Sicily. The city is situated upon a peninsula extending ...
    Syracuse

    Syracuse (New York)

    (Syracusensis) The Diocese of Syracuse, in the State of New York, comprises the counties of ...
    Syria

    Syria

    GEOGRAPHY AND POLITICAL DIVISIONS, ANCIENT AND MODERN A country in Western Asia, which in modern ...
    Syriac Hymnody

    Syriac Hymnody

    To the general consideration set forth in the article HYMNODY AND HYMNOLOGY must be added some ...
    Syriac Language and Literature

    Syriac Language and Literature

    Syriac is the important branch of the group of Semitic languages known as Aramaic. In the time ...
    Syrian Rite, East

    East Syrian Rite

    Also known as the Chaldean, Assyrian, or Persian Rite. History and Origin This rite is used by ...
    Syrian Rite, West

    West Syrian Rite

    The rite used by the Jacobite sect in Syria and by the Catholic Syrians is in its origin ...
    Syro-Chaldaic Rite

    East Syrian Rite

    Also known as the Chaldean, Assyrian, or Persian Rite. History and Origin This rite is used by ...
    Syro-Jacobite Liturgy

    West Syrian Rite

    The rite used by the Jacobite sect in Syria and by the Catholic Syrians is in its origin ...
    Syro-Malabar Church

    St. Thomas Christians

    An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent ...
    Syro-Malabar Rite

    East Syrian Rite

    Also known as the Chaldean, Assyrian, or Persian Rite. History and Origin This rite is used by ...
    Szántó, Stephan

    Stephan Szanto

    Born in the Diocese of Raab, Hungary, 1541; died at Olmütz in 1612. On finishing his ...
    Szatmár

    Szatmar

    DIOCESE OF SZATMAR (SZATMARIENSIS) Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Eger, from which it was ...
    Sze-Ch'wan (Eastern)

    Sze-Ch'wan (Eastern)

    Vicariate Apostolic of Eastern Sze-Ch'wan The mission of Eastern Sze-ch'wan was separated from ...
    Sze-Ch'wan (North-western)

    Sze-Ch'wan (North-Western)

    Vicariate Apostolic of North-western Sze-Ch'wan The mission of North-eastern Sze-ch'wan includes ...
    Sze-Ch'wan (Southern)

    Sze-Ch'wan (Southern)

    Vicariate Apostolic of Southern Sze-Ch'wan On 24 January, 1860, the mission of Southern ...
    Szentiványi, Martin

    Martin Szentivanyi

    Born at Szentivàn, 20 October, 1633; died at Nagy-Szombàt (Tyrnau), 5 March, 1708. ...
    Szepes

    Zips

    (SZEPES; SCEPUSIENSIS). A diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Agria (Eger), founded by Maria ...
    Szujski, Joseph

    Joseph Szujski

    Born at Tarnow, 1835; d. at Cracow, 1883. He studied at Tarnow, then at Cracow (1854) and at ...
    Szymonowicz, Simon

    Simon Szymonowicz

    Known also by the Latin name of Somonides, b. at Lemberg, 1558; d. 1629. He studied first at ...

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