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Russian Language and Literature

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The subject will be treated under the following heads, viz.

  • RUSSIAN LANGUAGE;
  • ANCIENT POPULAR LITERATURE;
  • FIRST MONUMENTS OF RUSSIAN LITERATURE;
  • LITERATURE FROM THE ELEVENTH TO THE THIRTEENTH CENTURIES;
  • LITERATURE FROM THE FOURTEENTH TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURIES;
  • LITERATURE OF LITTLE RUSSIA AND GREAT RUSSIA IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY;
  • RUSSIAN LITERATURE OF THE TIME OF PETER THE GREAT;
  • LITERATURE OF RUSSIA IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY;
  • LITERATURE OF RUSSIA IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY;
  • CONTEMPORARY RUSSIAN LITERATURE.
  • I. RUSSIAN LANGUAGE

    Russian is a Slav language belonging to the Indo-European family. The dispersion of the Slav tribes in prehistoric times resulted in the formation of various Slav dialects, of which Shafarik counted twelve, although other writers recognize only six or seven. The Slav dialects are divided into the South-Eastern dialects and the Western dialects. To the former, which culminate in the Bulgarian, belongs the Russian, or rather the three Russian dialects of Great Russia, Little Russia, and White Russia. Russian has many affinities with the Bulgarian and Servian languages, because Russia received her primitive literature from the Bulgarians and Servians. The absence of documents, however, makes it impossible to define with precision the character of the primitive language of Russia, or rather the relations between that language and the Russian of literature. According to Sreznevski and Lavroff, the similarity between the two languages was almost complete, and consisted in turns of expression rather than in grammatical forms. Before the thirteenth century, the literary, ecclesiastical, and administrative language was one. But in the fourteenth century the ecclesiastical language began to differ from the literary language and this difference grew considerably in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The Palæoslavic or ecclesiastical language, however, varied little in either case from the language of the people. In time Russian underwent local changes of form that gave rise to the dialects of Kieff, Novgorod, Vladimir, and Moscow. The Vareghi, the Greeks, the Tatars, the Lithuanians, and the Poles left traces of their political domination on the language of Russia, and in the time of Peter the Great many words were added from German, French, and English. The question of the primitive language of Russia is connected with the ethnological question, and in the nineteenth century gave rise to lengthy and spirited polemics which, however, led to no definite results. A leading work for the study of this controversy is Buslaeff's "Historical Grammar of the Russian Language" (1858). Political and nationalist questions also enter into the philological researches concerning the primitive language of Russia. The Ruthenians, or Little Russians, claim that their language was the original Russian, and therefore that primitive Russian literature should rather be called Ruthenian. On the other hand Sobolevski and the nationalists of Great Russia declare that the present Ruthenian is not the primitive language of Kieff. This philological controversy between the nationalists of Little Russia and those of Great Russia has not yet terminated.

    II. ANCIENT POPULAR LITERATURE

    From its earliest history Russia has possessed a literature that was handed down by tradition from generation to generation. It was not before the seventeenth century that this literature took a written form. The collection of Russian proverbs was begun: in the eighteenth century Daniloff published the first collection of Russian byline: at the end of the same century and at the beginning of the nineteenth, Tchulkoff, Popoff, and Macaroff published the first collections of popular songs. Upon this literature, which conveys so much information on the religious, civil, and social life of primitive Russia, great light was thrown by the studies of Kalaidovitch, Snegireff, Sakharoff, Kirieevski, Bielinski, Athanasieff, Kostomoroff, Maikoff, Buslaeff, Bezsonoff, and Vselovski. The popular Russian songs are divided into several classes. There are the mystic or ritual songs ( obriadnyia piesni ), which were sung in the sacred games, and on other solemn occasions; they contain many memories of the ancient pagan feasts, celebrating the glories of Dazh-Bog (the sun-god), of Koliada (traced by Russian writers to the Latin Calendœ ), and of Ovsen. Others, illustrating the promiscuity of pagan tradition, celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ ( sviatotchnyja piesni ); others relate to the spring feasts ( vesnianki ), or accompany the dance ( khorovodnyja ). To this same class belong the nuptial songs ( svadebnyja ), the kupal'skija (literally, songs of the baths), the rusal'nyja , in honour of the Rusalke , a term that probably served to designate the souls of the departed.

    The byline are the most beautiful treasures of this popular literature, of which they form the heroic cycle. The term byline is derived from the verb byl (it was), and etymologically signifies the recital of that which happened in times gone by. They tell of the deeds of the legendary heroes of primitive Russia. History, legend, and mythology together furnish the matter of these epic songs. In them the Russian heroes are called bogatyr , a name that some believe to be derived from Bog ( God ), as if they were demigods; others believe that the term is derived from Tatar or Mongolian ; and yet others from the Sanskrit ( bhaga , force, happiness ). The heroes who are immortalized in the byline belong to the epoch of Vladimir the Great, or to more ancient times, and partake of a mythological character. These heroes, who act together with those of the time of Vladimir the Great, but nevertheless are endowed with a mythological character, are Sviatogor, Mikula Selianinovitch, Volga Sviatoslavitch, Sukhman Odikhmantévitch, and Don Ivanovitch; the historians of Russian literature designate them by the epithet of starshie ("ancient heroes"). The "young heroes" ( mladshie ) belong historically to the epoch of Vladimir; their names are Elia Muromec, Dobrynja Nikititch, Alesha Popovitch, Solovei Budimirovitch, etc. Kieff is so to speak, their geographical centre, and Vladimir their star. In the Russian chronicles they are mentioned between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries. Elia of Murom lived at the end of the twelfth century, and his remains rest in the grotto of the sanctuary of Petcherskaia at Kieff. They combat the monsters that assail Russia from within or from without, that is, paganism and thieves among the first, and the Petchenegi, the Polovcy, and the Chozari among the second. The historical, philological, and poetical importance of these ancient monuments of literature is very great. Other byline of later date, more commonly called historical songs, refer to the Tatar invasions, to the period of Ivan the Terrible, and also to that of Peter the Great. The songs and legends of Little Russia are called dumy (elegies, ballads), and celebrate the struggles of the Cossacks and Little Russians against the Turks or Tatars and the Poles, and the union of Little Russia with Great Russia. The songs that refer to domestic life are called bytovyja piesni . They sing the popular feasts and games, and the sad as well as happy events of domestic life, while they preserve many traces of paganism. The best collections of them are those of Tchulkoff (St. Petersburg, 1770-74); Novikoff (Moscow, 1780-81); and Sakharoff (St. Petersburg, 1838-39).

    To popular literature belong the fanciful novels called skazki , which resemble somewhat the stories of the Fates. Their protagonists are strange beings created by the ardent popular fancy, Baba-Iaga , serpents with six or twelve heads, stags, horses, etc. The forces of nature are personified. At times the mythological element predominates in them entirely; and again it is blended with Christianity. The oldest novels are characterized by their simplicity and by the repose of their recital. Some of them, like the one entitled "The Judgment of Shemjaka", are satirical compositions. Others are derived from Western novels, especially the Italian. The proverbs also belong to popular literature. They are called poslovicy , and are very abundant, the first complete collection of them having been made by D. Kniazhevitch in 1822. They are the spontaneous product of the wisdom, caustic spirit, and rudimentary culture of the Russian people, and reflect the various historical ages of Russia. Some of them date from pagan times, others emanate from the people's knowledge of Holy Scripture , and others originate in the events that produced the greatest impressions on the popular imagination. To popular literature belong also the enigmas or riddles ( zagadki ), collected by Khudiakoff (Moscow, 1861) and by Sadovinikoff (St. Petersburg, 1876); the incantations ( zagovory ), the conjurations ( zakliatia ), and the lullabies ( platchi ), which are most useful for the study of Russian folk-lore and primitive Russian life.

    III. FIRST MONUMENTS OF RUSSIAN LITERATURE

    The first written literature of Russia is coincident with the conversion of Russia to Christianity. Bulgaria was the first Slav educator of Russia, and the first translations of the Scriptures and the liturgies were Bulgarian. The most ancient monument of Russian literature, and at the same time of the ecclesiastical Palæoslavic language common to the primitive Slav Christians, is the Gospel called "Ostromirovo", written at Novgorod in 1056-57 by the Deacon Gregor, by order of Ostromir, first magistrate ( posadnik ) of the city. This valuable document was published by Vostokoff in 1843. Ancient Russian literature is of an eminently religious character. The greater portion of its monuments are sermons, homilies, letters, lives of saints, pilgrimages ; even the profane works, as chronicles and voyages, have a religious tone. On the other hand, owing to the fact that the Russians received their Christianity from Byzantium, their literature was openly Byzantine in character, the early Russians either translating the Byzantine works, or being inspired by the spirit of those works, and writing as if they were Byzantines. Primitive Russian literature, however, was subject also to other influences. The Slav influence was due to the Bulgarians and Servians, who, until the fifteenth century, gave many cultured men to Russia, e.g., the Metropolitan Cyprian and Gregor Camblak. Greek influence lasted a longer time, and flourished in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

    Russian literature in the beginning consisted of translations from the Greek and of original works. Its development was very slow, because the prices of codices were very high. The copying of books was considered not only a useful contribution to culture, but a supernatural work. The Princess of Polotsk, St. Euphrosyne (twelfth century), copied books, a work to which monks, and even bishops, devoted themselves. Russian monks were wont to go to Constantinople, or to Mount Athos, and there to become amanuenses and enrich the first Russian libraries by their work. The first books that were translated were those of the Holy Scripture that were most used by the people (Psalms, the Gospels, Proverbs, Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Wisdom of Jesus the son of Sirach). There were also collections of extracts from the Holy Scripture , called Paremii . The translation of all the books of the Holy Scripture in a single codex was made in 1499, by order of Gennadius Gonzoff, Archbishop of Novgorod (1484-1504).

    Simultaneously with the Holy Scripture , the writings of the Fathers of the Church were greatly in vogue, especially those of St. John Chrysostom. Highly esteemed also were the doctrinal explanations of St. Cyril of Jerusalem, the canons of St. Basil, the homilies of St. Theodore the Studite, the discourses of St. Athanasius against Arianism, the discourses of St. Gregory of Nazianzus, the "Klimax" of St. John Climacus, and the works of St. Isaac the Syrian, St. Ephraem the Syrian, and St. John Damascene. Until the seventeenth century, the theological writings of St. John Damascene were the sources of Russian Orthodox theology. The great popularity of the works of the Fathers gave rise to the formation of collections of extracts from their discourses, and to annotated copies, with explanations, for the study of their writings, called sborniki , of which there are several: "Zlatoust", a collection of moral sermons and homilies (112), mostly from St. John Chrysostom ; "Margarit", another collection from St. John Chrysostom , included in the monologue of the Metropolitan Macarius, and published for the first time at Ostrog in 1596; "Izmaragd", a collection of sermons and homilies from St. Basil, St. John Chrysostom, St. Ephraem, St. Gregory the Great, and St. Cyril of Alexandria ; "Andriatis", a collection of the homilies recited by St. John Chrysostom at Antioch ; "Zlataia ciep" (golden chain), a collection of discourses on the moral virtues, taken from the Fathers of the Church and from Russian writers; the "Ptchely" (bees), a collection of the literary flowers of St. Maximus the Confessor. The famous "Sbornik" of Sviatoslaff Yaroslaffitch, Prince of Tchernigoff, which was translated in Bulgaria from the Greek, for the Tsar Simeon, in 1073, also has texts from the Fathers and from profane writers.

    The Greek synaxaria , the Patereka of Sinai and Jerusalem, translated in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and the "Patericon" of the Petcherskaia Shrine of Kieff, which is very valuable for the study of primitive Russian hagiology, are of a sacro-historical character. The Greek synaxaria took in Russian the name of Prologos . Collections of discourses in honour of the feasts of Our Lord, of the Blessed Virgin, and of the saints received the name of "Torzhestvenniki". An historical compendium of the Old Testament, called "Palei", from palaia diatheke , dates from the earliest times of Russian Christianity. The oldest codices of the "Palei" are of the fourteenth century, but their origin is much older. To sacred and profane literature belong the so-called chronographoi , collections and transformations of writings of Byzantine chroniclers, especially of Malala, Amartolos, Manasses, and Zonaras, as also the Slav version of the "Christian Topography" of Cosmas Indicopleustes.

    Partly to sacro-profane and partly to profane literature belong many novels and stories translated from Byzantine, Servian, and Bulgarian writings, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. One of the most famous novels, taken from the literature of Constantinople, is the history of Barlaam and Josaphat. At the end of the sixteenth century, the influence of Polish literature helped to spread in Russia two works that were much in vogue in the West, the "Gesta Romanorum", and the "Speculum Magnum." The apocryphal books of the Old Testament (story of Adam and Eve ; story of the Tree of the Cross; story of the Just Enoch, etc.), and those of the New Testament (story of Aphroditian on the miracles in Persia ; dispute of Christ with the Devil ; conversation of Adam and Lazarus in Limbo, etc.) were also widely disseminated in the literature of that time. There were also translated into Palæorussian the "Elucidarium sive dialogus de summa totius religionis christianæ", attributed to Honorius of Autun by Migne ; books of magic and books of astrology ("Gromnik", "Molnianik", "Koliadnik", etc). Under the influence of this literature, religious songs were created that became very popular with the people ( Dukhovnye stikhi ). These little poems or songs treat of the most varied subjects, and it is very difficult to divide them into different classes. They are of a moral and religious character, referring to the Creation, to St. Michael the Archangel , to the sufferings of the damned, to the birth or passion of Jesus Christ, to the Russian saints, etc. And beside these poetical productions sprang up the hagiological legends, of which the best known refer to St. Nicholas of Myra , St. Parasceve, and St. Cassian. The deep researches of Arkhangelski and Sobolevski throw a great deal of light on the Russian versions of the Fathers and of the Byzantine writings.

    IV. LITERATURE FROM THE ELEVENTH TO THE THIRTEENTH CENTURIES

    Russian literature, properly so called, from the period of the advent of Christianity in Russia to the time of Peter the Great, comprises discourses, instructions, and letters that are intended to infuse Christian sentiments, and to draw the people from pagan practices; polemical works, directed at first against the Latins, and later against the first Russian heresies ; lives of saints, chronicles, and historical Works, pilgrimages and voyages, and juridical monuments. There is almost a total absence of poetry. The first centres of culture were Kieff and Novgorod; in the sixteenth century, Moscow. Among the writers who left a name for sacred eloquence in the period from the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries, mention is made of Luke Zhidiata, Archbishop of Novgorod (1035-59), whose discourse is a brief recapitulation of the truths of the Faith ; St. Hilarion , Metropolitan of Kieff in 1051, whose discourses contain very valuable data for the early history of Russian Christianity ; the Blessed Theodosius Petcherski, who wrote discourses for the people and the monks ; Nicephorus, Metropolitan of Kieff (1104-20), whose discourses and letters, written in Greek were translated later into Russian; Cyril of Turoff (1171-82), a brilliant writer who, on account of his natural and vigorous eloquence, resembling that of St. John Chrysostom, is called the Chrysostom of Russia. His discourses, homilies, writings on monastic life, and prayers are among the most important monuments of the ancient ecclesiastical literature of Russia.

    The polemics against the Latins found almost their only exponents among the Greeks who in the beginning governed the Russian dioceses. Leontius, metropolitan (992-1008), wrote against the Arians ; George, metropolitan (1065-73), wrote a "Dispute with a Latin", in which the various pretended innovations of the Roman Church are attacked; Ivan II (1186-89) is the author of a letter to Clement III, in which the Latins are reproved only on account of the insertion of the Filioque in the Creed. The letter on the Faith of the Vareghi (or Variazhskoi vierie ), which by some is attributed, although without strong arguments, to St. Theodosius Petcherski, is believed by some to be of Russian origin. Among the first Russian hagiologists mention should be made of Jacob, a monk of the Petcherskaia hermitage, who wrote an account of the martyrdom of Sts. Boris and Glieba, and the panegyric of St. Vladimir; of Nestor, the most famous of the ancient Russian writers, a monk of the hermitage of Kieff, who died in 1114. He is the author of the lives of Boris and Glieba of the Blessed Theodosius, and of a chronicle ("Lietopis") The original of the chronicle of Nestor has not come down to us; the most ancient copy of it is that of the monk Lawrence, made in 1377 for Demetrius Constantinovitch, Prince of Suzdal. Nestor was not the first Russian chronicler. Other chroniclers, whose names and works have not been handed down to our times, wrote before him at Novgorod. The national and literary importance of the chronicle of Nestor is very great. The Russians rightly consider it as an epic history, warm with the love of country. It finishes with the year 1110, but was continued by other writers, under various names, as "Chronicle of Kieff", "Chronicle of Volhynia", "Chronicle of Suzdal", etc. They are of an eminently religious character, and abound in texts from the Scriptures and in ascetic considerations.

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    Another important work in which the Russian national sentiment predominates is the journey of the higumeno Daniel (thirteenth century) to the Holy Places: before the Holy Sepulchre he prays "for all the land of Russia ". Anthony, Archbishop of Novgorod, visited Constantinople four years after the taking of that city by the Latins (1204), and left a short but very important description of its churches and monasteries.

    To profane literature belong the "Testament" Vladimir Monomachus, written in 1099, in which its author gives a recital of his enterprises; and the celebrated account of the battle of Igor ("Slovo" or "Polku Igorevie"), which was found in 1795 in the library of Count Musin Pushkin. It is the only poetical work of the Russia of the princes, and relates the military expedition of Igor Sviatoslavitch, Prince of Novgorod-Sieverski, against the Polovcy (1185). It is characterized by the grandeur of its poetical sentiment, the beauty of its descriptions, and love of country. In the twelfth century was written the discourse of Daniel Zatotchnik ( Captivus ), who, imprisoned in the Government of Olonetz, writes to a prince to ask for his liberty, making a great display of his learning. Among the juridical monuments of that age we may cite the "Russkaia Pravda" (Russian code) of Prince Yaroslaff I, and the Greek Nomocanon , translated in the earliest times of Russian Christianity, and qualified with the epithet of Kormtchaia kniga , corresponding to the Greek pedalion . To the nomocanon were added the "Ecclesiastical Regulations" ("Cerkovnye ustavy") of Vladimir and Yaroslaff, which however are not of those princes, at least in the form in which they have been transmitted to us in codices of the thirteenth century. The monasteries were centres of the literary culture of Russia in the eleventh and twelfth centuries; and the Greco-Russian clergy laboured for the diffusion of it. From the Greek clergy came the polemical works, and the hatred of the Latins that became fixed in the hearts of the Russian people. The first Greek polemics who lived in Russia spread the most absurd calumnies against the Latins, and anathematized as heretical the most simple liturgical customs: the Metropolitan George enumerated twenty-seven points of divergence between the Greeks and Latins. The thirteenth century is very poor from the standpoint of literature. The Tatar invasions stopped the progress of culture, and prevented intellectual work. Among the literary monuments of that century are cited a letter of Simon, Bishop of Vladimir (1215-26), to Polycarp, a monk of the Petcherskaia hermitage; the life of Abraham of Smolensk, a most important historical document; the sermons of Serapion, Bishop of Vladimir (1274-75), and a synodal and canonical decision of Cyril II, Metropolitan of Kieff (1243-80), which is inserted in the Kormtchaia kniga .

    V. LITERATURE FROM THE FOURTEENTH TO THE SIXTEENTH CENTURIES

    In the period from the fourteenth to the sixteenth centuries, literary culture, paralyzed by Tatar oppression in the region of Kieff, continued to flourish at Novgorod and Pskof, and from there was carried to other centres, viz., Vladimir, Rostoff, Murom, Yaroslaff, Tver, Ryazan, and finally Moscow, which received the name of the Third Rome. In the fourteenth century sacred sermons were written by various authors, among whom were Peter, Metropolitan of Moscow ; Alexei, another metropolitan of Moscow (1293-1377) who, in a codex of the Gospel which he transcribed, corrected the ancient Slav version in many points, by the Greek original; Matvei, Bishop of Sarai; the Metropolitan Cyprian (1376-1406), a Servian by birth, who also left various letters and translated the Psalter, the Missal ( Sluzhebnik ), the Nomocanon , etc.; the Blessed Cyril, founder of the monastery of Bielozero, the author of several letters to the sons of Prince Demetrius Donskoi; Basil, Archbishop of Novgorod (1331-1352), who wrote a letter to Feodor, Bishop of Tver, to convince him of the existence of a terrestrial paradise. Brief descriptions of Constantinople and its churches in the fourteenth century were left by Stephen, a monk of Novgorod, by Ignatius, a deacon of Smolensk, and by Alexandr D'jak ("judge", "magistrate"). Among the novels special mention should be made of the "Zadonshina", written by Sofronio or Sofonio of Ryazan, an epic story that relates the military acts of Prince Demetrius Donskoi, who vanquished the Tatars at Kulikovo (1380).

    In the fifteenth century the beginning of heresies in Russian Christianity, which originated in the decadence of monastic asceticism as well as in the gross ignorance of the clergy and laity, opened up new fields to Russian religious polemics. Photius, Metropolitan of Moscow (1410-31) and Gregor Camblak, Metropolitan of Kieff (1416) composed letters and moral sermons ; Gennadius, Archbishop of Novgorod (1485-1504), wrote against the sect of the Judaizers, which originated in that city about 1471; the higumeno Josef Sanin of Polotsk assailed the same sect in his tedious work "Prosvietitel" ("the illuminator"). Nil Sorski (1433-1508), founder of a hermitage on the banks of the Sora River, is the author of writings that were directed towards the reformation of the ideals and the life of Russian monasticism. Among the travellers of this period Zosimus, hiero-deacon of the hermitage of St. Sergius, and a merchant, Basil, left accounts of their pilgrimages to the Holy Land. Simeon, hiero-monk of Suzdal, accompanied Isidore, Metropolitan of Moscow, to the Council of Florence, and left an interesting recital of his voyage to Italy, and a short but important account of the council, which is one of the monuments of the Russian polemics against the Latins. Anthony Nikitin, a merchant of Tver, went to India through Persia in 1466, returned to his country in 1472, and in the account of his travels gave important information on the religious beliefs of the people of India. In historical literature, besides the valuable sketch of the Council of Florence, there should be mentioned the account of the foundation and the taking of Constantinople, which was very popular among the Russians.

    The sixteenth century, as Porfiréff rightly states, was one of criticism and restoration. Its literature, always eminently religious, proposed to revive the ancient customs, and the ancient traditions, and to restore religion and the family. The most famous and most learned champion of these reforms was Maximus the Greek, born at Arta, in Albania, and educated in Italy. He entered monastic life on Mount Athos, and in 1518 repaired to Russia, where he took an active part in the religious life of the country, and in the correction of the liturgical books ; he suffered a painful imprisonment in various monasteries, from 1525 to 1553, and died at the hermitage of St. Sergius in 1556. A most learned theologian, he wrote polemical works against the Gentiles, the Jews, the Judaizers, the Mohammedans, and the Latins, especially in opposition to the supremacy of the pope and to the Filioque; he combatted astrology, and wrote short works and discourses on moral subjects. Among the Russian prelates of the sixteenth century, Daniel, elected Metropolitan of Moscow in 1522, acquired fame. He was the author of sixteen discourses that prove him to have read assiduously, and to have had a profound knowledge of patristic literature. The most important monument of the literature of the sixteenth century is the "Domostroi", attributed to Sylvester, a priest who was the contemporary of Ivan the Terrible; Sylvester was, however, the compiler rather than the author of the work. It is a book of a moral character, in which are propounded the rules for living according to the precepts of the Faith and Christian piety, the duties of man as a member of the family, and the way to govern the home well and to care for domestic economy. The "Domostroi", therefore, is a compendium of the duties of a Christian man, and at the same time a true picture of the social and domestic organization of Russia in the sixteenth century. Another great work, which had remained unpublished until now but which the Archæographical Commission of St. Petersburg is now bringing to light, is the "Tchet'y Minei" of the Metropolitan Macarius of Moscow (1542-64). From the beginnings of its literature, Russia possessed lives of saints, the number which increased from century to century. The Metropolitan Macarius collected into a vast work the lives of all the saints of the Greco-Russian Church, adding panegyrics and discourses in their honour, and also whole books of Scripture, with commentaries, writings of the Fathers, and synaxaria , so that his menologies are almost a complete répertoire of the ancient literature of Russia, rather than a simple hagiological collection. To the same century belong the hagiological legends, which are lives of the saints, or episodes in them, embellished by popular fancy, examples of which are the legends of the Tsarevitch Peter (thirteenth century), of St. Mercurius, of Martha and Mary, of Prince Peter of Murom, and of his consort, Febronia.

    Prince Andrew Kurbski, a warm defender of the Orthodox Church, translated the dialectics and the Pege gnoseos of St. John Damascene , and wrote a brief history of the Council of Florence and a history of Ivan the Terrible, with whom he was in correspondence; these letters are preserved to our day. An important work of religious polemics was written by the monk Zinovii of Otna, who refuted the heretical and Judaistic doctrines of Kosoi. The title of the work is "Istiny pokazanie" (demonstration of the truth ), and it consists of fifty-six chapters. Of the sixteenth century there are also two small works, written in refutation of Protestantism, which at that time was beginning to spread in Russia. Among the Russian pilgrims who visited the Holy Places and who wrote an account of their travels the most distinguished are Trifon Korobeinikoff and George Grekoff, who went to Jerusalem in 1583.

    VI. LITERATURE OF LITTLE RUSSIA AND GREAT RUSSIA IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY

    The seventeenth century witnessed the Renaissance of Little Russia, which became the instructor of Great Russia. Under Catholic and Polish influence Little Russia drew near to the West, assimilated Western science, and modelled its schools upon those of the Latins. The "Union" of Brest in 1596 gave an efficient impulse to Orthodox culture. Confraternities were established to open schools and printing-offices for the publication and dissemination of polemical works; among them those of Lemberg, Vilna, and Kieff were famous. Scholastic theology and philosophy entered into and dominated the Russian academies and seminaries. Latin became the official language in the teaching of theology. Peter Mogilas, Metropolitan of Kieff, transformed into a superior school of theology the school established by the Confraternity of the Church of the Apparition of the Lord. The works of St. Thomas Aquinas exercised a great influence on Orthodox theology, and in the academy of Kieff the Immaculate Conception was upheld. The literature of the religious polemics against the Latins, to which the Union of Brest gave rise, is very rich. In 1597 was published the "Ekthesis", or Orthodox history of the Union of Brest ; Kristofor Bronski, under the pseudonym of Filalete, wrote the "Apokrisis" against Peter Skarga, and later the "Perestroga" (admonishment). Meletius Smotricki, Archbishop of Polotsk (died 1633), wrote the "Threnos" and other works of religious polemic, and finally embraced Catholicism ; in 1622 Zacharias Kopystenski wrote the "Palinodia", the most important work in this polemical literature. The writings of Meletius Smotricki in defence of Catholicism, which he had on other occasions so strenuously opposed, were confuted by Andrew Muzkilovski, by Job Borecki, Metropolitan of Kieff, and by Gelasius Diplic. Joannikius Galiatovski, rector of the academy of Kieff (died 1688), wrote several works against the Catholics, one of them against the Filioque , confuted the Hebrews in his work "The True Messias ", and also wrote several works in refutation of the Koran. Another polemic against the Latins was Lazarus Baranovitch, Archbishop of Tchernigoff (died 1694); in a work that was directed against the Jesuit Boyme, he opposed the supremacy of the pope and the Procession of the Holy Ghost from the Son.

    The first Orthodox catechisms appeared in the seventeenth century, written by Laurence Zizanii and by Peter Mogilas; the latter, in the work Lithos (attributed to him), defends the Orthodox Church against the charge of Protestantism ; he is considered to be the author of the famous Orthodox Confession of the Eastern Church, approved by the special Council of Jassy in 1643. Among the preachers whom the sacred orators of the East sought to imitate, mention may again be made of Joannikius Galiatovski, who wrote a treatise on the art of oratory, entitled "Kliutch razumienia"; Anthony Radivilovski, higumeno of the hermitage of Kieff; and Lazarus Baranovitch. In 1591 there was published at Lemberg the first Slavo-Greek grammar; Lawrence Zizanii wrote a Slav grammar in 1596, and the grammar of Meletius Smotricki was published in 1619. Zizanii added a small Slav dictionary to his grammar, but the first Slavo-Russian lexicon was published by Berynda, hiero-monk of Kieff, in 1627. Western influence is revealed also in the poetry of the academy of Kieff. Besides the sacred cantata, the "Mysteries" were introduced to the schools and colleges ; these "Mysteries" were sacred plays, modelled upon those of the Jesuit colleges. Among the historical works of Little Russia, mention should be made of the "Synopsis" of the history of Russia by Innocent Gizel, Archimandrite of Kieff, the "Enegesis" or history of the school of Kieff, and the"Paterikon" of the Petcherskaia hermitage by Sylvester Kossoff, Metropolitan of Kieff (died 1657).

    From Kieff Western culture was carried to Moscow, to which city masters and learned men of Little Russia were called to organize schools, compose works, and print books; but they did not receive a friendly welcome. Their orthodoxy was suspected; the more so since several of the most illustrious theologians of Kieff admitted with the Latins the dogmatic truth of the Immaculate Conception, and the efficacy of the words of consecration alone to effect Transubstantiation. The suspicion against the purity of their theological teachings became so strong that the Russians turned to the Greeks for masters. In 1685 the Greek school was established at Moscow, and in time took the name of Greco-Slav-Latin Academy. Its first masters were the Greek hieromonks Joannikius and Sophronius Likhudes, who had studied in Italy, and who taught Greek literature at Moscow from 1685 to 1694. They wrote many polemical works against the Latins, against Protestants, and against the theologians of Little Russia who leaned towards the Latins, especially against Sylvester Medviedeff. In ecclesiastical literature the most distinguished authors were Epiphanius Slavinecki, the first of Russian bibliographers; Arsenius Sukhanoff, author of "A Voyage to the Holy Land" ("Proskynitarion"); Simon Polocki (of Polotsk), author of one of the first systematic treatises on Orthodox theology ("Vienec viery"), and also of sermons that are highly prized, of sacred poems, and of sacred plays; St. Demetrius of Rostoff (1651-1709), one of the most illustrious bishops of the Russian Church, a theologian, historian, poet, polemic, and hagiologist. He was the author of two Orthodox catechisms, of a very strong work against the Raskolniki ("Rozysk"), of a diary of his life, the "Tcheti minei" (menologies), a work upon which he spent twenty years; many sacred discourses that are appreciated for the simplicity of their style and for their depth of religious sentiment, and, finally, of several sacred plays, one of the most interesting of which is the "Birthday".

    Epiphanius Slavinecki and an unnamed priest of Orel were also distinguished as sacred orators. The former rendered a great service to Patristic literature by translating into Russian a great many of the writings of the Fathers ( St. Justin, St. Gregory of Nazianzus, St. Basil, and St. John Damascene ). One of his scholars, Eutimius, wrote a polemical work, called "Osten", against the theories of Sylvester Medviedeff, who sided with the Latins in the question of the Epiklesis. Against the Raskolniki, besides St. Demetrius of Rostoff, there wrote Simeon of Polotsk in 1666 ("Zhely pravlenija"); in 1682 the Patriarch of Moscow, Jacob ("Uviet dukhovnii"); likewise, the Metropolitan of Siberia, Ignatius, and George Krizhanitch. The latter, who was a student of the Greek College of St. Athanasius at Rome (1640), became famous on account of his theories of the cause of the schism between East and West, which he attributed to politics and the antagonism between Greeks and Latins, due to Panslavist ideas and political doctrines. The Learned Sergius Bielokuroff devoted four volumes to the life and works of Krizhanitch. In the seventeenth century there began to be published the first Greco-Latin lexicons, and also the first scientific books, arithmetics and geographies. Historical literature is represented by the chronicle of the Patriarch Nicomachus, which is brought down to 1631; by the chronicle called "Voskresenski", after the monastery where it was written, of which the relation finishes with the year 1560; and by several special chronicles, as the account of the siege of the Shrine of St. Sergius by the Poles in 1610, by Abraham Polycin, and by others of the diak Feodor Griboiedoff, of the deacon Timothy Kamevevitch Rvovski, of Andrew Lyzloff, a priest of Smolensk, and of Sergius Kubasoff.

    VII. RUSSIAN LITERATURE OF THE TIME OF PETER THE GREAT

    Under Peter the Great there began a new period in Russian literature. The foundation of St. Petersburg put Russia in more direct contact with the West. Peter the Great, by violence and absolutism, dragged Russia out of her isolation, and directed her upon a new way. A new and more simple alphabet took the place of the old Slav alphabet, the new characters being adapted from the Latin. The first book that was printed with the new characters is a treatise on geometry (1708). In arithmetical books, Arabic figures were substituted for the Slav letters that represented numerals (1703). Schools of navigation, of military science, and of medicine were established. Peter the Great determined to establish an academy of sciences at St. Petersburg, and Catherine I carried out his project in 1726. Many foreign books were translated into Russian, and the most intelligent students were sent to foreign countries to complete their studies. Russian literature lost its ecclesiastical character and assumed a lay form; and in ecclesiastical literature itself there was effected a transformation towards the modern, due to the reforms of Peter the Great.

    The first period of this new literature begins with Peter the Great, and closes with Lomonosoff and Sumarokoff. In the realm of sacred literature there became famous Stephen Javorski (1658-1723), patriarchal vicar and Metropolitan of Ryazan, and Theophanus Procopovitch, Archbishop of Novgorod. (1681-1736). The former, in his "Kamen viery" (Rock of Faith ), wrote a most learned refutation of Protestantism, taking much from Bellarmine ; the second, who was the author of the "Ecclesiastical Regulations" of Peter the Great, wrote a voluminous course of Orthodox theology in Latin, and acquired fame as a man of letters and orator. In profane literature the influence of the French entirely predominated. There began the period of the new Russian poetry, the rules of which were propounded by Tredianovski (1703-69), who translated into Russian the "Ars Poetica" of Horace, and the work bearing the same title by Boileau. Prince Antiochus Dmitrievitch (1708-44), a Rumanian in the service of Russia, inaugurated the era of classicism in Russian poetry with his satires, which are often servile imitations of Horace, Juvenal, and Boileau. Michael Vasilevitch Lomonosoff (1711-65) deserves to be called the Peter the Great of Russian literature on account of his versatility, of the multiplicity of his works, and of his great literary influence: he wrote a treatise on Russian poetry (1739), on rhetoric (1748), on grammar (1755); he composed an epic poem on Peter the Great, two tragedies (Tamira and Salim, and Damofonte); he translated the Psalms into verse and wrote lyric poems, among which the ode to the Empress Elizabeth has remained famous. Alexander Petrovitch Sumarokoff composed many tragedies, some of them with Russian subjects (Yaropolk and Dimisa, Vysheslaff, Demetrius, Mstislav); he founded the national Russian drama, wrote the comedies "Opekun" (The Tutor), and "Likhoimec" (The Concussionist), composed satires, and in 1759 established the first Russian literary periodical, the "Trudoliubivaia Ptchela" (The Working Bee).

    Among the prose writers, Ivan Pososhkoff (1670-1725), in his "Zavieshanie otetcheskoe" (testament of the Fatherland), shows the necessity of well-ordered reforms in Russia, and in his book on poverty and wealth ("Kniga o skudosti i bogatstvie") he develops in an original way his theories on political and social economy. Basil Nikititch Tatishsheff (1685-1750) gathered the chronicles, the synaxaria , and the historical documents, and subjecting them to critical analysis, wrote the "History of Russia ". The academician Schlötzer spent forty years elucidating the origin and the historical problems of the primitive national chronicles of Russia. In 1728 the Academy of Sciences began the publication of the "S. Petersburgskija Viedomosti", under the direction of the academician Müller, who in 1755 also founded the first scientific-literary periodical, called the "Ezhemiesatchnyja sotchinenia".

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    Diocese of Raphoe (Rapotensis) Comprises the greater part of the Co. Donegal (Gael. Tirconail ...
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    Rene Rapin

    French Jesuit, born at Tours, 1621; died in Paris, 1687. He entered the Society in 1639, taught ...
    Raskolniks

    Raskolniks

    (Russian raskolnik , a schismatic, a dissenter; from raskol , schism, splitting; that in ...
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    Joseph Rathborne

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    Ratio Studiorum

    Ratio Studiorum

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    Rationale

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    (Latin, ratio -- reason, the faculty of the mind which forms the ground of calculation, i.e. ...
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    Antonio Ravalli

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    Josse Ravesteyn

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    Henry Augustus Rawes

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    Charles Raymbault

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    Raymond Lully

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    St. Raymond of Penafort

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    Raymond of Sabunde

    Raymond of Sabunde

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    Raymond VI

    Raymond VI

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    Raymond VII

    Raymond VII

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    Odorico Raynaldi

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    Raynaud, Théophile

    Theophile Raynaud

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    Francois-Juste-Marie Raynouard

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    Reading Abbey

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    Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist

    The Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist

    In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...
    Realism, Nominalism, Conceptualism

    Nominalism, Realism, Conceptualism

    These terms are used to designate the theories that have been proposed as solutions of one of the ...
    Reason

    Reason

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    Reason, Age of

    Age of Reason

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    Rechab and the Rechabites

    Rechab and the Rechabites

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    Recollection

    Recollection

    Recollection, as understood in respect to the spiritual life, means attention to the presence of ...
    Reconciliation, Sacrament of

    The Sacrament of Penance

    Penance is a sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins ...
    Rector

    Rector

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    Rector Potens, Verax Deus

    Rector Potens, Verax Deus

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    English Recusants

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    Red Sea

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    (Hebrew Yâm-Sûph; Septuagint ‘e ’eruthrà thálassa; ...
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    Feast of the Most Holy Redeemer

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    Redeemer, Knights of the

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    Redemption

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    Redemption in the Old Testament

    Redemption in the Old Testament

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    Redemptions, Penitential

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    Redemptoristines

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    Redemptorists

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    Redford, Sebastion

    Sebastian Redford

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    Redi, Francesco

    Francesco Redi

    Italian poet, b. at Arezzo, 18 February, 1626; d. at Pisa 1 March, 1698. After taking his ...
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    Augustine Reding

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    Reductions of Paraguay

    Reductions of Paraguay

    The Jesuit Reductions of Paraguay, one of the most singular and beautiful creations of Catholic ...
    Referendarii

    Referendarii

    The papal office of the referendarii (from refero , to inform) existed at the Byzantine ...
    Reform of a Religious Order

    Reform of a Religious Order

    Reform of a Religious Order, in the true sense of the word, is a return or bringing back of the ...
    Reformation, The

    The Reformation

    The usual term for the religious movement which made its appearance in Western Europe in the ...
    Reformed Churches

    Reformed Churches

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    Refuge, Cities of

    Cities of Refuge

    Towns which according to the Jewish law enjoyed the right of asylum and to which anyone who had ...
    Refuge, Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the

    Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the Refuge

    The Institute of Our Lady of Charity was founded (1641) by [St. Jean] Eudes, at Caen, Normandy, ...
    Regale, Droit de

    Droit de Regale

    ( jus regaliœ, jus regale, jus deportus; German Regalienrecht ) Droit de Regale ...
    Regalia

    Regalia

    According to the usage current in the British Isles the term regalia is almost always employed to ...
    Regeneration

    Regeneration

    (Latin regeneratio ; Greek anagennesis and paliggenesia ). Regeneration is a ...
    Regensburg

    Ratisbon

    DIOCESE OF RATISBON (RATISBONENSIS), also called REGENSBURG. Suffragan of Munich-Freising. It ...
    Regesta, Papal

    Papal Regesta

    Papal Regesta are the copies, generally entered in special registry volumes, of the papal ...
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    Reggio Dell' Emilia

    DIOCESE OF REGGIO DELL' EMILIA (REGINENSIS) Suffragan of Modena in central Italy. The city is ...
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    Reggio di Calabria

    ARCHDIOCESE OF REGGIO DI CALABRIA (RHEGIENSIS). Archdiocese in Calabria, southern Italy. The ...
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    Regina Coeli (Queen of Heaven)

    The opening words of the Eastertide anthem of the Blessed Virgin, the recitation of which is ...
    Reginald of Piperno

    Reginald of Piperno

    Dominican, theologian, companion of St. Thomas Aquinas, b. at Piperno about 1230; d. about 1290. ...
    Regino of Prüm

    Regino of Prum

    Date of birth unknown; d. at Trier in 915. According to the statements of a later era Regino was ...
    Regionarii

    Regionarii

    The name given in later antiquity and the early Middle Ages to those clerics and officials of ...
    Regis, John Francis, Saint

    St. John Francis Regis

    Born 31 January, 1597, in the village of Fontcouverte (department of Aude); died at la Louvesc, 30 ...
    Registers, Parochial

    Parochial Registers

    One having the cure of souls is commanded by Divine precept to know his subjects (Conc. Trid., ...
    Regnault, Henri Victor

    Henri Victor Regnault

    Chemist and physicist, b. at Aachen, 21 July, 1810; d. in Paris, 19 Jan., 1878. Being left an ...
    Regulæ Juris

    Regulae Juris

    ("Rules of Law") General rules or principles serving chiefly for the interpretation of laws. ...
    Regulars

    Regulars

    ( Latin regula, rule). The observance of the Rule of St. Benedict procured for the monks ...
    Reichenau

    Reichenau

    Reichenau, called Augia Dives in medieval Latin manuscripts and possessing a once ...
    Reichensperger, August

    August Reichensberger

    Politician and author, born at Coblenz, 22 March, 1808; died at Cologne, 16 July, 1895. He studied ...
    Reichensperger, Peter

    Peter Reichensberger

    Jurist and parliamentarian, b. at Coblenz, 28 May, 1810; d. at Berlin, 31 December, 1892. He ...
    Reifenstein

    Reifenstein

    A former Cistercian abbey in Eichsfeld, founded on 1 August, 1162 by Count Ernst of Tonna. It ...
    Reiffenstuel, Johann Georg

    Johann Georg Reiffenstuel

    In religion A NACLETUS Theologian and canonist; b. at Kaltenbrunn (Tegernsee) 2 July, 1641; d. ...
    Reims

    Reims

    ARCHDIOCESE OF REIMS (RHEMENSIS) The Archdiocese of Reims comprises the district of Reims in ...
    Reims, Synods of

    Synods of Reims

    The first synod said to have been held at Reims by Archbishop Sonnatius between 624 and 630 ...
    Reinmar of Hagenau

    Reinmar of Hagenau

    A German minnesinger of the twelfth century, surnamed in the manuscripts der Alte (the old) to ...
    Reisach, Carl von

    Carl von Reisach

    Born at Roth, Bavaria, 7 July, 1800; died in the Redemptorist monastery of Contamine, France, ...
    Reisch, Gregor

    Gregor Reisch

    Born at Balingen in Wurtemberg, about 1467; died at Freiburg, Baden, 9 May, 1525. In 1487 he ...
    Relationship

    Relationship

    (CARNAL AND SPIRITUAL) The theologians understand by relationship in general a certain ...
    Relatives, Duties of

    Duties of Relatives

    The general precept of charity obliging us to love our neighbour as ourselves is of course ...
    Relativism

    Relativism

    Any doctrine which denies, universally or in regard to some restricted sphere of being, the ...
    Relics

    Relics

    The word relics comes from the Latin reliquiae (the counterpart of the Greek leipsana ) ...
    Religion

    Religion

    I. Derivation, Analysis, and Definition. II. Subjective Religion. III. Objective ...
    Religion, Virtue of

    Virtue of Religion

    Of the three proposed derivations of the word "religion", that suggested by Lactantius and ...
    Religions, Statistics of

    Statistics of Religions

    I. DEFINITION This study concerns itself with religious bodies, the number of their members, and ...
    Religious Life

    Religious Life

    I. GENERAL VIEW AND EVANGELICAL IDEA OF THE RELIGIOUS LIFE A. GENERAL VIEW We all have within us ...
    Religious Profession

    Religious Profession

    HISTORICAL VIEW Profession may be considered either as a declaration openly made, or as a state ...
    Reliquaries

    Reliquaries

    It would follow of necessity from the data given in the article RELICS that ...
    Remesiana

    Remesiana

    A titular see in Dacia Mediterranea, suffragan of Sardica. Remesiana is mentioned by the ...
    Remigius of Auxerre

    Remigius of Auxerre

    A Benedictine monk, b. about the middle of the ninth century; d. 908. Remigius, or Remi, was a ...
    Remigius, Saint

    Saint Remigius

    Apostle of the Franks, Archbishop of Reims, b. at Cerny or Laon, 437; d. at Reims, 13 January ...
    Remiremont

    Remiremont

    Vosges, France, monastery and nunnery of the Rule of St. Benedict, founded by Sts. Romaricus ...
    Remuzat, Ven. Anne-Madeleine

    Anne-Madeleine Remuzat

    Born at Marseilles, 29 Nov., 1696; died 15 Feb., 1730. At nine years of age she asked her parents ...
    Remy, Abbey of Saint

    Abbey of Saint Remy

    Founded at Reims before 590. Its early history is very obscure; at first a little chapel ...
    Renaissance, The

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance may be considered in a general or a particular sense, as (1) the achievements of ...
    Renaudot, Eusebius

    Eusebius Renaudot

    An apologetical writer and Orientalist, b. at Paris, 22 July, 1648; d. there, 1 Sept., 1720. He ...
    Renaudot, Théophraste

    Theophraste Renaudot

    Born at Loudun, 1586; died at Paris, 25 October, 1653. Doctor of the medical faculty at ...
    Reni, Guido

    Guido Reni

    Italian painter, b. at Calvenzano near Bologna, 4 Nov., 1575; d. at Bologna, 18 Aug. 1642. At one ...
    Rennes

    Rennes

    (RHEDONENSIS) Rennes includes the Department of Ille et Vilaine. The Concordat of 1802 ...
    Renty, Gaston Jean Baptiste de

    Gaston Jean Baptiste de Renty

    Born 1611 at the castle of Beni, Diocese of Bayeux in Normandy ; died 24 April, 1649. The only ...
    Renunciation

    Renunciation

    ( Latin renuntiare ). A canonical term signifying the resignation of an ecclesiastical ...
    Reordinations

    Reordinations

    I. STATE OF THE QUESTION The Oratorian Jean Morin , in the seventeenth century, and Cardinal ...
    Reparation

    Reparation

    Reparation is a theological concept closely connected with those of atonement and satisfaction, ...
    Repington, Philip

    Philip Repington

    ( Also Repyngdon). Cardinal-priest of the title of SS. Nereus and Achilleus, Bishop of ...
    Repose, Altar of

    Altar of Repose

    (Sometimes called less properly sepulchre or tomb, more frequently repository). The altar ...
    Reputation (as Property)

    Reputation (As Property)

    It is certain that a man is indefeasibly the owner of what he has been able to produce by his ...
    Requiem, Masses of

    Requiem Masses

    Masses of Requiem will be treated under the following heads: I. Origins; II. Formulary ; III. ...
    Rerum Crerator Optime

    Rerum Creator Optime

    The hymn for Matins of Wednesday in the Divine Office. It comprises four strophes of four ...
    Rerum Deus Tenax Vigor

    Rerum Deus Tenax Vigor

    The daily hymn for None in the Roman Breviary, comprises (like the hymns for Terce and Sext ...
    Rerum Novarum

    Rerum Novarum

    The opening words and the title of the Encyclical issued by Leo XIII, 15 May, 1891, on the ...
    Rescripts, Papal

    Papal Rescripts

    ( Latin re-scribere , "to write back") Rescripts are responses of the pope or a Sacred ...
    Reservation

    Reservation

    The restriction in certain cases by a superior of the jurisdiction ordinarily exercised by an ...
    Reserved Cases

    Reserved Cases

    A term used for sins whose absolution is not within the power of every confessor, but is ...
    Residence, Ecclesiastical

    Ecclesiastical Residence

    A remaining or abiding where one's duties lie or where one's occupation is properly carried on, ...
    Respicius, Tryphon, and Nympha

    Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

    Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...
    Respighi, Lorenzo

    Lorenzo Respighi

    Born at Cortemaggiore, Province of Piacenza, 7 October, 1824; died at Rome, 10 December, 1889. He ...
    Responsorium

    Responsorium

    Responsory, or Respond, a series of verses and responses, usually taken from Holy Scripture and ...
    Restitution

    Restitution

    Restitution has a special sense in moral theology. It signifies an act of commutative justice ...
    Resurrection of Jesus Christ

    Resurrection of Jesus Christ

    Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life. In this article, we shall ...
    Resurrection, General

    General Resurrection

    Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life. The Fourth Lateran ...
    Rethel, Alfred

    Alfred Rethel

    Born at Aachen, 1816; died at Düsseldorf, 1859. He combined in a brilliant and forcible ...
    Retreat of the Sacred Heart, Congregation of

    Retreat of the Sacred Heart

    (DAMES DE LA RETRAITE) Originally founded in 1678 under the name of the Institute of Retreat, ...
    Retreats

    Retreats

    If we call a retreat a series of days passed in solitude and consecrated to practices of ...
    Retz, Cardinal de

    Cardinal de Retz

    ARCHBISHOP OF PARIS Born at the Château of Montmirail, Oct., 1614; died in Paris, 24 ...
    Reuben

    Ruben (Reuben)

    (REUBEN.) A proper name which designates in the Bible : (1) a patriarch; (II) a tribe of ...
    Reuchlin, Johannes

    Johannes Reuchlin

    ( Græcized , Capnion). Celebrated German humanist, b. at Pforzheim, Baden, 22 ...
    Reumont, Alfred von

    Alfred von Reumont

    Statesman and historian, b. at Aachen, 15 August, 1808; d. there, 27 April, 1887. After finishing ...
    Reusens, Edmond

    Edmond Reusens

    Archeologist and historian, b. at Wijneghem (Antwerp), 25 April, 1831; d. at Louvain, 25 Dec., ...
    Reuss

    Reuss

    Name of the two smallest states of the German Confederation, which lie almost in the centre of ...
    Revelation

    Revelation

    I. MEANING OF REVELATION Revelation may be defined as the communication of some truth by God ...
    Revelation, Book of

    Apocalypse

    Apocalypse, from the verb apokalypto , to reveal, is the name given to the last book in the ...
    Revelations, Private

    Private Revelations

    There are two kinds of revelations: (1) universal revelations, which are contained in the Bible ...
    Revocation

    Revocation

    The act of recalling or annulling, the reversal of an act, the recalling of a grant, or the making ...
    Revolution, English

    English Revolution of 1688

    James II, having reached the climax of his power after the successful suppression of Monmouth's ...
    Revolution, French

    French Revolution

    The last thirty years have given us a new version of the history of the French Revolution, the ...
    Rex Gloriose Martyrum

    Rex Gloriose Martyrum

    Rex Gloriose Martyrum, the hymn at Lauds in the Common of Martyrs (Commune plurimorum ...
    Rex Sempiterne Cælitum

    Rex Sempiterne Caelitum

    The Roman Breviary hymn for Matins of Sundays and weekdays during the Paschal Time (from ...
    Rey, Anthony

    Anthony Rey

    An educator and Mexican War chaplain, born at Lyons, 19 March, 1807; died near Ceralvo, Mexico, ...
    Reynolds, William

    William Reynolds

    (RAINOLDS, RAYNOLDS, REGINALDUS) Born at Pinhorn near Exeter, about 1544; died at Antwerp, ...
    Rhætia

    Rhaetia

    (RHÆTORUM). Prefecture Apostolic in Switzerland ; includes in general the district ...
    Rhaphanæa

    Rhaphanaea

    A titular see in Syria Secunda, suffragan of Apamea. Rhaphanæa is mentioned in ancient ...
    Rheinberger, Joseph Gabriel

    Joseph Gabriel Rheinberger

    A composer and organist, born at Vaduz, in the Principality of Lichtenstein, Bavaria, 17 March, ...
    Rhenish Palatinate

    Rhenish Palatinate

    ( German Rheinpfalz ). A former German electorate. It derives its name from the title of a ...
    Rhesæna

    Rhesaena

    A titular see in Osrhoene, suffragan of Edessa. Rhesæna (numerous variations of the name ...
    Rhinocolura

    Rhinocolura

    A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium. Rhinocolura or Rhinocorura was a ...
    Rhithymna

    Rhithymna

    (RHETHYMNA) A titular see of Crete, suffragan of Gortyna, mentioned by Ptolemy, III, 15, ...
    Rhizus

    Rhizus

    ( Rizous .) A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus suffragan of Neocæsarea, ...
    Rho, Giacomo

    Giacomo Rho

    Missionary, born at Milan, 1593; died at Peking 27 April, 1638. He was the son of a noble and ...
    Rhode Island

    Rhode Island

    The State of Rhode Island and xxyyyk.htm">Providence Plantations, one of the thirteen original ...
    Rhodes

    Rhodes

    (RHODUS) A titular metropolitan of the Cyclades. It is an island opposite to Lycia and ...
    Rhodes, Alexandre De

    Alexandre de Rhodes

    A missionary and author, born at Avignon, 15 March, 1591; died at Ispahan, Persia, 5 Nov., 1660. ...
    Rhodesia

    Rhodesia

    A British possession in South Africa, bounded on the north and north-west by the Congo Free ...
    Rhodiopolis

    Rhodiopolis

    A titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra, called Rhodia by Ptolemy (V, 3) and Stephanus ...
    Rhodo

    Rhodo

    A Christian writer who flourished in the time of Commodus (180-92); he was a native of Asia ...
    Rhosus

    Rhosus

    A titular see in Cilicia Secunda, suffragan to Anazarba. Rhosus or Rhossus was a seaport ...
    Rhymed Bibles

    Rhymed Bibles

    The rhymed versions of the Bible are almost entirely collections of the psalms. The oldest ...
    Rhythmical Office

    Rhythmical Office

    I. DESCRIPTION, DEVELOPMENT, AND DIVISION By rhythmical office is meant a liturgical horary ...
    Ribadeneira, Pedro de

    Pedro de Ribadeneira

    (Or RIBADENEYRA and among Spaniards often RIVADENEIRA) Pedro De Ribadeneira was born at ...
    Ribas, Andrés Pérez De

    Andres Perez de Ribas

    A pioneer missionary, historian of north-western Mexico; born at Cordova, Spain, 1576; died in ...
    Ribe, Ancient See of, in Denmark (Jutland)

    Ancient See of Ribe in Denmark (Jutland)

    (RIPAE, RIPENSIS.) The diocese (29 deaneries, 278 parishes ) consisted of the modern ...
    Ribeirao Preto

    Preto Ribeirao

    (DE RIBERAO PRETO) A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of São Paulo , Brazil, ...
    Ribera, Jusepe de

    Jusepe de Ribera

    Called also SPAGNOLETTO, L'ESPAGNOLET (the little Spaniard) Painter born at Jativa, 12 Jan., ...
    Ricardus Anglicus

    Ricardus Anglicus

    Ricardus Anglicus, Archdeacon of Bologna, was an English priest who was rector of the law ...
    Riccardi, Nicholas

    Nicholas Riccardi

    A theologian, writer and preacher; born at Genoa, 1585; died at Rome, 30 May, 1639. Physically ...
    Ricci, Lorenzo

    Lorenzo Ricci

    General of the Society of Jesus b. at Florence, 2 Aug., 1703; d. at the Castle of Sant' Angelo, ...
    Ricci, Matteo

    Matteo Ricci

    Founder of the Catholic missions of China, b. at Macerata in the Papal States, 6 Oct. 1552; ...
    Riccioli, Giovanni Battista

    Giovanni Battista Riccioli

    Italian astronomer, b. at Ferrara 17 April, 1598; d. at Bologna 25 June, 1671. He entered the ...
    Rice, Edmund Ignatius

    Edmund Ignatius Rice

    Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools (better known as "Irish ...
    Rich, St. Edmund

    St. Edmund Rich

    Archbishop of Canterbury, England, born 20 November, c. 1180, at Abingdon, six miles from ...
    Richard

    Richard (Franciscan Preacher)

    A Friar minor and preacher, appearing in history between 1428 and 1431, whose origin and ...
    Richard de Bury

    Richard de Bury

    Bishop and bibliophile, b. near Bury St. Edmund's, Suffolk, England, 24 Jan., 1286; d. at ...
    Richard de la Vergne, François-Marie-Benjamin

    Francois-Marie-Benjamin Richard de la Vergne

    Archbishop of Paris, born at Nantes, 1 March, 1819; died in Paris, 28 January, 1908. ...
    Richard de Wyche, Saint

    St. Richard de Wyche

    Bishop and confessor, b. about 1197 at Droitwich, Worcestershire, from which his surname is ...
    Richard Fetherston, Blessed

    Bl. Richard Fetherston

    Priest and martyr ; died at Smithfield, 30 July, 1540. He was chaplain to Catharine of Aragon ...
    Richard I, King Of England

    Richard I, King of England

    Richard I, born at Oxford, 6 Sept, 1157; died at Chaluz, France, 6 April, 1199; was known to ...
    Richard of Cirencester

    Richard of Cirencester

    Chronicler, d. about 1400. He was the compiler of a chronicle from 447 to 1066, entitled "Speculum ...
    Richard of Cornwall

    Richard of Cornwall

    (RICHARD RUFUS, RUYS, ROSSO, ROWSE). The dates of his birth and death are unknown, but he ...
    Richard of Middletown

    Richard of Middletown

    (A MEDIA VILLA). Flourished at the end of the thirteenth century, but the dates of his birth ...
    Richard of St. Victor

    Richard of St. Victor

    Theologian, native of Scotland, but the date and place of his birth are unknown; d. 1173 and ...
    Richard Thirkeld, Blessed

    Blessed Richard Thirkeld

    Martyr ; b. at Coniscliffe, Durham, England ; d. at York, 29 May, 1583. From Queen's College, ...
    Richard Whiting, Blessed

    Blessed Richard Whiting

    Last Abbot of Glastonbury and martyr, parentage and date of birth unknown, executed 15 Nov., ...
    Richard, Charles-Louis

    Charles-Louis Richard

    Theologian and publicist; b. at Blainville-sur-l'Eau, in Lorraine, April, 1711; d. at Mons, ...
    Richardson, Ven. William

    Ven. William Richardson

    ( Alias Anderson.) Last martyr under Queen Elizabeth; b. according to Challoner at Vales in ...
    Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis, Duke de

    Cardinal Richelieu

    Cardinal ; French statesman, b. in Paris, 5 September, 1585; d. there 4 December 1642. At first ...
    Richmond, Diocese of

    Richmond

    (RICHMONDENSIS.) Suffragan of Baltimore, established 11 July, 1820, comprises the State of ...
    Ricoldo da Monte di Croce

    Ricoldo Da Monte di Croce

    (PENNINI.) Born at Florence about 1243; d. there 31 October, 1320. After studying in various ...
    Riemenschneider, Tillmann

    Riemenschneider

    One of the most important of Frankish sculptors, b. at Osterode am Harz in or after 1460; d. at ...
    Rienzi, Cola di

    Cola di Rienzi

    (i.e., NICOLA, son of Lorenzo) A popular tribune and extraordinary historical figure. His ...
    Rieti

    Rieti

    (REATINA). Diocese in Central Italy, immediately subject to the Holy See. The city is ...
    Rievaulx, Abbey of

    Abbey of Rievaulx

    (RIEVALL.) Thurston, Archbishop of York, was very anxious to have a monastery of the newly ...
    Riffel, Caspar

    Caspar Riffel

    Historian, b. at Budesheim, Bingen, Germany, 19 Jan., 1807, d. at Mainz, 15 Dec., 1856. He ...
    Rigby, John, Saint

    St. John Rigby

    English martyr ; b. about 1570 at Harrocks Hall, Eccleston, Lancashire; executed at St. Thomas ...
    Rigby, Nicholas

    Nicholas Rigby

    Born 1800 at Walton near Preston, Lancashire; died at Ugthorpe, 7 September, 1886. At twelve years ...
    Right

    Right

    Right, as a substantive (my right, his right), designates the object of justice. When a person ...
    Right of Exclusion

    Right of Exclusion

    (Latin Jus Exclusivæ . The alleged competence of the more important Catholic ...
    Right of Option

    Right of Option

    In canon law an option is a way of obtaining a benefice or a title, by the choice of the new ...
    Right of Voluntary Association

    Right of Voluntary Association

    I. LEGAL RIGHT A voluntary association means any group of individuals freely united for the ...
    Rimbert, Saint

    St. Rimbert

    Archbishop of Bremen - Hamburg, died at Bremen 11 June, 888. It is uncertain whether he was ...
    Rimini

    Rimini

    DIOCESE OF RIMINI (ARIMINUM). Suffragan of Ravenna. Rimini is situated near the coast between ...
    Rimini, Council of

    Council of Rimini

    The second Formula of Sirmium (357) stated the doctrine of the Anomoeans, or extreme Arians. ...
    Rimouski

    Rimouski

    DIOCESE OF RIMOUSKI (SANCTI GERMANI DE RIMOUSKI) Suffragan of Quebec, comprises the counties of ...
    Ring of the Fisherman, The

    The Ring of Fisherman

    The earliest mention of the Fisherman's ring worn by the popes is in a letter of Clement IV ...
    Rings

    Rings

    Although the surviving ancient rings, proved by their devices, provenance, etc., to be of ...
    Rinuccini, Giovanni Battista

    Giovanni Battista Rinuccini

    Born at Rome, 1592; d. at Fermo, 1653; was the son of a Florentine patrician, his mother being a ...
    Rio Negro

    Rio Negro

    Prefecture Apostolic in Brazil, bounded on the south by a line running westwards from the ...
    Rio, Alexis-François

    Alexis-Francois Rio

    French writer on art, b. on the Island of Arz, Department of Morbihan, 20 May, 1797; d. 17 June, ...
    Riobamba

    Riobamba

    Diocese of (Bolivarensis), suffragan of Quito, Ecuador, erected by Pius IX, 5 January, 1863. ...
    Rioja, Francisco de

    Francisco de Rioja

    A poet, born at Seville, 1583; died at Madrid, 1659. Rioja was a canon in the cathedral at ...
    Ripalda, Juan Martínez de

    Juan Martinez de Ripalda

    Theologian, b. at Pamplona, Navarre, 1594; d. at Madrid, 26 April, 1648. He entered the Society ...
    Ripatransone

    Ripatransone

    (RIPANENSIS). Diocese in Ascoli Piceno, Central Italy. The city is situated on five hills, ...
    Ripon, Marquess of

    Marquess of Ripon

    George Frederick Samuel Robinson, K.G., P.C., G.C.S.I., F.R.S., Earl de Grey, Earl of Ripon, ...
    Risby, Richard

    Richard Risby

    Born in the parish of St. Lawrence, Reading, 1489; executed at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1534. ...
    Rishanger, William

    William Rishanger

    Chronicler, b. at Rishangles, Suffolk, about ú d. after 1312. He became a Benedictine at ...
    Rishton, Edward

    Edward Rishton

    Born in Lancashire, 1550; died at Sainte-Ménehould, Lorraine, 29 June, 1585. He was ...
    Rita of Cascia, Saint

    St. Rita of Cascia

    Born at Rocca Porena in the Diocese of Spoleto , 1386; died at the Augustinian convent of ...
    Rites

    Rites

    I. NAME AND DEFINITION Ritus in classical Latin in means primarily, the form and manner of any ...
    Rites in the United States

    Rites in the United States

    Since immigration from the eastern portion of Europe and from Asia and Africa set in with ...
    Ritschlianism

    Ritschlianism

    Ritschlianism is a peculiar conception of the nature and scope of Christianity, widely held in ...
    Ritter, Joseph Ignatius

    Joseph Ignatius Ritter

    Historian, b. at Schweinitz, Silesia, 12 April, 1787; d. at Breslau, 5 Jan., 1857. He pursued his ...
    Ritual

    Ritual

    The Ritual ( Rituale Romanum ) is one of the official books of the Roman Rite. It contains all ...
    Ritualists

    Ritualists

    The word "Ritualists" is the term now most commonly employed to denote that advanced section of ...
    Rivington, Luke

    Luke Rivington

    Born in London, May, 1838; died in London, 30 May, 1899; fourth son of Francis Rivington, a ...
    Rizal, José Mercado

    Jose Mercado Rizal

    Filipino hero, physician, poet, novelist, and sculptor ; b. at Calamba, Province of La Laguna, ...
    Robbers, Seven

    Seven Robbers

    (Septem Latrones), martyrs on the Island of Corcyra (Corfu) in the second century. Their ...
    Robbia, Andrea della

    Andrea Della Robbia

    Nephew, pupil, assistant, and sharer of Luca's secrets, b. at Florence, 1431; d. 1528. It is ...
    Robbia, Lucia di Simone

    Lucia di Simone Robbia

    Sculptor, b. at Florence, 1400; d. 1481. He is believed to have studied design with a goldsmith, ...
    Robert Bellarmine, Saint

    St. Robert Bellarmine

    (Also, "Bellarmino"). A distinguished Jesuit theologian, writer, and cardinal, born at ...
    Robert Johnson, Blessed

    Bl. Robert Johnson

    Born in Shropshire, entered the German College, Rome, 1 October, 1571. Ordained priest at ...
    Robert of Arbrissel

    Robert of Arbrissel

    Itinerant preacher, founder of Fontevrault, b. c. 1047 at Arbrissel (now Arbressec) near ...
    Robert of Courçon

    Robert of Courcon

    (DE CURSONE, DE CURSIM, CURSUS, ETC.). Cardinal, born at Kedleston, England ; died at ...
    Robert of Geneva

    Robert of Geneva

    Antipope under the name of Clement VII, b. at Geneva, 1342; d. at Avignon, 16 Sept., 1394. He ...
    Robert of Jumièges

    Robert of Jumieges

    Archbishop of Canterbury (1051-2). Robert Champart was a Norman monk of St. Ouen at Rouen ...
    Robert of Luzarches

    Robert of Luzarches

    (LUS). Born at Luzarches near Pontoise towards the end of the twelfth century; is said to have ...
    Robert of Melun

    Robert of Melun

    (DE MELDUNO; MELIDENSIS; MEIDUNUS). An English philosopher and theologian, b. in England ...
    Robert of Molesme, Saint

    St. Robert of Molesme

    Born about the year 1029, at Champagne, France, of noble parents who bore the names of Thierry ...
    Robert of Newminster, Saint

    St. Robert of Newminster

    Born in the district of Craven, Yorkshire, probably at the village of Gargrave; died 7 June, 1159. ...
    Robert Pullus

    Robert Pullus

    (PULLEN, PULLAN, PULLY.) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Cardinal, English philosopher and ...
    Robert, Saint

    St. Robert

    Founder of the Abbey of Chaise-Dieu in Auvergne, b. at Aurilac, Auvergne, about 1000; d. in ...
    Roberts, Saint John

    St. John Roberts

    First Prior of St. Gregory's, Douai (now Downside Abbey ), b. 1575-6; martyred 10 ...
    Robertson, James Burton

    James Burton Robertson

    Historian, b. in London 15 Nov., 1800; d. at Dublin 14 Feb., 1877, son of Thomas Robertson, a ...
    Robinson, Venerable Christopher

    Ven. Christopher Robinson

    Born at Woodside, near Westward, Cumberland, date unknown; executed at Carlisle, 19 Aug., 1598. ...
    Robinson, William Callyhan

    William Callyhan Robinson

    Jurist and educator, b. 26 July, 1834, at Norwich, Conn.; d. 6 Nov., 1911, at Washington, D.C. ...
    Rocaberti, Juan Tomás de

    Juan Tomas de Rocaberti

    Theologian, b. of a noble family at Perelada, in Catalina, c. 1624; d. at Madrid 13 June, 1699. ...
    Rocamadour

    Rocamadour

    Communal chief town of the canton of Gramat, district of Gourdon, Department of Lot, in the ...
    Rocca, Angelo

    Angelo Rocca

    Founder of the Angelica Library at Rome, b. at Rocca, now Arecevia, near Ancone, 1545; d. at ...
    Roch, Saint

    St. Roch

    Born at Montpellier towards 1295; died 1327. His father was governor of that city. At his birth ...
    Rochambeau, Jean-Baptiste-Donatien

    Rochambeau

    Marshal, b. at Vendôme, France, 1 July, 1725; d. at Thoré, 10 May, 1807. At the age ...
    Roche, Alanus de la

    Alanus de Rupe (Alanus de la Roche)

    ( Sometimes DE LA ROCHE). Born about 1428; died at Zwolle in Holland, 8 September, 1475. ...
    Rochester, Ancient See of

    Rochester

    (ROFFA; ROFFENSIS). The oldest and smallest of all the suffragan sees of Canterbury, was ...
    Rochester, Blessed John

    Bl. John Rochester

    Priest and martyr, born probably at Terling, Essex, England, about 1498; died at York, 11 May, ...
    Rochester, Diocese of

    Rochester

    This diocese, on its establishment by separation from the See of Buffalo, 24 January, 1868, ...
    Rochet

    Rochet

    An over-tunic usually made of fine white linen (cambric; fine cotton material is also allowed), ...
    Rochette, Désiré Raoul

    Desire Raoul Rochette

    Usually known as Raoul-Rochette, a French archeologist, b. at St. Amand (Cher), 9 March, 1789; d. ...
    Rock, Daniel

    Daniel Rock

    Antiquarian and ecclesiologist, b. at Liverpool, 31 August, 1799; d. at Kensington, London, 28 ...
    Rockford, Diocese of

    Rockford

    (ROCKFORDIENSIS). Created 23 September, 1908, comprises Jo Daviess, Stephenson, Winnebago, ...
    Rockhampton

    Rockhampton

    Diocese in Queensland, Australia. In 1862 Father Duhig visited the infant settlement on the banks ...
    Rococo Style

    Rococo Style

    This style received its name in the nineteenth century from French émigrés , who ...
    Rodez

    Rodez

    (RUTHENAE) The Diocese of Rodez was united to the Diocese of Cahors by the Concordat of ...
    Rodrigues Ferreira, Alexandre

    Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira

    A Brazilian natural scientist and explorer, b. at Bahia in 1756; d. at Lisbon in 1815. He ...
    Rodriguez, Alonso

    Alonso Rodriguez

    Born at Valladolid, Spain, 1526; died at Seville 21 February, 1616. When twenty years of age he ...
    Rodriguez, Joao

    Joao Rodriguez

    (GIRAM, GIRAO, GIRON, ROIZ). Missionary and author, b. at Alcochete in the Diocese of Lisbon ...
    Rodriguez, Saint Alphonsus

    St. Alphonsus Rodriguez

    (Also Alonso). Born at Segovia in Spain, 25 July, 1532; died at Majorca, 31 October, 1617. ...
    Roe, Bartholomew

    Bartholomew Roe

    (VENERABLE ALBAN). English Benedictine martyr, b. in Suffolk, 1583; executed at Tyburn, 21 ...
    Roermond

    Roermond

    (RUBAEMUNDENSIS). Diocese in Holland ; suffragan of Utrecht. It includes the Province of ...
    Rogation Days

    Rogation Days

    Days of prayer, and formerly also of fasting, instituted by the Church to appease God's anger ...
    Roger Bacon

    Roger Bacon

    Philosopher, surnamed D OCTOR M IRABILIS , b. at Ilchester, Somersetshire, about 1214; d. at ...
    Roger Cadwallador, Venerable

    Ven. Roger Cadwallador

    English martyr, b. at Stretton Sugwas, near Hereford, in 1568; executed at Leominster, 27 Aug., ...
    Roger of Wendover

    Roger of Wendover

    Benedictine monk, date of birth unknown; d. 1236, the first of the great chroniclers of St. ...
    Roger, Bishop of Worcester

    Roger, Bishop of Worcester

    Died at Tours, 9 August, 1179. A younger son of Robert, Earl of Gloucester, he was educated ...
    Roh, Peter

    Peter Roh

    Born at Conthey (Gunthis) in the canton of Valais ( French Switzerland ), 14 August, 1811; d. at ...
    Rohault de Fleury

    Rohault de Fleury

    A family of French architects and archaeologists of the nineteenth century, of which the most ...
    Rohrbacher, Réné François

    Rene Francois Rohrbacher

    Ecclesiastical historian, b. at Langatte (Langd) in the present Diocese of Metz, 27 September, ...
    Rojas y Zorrilla, Francisco de

    Francisco de Rojas y Zorrilla

    Spanish dramatic poet, b. at Toledo, 4 Oct., 1607; d. 1680. Authentic information regarding the ...
    Rokewode, John Gage

    John Gage Rokewode

    Born 13 Sept., 1786; died at Claughton Hall, Lancashire, 14 Oct., 1842. He was the fourth son of ...
    Rolduc

    Rolduc

    (RODA DUCIS, also Roda, Closterroda or Hertogenrade). Located in S. E. Limburg, Netherlands. ...
    Rolfus, Hermann

    Hermann Rolfus

    Catholic educationist, b. at Freiburg, 24 May, 1821; d. at Buhl, near Offenburg, 27 October, ...
    Rolle de Hampole, Richard

    Richard Rolle de Hampole

    Solitary and writer, b. at Thornton, Yorkshire, about 1300; d. at Hampole, 29 Sept., 1349. The ...
    Rollin, Charles

    Charles Rollin

    Born in Paris, 1661; died there, 1741. The son of a cutler, intended to follow his father's ...
    Rolls Series

    Rolls Series

    A collection of historical materials of which the general scope is indicated by its official ...
    Rolph, Thomas

    Thomas Rolph

    Surgeon, b. 1800; d. at Portsmouth, 17 Feb., 1858. He was a younger son of Dr. Thomas Rolph and ...
    Roman Catacombs

    Roman Catacombs

    This subject will be treated under seven heads: I. Position; II. History; III. Inscriptions; IV. ...
    Roman Catechism

    Roman Catechism

    This catechism differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the ...
    Roman Catholic

    Roman Catholic

    A qualification of the name Catholic commonly used in English-speaking countries by those ...
    Roman Catholic Relief Bill

    Roman Catholic Relief Bill

    IN ENGLAND With the accession of Queen Elizabeth (1558) commenced the series of legislative ...
    Roman Christian Cemeteries, Early

    Early Roman Christian Cemeteries

    This article treats briefly of the individual catacomb cemeteries in the vicinity of Rome. For ...
    Roman Colleges

    Roman Colleges

    This article treats of the various colleges in Rome which have been founded under ...
    Roman Congregations

    The Roman Congregations

    Certain departments have been organized by the Holy See at various times to assist it in the ...
    Roman Curia

    Roman Curia

    Strictly speaking, the ensemble of departments or ministries which assist the sovereign pontiff ...
    Roman Processional

    Roman Processional

    Strictly speaking it might be said that the Processional has no recognized place in the Roman ...
    Roman Rite, The

    The Roman Rite

    ( Ritus romanus ). The Roman Rite is the manner of celebrating the Holy Sacrifice, ...
    Romanos Pontifices, Constitutio

    Consitutio Romanos Pontifices

    The restoration by Pius IX, 29 Sept. 1850, by letters Apostolic "Universalis ecclesiæ" of ...
    Romanos, Saint

    St. Romanos

    Surnamed ho melodos and ho theorrhetor , poet of the sixth century. The only authority for ...
    Romans, Epistle to the

    Epistle To the Romans

    This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. The Roman Church and St. Paul; II. ...
    Romanus, Pope

    Pope Romanus

    Of this pope very little is known with certainty, not even the date of his birth nor the exact ...
    Romanus, Saints

    Saints Romanus

    (1) A Roman martyr Romanus is mentioned in the "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, 155) ...
    Rome

    Rome

    The significance of Rome lies primarily in the fact that it is the city of the pope. The Bishop ...
    Rome, University of

    University of Rome

    The University of Rome must be distinguished from the "Studium Generale apud Curiam", established ...
    Romero, Juan

    Juan Romero

    Missionary and Indian linguist, b. in the village of Machena, Andalusia, Spain, 1559; d. at ...
    Romuald, Saint

    St. Romuald

    Born at Ravenna, probably about 950; died at Val-di-Castro, 19 June, 1027. St. Peter Damian, his ...
    Romulus Augustulus

    Romulus Augustulus

    Deposed in the year 476, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire. His reign was purely ...
    Ronan, Saint

    St. Ronan

    There are twelve Irish saints bearing the name of Ronan commemorated in the "Martyrology of ...
    Ronsard, Pierre de

    Pierre de Ronsard

    French poet, b. 2 (or 11) Sept., 1524, at the Château de la Poissonniere, near ...
    Rood

    Rood

    (Anglo-Saxon Rod, or Rode, "cross"), a term, often used to signify the True Cross itself, ...
    Roothaan, Johann Philipp

    Johann Philipp Roothaan

    Twenty-first General of the Society of Jesus , b. at Amsterdam, 23 November, 1785; d. at Rome, ...
    Roper, William

    William Roper

    Biographer of St. Thomas More, born 1496; died 4 January, 1578. Both his father and mother ...
    Rorate Coeli

    Rorate Coeli

    (Vulgate, text), the opening words of Isaiah 45:8 . The text is used frequently both at Mass and ...
    Rosa, Salvatore

    Salvatore Rosa

    (Also spelled SALVATOR; otherwise known as RENNELLA, or ARENELLA, from the place of his birth). ...
    Rosalia, Saint

    St. Rosalia

    Hermitess, greatly venerated at Palermo and in the whole of Sicily of which she in patroness. ...
    Rosary, Breviary Hymns of the

    Breviary Hymns of the Rosary

    The proper office granted by Leo XIII (5 August, 1888) to the feast contains four hymns ...
    Rosary, Confraternity of the

    Confraternity of the Holy Rosary

    In accordance with the conclusion of the article ROSARY no sufficient evidence is forthcoming to ...
    Rosary, Feast of the Holy

    Feast of the Holy Rosary

    Apart from the signal defeat of the Albigensian heretics at the battle of Muret in 1213 which ...
    Rosary, Seraphic

    Franciscan Crown

    ( Or Seraphic Rosary.) A Rosary consisting of seven decades in commemoration of the seven ...
    Rosary, The

    The Rosary

    Please see our How to Recite the Holy Rosary sheet in PDF format, and feel free to copy and ...
    Rosate, Alberico de

    Alberico de Rosate

    (Or ROSCIATE). Jurist, date of birth unknown; died in 1354. He was bom in the village of ...
    Roscelin

    Roscelin

    Roscelin, a monk of Compiègne, was teaching as early as 1087. He had contact with ...
    Roscommon

    Roscommon

    Capital of County Roscommon, Ireland ; owes origin and name to a monastery founded by St. Coman ...
    Rose of Lima, Saint

    St. Rose of Lima

    Virgin, patroness of America, born at Lima, Peru 20 April, 1586; died there 30 August, 1617. ...
    Rose of Viterbo, Saint

    St. Rose of Viterbo

    Virgin, born at Viterbo, 1235; died 6 March, 1252. The chronology of her life must always remain ...
    Rose Window

    Rose Window

    A circular window, with mullions and traceries generally radiating from the centre, and filled ...
    Rosea

    Rosea

    A titular see. The official catalogue of the Roman Curia mentioned formerly a titular see of ...
    Roseau

    Roseau

    (ROSENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Port of Spain, Trinidad, B.W.I. The different islands of ...
    Rosecrans, William Starke

    William Starke Rosecrans

    William Born at Kingston, Ohio, U.S.A. 6 Sept., 1819; died near Redondo California, 11 March, ...
    Roseline, Saint

    St. Roseline

    (Rossolina.) Born at Château of Arcs in eastern Provence, 1263; d. 17 January, 1329. ...
    Rosenau

    Rosenau

    ( Hungarian ROZSNYÓ; Latin ROSNAVIENSIS). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Eger, ...
    Rosh Hashanah

    Feast of Trumpets

    The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...
    Rosicrucians

    Rosicrucians

    The original appelation of the alleged members of the occult-cabalistic- theosophic "Rosicrucian ...
    Roskilde, Ancient See of, in Denmark

    Ancient See of Roskilde in Denmark

    (ROSCHILDIA, ROSKILDENSIS.) Suffragan to Hamburg, about 991-1104, to Lund, 1104-1536. The ...
    Roskoványi, August

    August Roskovanyi

    Bishop of Neutra in Hungary, doctor of philosophy and theology, b. at Szenna in the County ...
    Rosmini and Rosminianism

    Rosmini and Rosminianism

    Antonio Rosmini Serbati, philosopher, and founder of the Institute of Charity, born 24 March, ...
    Rosminians

    Rosminians

    The Institute of Charity, or, officially, Societas a charitate nuncupata , is a religious ...
    Ross

    Ross

    (ROSSENSIS). Diocese in Ireland. This see was founded by St. Fachtna, and the place-name ...
    Ross, School of

    School of Ross

    The School of Ross &151; now called Ross-Carbery, but formerly Ross-Ailithir from the large ...
    Rossano

    Rossano

    (ROSSANENSIS). Archdiocese in Calabria, province of Cosenza, Southern Italy. The city is ...
    Rosselino, Antonio di Matteo di Domenico

    Antonio di Matteo di Domenico Rosselino

    The youngest of five brothers, sculptors and stone cutters, family name Gamberelli (1427-78). He ...
    Rosselino, Bernardo

    Bernardo Rosselino

    (Properly BERNARDO DI MATTEO GAMBARELLI.) B. at Florence, 1409; d. 1464. Rosselino occupies ...
    Rosselli, Cosimo

    Cosimo Rosselli

    (LORENZO DI FILIPPO). Italian fresco painter, b. at Florence, 1439; d. there in 1507. The ...
    Rossi, Bernardo de

    Bernardo de Rossi

    (DE RUBEIS, GIOVANNI FRANCESCO BERNARDO MARIA). Theologian and historian; b. at Cividale del ...
    Rossi, Giovanni Battista de

    Giovanni Battista de Rossi

    A distinguished Christian archaeologist , best known for his work in connection with the Roman ...
    Rossi, Pellegrino

    Pellegrino Rossi

    Publicist, diplomat, economist, and statesman, b. at Carrara, Italy, 13 July, 1787; assassinated ...
    Rossini, Gioacchino Antonio

    Gioacchino Antonio Rossini

    Born 29 February, 1792, at Pesaro in the Romagna; died 13 November, 1868, at Passy, near Paris. ...
    Rostock, Sebastian von

    Sebastian von Rostock

    Bishop of Breslau, b. at Grottkau, Silesia, 24 Aug. 1607; d. at Breslau, 9 June, 1671. He ...
    Rostock, University of

    University of Rostock

    Located in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, founded in the year 1419 through the united efforts of Dukes John ...
    Roswitha

    Hroswitha

    A celebrated nun -poetess of the tenth century, whose name has been given in various forms, ...
    Rota, Sacra Romana

    Sacra Romana Rota

    In the Constitution "Sapienti Consilio" (29 June, 1908), II, 2, Pins X re-established the Sacra ...
    Roth, Heinrich

    Heinrich Roth

    Missionary in India and Sanskrit scholar, b. of illustrious parentage at Augsburg, 18 December, ...
    Rothe, David

    David Rothe

    Bishop of Ossory ( Ireland ), b. at Kilkenny in 1573, of a distinguished family ; d. 20 ...
    Rottenburg

    Rottenburg

    (ROTTENBURGENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of the ecclesiastical Province of the Upper Rhine. It ...
    Rotuli

    Rotuli

    Rotuli, i.e. rolls — in which a long narrow strip of papyrus or parchment, written on one ...
    Rouen, Archdiocese of

    Rouen

    (ROTHOMAGENSIS) Revived by the Concordat of 1802 with the Sees of Bayeux, Evreux, and ...
    Rouen, Synods of

    Synods of Rouen

    The first synod is generally believed to have been held by Archbishop Saint-Ouen about 650. ...
    Rouquette, Adrien

    Adrien Rouquette

    Born in Louisiana in 1813, of French parentage; died as a missionary among the Choctaw Indians ...
    Rousseau, Jean-Baptiste

    Jean-Baptiste Rousseau

    French poet, b. in Paris, 16 April 1670; d. at La Genette, near Brussels, 17 May, 1741. ...
    Rovezzano, Benedetto da

    Benedetto Da Rovezzano

    Sculptor and architect, b. in 1490, either at Rovezzano, near Florence, or, according to some ...
    Rowsham, Stephen

    Stephen Rowsham

    A native of Oxfordshire, entered Oriel College, Oxford, in 1572. He took orders in the English ...
    Royal Declaration, The

    The Royal Declaration

    This is the name most commonly given to the solemn repudiation of Catholicity which, in ...
    Royer-Collard, Pierre-Paul

    Pierre-Paul Royer-Collard

    Philosopher and French politician, b. at Sompuis (Marne), 21 June, 1763; d. at ...
    Ruadhan, Saint

    St. Ruadhan

    One of the twelve "Apostles of Erin" ; died at the monastery of Lorrha, County Tipperary, ...
    Ruben

    Ruben (Reuben)

    (REUBEN.) A proper name which designates in the Bible : (1) a patriarch; (II) a tribe of ...
    Rubens, Peter Paul

    Peter Paul Rubens

    Eminent Flemish painter, b. at Siegen, Westphalia, 28 June, 1577; d. at Antwerp, 30 May, 1640. ...
    Rubrics

    Rubrics

    I. IDEA Among the ancients, according to Columella, Vitruvius, and Pliny, the word rubrica , ...
    Rubruck, William

    William Rubruck

    (Also called William of Rubruck and less correctly Ruysbrock, Ruysbroek, and Rubruquis), ...
    Rudolf of Fulda

    Rudolf of Fulda

    Chronicler, d. at Fulda, 8 March, 862. In the monastery of Fulda Rudolf entered the ...
    Rudolf of Habsburg

    Rudolf of Habsburg

    German king, b. 1 May 1218; d. at Speyer, 15 July, 1291. He was the son of Albert IV, the founder ...
    Rudolf of Rüdesheim

    Rudolf of Rudesheim

    Bishop of Breslau, b. at Rüdesheim on the Rhine, about 1402; d. at Breslau in Jan., 1482. ...
    Rudolf von Ems

    Rudolf von Ems

    [Hohenems in Austria ]. A Middle High German epic poet of the thirteenth century. Almost ...
    Rueckers, Family of

    Family of Rueckers

    Famous organ and piano-forte builders of Antwerp. Hans Rueckers, the founder, lived in ...
    Ruffini, Paolo

    Paolo Ruffini

    Physician and mathematician, b. at Valentano in the Duchy of Castro, 3 Sept., 1765; d. at Modena, ...
    Rufford Abbey

    Rufford Abbey

    A monastery of the Cistercian Order, situated on the left bank of the Rainworth Water, about ...
    Rufina, Saints

    Sts. Rufina

    The present Roman Martyrology records saints of this name on the following days: (1) On ...
    Rufinus, Saint

    Saints Rufinus

    The present Roman Martyrology records eleven saints named Rufinus: (1) On 28 February, a ...
    Rufus, Saint

    Saints Rufus

    The present Roman Martyrology records ten saints of this name. Historical mention is made of ...
    Ruiz de Alarcón y Mendoza, Juan de

    Juan de Ruiz de Alarcon y Mendoza

    Spanish dramatic poet, b. at Mexico City, about 1580; d. at Madrid, 4 August, 1639. He received ...
    Ruiz de Montoya, Antonio

    Antonio Ruiz de Montoya

    One of the most distinguished pioneers of the original Jesuit mission in Paraguay, and a ...
    Ruiz de Montoya, Diego

    Diego Ruiz de Montoya

    Theologian, b. at Seville, 1562; d. there 15 March, 1632. He entered the Society of Jesus in ...
    Rule of Faith, The

    The Rule of Faith

    The word rule ( Latin regula , Gr. kanon ) means a standard by which something can be ...
    Rule of St. Augustine

    Rule of St. Augustine

    The title, Rule of Saint Augustine , has been applied to each of the following documents: ...
    Rule of St. Benedict

    Rule of St. Benedict

    This work holds the first place among monastic legislative codes, and was by far the most ...
    Rumania

    Rumania

    A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, situated between the Black Sea, the Danube, the Carpathian ...
    Rumohr, Karl Friedrich

    Karl Friedrich Rumohr

    Art historian, b. at Dresden, 1785; d. there, 1843. He became a Catholic in 1804. He was ...
    Rupe, Alanus de

    Alanus de Rupe (Alanus de la Roche)

    ( Sometimes DE LA ROCHE). Born about 1428; died at Zwolle in Holland, 8 September, 1475. ...
    Rupert, Saint

    St. Rupert

    (Alternative forms, Ruprecht, Hrodperht, Hrodpreht, Roudbertus, Rudbertus, Robert, Ruprecht). ...
    Rusaddir

    Rusaddir

    A titular see of Mauritania Tingitana. Rusaddir is a Phoenician settlement whose name ...
    Rusicade

    Rusicade

    A titular see of Numidia. It is mentioned by Ptolemy (IV, 3), Mela (I, 33), Pliny (V, 22), ...
    Ruspe

    Ruspe

    Titular see of Byzacena in Africa, mentioned only by Ptolemy (IV, 3) and the "Tabula" of ...
    Russell, Charles

    Charles Russell

    (BARON RUSSELL OF KILLOWEN). Born at Newry, Ireland, 10 November, 1832; died in London, 10 ...
    Russell, Charles William

    Charles William Russell

    Born at Killough, Co. Down, 14 May, 1812; died at Dublin 26 Feb., 1880. He was descended from the ...
    Russell, Richard

    Richard Russell

    Bishop of Vizéu in Portugal, b. in Berkshire, 1630; d. at Vizéu, 15 Nov., 1693. He ...
    Russia

    Russia

    GEOGRAPHY Russia ( Rossiiskaia Imperiia; Russkoe Gosudarstvo ) comprises the greater part of ...
    Russia, The Religion of

    The Religion of Russia

    A. The Origin of Russian Christianity There are two theories in regard to the early Christianity ...
    Russian Language and Literature

    Russian Language and Literature

    The subject will be treated under the following heads, viz. RUSSIAN LANGUAGE; ANCIENT POPULAR ...
    Rusticus of Narbonne, Saint

    St. Rusticus of Narbonne

    Born either at Marseilles or at Narbonnaise, Gaul; died 26 Oct., 461. According to biographers, ...
    Ruth, Book of

    Book of Ruth

    One of the proto-canonical writings of the Old Testament, which derives its name from the heroine ...
    Ruthenian Rite

    Ruthenian Rite

    There is, properly speaking, no separate and distinct rite for the Ruthenians, but inasmuch as ...
    Ruthenians

    Ruthenians

    (Ruthenian and Russian: Rusin , plural Rusini ) A Slavic people from Southern Russia, ...
    Rutter, Henry

    Henry Rutter

    ( vere BANISTER) Born 26 Feb., 1755; died 17 September, 1838, near Dodding Green, ...
    Ruvo and Bitonto

    Ruvo and Bitonto

    (RUBENSIS ET BITUNTINENSIS) Diocese in the Province of Bari, Aquileia, Southern Italy. Ruvo, ...
    Ruysbroeck, Blessed John

    Blessed John Ruysbroeck

    Surnamed the Admirable Doctor, and the Divine Doctor, undoubtedly the foremost of the Flemish ...
    Ruysch, John

    John Ruysch

    Astronomer, cartographer, and painter, born at Utrecht about 1460; died at Cologne, 1533. Little ...
    Ryan, Father Abram J.

    Father Abram J. Ryan

    The poet-priest of the South, born at Norfolk, Virginia, 15 August, 1839; died at Louisville, ...
    Ryan, Patrick John

    Patrick John Ryan

    Sixth Bishop and second Archbishop of Philadelphia, b. At Thurles, County Tipperary, ...
    Ryder, Henry Ignatius Dudley

    Henry Ignatius Dudley Ryder

    English Oratorian priest and controversialist, b. 3 Jan., 1837; d. at Edgbaston, Birmingham, 7 ...
    Ryken, Theodore James

    Theodore James Ryken

    Known as B ROTHER F RANCIS X AVIER , founder of the Xaverian Brothers. Born at Elshout, ...

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