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Metalwork in the Service of the Church

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From the earliest days the Church has employed utensils and vessels of metal in its liturgical ceremonies. This practice increased during the Middle Ages . The history of the metalwork of the Church in the Middle Ages is in fact the history of the art of metalworking in general, and this is not only because the Church was the foremost patron of such works and because almost all the works that have been preserved from the Middle Ages are ecclesiastical in character, but also because until the twelfth century the works of the goldsmith were also almost exclusively manufactured by monks and clerics. But in the period of the Renaissance also the manufacture of church metalwork formed a very important branch of the goldsmith's art, and even in our own day these works are counted among those in the production of which that art can be most profitably developed; but not only the goldsmith's art, that is the artistic treatment of the precious metal, had its growth and development in the service of the Church, the base metals also, especially iron, bronze, and brass, have been largely used. As we are dealing, however, with the historical development of the metalwork in the service of the Church, we shall confine ourselves more particularly to works in the precious metals, without however entirely excluding those in the inferior metals from our consideration.

I. ANTIQUITY

Beginning with antiquity, we must first prove that the Church did in fact make use of valuable works of metal in the most ancient times. Honorius of Autun (d. 1145) makes the remark that the Apostles and their followers had employed wooden chalices in the celebration of the holy Mass, but that Pope Zephyrinus had ordered the use of glass and Pope Urban I of silver and gold vessels (Gemma animae, P. L., CLXXII, 573). This opinion seems to have been widely disseminated during the Middle Ages ; it is nevertheless untenable. Recourse to chalices made of wood or some other cheap material was undoubtedly often made necessary in antiquity as the result of a lack of the more valuable materials or during the stormy times of the persecutions, but this custom cannot have been general. If the earliest Christians believed in the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, and of this there can be no doubt, they assuredly also made offering of their most precious vessels in order that the Sacred Mysteries might be worthily celebrated.

The earliest positive notices of the use of metalwork in the service of the Church date from the third and fourth centuries. It is especially the "Liber pontificalis", which is now accessible in the critical editions of Duchesne and Mommsen from which we derive the most interesting information concerning the subject under discussion. Here we first meet with the statement that Pope Urban had the sacred vessels made of silver, which does not by any means imply that before that time they were all made of glass. Of greater importance are the accounts of the magnificent donations of valuable works in metal made by Emperor Constantine to the Roman basilicas. It would take up too much space to enumerate them all, and we shall content ourselves with mentioning a few examples.

  • To the Vatican basilica he presented seven large chalices ( scyphi ) of the purest gold, each of which weighed ten (Roman) pounds; furthermore forty smaller chalices of pure gold, each weighing one pound.
  • The church of St. Agnes received a chalice of solid gold weighing ten pounds, five silver chalices of ten pounds each, and two silver patens (metal plates for the Eucharistic bread) of thirty pounds each.
  • The patens are often mentioned in connection with the chalices ; thus the Lateran basilica received seven gold and sixteen silver patens of thirty pounds each.
Though not to the same extent, the other churches also were in possession of valuable metalwork for the liturgical service. The Church of Carthage, according to the testimony of Optatus, possessed so many valuables of gold and silver, that it was no easy matter to remove or hide them at the time of the persecutions (Contra Parmen., I, xviii). Ibas, Bishop of Edessa, was accused at the Council of Chalcedon (451) of having purloined a valuable chalice set with precious stones, which a pious man had presented to the church.

As to the various kinds of metalwork used in the Church, the "Liber pontificalis" mentions the following in addition to chalice and paten as in use in the lifetime of Pope Sylvester:

  • a silver bowl of ten pounds, which was intended for the reception of the chrism at baptisms and confirmations,
  • a silver baptismal vessel of twenty pounds,
  • a golden lamb weighing thirty pounds, which was set up in the baptistery beside the Lateran.
  • seven silver stags that spouted water, each of which weighed eighty pounds, and especially
  • numerous vessels for wine, e.g., in the Vatican basilica two specimens of the purest gold, each of a weight of fifty pounds.
  • Of importance to us also is the statement that beside the golden lamb just mentioned there stood silver statues, five feet in height, of the Redeemer and St. John, weighing 180 and 125 pounds respectively.
  • Furthermore mention must be made of the metal caskets, crosses, reliquaries, and book-covers, which were likewise made either entirely or in part of precious metal.
With this enumeration the number of metallic utensils employed in Christian antiquity is by no means complete. The centre of Christian worship is the sacrifice and the altar, for this reason it was early made of valuable material or at least covered with it. Metal plates were furthermore used to adorn the confession and the immediate surroundings of the altar. Great wealth of the precious metals was spent upon the superstructure of the altar, or ciborium, which was decorated with metal statues, with chalices and votive crowns. When Leo III had the ciborium, presented by the Emperor Constantine, restored, he employed for that purpose 2704 1/2 pounds of silver. A large amount of metal was also used for the iconostasis, a screen connecting from two to six columns; thus Leo III had the iconostasis in the church of St. Paul recovered at an expenditure of 1452 pounds of silver.

A large amount of metalwork is also required for the illumination of the basilica. Constantine alone presented to the Lateran church 174 separate articles of the greatest variety intended for this purpose. It is sufficient here to make mention merely of the chandeliers or lustres ( coronae ), the candelabra and lamps ; they were made of bronze, silver, or gold. The Lateran church received among the rest a chandelier with fifty lamps of the purest gold, weighing 120 pounds, and a candelabrum of the same material, with eighty lamps. Even the vessels for storing the oil were sometimes made of precious metal. The Lateran basilica was the owner of three such vessels of silver, weighing 900 pounds. Practically nothing however of all these treasures has come down to us only a few small chandeliers of bronze, dating from the fifth to the eighth centuries, have been found, most of them in Egypt. There remains one more article of metal that was much used in the service of the Church from the earliest centuries, the censer. According to the "Liber pontificalis" the baptistery of St. John at the Lateran had a censer of gold weighing fifteen pounds, which was ornamented with green precious stones. If we take account then of all these articles, the conclusion naturally follows that the use of articles of metal in the service of the Church had attained extraordinary proportions in Christian antiquity.

More difficult than the enumeration of the works in metal is the description of their decoration and the technical processes employed in their manufacture, because on this point our literary sources are almost wholly silent, while of the old Christian works, which might enlighten us, but very few are extant. We must therefore, in this case also, confine ourselves particularly to the statements of the "Liber pontificalis". Here we find numerous references to images ( imagines ) of Christ, the Blessed Virgin, the Angels, and Apostles ; in most cases it is impossible to determine whether the works were carved or cast, certain it is that both methods were employed. The statues of Christ and the Apostles on the ciborium presented by Constantine to the Lateran church were undoubtedly carved. In some cases the core of the statue was of wood which was overlaid or covered with silver or gold. Painted images also were sometimes decorated with reliefs of silver or gold. Gregory III, for example, employed five pounds of pure gold and precious stones in the decoration of a statue of the Madonna in S. Maria Maggiore. Precious stones in particular were a favourite form of decoration for articles made of metal golden statues were at times completely covered with them. When Sixtus I provided the confession of the Vatican basilica with costlier furnishings, Valentinian presented a tablet in relief with the images of Christ and the Apostles which was studded with precious stones. The baptistery too beside the Lateran church possessed a censer which was adorned with precious stones. The works in bronze were often inlaid with silver decorations. Thus the chapels of St. John received doors with silver ornamentation. This was probably a kind of niello . To obtain colour effects enamel and verroterie cloisonee were likewise employed; of these a more detailed account will be given later. We shall call attention here only to the best-known specimen that has been preserved, the pentaptych in the treasury of Milan cathedral the central division of this is ornamented by this process with the paschal lamb and the cross.

Finally, as to the workshops from which the Church derived its metalwork, there can be no doubt that they existed in all the larger cities of the civilized countries of ancient Christendom ; but the cities of the Eastern Roman Empire, and especially Byzantium, seem to have been pre-eminent. There is a tendency even at the present day to consider almost all of the larger works that have been preserved as products of Eastern art. In fact a large number of works in metal were brought from the Orient to the Western countries. We mention here only a reliquary cross in St. Peter's at Rome, a present of the Byzantine emperor Justin II.

II. MIDDLE AGES

A. Byzantine metalwork

We begin the Middle Ages with the Byzantine metalwork, in order to remove at the outset the impression that the term Byzantine is used to express a definite period of time ; it is used rather to denote a definite geographical circle of art and culture, that is to say, Byzantium with its immediate and more distant surroundings. There were two factors that exerted a powerful influence upon the Byzantine work: first, the almost boundless extravagance which prevailed at the imperial Court, and which, as a result of the intimate relations existing between State and Church, made itself felt also in the latter; second, the close contact with the art of the inland provinces, particularly with Persian art. The Persian, or, to use a more general term, the Oriental, influence gave rise to an extravagant seeking after colour effects in the art of metalworking accompanied by a suppression of the main object, namely the production of plastic works. To understand the latter change, we must briefly explain a few technical terms.

To give artistic form to the shapeless mass of metal the processes employed are casting and hammering or chiselling. In the former process the metal is brought to a liquid state and poured into a hollow form, which has previously been prepared by pressing a solid model into a yielding mass. Although casting must be regarded as the original mode of treating metals, nevertheless, so far as giving artistic form to gold and silver is concerned, hammering was of greater importance. By means of hammers the sheet of metal is hollowed out and in this way given plastic form. Very closely connected with hammering is the art of engraving this consists in directing the blow of the hammer not directly upon the metal but transmitting it by means of small steel chisels. It is these two latter processes that we have chiefly in mind when we speak of the goldsmith's art. By means of these the ancient art of the Occident produced its most beautiful works in metal. A different state of affairs existed in the Orient, and particularly in the home of the Mesopotamio-Persian and Syrian art, where, so to say, the hand had less plastic training than the eye a gift for colour. The glittering gold here received additional decoration by means of coloured enamels. This preference for coloured representation instead of the plastic was transmitted to Byzantium also. But it will always remain to the credit of the Byzantine goldsmith's art that it produced magnificent works in metal for the service of the Church. The process employed in the Orient and Byzantium is known as cloisonne enamel ( émail cloisonné ); it consists in soldering very thin strips of gold on the gold baseplate so as to form cells into which the coloured enamel paste is pressed and fused in place, the enamel combining with the metal during fusion.

In Byzantium cloisonné enamel forced the art of hammering and chiselling into a very subordinate position; enamel was used to decorate secular articles, such as bowls and swords, but especially the metalwork of the Church. The ornamentation consisted partly of decorative designs partly of figurative representations. Among the works that have come down to us there are many of a miniature- like purity, which in spite of their small size are truly monumental in conception. Of the larger works only a very small number have been preserved, the most famous is the golden altar-front (Pala d'oro) of St. Mark's at Venice. The remaining pieces are for the most part relic-cases which were suspended from the neck or placed upon the altar (examples at Velletri and Cosenza ), crosses and book covers (a magnificent specimen in the royal jewel-room at Munich ). From the period in which this art reached its highest perfection, the tenth and eleventh centuries, we have the so-called staurotheca (a reliquary tablet) in the cathedral at Limburg on the Lahn the reliquary of Nicephorus Phocas (963-969) in the convent of Lavra (Athos), and the lower band of the so-called crown of St. Stephen in the crown treasures at Budapest (1076-77). The terrible pillaging of the capital by the western crusaders, 1204, dealt the deathblow to this flourishing art.

Although the examples of Byzantine metalwork decorated with enamel are by far the most numerous, specimens of hammered work are not entirely lacking. In the first place we may mention two architectural relic-cases which are in the form of a central structure surmounted by a dome (at Aachen and Venice ). The reliquary tablets with carved reliefs are either in the form of a small folding-altar or of a cross, which often bears the portraits of the emperor, Constantine, and his mother on the obverse, and on the reverse, the crucifixion. A distinct type of the Greek goldsmith's art are the icons; one of the most valuable is in the Swenigorodskoi collection (St. Petersburg). A rare specimen with excellent chasing, a gilded silver pyx with the crucifixion of Christ, is in the cathedral at Halberstadt (eleventh century). At only one place in the West is it possible at the present day to get an idea of the magnificence and costliness of the Byzantine metalwork, in the treasures and library of St. Mark's at Venice, which still possesses a portion of the booty of the year 1204.

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B. Barbarian metalwork

Though the manufacture of artistic metalwork for the Church was accompanied by no difficulties in the countries of the older civilization conditions were much more unfavourable among the barbarian nations which embraced Christianity. Nevertheless we know that among them articles of metal were much used in the service of the Church. Gregory of Tours in one place speaks of sixty chalices fifteen patens, twenty encolpia of pure gold, which King Childebert took as booty in the year 531 in a campaign against the Visigoths. When St. Patrick came to Ireland, he had in his retinue, among others, three workers in metal namely Mac Cecht, Laebhan, and Fortchern. There are still in existence fifty-three small bells, tubular and box-shaped, which belong to this Irish art of metalworking; among the Franks Saint Eligius of Noyon (588-659), a goldsmith, was even consecrated bishop.

Here the interesting question arises, how these "barbarians" succeeded in producing artistic work in metal. The works themselves that have been preserved alone can answer this question. There are, it is true, but few of these the most important to be considered here are a chalice and a paten which were found near Gourdon (Burgundy) and are now preserved in the National Library of Paris, a relic-case also Burgundian, in St Maurice (Switzerland), the famous votive-crowns of the Visigothic kings from Guarrazar , especially those of Recesvinth and Svintila (631), a Gospel-cover of Queen Theodolinda in Monza, a reliquary in purse form from Hereford (now in Berlin ), a Gospel-cover from Lindau (later purchased by J. Pierpont Morgan) and the Tassilo chalice in Kremsmünster (Austria); there may further be assigned to this period, because of their style the St. Cuthbert cross in the cathedral at Durham, the chalice of Ardagh, the shrines of several old Irish bells, and a number of croziers and crosses in the collection of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, and in the British Museum, London. When we consider that these works extend over a period of more than four centuries and are the products of several races it is at once apparent that we can give but a faint intimation of the character and decoration of the metalwork of the Church among barbarian nations.

The material used in the manufacture of these works is almost exclusively gold, while their artistic decoration consists for the most part of the so-called verroterie cloisonnée , a glass mosaic. The process employed in this decoration is akin to that of cloisonne enamel; the setting of the semiprecious stones or paste gems is done in one of two ways: they are either bedded between thin bands of metal like cloisonne enamel, or set in openings which are cut into the gold plate itself. At times the gold plate is completely covered with the stones. Chased ornamentation on the other hand is of rarer occurrence it is found in a crude fashion on the Hereford reliquary. That niello was not unknown to the "barbarian" nations is proved by the chalice in Kremsmünster, a present of Tassilo, Duke of Bavaria (about 780). In Irish art filigree also found a very delicate development one of the most valuable examples, one that displays a concentration of all the processes with which the native masters were conversant, is the chalice of Ardagh.

C. Carolingian and Othonian metalwork

The second period embraces the age of the Carolingian and Othonian emperors, i.e., in round numbers a period of 200 years. While it can hardly be said that this period added anything essentially new to the metalwork of the previous centuries, it is nevertheless true that it gave new forms and a further development to many of the articles already in use. We now also more frequently meet with works cast in bronze, whereas in the so-called "style of the period of migrations" of the preceding age it was not necessary even to mention them. With the increase in the wealth of the Church, there arose also the necessity for an increased amount of valuable metalwork, this was especially the case in the large monasteries which counted among their own members metalworkers of great artistic skill. The manufacture of the metalwork for the Church during the tenth and eleventh centuries was in fact so largely in the hands of the monks that this entire period has been designated as the period of monastic art. While France had led in the development during the ninth century, from the tenth century it gradually fell behind Germany. One of the causes that helped to bring about this result was the lively interest which several of the prominent ecclesiastical princes took in the art of metalworking as developed within the Church, the most deserving of mention in this connection is Archbishop Egbert of Trier and after him Bishops Meinwerk of Paderborn and Bernward of Hildesheim. In France the art of metalworking flourished especially in Reims, but also in Corbie Tours, and Metz. In Germany the centres of the goldsmith's art of the Church were, besides Trier, especially the monasteries at Ratisbon, Reichenau, Essen, Hildesheim, and Helmershausen.

The characteristic feature of the art of the period of migrations, the verroterie cloisonnée , gradually disappears and yields precedence to the Byzantine cloisonné enamel which flourished especially at Trier and Reichenau. The revival of the plastic tendency in metalworking was of greater importance. We have from the period under discussion even at this day several altar-decorations and book-covers with figural representations, which reveal a truly amazing skill in metal-hammering; such is the valuable antipendium of Henry II from Basle. The primitive method of covering a wooden core with thin sheets of metal was also still practiced. A Madonna in the collegiate church at Essen (Rheinland) and an image of St. Fides (Foy) at Conques, France, are the two best known examples of this art. In Italy the most important work of this period is the decoration of the high altar in the church of St. Ambrose in Milan the work of Wolvinus, executed under Archbishop Angelbert II (824-66). Prominent examples of the French metal work are the portable altar, shaped like a ciborium, and the binding of a copy of the Gospels in the royal jewel-room at Munich, which were probably made at Reims and were brought to Germany as early as the reign of King Arnulf (d. 899). Germany possesses, as evidence of a more advanced art of metalworking, four crosses in the collegiate church at Essen which reveal the powerful influence of the Byzantine art. Closely connected with Essen are the school of the monastery at Helmershausen, where the monk Rogerus wrote the first handbook of the industrial arts, "Schedula diversarum artium", and the school of Hildesheim, which through the activity of Bishop Bernward became the centre of the metalworker art in Northern Germany ; the folding-doors of the cathedral with crude reliefs, a column, which is patterned after Trajan's Column in Rome, and two candle-sticks belong to this period. In France scarcely a single work of any size has been preserved; in Italy several bronze doors, for instance, those of the basilica of St. Paul at Rome (1070) and Monte Gargano (1070), are noteworthy, because they were procured from Byzantium and show the influence of the Byzantine art.

D. Romanesque metalwork

The golden age of the metalwork of the Church is the Romanesque period (1050-1250). We have already, it is true, mentioned above several works belonging to this age, because the various styles of art often overlap, and sharp distinctions can be drawn only by force. The characteristic which at once distinguishes the metalworks of the Romanesque period from the older works is their large size; this distinction is most noticeable in the reliquaries. For, while the receptacles for relics had up to that time been uniformly of small dimensions, they grew in the Romanesque period into large shrines, for the transport of which three or four men were necessary. Several new varieties of metalwork also were added to the old, especially the aquamanile , i.e., a vessel in the form of an animal, used for washing the hands, and the metal structures placed upon the altar ; other articles assumed new forms. These changes are in part due to the evolution of the liturgy. Almost to the close of the tenth century, for instance, neither cross nor candlestick was permitted upon the altar, only small reliquary caskets being tolerated; the altar itself up to this time had preserved the shape of a table or sarcophagus. As soon as these regulations were broken and candlestick, cross, and superfrontal found a place upon the altar. this change necessarily exerted a strong influence upon the manufacture and decoration of the articles mentioned.

The material employed in the manufacture of the metalwork of the Church also experienced a change, as copper took the place of gold. Furthermore the cloisonné enamel was supplanted by the champlevé. The champleve enamel differs from the cloisonné by the small cells intended to receive the enamel not being made in the Byzantine fashion by means of strips of flat gold wire soldered to the gold plate, but by being dug out of the plate with a burin. A peculiarity of the workshops of Limoges ( France ) was the affixing of the heads of persons or even of the entire figure in high relief. The design in the figures themselves was for the most part filled out with coloured enamel. A second difference consists in the more frequent occurrence of plastic ornamentations in silver. Of course plastic decorations, as we have already seen, were not lacking in the earlier periods, but the Romanesque period gave a mighty impulse to this branch of the metal worker's art and can show many extraordinary productions, for instance on the shrine of the Three Kings at Cologne. Lastly, a third difference is apparent in the ornamentation, in that secular types of decoration are now more and more used on articles intended for the Church. On a reliquary at Siegburg (near Cologne), for example, apes, deer, dogs, and naked men are represented; the well-known fabulous creatures of the Romanesque art also win a place for themselves in the art of metalworking.

The evolution in style may be briefly characterized as follows: the monastic art of the previous period with its Byzantine tendencies is subdued but not entirely supplanted by the popular tendency; the two rather enter into a close union which we designate as Romanesque art. Monuments of the Romanesque art in metals still exist in large numbers, but these are almost exclusively works of ecclesiastical origin. This is due not merely to the fact that the churches, which have been correctly called the oldest museums, have guarded their treasures more carefully than the worldly owners; it is rather to be ascribed to the fact that at that time the metalwork for secular purposes was a practically negligible factor. We must not infer from this, however, that in the Romanesque period, as in the preceding, it was monks and clerics who were the principal manufacturers of the metalwork for the Church. During this period the art of metalworking, as well as the plastic arts in general, gradually passed into the hands of the laity. A number of Benedictine monasteries, it is true, still clung to the old traditions of the order, and remained centres of artistic pursuits

By far the largest amount of ecclesiastical metalwork of the Romanesque period is to be found in Germany, where the art of metalworking created magnificent works in the districts bordering on the Rhine and the Meuse. On the Rhine the Benedictine monks Eilbert (1130) and Friedericus (1180) of the Benedictine monastery of St. Pantaleon produced several reliquaries and portable altars which they decorated for the most part with enamel. They were far surpassed by the laymen Godefroi de Claire and Nicholas of Verdun, who combined plastic ornamentation and enamelling with amazing perfection. They are the creators of the two most beautiful reliquaries of this whole period; Godefroi wrought the shrine of St. Heribert at Deutz (1185), and Nicholas the shrine of the Three Kings at Cologne. In France likewise the art of enamelling was zealously cultivated, especially in Limoges, where small articles of metal for church use were manufactured in large quantities and exported in all directions.

The art of casting also can show several famous names such as Reiner of Huy, who cast the well-known baptismal font at Liège, and Riquinus of Magdeburg in whose workshop the gate of the cathedral at Novgorod was probably manufactured (1150). All these works are surpassed by the beautiful baptismal font at Hildesheim, the work of an unknown master. Italy has almost nothing to show from this period, except a few bronze doors, which enlighten us to the position of casting in bronze; such are the doors of Barifano of Trani in Ravello (1179), and the doors of Monreale (1189) and of Bonano at Pisa (1180).

E. Gothic metalwork

The Gothic epoch (1250-1500) brought numerous changes and new requirements, also in church metal vessels. In this period the feast of Corpus Christi was first introduced (1312), and thereby a new metal vessel, the monstrance or ostensory, made necessary. For this purpose a vessel was employed like those which up to that time had been in general use for exhibiting relics. Another vessel, which came into use at this time and upon whose manufacture great stress was laid, is the "pax", or "osculatorium" ( instrumentum pacis ). The growing veneration of saints and relics required an increase of reliquaries. One of the results of this was that these were no longer made as large and costly as in the Romanesque epoch. Combined with this was the striving for constantly new forms of reliquaries, among which busts in particular now became very popular. The early Gothic altars with double folds or wings became in fact small galleries of busts of the saints. The number of cast statues of the saints and of the Blessed Virgin also increases very considerably from the fourteenth century. The material as well as the technique and decoration of the works of the goldsmith again experience a change. Copper, which has been almost a necessity for the bulky Romanesque reliquaries, now gives way to silver; this is employed especially for the figures in relief which were then much used, and which served more frequently than in the Romanesque period as statuettes for the decoration of shrines.

Very intimately connected with this change of material was an alternation in the mode of ornamentation. The champlevé enamel had lost its power of attraction, and indeed it could not very well be used upon the thin sheets of silver translucent enamel therefore took its place; this was applied by cutting the relief-like representation in the silver ground and pouring a transparent enamel over the relief, so that the different parts according as they are higher or lower produce the effect of light and shade in their various gradations. Siena has long been regarded as the starting point of this new mode of ornamentation, because a chalice in Assisi made by the Sienese Guccio Manaja about 1290 is the oldest example of this process. From Italy it early spread to Germany, where it flourished especially on the Upper Rhine, and to France.

The features of the religious metalwork of this age that more than any other distinguish it from the earlier productions are the superstructure and construction; the same difference prevails as between a Romanesque and a Gothic church. The ponderous Romanesque style is replaced by a pleasing lightness and mobility of form. However in the art of metalworking as in the other arts we must carefully distinguish within this period between the early Gothic work and the late Gothic. Only the early Gothic work may be described as possessing so to say, an aristocratic character, a certain ideal striving after the sublime; like the fairest period of chivalry, however, this striving lasts but a short time ; it soon gives way to the homely and real actuality. The late Gothic metalwork throughout lacks the idealism of the early Gothic. This likewise is connected with the cultural development. The common people, who had grown in power, took pride, as the nobility had done before, in securing for themselves a lasting memorial by means of religious foundations and presents to churches. To dedicate magnificent, artistically executed works, however, their means were in many cases insufficient, thus giving rise to many works in metal of poor workmanship, especially chalices, monstrances, and reliquaries. So far as lightness of the structure in particular is concerned, this peculiarity is again best recognized in the reliquary and also in the monstrance. Very frequently since the fourteenth century the form chosen is that of two angels kneeling upon a base-plate and supporting the reliquary, sometimes holding it in a horizontal position as a casket, sometimes vertically as a tower. In Germany there are two excellent examples of this inverted position, two reliquaries in the cathedral treasures of Aachen which are constructed in the form of chapels with towers abounding in openwork, and are borne by saints. Reliquaries in general assumed the form of churches in miniature; gabled hood-mouldings, pinnacles, finials, crockets, rampant arches and buttresses, in short the whole architectural scaffolding of the early Gothic cathedral are found in the shrines, of which the most important is the reliquary of St. Gertrude in Nivelles, the work of Nicholas in Douai and Jacquemon de Nivelles (1295). The same is true of the remaining works in metal.

The architectural ornaments forced themselves also upon articles on which we would not expect them; thus the knob (nodus) of the chalice often became a small chapel with many sharp corners and edges making the handling of the chalice more difficult. Likewise, the popular plastic figures were placed upon articles of use that require a heavy formation, such as book-covers. A beautiful silver book-cover from the Benedictine convent of St. Blasien in the Black Forest is studded in this way with numerous figures of saints ; they are found even upon the smaller articles of use, as upon a cloak-clasp in the cathedral of Aachen. The manufacture of the religious works is taken more and more out of the hands of the monks and clerics, who now furnish only the ideas, and gradually passes altogether into the hands of the lay goldsmiths. By this statement of course we do not wish to imply that there were not individual artists still active in the convents, for that remains true even to the present day, but for the development of an entire period they are of no moment.

Among the few works of France, that have been preserved, the so-called "golden horse of Altötting" attained great fame; it is a half-worldly, half-religious ornament representing the veneration of the Madonna by King Charles VI, whose horse in the lower part of the picture is held by a squire (1404). In Germany we can find no evidence of such exactly defined schools of art as in the Romanesque age; the works still in existence are exceedingly numerous, especially busts of saints and chalices. In contrast with the preceding epochs Italy now took a pronounced lead in the execution of artistic metalwork for the Church ; the Italian works are compact, they favour a strong substructure, which permits the application of the favourite translucent enamel; there is evident also a tendency to excessive ornamentation, whereby the fixed forms are almost suffocated. Among the schools of Italy Siena was at first pre-eminent; from this city the goldsmith Boninsegna was called to Venice in 1345 to make repairs there to the Pala d'Oro of St. Mark's. Sienese masters also began in 1287 the silver altar in the cathedral at Pistoia, which was finally completed in 1399 by Florentine goldsmiths and is the largest piece of work of this kind. The masterpiece of the Florentine school, the silver altar of the baptistery, was begun in 1366 by Leonardo di Ser Giovanna and Berto di Geri; this too was not completed until one hundred years later, when the Renaissance had already fully entered into Italian art.

Bronze casting also continued to produce numerous works for the service of the Church. North Germany and the Netherlands (Dinant) were most prominently active in this field. Here we must mention first of all the numerous baptismal fonts of bronze, which are decorated on their outer sheathing with representations in relief and architectural ornament, next the seven-armed candelabra, door-knobs, water-vessels ( aquamanile ), lecterns, especially the beautiful eagle-lecterns. In Germany the names of many of the masters have been handed down; in Wittenberg, Wilkin (1342), in Elbing, Bernhuser, and in Lubeck and Kiel, Hans Apengeter. Lastly mention should be made of the bells which were also cast in bronze. While Germany distinguished itself by its religious works cast in bronze, it was surpassed by France in another branch of the metalworker's art. Here in the beginning of the thirteenth century the art of the smith passed through its first period of full vigour. At that time, thanks to the highly developed technical processes, France produced metalwork for the doors of churches such as has never been produced since. Germany, England, and the Netherlands felt the favourable influence of the French art, which produced its magnificent works on the cathedrals at Rouen, Sens, Noyon and especially on the cathedral at Paris. Here every wing of the folding doors has three iron bands, that serve also as hinges, divided into a thousand branches and decorated with birds of every kind and fantastic creatures. In addition to the metalwork of the doors the blacksmith furnished the Church with artistic chandeliers, railings, pedestals for the Easter candle, lamps, and lecterns. The first place in the manufacture of artistic railings undoubtedly belongs to Italy, where the high perfection attained by the art of the Italian blacksmiths may best be seen in Florence (Sta Croce), Verona, and Siena.

III. RENAISSANCE

While the religious metalwork in the Gothic style had increased in quantity often at the expense of quality, a decided retrogression in respect to quantity is noticeable during the Renaissance. This is especially true of Germany. The distressing religious agitations, the defection of many of the faithful from the old religion and the increasing indifference to religious faith had the effect of reducing the production of articles for church use to very small proportions. In Italy, it is true, we know the names of numerous artist goldsmiths -- there are about 1000 of them -- but there also the number of religious works of the Renaissance is very small. At the head of the new movement in metalwork for the Church we find the most distinguished sculptors, in fact the leading masters of the Renaissance preferred to execute their work in metal (bronze); we need mention here only the names of Ghiberti and Donatello, the former the creator of the famous bronze doors of the baptistery at Florence, the latter the maker of the high altar in bronze in II Santo at Padua as these works however belong to the domain of sculpture we must leave them out of consideration here.

The changes in style follow the course of the general evolution in art. The vertical forms of the Gothic style give way to the horizontal tendency, the forms become more vigorous and compact, the vessels acquire a more flexible silhouette. However, the early Renaissance left the forms of the commonest vessels, the chalices and crosses, almost untouched, inasmuch as the tradition of a thousand years made them appear sacred; we have numerous chalices of the Renaissance the base of which shows the Moorish and Gothic foils and the knob, the Gothic rotuli. Not until the late Renaissance were the circular forms and volutes generally employed. In other respects the customary Renaissance ornaments, which are by no means the least charm of this style, are employed in ecclesiastical and worldly articles indifferently. Putti, hermae, caryatides, garlands, grotesques, acanthus leaves, furthermore the elements taken from architecture, such as columns, pillars, capitals, entablatures, balusters form an inexhaustible source of constant change.

Silver during the Renaissance no longer maintains the position it won for itself during the Gothic period. Several distinguished religious works in silver have been preserved, but they are far surpassed both numerically and artistically by the works in bronze; the latter are often covered with silver or gold. The artistic ornamentation of both ecclesiastical and secular metalwork consists especially of delicately executed representations in relief, which at first appear in moderation at the more important points, but later presumptuously cover the entire surface. At the same time enamel is very frequently employed, sometimes the previously mentioned translucent enamel, which completely covers the portions in relief with a coloured surface, sometimes also the Venetian enamel, which flourished from about 1500-1550. It was used to coat jugs and bowls, candlesticks, candelabra, and ciboria. Another favourite form of decoration consisted in the combination of metals and crystals this type of decoration occurs during the Middle Ages, but was more systematically and artistically carried out in the Renaissance. The art of gem engraving likewise was again practiced after ancient models upon cameos and gems. The ecclesiastical works of the Renaissance therefore often represent an enormous value. We need mention here only the value of a few papal tiaras. A tiara, which Sixtus IV had made by the Venetian goldsmith Bartolomeo di Tomaso, was valued at 110,000 ducats. Julius II confided to the Milanese jeweller Caradossa the making of a tiara valued at 200,000 ducats (nearly 200,000 dollars). Hardly any works of really marked importance, if we except the previously mentioned altars in Florence and Pistoia, the completion of which falls in this period, have been preserved from the Renaissance. We may again mention a few reliquaries at Siena, which reveal a pronounced change compared with the monumental shrines of the Romanesque and Gothic periods. They are silver caskets with sides in openwork, permitting a view of the relics. The use of crystals is exemplified in a beautiful pax from Monte Cassino (now in Berlin ).

Elsewhere the influence of the Renaissance upon church metalwork was early apparent

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Mâcon, Ancient Diocese of

Ancient Diocese of Macon

(MATISCONENSIS) Located in Burgundy. The city of Mâcon, formerly the capital of the ...
Ménard, Léon

Leon Menard

Writer, b. at Tarrascon, 12 Sept., 1706; d. in Paris, 1 Oct., 1767. When he had completed his ...
Ménard, Nicolas-Hugues

Nicolas-Hugues Menard

Of the Congregation of St. Maur, b. in Paris, 1585; d. 21 Jan., 1644. His father was was private ...
Ménard, René

Rene Menard

Missionary, b. at Paris, 1604, d. about 10 August, 1661, in what is now Wisconsin. After the ...
Méndez and Gualaquiza

Mendez and Gualaquiza

Vicariate Apostolic established by Leo XIII on 3 February, 1893, in the southern part of the ...
Mérida

Merida

(EMERITENSIS IN INDIIS) A suffragan see of Santiago of Venezuela or Caracas, comprises the ...
Mérode, Frédéric-François-Xavier Ghislain de

Frederic-Francois-Xavier Ghislain de Merode

A Belgian prelate and statesman, born at Brussels, 1820; died at Rome, 1874. The son of ...
Mège, Antoine-Joseph

Antoine-Joseph Mege

A Maurist Benedictine, born in 1625 at Clermont ; died 15 April, 1691, at the monastery of St. ...
Möhler, Johann Adam

Johann Adam Moehler

Theologian, b. at Igersheim (Würtemberg), 6 April, 1796; d. at Munich, 12 April, 1838. The ...
Mühlbacher, Engelbert

Engelbert Muehlbacher

An historian, born at Gresten, Austria, 4 Oct., 1843; died at Vienna, 17 July, 1903. He received ...
Müller, Adam Heinrich

Adam Heinrich Mueller

Publicist and political economist , convert, b. at Berlin, 30 June, 1779; d. at Vienna, 17 Jan., ...
Müller, Johann

Johann Mueller

Physiologist and comparative anatomist, b. at Coblenz, 14 July, 1801; d. at Berlin, 28 April, ...
Müller, Johann

Johann Mueller

(Regiomontanus). German astronomer, b. in or near Königsberg, a small town in lower ...
Müller, Karl

Karl Muller

Professor at Düsseldorf, b. at Darmstadt, 29 Oct., 1818; d. at Neuenahr, 15 Aug., 1893, ...
Münch-Bellinghausen, Baron Eligius Franz Joseph von

Baron von Munch-Bellinghausen

(Pseudonym: FRIEDRICH HALM) An Austrian dramatist, born at Cracow, 2 April, 1806; died at ...
Münster

Muenster

D IOCESE OF M ÜNSTER (M ONASTERIENSIS ). Diocese in the Prussian Province of ...
Münster, University of

University of Muenster

The town of Münster in Westphalia obtained its university in 1771 through the initiative ...
Müntz, Eugène

Eugene Muentz

French savant and historian; b. at Soulz-sous--Forêts, near Mülhausen, Alsace, 11 ...
Maassen, Friedrich Bernard Christian

Friedrich Bernard Christian Maassen

Professor of law, born 24 September, 1823, at Wismar (Mecklenburg); died 9 April, 1900, at ...
Mabillon, Jean

Jean Mabillon

Benedictine monk of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Saint-Pierremont between Mouzon and ...
Mabinogion

Mabinogion

A collection of medieval Welsh tales in prose. The word is a derivation of the mab , "son", ...
Macao

Macao

(MACAOENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Goa, founded 23 January, 1575, by the Bull "Super ...
Macarius

Macarius

The name of two celebrated contemporary Nitrian monks of the fourth century: Macarius the ...
Macarius Magnes

Macarius Magnes

A Christian apologist of the end of the fourth century. Some authorities regard the words ...
Macarius of Antioch

Macarius of Antioch

A Patriarch, deposed in 681. Macarius's dignity seems to have been a purely honorary one, for ...
Macarius, Saint

Saint Macarius

Bishop of Jerusalem (312-34). The date of Macarius's accession to the episcopate is found in ...
Maccabee, Judas

Judas Machabeus

Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the ...
Maccabees, The

The Machabees

(Greek Hoi Makkabaioi ; Latin Machabei ; most probably from Aramaic maqqaba ="hammer"). ...
Maccabees, The Books of

The Books of Machabees

The title of four books, of which the first and second only are regarded by the Church as ...
MacCaghwell, Hugh

Hugh MacCaghwell

(Cavellus). Archbishop and theologian, born at Saul, Co. Down, 1571; died 22 September, 1626. He ...
MacCarthy, Bartholomew

Bartholomew MacCarthy

Irish scholar and chronologist, b. at Conna, Ballynoe, Co. Cork, 12 Dec., 1843; d. at ...
MacCarthy, Denis Florence

Dennis Florence MacCarthy

Well-known Irish poet of the nineteenth century, born in Lower O'Connell Street, Dublin, 26 ...
MacCarthy, Nicholas Tuite

Nicholas Tuite MacCarthy

Called the Abbé de Lévignac, born in Dublin on 19 May, 1769; died at Annécy, ...
MacCuilenan, Cormac

Cormac MacCuilenan

(836-908). An Irish bishop and King of Cashel, Cormac MacCquilenan was of the race of ...
MacDonald, John

John MacDonald

Laird of Glenaladale and Glenfinnan, philanthropist, colonizer, soldier, born in Glenaladale, ...
MacDonell, Alexander

Alexander MacDonell

First Bishop of Kingston, Ontario, Canada, b. 17 July 1760, at Inchlaggan in Glengarry, ...
Mace

Mace

(1) A short, richly ornamented staff, often made of silver, the upper part furnished with a knob ...
Macedo, Francisco

Francisco Macedo

Known as a S. Augustino, O.F.M., theologian, born at Coimbra, Portugal, 1596; he entered the ...
Macedonians

Pneumatomachi

(Macedonians) A heretical sect which flourished in the countries adjacent to the Hellespont ...
Macerata and Tolentino

Macerata and Tolentino

Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...
MacFarland, Francis Patrick

Francis Patrick McFarland

Third Bishop of Hartford born at Franklin, Pennsylvania, 16 April, 1819; died at Hartford, ...
MacGeoghegan, James

James MacGeoghegan

Born at Uisneach, Westmeath, Ireland, 1702; died at Paris, 1763. He came of a long family long ...
Machabees, The

The Machabees

(Greek Hoi Makkabaioi ; Latin Machabei ; most probably from Aramaic maqqaba ="hammer"). ...
Machabees, The Books of

The Books of Machabees

The title of four books, of which the first and second only are regarded by the Church as ...
Machabeus, Judas

Judas Machabeus

Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the ...
MacHale, John

John MacHale

Born March 6, 1791 at Tubbernavine, Co. Mayo, Ireland ; died at Tuam, November 4, 1881. He ...
Machiavelli

Nicolo Machiavelli

Historian and statesman, b. at Florence, 3 May, 1469; d. there, 22 June, 1527. His family is ...
Machpelah

Machpelah

The burial-place in the vicinity of ancient Hebron which Abraham bought from Ephron the Hethite ...
Machutus, Saint

St. Machutus

(Maclovius; Malo). Born about the year 520 probably in Wales and baptized by St. Brendan . ...
Mackenzie

Mackenzie

This vicariate which was detached from the Athabaska-Mackenzie Vicariate in 1901 and intrusted to ...
Maclovius, Saint

St. Machutus

(Maclovius; Malo). Born about the year 520 probably in Wales and baptized by St. Brendan . ...
MacMahon, Heber

Heber MacMahon

( Also EMER or EVER). Bishop of Clogher, Ireland, and patriotic leader, born at Farney, ...
MacMahon, Marie-Edmé-Patrice-Maurice de

Marie-Edme-Patrice-Maurice de MacMahon

Duc de Magenta, Marshal of France, President of the French Republic; born at Sully, ...
MacNeven, William James

William James MacNeven

Distinguished Irish-American physician and medical educator, b. at Ballynahowna, near Aughrim, ...
Macri

Macri

(or MACRAS?) A titular see in Mauretania Sitifiensis. This town figures only in the "Notitia ...
Macrina the Elder, Saint

St. Macrina the Elder

Our knowledge of the life of the elder Macrina is derived mainly from the testimony of the ...
Macrina the Younger, Saint

St. Macrina the Younger

Born about 330; died 379. She was the eldest child of Basil and Elder Emmelia, the granddaugher of ...
Mactaris

Mactaris

A titular see of the Byzantine Empire. This town is not spoken of by any ancient geographers ...
Madagascar

Madagascar

On the second day of March, 1500, a fleet of thirteen ships, commanded by Pedro Alvarez Cabral, ...
Madaurus

Mandaurus or Madaura

A titular see of Numidia. It was an old Numidian town which, having once belonged to the Kingdom ...
Maderna, Carlo

Carlo Maderna

(1556-1629) known principally by his extension of St. Peter's, at the command of the pope, from ...
Maderno, Stefano

Stefano Maderno

(1576-1636), a sculptor of the Roman School and of the era just preceding Bernini, his ...
Madianites

Madianites (Midianites)

(In Authorized Version M IDIANITES ). An Arabian tribe ( Septuagint Madienaîoi ...
Madras

Madras

(MADRASPATAM; MADRASPATANA) Archdiocese in India. Its area is about 40,350 square miles, and ...
Madrid-Alcalá

Madrid-Alcala

(M ATRITENSIS -A LACHENSIS, or C OMPLUTENSUS : Complutum being the name given by the Romans ...
Madruzzi, Christopher

Christopher Madruzzi

Born of a noble family of Trent, 5 July, 1512; died at Tivoli, Italy, 5 July, 1578. He studied ...
Madura Mission

Madura Mission

As shown in the "Atlas Geographicus S.J.", the ancient Jesuit missions in India under the ...
Maedoc, Saint

Saint Maedoc

(MOEDHOG, MOGUE, ÆDDAN FOEDDOG, AIDUS, HUGH) First Bishop of Ferns, in Wexford, b. ...
Maelruan, Saint

St. Maelruan

(Maolruain, Melruan, Molruan). Founder and first Abbot of Tamalcht (Tallacht), in the County of ...
Maelrubha, Saint

Saint Maelrubha

(MA-RUI, MOLROY, ERREW, SUMMARYRUFF, also SAGART-RUADH) An abbot and martyr, founder of ...
Maerlant, Jacob van

Jacob van Maerlant

The greatest Flemish poet of the Middle Ages, b. about 1235; d. after 1291. Of his life little ...
Maestro di Camera del Papa

Maestro di Camera Del Papa

In former times there were four so-called palace prelates ( prelati palatini ): the Major ...
Maffei, Bernardino

Bernardino Maffei

Poet, orator, and antiquarian, b. at Bergamo, 27 Jan., 1514; d. at Rome, 1 Aug., 1549. He studied ...
Maffei, Francesco

Francesco Maffei

Italian painter, b. at Vicenza ; d. at Padua, 1660. His influence upon the art of his own and ...
Maffei, Marchese Francesco Scipione

Marchese Francesco Scipione Maffei

Italian littérateur and archaeologist, b. at Verona, 1 June, 1675; d. there, 11 Feb., ...
Maffei, Raffaelo

Raffaelo Maffei

Humanist, historian and theologian, b. 17 February, 1451; d. 25 January, 1522. He was a native of ...
Magaud, Antoine-Dominique

Antoine-Dominique Magaud

French painter, b. at Marseilles 1817; d. there, 1899. He studied in Paris under Léon ...
Magdala

Magdala

( Hebrew Migdal = tower, fortress; Aramaic Magdala ; Greek Magdala ). It is perhaps the ...
Magdalens

Magdalens

The members of certain religious communities of penitent women who desired to reform their ...
Magdeburg

Magdeburg

Capital of the Prussian Province of Saxony, situated on the Elbe; pop. 241,000; it is noted for ...
Mageddo

Mageddo

Chanaanite city, called in Hebrew, Megiddo ; in Septuagint, Mageddó(n) ; in ...
Magellan, Ferdinand

Ferdinand Magellan

(Portuguese Fernão Magalhaes ). The first circumnavigator of the real world; born ...
Magi

Magi

(Plural of Latin magus ; Greek magoi ). The "wise men from the East" who came to adore ...
Magin Catalá

Magin Catala

Born at Montblanch, Catalonia, Spain, 29 or 30 January, 1761; died at Santa Clara, California, ...
Maginn, Edward

Edward Maginn

Coadjutor Bishop of Derry, b. at Fintona, Ireland, 16 Dec., 1802; d. at Derry, 17 January, ...
Magisterium and Tradition

Tradition and Living Magisterium

The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...
Magistris, Simone de

Simone de Magistris

Born in 1728; died 6 October, 1802; a priest of the Oratorio di S. Filippo Neri, at Rome, whom ...
Magliabechi, Antonio

Antonio Magliabechi

Italian scholar and librarian, b. 20 Oct., 1633, at Florence ; d. there, 4 July, 1714. He was ...
Magna Carta

Magna Carta

The charter of liberties granted by King John of England in 1215 and confirmed with ...
Magnesia

Magnesia

A titular see in Lydia, suffragan of Ephesus, lying about 40 miles north-east of Smyrna and ...
Magnien, Alphonse

Alphonse Magnien

An educator of the clergy, born at Bleymard, in the Diocese of Mende , France, 9 June, 1837; ...
Magnificat

Magnificat

The title commonly given to the Latin text and vernacular translation of the Canticle (or Song) ...
Magnus, Olaus

Olaus Magnus

Swedish historian and geographer, b. at Skeninge, Sweden, 1490; d. at Rome, 1 Aug., 1558 [or ...
Magnus, Saint

Saint Magnus

(MAGNOALDUS, MAGINALDUS, popularly known as ST. MANG) An apostle of the Algäu, d. about ...
Magnus, Valerianus

Valerianus Magnus

(M AGNI ) Born at Milan, 1586, presumably of the noble family of de Magni; died at ...
Magrath, John Macrory

John Macrory Magrath

Born in Munster, Ireland, in the fifteenth century; date and place of death unknown. Like many ...
Magydus

Magydus

A titular see of Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perga. It was a small town with no history, on ...
Mahony, Ven. Charles

Venerable Charles Mahony

Irish Franciscan martyr ; b. after 1639; d. at Ruthin, Denbighshire, 12 August, 1679. The British ...
Mai, Angelo

Angelo Mai

Roman cardinal and celebrated philologist, b. at Schilpario, in the Diocese of Bergamo, 7 March ...
Maignan, Emmanuel

Emmanuel Maignan

French physicist and theologian ; b. at Toulouse, 17 July, 1601; d. at Toulouse, 29 October, ...
Mailla, Joseph-Anna-Marie de Moyria de

Joseph-Anna-Marie de Moyria de Mailla

Jesuit missionary; b. 16 Dec., 1669, at Château Maillac on the Isère; d. 28 June, ...
Maillard, Antoine-Simon

Antoine-Simon Maillard

Missionary b. in France (parentage, place and date of birth unknown); d. 12 August, 1762. He ...
Maillard, Oliver

Oliver Maillard

Celebrated preacher, b. at Juignac, (?), Brittany, about 1430; d. at Toulouse, 22 July, 1502. He ...
Maimbourg, Louis

Louis Maimbourg

French church historian, b. at Nancy, 10 January, 1610; d. at Paris, 13 August, 1686. In 1626 he ...
Maimonides, Teaching of Moses

Teaching of Moses Maimonides

Moses ben Maimun (Arabic, Abu Amran Musa), Jewish commentator and philosopher, was born of ...
Maina Indians

Maina Indians

(Also M AYNA ) A group of tribes constituting a distinct linguistic stock, the Mainan, ...
Maine

Maine

Maine is commonly known as the Pine Tree State, but is sometimes called the Star in the East. ...
Maine de Biran, François-Pierre-Gonthier

Maine de Biran

A philosopher ; born at Grateloup near Bergerac, Dordogne, France, 29 November, 1766; died at ...
Maintenon, Françoise, Marquise de

Marquise de Maintenon

Born at Niort, 28 November 1635; died at Saint-Cyr, 15 April 1719. She was the granddaughter of ...
Mainz

Mainz

German town and bishopric in Hesse [now Rhineland-Palatine -- Ed. ]; formerly the seat of an ...
Maipure Indians

Maipure Indians

(Maypure) A former important group of tribes on the Upper Orinoco River, from above the Meta ...
Maisonneuve, Paul de Chomedey de

Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve

Founder of Montreal, b. in Champagne, France, early in the seventeenth century; d. in Paris, 9 ...
Maistre, Joseph-Marie, Comte de

Comte de Maistre

French philosophical writer, b. at Chambéry, in Savoy, in 1753, when Savoy did not ...
Maistre, Xavier de

Xavier de Maistre

French romance writer, younger brother of Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre , b. at Chambery, ...
Maitland

Maitland

(MAITLANDENSIS) Located in New South Wales. Maitland, the principal settlement on Hunter ...
Majano, Benedetto da

Benedetto Da Majano

A well-known Florentine sculptor and architect of the Renaissance, b. at Majano, Tuscany. ...
Majella, St. Gerard

St. Gerard Majella

Born in Muro, about fifty miles south of Naples, in April, 1726; died 16 October, 1755; ...
Majorca and Iviza

Majorca and Iviza

(MAJORICENSIS ET IBUSENSIS) A suffragan of Valencia, with the episcopal residence at Palma on ...
Majordomo

Majordomo

(Latin, Major domus ; Italian, Maggiordomo ). The majordomo or chief steward of the ...
Majority

Majority

( Latin majoritas ) Majority, the state of a person or thing greater, or superior, in ...
Majunke, Paul

Paul Majunke

Catholic journalist, born at Gross-Schmograu in Silesia, 14 July, 1842; died at Hochkirch near ...
Malabar

Malabar

In its narrower application Malabar was the name of a district of India stretching about 145 ...
Malabar Rites

Malabar Rites

A conventional term for certain customs or practices of the natives of South India, which the ...
Malacca

Malacca

(Malacensis) The Diocese of Malacca comprises the southern portions of the Malay Peninsula, ...
Malachias

Malachias

( Hebrew Mál'akhî ), one of the twelve minor prophets. I. PERSONAGE AND NAME It ...
Malachy, Saint

St. Malachy

St. Malachy, whose family name was O'Morgair, was born in Armagh in 1094. St. Bernard describes ...
Malaga

Malaga

Diocese of Malaga (Malacitana). Diocese in Spain, by the Concordat of 1851 made a suffragan ...
Malagrida, Gabriel

Gabriel Malagrida

A Jesuit missionary to Brazil, b. 18 September or 6 December, 1689, at Menaggio, in Italy ; ...
Malatesta, House of

House of Malatesta

The name of an Italian family prominent in the history of the fourteenth and fifteenth ...
Malchus

Malchus

(Málchos). Greek form of M ALLUCH (i.e. counsellor), a name common in the Semitic ...
Maldonado, Juan

Juan Maldonado

(MALDONATUS) A theologian and exegete, b. in 1533 at Casas de Reina, in the district of ...
Malebranche, Nicolas

Nicolas Malebranche

A philosopher and theologian, priest of the Oratory of St. Philip Neri ; b. at Paris, 6 ...
Malediction (in Scripture)

Malediction

Four principal words are rendered maledictio in the Vulgate, "curse" in Douay Version : (1) ...
Malherbe, François

Francois Malherbe

French poet, b. at Caen, Normandy, in 1555; d. at Paris, 16 October, 1628. He was the eldest son ...
Maliseet Indians

Maliseet Indians

Also MALECITE, MALESCHITE and AMALECITE, the last being the official Canadian form. A tribe ...
Mallard, Ernest-François

Ernest-Francois Mallard

A French mineralogist, b. 4 February, 1833, at Châteauneuf-sur-Cher; d. 6 July, 1894, in ...
Mallinckrodt, Herman von

Herman von Mallinckrodt

German parliamentarian; born 5 Feb., 1821, at Minden, Westphalia ; died 26 May, 1874, at Berlin. ...
Mallinckrodt, Pauline

Pauline Mallinckrodt

A sister of the Catholic political leader Hermann Mallinckrodt , and foundress of the Sisters ...
Malling Abbey

Malling Abbey

An abbey of Benedictine nuns, at West Malling in the County of Kent, England. The earliest ...
Mallory, Stephen Russell

Stephen Russell Mallory

An American statesman; born in the Island of Trinidad, W. I., 1813; died at Pensacola, Florida, ...
Mallus

Mallus

A titular see of Cilicia Prima, suffragan of Tarsus. According to legend, Mallus founded by ...
Malmesbury

Malmesbury

A small decayed market town in Wiltshire, England, ninety-five miles west of London, formerly the ...
Malmesbury, The Monk of

The Monk of Malmesbury

Supposed author of a chronicle among the Cottonian manuscripts in the British Museum (Vesp. D. ...
Malo, Saint

St. Machutus

(Maclovius; Malo). Born about the year 520 probably in Wales and baptized by St. Brendan . ...
Malone, William

William Malone

Jesuit missioner and writer; born according to the best authorities, in 1585; died at Seville, ...
Malory, Sir Thomas

Sir Thomas Malory

Of Malory no single biographical statement is beyond conjecture save that he was a knight, that ...
Malpighi, Marcello

Marcello Malpighi

Founder of comparative physiology, b. at Crevalcore, 10 March, 1628; d. at Rome, 29 Sept., 1694. ...
Malta

Malta

The group of Maltese islands, including Malta (91.5 sq. m.), Gozo (24 3/4 sq. m.), Comine (1 sq. ...
Malta, Knights of

Knights of Malta

(Also known as K NIGHTS OF M ALTA ). The most important of all the military orders, both ...
Maltret, Claude

Claude Maltret

(Or M ALTRAIT ) French Jesuit, b. at Puy, 3 Oct., 1621; d. Toulouse, 3 Jan., 1674. He entered ...
Malvenda, Thomas

Thomas Malvenda

An exegete and historical critic, b. at Jativa, Valencia, 1566; d. 7 May, 1628. He entered the ...
Malvern

Malvern

Located in Worcestershire, England, a district covered by a lofty range between the Severn and ...
Mamachi, Thomas Maria

Thomas Maria Mamachi

Dominican theologian and historian, born at Chios in the Archipelago, 4 December, 1713; died at ...
Mame, Alfred-Henri-Amand

Alfred-Henri-Amand-Mame

Printer and publisher, b. at Tours, 17 Aug., 1811; d. at Tours, 12 April, 1893. The founder ...
Mameluco

Mameluco

(From the Arabic, memluk , "slave", the household cavalry of the former sultans of Egypt, ...
Mamertine Prison

Mamertine Prison

The so-called "Mamertine Prison ", beneath the church of S. Giuseppe dei Falegnami, via di ...
Mamertus, Claudianus

Claudianus Mamertus

(The name Ecdicius is unauthorized). A Gallo-Roman theologian and the brother of St. ...
Mamertus, Saint

St. Mamertus

Bishop of Vienne, date of birth unknown; died shortly after 475. Concerning the life of ...
Mammon

Mammon

Mamona ; the spelling Mammona is contrary to the textual evidence and seems not to occur in ...
Man

Man

(Anglo-Saxon man =a person, human being; supposed root man =to think; German, Mann , ...
Manahem

Manahem

(From a Hebrew meaning "the consoler"; Septuagint, Manaem ; Aquila, Manaen .) Manahem ...
Manahen, Saint

St. Manahen

( Manaen ) A member of the Church of Antioch , foster-brother, or household-friend ( ...
Manasses

Manasses

The name of seven persons of the Bible , a tribe of Israel , and one of the apocryphal ...
Mance, Jeanne

Jeanne Mance

Foundress of the Montreal Hôtel-Dieu, and one of the first women settlers in Canada, b. ...
Manchester

Manchester

(MANCHESTERIENSIS) A suffragan of the Archdiocese of Boston, U.S.A. The city of Manchester is ...
Manchuria

Manchuria

A north-eastern division of the Chinese Empire and the cradle of the present [1910] imperial ...
Mandan Indians

Mandan Indians

A formerly important, but now reduced, tribe occupying jointly with the Hidatsa (Minitari or ...
Mandeville, Jean de

Jean de Mandeville

(MAUNDEVILLE, MONTEVILLA) The author of a book of travels much read in the Middle Ages, died ...
Manfredonia

Manfredonia

(SIPONTINA) The city of Manfredonia is situated in the province of Foggia in Apulia, Central ...
Mangalore

Mangalore

(M ANGALORENSIS ) Diocese on the west coast of India, suffragan of Bombay. It comprises the ...
Mangan, James Clarence

James Clarence Mangan

Irish poet, b. in Dublin, 1 May, 1803; d. there, 20 June, 1849. He was the son of James Mangan, ...
Manharter

Manharter

A politico-religious sect which arose in Tyrol in the first half of the nineteenth century. Its ...
Manichæism

Manichaeism

Manichæism is a religion founded by the Persian Mani in the latter half of the third ...
Manifestation of Conscience

Manifestation of Conscience

(RATIO CONSCIENTIÆ) A practice in many religious orders and congregations, by which ...
Manila

Manila

(DE MANILA) This archdiocese comprises the city of Manila, the provinces of Bataan, Bulacan, ...
Manila Observatory

Manila Observatory

Founded by Father Frederic Faura, S.J., in 1865; constituted officially The Philippine Weather ...
Maniple

Maniple

Form, Material, and Use The maniple is an ornamental vestment in the form of a band, a little ...
Manitoba

Manitoba

One of the smallest, but economically and historically one of the most important, of the Canadian ...
Mann, Theodore Augustine

Theodore Augustine Mann

English naturalist and historian, b. in Yorkshire, 22 June, 1735; d. at Prague in Bohemia, 23 ...
Manna

Manna

(Greek man, manna ; Latin man, manna ). The food miraculously sent to the Israelites ...
Manning, Henry Edward

Henry Edward Cardinal Manning

Cardinal Priest of Sts. Andrew and Gregory on the Coelian Hill and second Archbishop of ...
Mannyng, Robert

Robert Mannyng of Brunne

Poet. He came from Bourne in Lincolnshire, England. From his own account he entered the house of ...
Mansard, François

Francois Mansard

(Also spelled Mansart ). French architect, born in Paris, probably of Italian stock, in ...
Mansard, Jules

Jules Mansard

French architect, grand-nephew of François, was originally Jules Hardouin, but took the ...
Mansi, Gian Domenico

Gian Domenico Mansi

Italian prelate and scholar born at Lucca, of a patrician family, 16 February, 1692; died ...
Mantegna, Andrea

Andrea Mantegna

Italian painter ; born according to some authorities, at Vicenza, according to others at ...
Mantelletta

Mantelletta

An outer vestment reaching to the knees, open in front, with slits instead of sleeves on the ...
Mantua

Mantua

Diocese of Mantua (Mantuana), in Lombardy. The city is situated on the Mincio River, which ...
Mantuanus, Baptista

Blessed Baptista Mantuanus

(Or SPAGNOLI). Carmelite and Renaissance poet, born at Mantua, 17 April, 1447, where he also ...
Manu, The Laws of

The Laws of Manu

"The Laws of Manu" is the English designation commonly applied to the "Manava Dharma-sastra", a ...
Manuel Chysoloras

Manuel Chysoloras

First teacher of Greek in Italy, born at Constantinople about the middle of the fourteenth ...
Manuscripts

Manuscripts

Every book written by hand on flexible material and intended to be placed in a library is called ...
Manuscripts of the Bible

Manuscripts of the Bible

Manuscripts are written, as opposed to printed, copies of the original text or of a version ...
Manuscripts, Illuminated

Illuminated Manuscripts

I. ORIGIN A large number of manuscripts are covered with painted ornaments which may be ...
Manuterge

Manuterge

The name given to the towel used by the priest when engaged liturgically. There are two kinds of ...
Manutius, Aldus

Aldus Manutius

(Aldo Manuzio). Scholar and printer; born in 1450, at Sermoneta, near Rome ; died in 1515. He ...
Manzoni, Alessandro

Alessandro Manzoni

Italian poet and novelist, b. at Milan, 7 March, 1785; d. 22 May, 1873. He was the son of Pietro ...
Map, Walter

Walter Map

(Sometimes wrongly written M APS ) Archdeacon of Oxford, b. at, or in the vicinity of, ...
Maphrian

Maphrian

The Syriac word mafriano signifies one who fructifies, a consecrator. It is used to designate ...
Maréchal, Ambrose

Ambrose Marechal

The third Archbishop of Baltimore ; born at Ingres near Orléans, France, 28 August, ...
Maran, Prudentius

Prudentius Maran

A learned Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. 14 October, 1683, at Sezanne, in the ...
Marash

Marash

An Armenian Catholic Diocese. The ancient name of this village was most probably Germanicia, ...
Maratta, Carlo

Carlo Maratta

An Italian painter, b. at Camerino, in the Rome, 15 December, 1713. From very early years ...
Marbodius

Marbodius

Bishop of Rennes, ecclesiastical writer and hymnologist, b. about 1035 at Angers, France, d. ...
Marca, Pierre de

Pierre de Marca

French bishop and scholar, b. at Gan in Béarn, 24 Jan., 1594, of a family distinguished ...
Marcellian and Mark, Saints

Sts. Mark and Marcellian

Martyred at Rome under Diocletian towards the end of the third century, most likely in 286. ...
Marcellina, Saint

Saint Marcellina

The only sister of St. Ambrose of Milan , b. about 330-5; d. about 398. She was older than St. ...
Marcellinus Comes

Marcellinus Comes

Latin chronicler of the sixth century. He was an Illyrian by birth, but spent his life at the ...
Marcellinus of Civezza, O.F.M.

Marcellinus of Civezza

(In the world PITRO RANISE) Modern Franciscan author, born at Civezza in Liguria, Italy, 29 ...
Marcellinus, Flavius

Flavius Marcellinus

Date of birth unknown; died 12 September, 413. He was a high official ( tribunus et notarius ) ...
Marcellinus, Pope

Pope St. Marcellinus

Date of birth unknown; elected 30 June, 296; died 304. According to the "Liber Pontificalis" he ...
Marcello, Benedetto

Benedetto Marcello

Born in Venice in 1696; died at Brescia in July, 1739. Marcello's life was a strange mixture of ...
Marcellus I, Saint, Pope

Pope St. Marcellus I

His date of birth unknown; elected pope in May or June, 308; died in 309. For some time after ...
Marcellus II, Pope

Pope Marcellus II

(MARCELLO CERVINI DEGLI SPANNOCHI) Born 6 May, 1501, at Montepulciano in Tuscany ; died 6 ...
Marcellus of Ancyra

Marcellus of Ancyra

One of the bishops present at the Councils of Ancyra and of Nicaea, a strong opponent of ...
March, Auzias

Auzias March

A Catalan poet, b. perhaps in the last quarter of the fourteenth century, at Valencia ; d. there ...
Marchand, Jean Baptiste

Jean Baptiste Marchand

Second principal in order of succession of the Sulpician College of Montreal and missionary of ...
Marchant, Peter

Peter Marchant

A theologian, b. at Couvin, a village in the principality of Liège, in 1585; d. at ...
Marchesi, Pompeo

Pompeo Marchesi

A Lombard sculptor of the neoclassic school, born at Saltrio, near Milan, 7 August, 1790; ...
Marchi, Giuseppe

Giuseppe Marchi

An archeologist, born at Tolmezzo near Udine, 22 Feb., 1795; died at Rome, 10 Feb., 1860. He ...
Marcian

Marcian

(M ARCIANUS, Markiânos ) Roman Emperor at Constantinople, b. in Thrace about 390; d. ...
Marciane

Marciane

A titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra. It figures in the "Notitiae episcopatuum" from ...
Marcianopolis

Marcianopolis

A titular see in Lower Maesia, on the right bank of the Danube, so called by Trajan after his ...
Marcionites

Marcionites

Heretical sect founded in A.D. 144 at Rome by Marcion and continuing in the West for 300 ...
Marco Polo

Marco Polo

Traveller; born at Venice in 1251; died there in 1324. His father Nicolo and his uncle Matteo, ...
Marcopois

Marcopolis

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Edessa. The native name of this city is not known, ...
Marcosians

Marcosians

A sect of Valentinian Gnostics, founded by Marcus and combated at length by Irenaeus (Haer. ...
Marcoux, Joseph

Joseph Marcoux

A missionary among the Iroquois, b. in Canada, 16 March, 1791; d. there 29 May, 1855. He was ...
Marcus

Marcus

The name of three leading Gnostics. I. The founder of the Marcosians and elder contemporary ...
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus

Roman Emperor, A.D. 161-180, born at Rome, 26 April, 121; died 17 March, 180. HIS EARLY LIFE ...
Marcus Diadochus

Marcus Diadochus

( Markos ho diadochos ) An obscure writer of the fourth century of whom nothing is known but ...
Marcus Eremita

Marcus Eremita

( Markos ho eremites , or monachos , or asketes ). A theologian and ascetic writer ...
Marcus, Pope Saint

Pope St. Mark

Date of birth unknown; consecrated 18 Jan., 336; d. 7 Oct., 336. After the death of Pope ...
Mardin

Mardin

A residential Armenian archbishopric, a Chaldean bishopric, and a residential Syrian bishopric ...
Marenco

Carlo and Leopoldo Marenco

(1) Carlo Italian dramatist, born at Cassolo (or Cassolnuovo) in Piedmont in 1800; died at ...
Marenzio, Luca

Luca Marenzio

Musical composer, born in 1550 at Coccaglia, near Brescia ; died at Rome 1599. His chief legacy ...
Margaret Clitherow, Saint

St. Margaret Clitherow

Martyr, called the "Pearl of York", born about 1556; died 25 March 1586. She was a daughter of ...
Margaret Colona, Blessed

Blessed Margaret Colona

Poor Clare, born in Rome, date uncertain; died there, 20 September, 1284. Her parents died in ...
Margaret Haughery

Margaret Haughery

Margaret Haughery, "the mother of the orphans ", as she was familiarly styled, b. in Cavan, ...
Margaret Mary, Saint

St. Margaret Mary Alacoque

Religious of the Visitation Order. Apostle of the Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, born ...
Margaret of Cortona, Saint

St. Margaret of Cortona

A penitent of the Third Order of St. Francis, born at Laviano in Tuscany in 1247; died at ...
Margaret of Hungary, Blessed

Blessed Margaret of Hungary

Daughter of King Bela I of Hungary and his wife Marie Laskaris, born 1242; died 18 Jan., 1271. ...
Margaret of Lorraine, Blessed

Blessed Margaret of Lorraine

Duchess d'Alencon, religious of the order of Poor Clares, born in 1463 at the castle of ...
Margaret of Savoy, Blessed

Blessed Margaret of Savoy

Marchioness of Montferrat, born at Pignerol in 1382; died at Alba, 23 November, 1464. She was the ...
Margaret of Scotland, Saint

Saint Margaret of Scotland

Born about 1045, died 16 Nov., 1092, was a daughter of Edward "Outremere", or "the Exile", by ...
Margaret of the Blessed Sacrament

Margaret of the Blessed Sacrament

Carmelite nun, b. in Paris, 6 March, 1590; d. there 24 May, 1660. She was the second daughter of ...
Margaret Pole, Blessed

Blessed Margaret Pole

Countess of Salisbury, martyr ; b. at Castle Farley, near Bath, 14 August, 1473; martyred at ...
Margaret, Saint

St. Margaret

Virgin and martyr ; also called M ARINA ; belonged to Pisidian Antioch in Asia Minor, where ...
Margaritae

Margaritae

(DECRETI DECRETORUM DECRETALIUM). The canonists of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries who ...
Margil, Antonio

Antonio Margil

Born at Valencia, Spain, 18 August, 1657; died at Mexico, 6 Aug., 1726. He entered the ...
Margotti, Giacomo

Giacomo Margotti

A Catholic publicist, born 11 May, 1823; died 6 May, 1887. He was a native of San Remo, where ...
Maria de Agreda

Marie de Agreda

(Or, according to her conventual title, Maria of Jesus) A discalced Franciscan nun ; born ...
Maria Theresa

Maria Theresa

Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria, Roman-German Empress, born 1717; died ...
Maria-Laach

Maria-Laach

(Abbatia Beatæ Marle Virginis ad lacum, or Beatæ Marle lacensis) A Benedictine ...
Mariales, Kantes

Kantes Mariales

A Dominican, born about 1580; died at Venice in April, 1660. He was of a noble Venetian ...
Marian Priests

Marian Priests

This term is applied to those English priests who being ordained in or before the reign of ...
Mariana

Mariana

Archdiocese of Mariana (Marianensis). Mariana, situated in the centre of Minas Geraes, the ...
Mariana Islands

Mariana Islands

The Marianas Archipelago (also called the Ladrone Islands) is a chain of fifteen islands in the ...
Mariana, Juan

Juan Mariana

Author and Jesuit, b. at Talavern, Toledo, Spain, probably in April, 1536; d. at Toledo, 16 ...
Mariannhill, Congregation of the Missionaries of

Congregation of the Missionaries of Mariannhill

Mariannhill is located in Natal, near Pinetown, 15 miles from Durban, and 56 from ...
Marianus of Florence

Marianus of Florence

A Friar Minor and historian, born at Florence about the middle of the fifteenth century, exact ...
Marianus Scotus

Marianus Scotus

There were two Irish scholars of this name who attained distinction in the eleventh century. Both ...
Marie Antoinette

Marie Antoinette

Queen of France. Born at Vienna, 2 November, 1755; executed in Paris, 16 October, 1793. She was ...
Marie Christine of Savoy, Blessed

Bl. Marie Christine of Savoy

Born at Cagliari, Sardinia, 14 November, 1812; died at Naples, 31 January, 1836. She was the ...
Marie de France

Marie de France

A French poetess of the twelfth century. She has this trait in common with the other ...
Marie de l'Incarnation, Blessed

Bl. Marie de l'Incarnation

Known also as Madame Acarie, foundress of the French Carmel, born in Paris, 1 February, 1566; died ...
Marie de l'Incarnation, Venerable

Ven. Marie de l'Incarnation

(In the world, MARIE GUYARD). First superior of the Ursulines of Quebec , born at Tours, ...
Marienberg

Marienberg

A Benedictine abbey of the Congregation of St. Joseph near Mals, Tyrol (in Vintschau). The ...
Marignolli, Giovanni de'

Giovanni De' Marignolli

Born at Florence about 1290; place and date of death unknown. When quite a youth he received the ...
Marina

Marina

(DE MARINIS) The name of an ancient and noble family of the Republic of Genoa, distinguished ...
Marina, Saint

St. Margaret

Virgin and martyr ; also called M ARINA ; belonged to Pisidian Antioch in Asia Minor, where ...
Marini, Luigi Gaetano

Luigi Gaetano Marini

A natural philosopher, jurist, historian, archeologist, born at Sant' Orcangelo (pagus ...
Marinus I, Pope

Pope Marinus I

(882-884) There is reason for believing that Marinus I was elected on the very day of the ...
Marinus II, Pope

Pope Marinus II

Reigned 942-946; died in April or May, 946. A Roman, and a cardinal of the title of St. ...
Mariotte, Edme

Edme Mariotte

French physicist, b. at Dijon, France, about 1620; d. at Paris, 12 May, 1684. His residence was ...
Maris, Martha, Audifax, and Abachum, Saints

Sts. Maris, Martha, Audifax, and Abachum

All martyred at Rome in 270. Maris and his wife Martha, who belonged to the Persian nobility, ...
Marisco, Adam de

Adam de Marisco

(or ADAM MARSH) A Franciscan who probably came from the county of Somerset, but the date ...
Mariscotti, Saint Hyacintha

St. Hyacintha Mariscotti

A religious of the Third Order of St. Francis and foundress of the Sacconi; born 1585 of a noble ...
Marius Aventicus, Saint

Marius Aventicus

(Or AVENTICENSIS) Bishop of Avenches (Switzerland) and chronicler, born about 530 in the ...
Marius Maximus, Lucius Perpetuus Aurelianus

Lucius Perpetuus Aurelianus Marius Maximus

Roman historian, lived c. 165-230. No connected account of his life exists, but he is frequently ...
Marius Mercator

Marius Mercator

Ecclesiastical writer, born probably in Northern Africa about 390; died shortly after 451. In 417 ...
Mark and Marcellian, Saints

Sts. Mark and Marcellian

Martyred at Rome under Diocletian towards the end of the third century, most likely in 286. ...
Mark of Lisbon

Mark of Lisbon

(Properly MARCOS DA SILVA). Friar minor, historian, and Bishop of Oporto in Portugal, b. at ...
Mark, Gospel of

Gospel of Mark

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Contents, Selection and Arrangement of ...
Mark, Pope Saint

Pope St. Mark

Date of birth unknown; consecrated 18 Jan., 336; d. 7 Oct., 336. After the death of Pope ...
Mark, Saint

Saint Mark

(Greek Markos , Latin Marcus ). It is assumed in this article that the individual ...
Maroni, Paul

Paul Maroni

Missionary, b. 1 Nov., 1695. He entered the Austrian province of the Jesuits on 27 Oct., 1712, ...
Maronia

Maronia

A titular see in the province of Rhodopis, suffragan of Trajanopolis. The town is an ancient ...
Maronites

Maronites

This article will give first the present state of the Maronite nation and Church ; after which ...
Marquesas Islands

Marquesas Islands

(INSULARUM MARCHESI) Located in Polynesia, includes all the Marquesas Islands, eleven in ...
Marquette (Michigan)

Marquette

(SAULT STE. MARIE and MARQUETTE, MARIANOPOLITANA ET MARQUETTENSIS) The Diocese comprises the ...
Marquette League

Marquette League

A society founded in New York, in May, 1904, by Rev. H.G. Ganss, of Lancaster, Pa., with a ...
Marquette University

Marquette University

Marquette University of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is an outgrowth of Marquette College, which was ...
Marquette, Jacques

Jacques Marquette, S.J.

Jesuit missionary and discoverer of the Mississippi River, b. in 1636, at Laon, a town in north ...
Marriage Banns

Banns of Marriage

(Latin bannum , pl. bann-a,-i from an Old English verb, bannan , to summon). In ...
Marriage, Civil

Civil Marriage

"Marriage", says Bishop, "as distinguished from the agreement to marry and from the act of ...
Marriage, History of

History of Marriage

The word marriage may be taken to denote the action, contract, formality, or ceremony by which ...
Marriage, Mixed

Mixed Marriage

(Latin Matrimonia mixta ). Technically, mixed marriages are those between Catholics and ...
Marriage, Moral and Canonical Aspect of

Moral and Canonical Aspect of Marriage

Marriage is that individual union through which man and woman by their reciprocal rights ...
Marriage, Mystical

Mystical Marriage

In the Old and the New Testament , the love of God for man, and, in particular His relations ...
Marriage, Putative

Putative Marriage

Putative (Latin, putativus supposed) signifies that which is commonly thought, reputed, or ...
Marriage, Ritual of

Ritual of Marriage

The form for the celebration of the Sacrament of Matrimony, as it stands in the "Rituale Romanum" ...
Marriage, Sacrament of

Sacrament of Marriage

That Christian marriage (i.e. marriage between baptized persons ) is really a sacrament of ...
Marriage, Validation of

Validation of Marriage

Validation of marriage may be effected by a simple renewal of consent when its nullity arises ...
Marryat, Florence

Florence Marryat

Novelist and actress, b. 9 July, 1838, at Brighton, England ; d. 27 October 1899, in London, ...
Marseilles

Marseilles

Diocese of Marseilles (Massiliensis), suffragan of Aix, comprises the district of Marseilles in ...
Marshall Islands

Marshall Islands

(Vicariate Apostolic.) These islands, a German possession since 1885, lying in the Pacific ...
Marshall, Thomas William

Thomas and Arthur Marshall

Controversial writer, b. 1818; d. at Surbiton, Surrey, 14 Dec., 1877. He was son of John Marshall, ...
Marsi

Marsi

(MARSORUM.) Diocese in the province of Aquila, Central Italy, with its seat at Pescina. With ...
Marsico Nuovo and Potenza

Marsico Nuovo and Potenza

(MARSICENSIS ET POTENTINA) Suffragan diocese of Salerno. Marsico Nuevo is a city of the ...
Marsigli, Luigi Ferdinando, Count de

Luigi Ferdinando, Count de Marsigli

Italian geographer and naturalist, b. at Bologna 10 July, 1658; d. at Bologna 1 Nov., 1730. He ...
Marsilius of Padua

Marsilius of Padua

Physician and theologian, b. at Padua about 1270; d. about 1342. Contrary to the assertion of ...
Martène, Edmond

Edmond Martene

An historian and liturgist, born 22 December, 1654, at Saint-Jean-de-Losne near Dijon ; died 20 ...
Martín, Enrico

Enrico Martin

Date and place of birth unknown; d. in Mexico in 1632. According to some he was of Spanish ...
Martel, Charles

Charles Martel

Born about 688; died at Quierzy on the Oise, 21 October, 741. He was the natural son of Pepin of ...
Martha, Maris, Audifax, and Abachum, Saints

Sts. Maris, Martha, Audifax, and Abachum

All martyred at Rome in 270. Maris and his wife Martha, who belonged to the Persian nobility, ...
Martha, Saint

St. Martha

Mentioned only in Luke 10:38-42 ; and John 11, 12, sqq. The Aramaic form occurs in a ...
Martial, Saint

St. Martial

Bishop of Limoges in the third century. We have no accurate information as to the origin, ...
Martiall, John

John Martiall

(Or MARSHALL) Born in Worcestershire 1534, died at Lille, 3 April, 1597. He was one of the six ...
Martianay, Jean

Jean Martianay

Born 30 Dec., 1647, at Saint-Sever-Cap, Diocese of Aire ; died 16 June, 1717, at Saint ...
Martianus Capella

Martianus Capella

Roman writer of Africa who flourished in the fifth century. His work is entitled: "De nuptiis ...
Martigny, Joseph-Alexander

Joseph-Alexander Martigny

Canon of Belley, archaeologist; b. at Sauverny, Ain, in 1808; d at Belley, 19 August, 1880. He ...
Martin

Martin (1400-1464)

Benedictine Abbot of the Schottenkloster of Vienna, b. about 1400; d. 28 July, 1464 (29 July ...
Martin I, Pope Saint

Pope Saint Martin I

Martyr, born at Todi on the Tiber, son of Fabricius ; elected Pope at Rome, 21 July, 649, to ...
Martin II, Pope

Pope Marinus II

Reigned 942-946; died in April or May, 946. A Roman, and a cardinal of the title of St. ...
Martin IV, Pope

Pope Martin IV

(Simon de Brie). Born at the castle of Montpensier in the old French province of Touraine at ...
Martin of Braga

St. Martin of Braga

(Bracara; or, of Dumio). Bishop and ecclesiastical writer; b. about 520 in Pannonia; d. in ...
Martin of Leon, Saint

St. Martin of Leon

A priest and canon regular of the Augustinians ; b. at Leon in Spain ( Old Castile ) before ...
Martin of Tours, Saint

St. Martin of Tours

Bishop; born at Sabaria (today Steinamanger in German, or Szombathely in Hungarian ), Pannonia ...
Martin of Troppau

Martin of Troppau

A chronicler, date of birth unknown; died 1278. His family name was Strebski, and, being by ...
Martin of Valencia, O.F.M.

Martin of Valencia

(Juan Martin de Boil) Born at Villa de Valencia, Spain, about the middle of the fifteenth ...
Martin V, Pope

Pope Martin V

(Oddone Colonna) Born at Genazzano in the Campagna di Roma, 1368; died at Rome, 20 Feb., 1431. ...
Martin y Garcia, Luis

Luis Martin y Garcia

Twenty-fourth General of the Society of Jesus ; born of humble parentage at Melgar de ...
Martin, Felix

Felix Martin

Antiquary, historiographer, architect, educationist, b. 4 October, 1804, at Auray, seat of the ...
Martin, Gregory

Gregory Martin

Translator of the Douai Version of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate ; b. in Maxfield, parish ...
Martin, Konrad

Konrad Martin

Bishop of Paderborn ; b. 18 May, 1812, at Geismar, Province of Saxony ; d. 16 July, 1879, at ...
Martin, Paulin

Paulin Martin

French Biblical scholar, born at Lacam, Lot, 20 July 1840; died at Amélie-les-Bains, ...
Martina, Saint

St. Martina

Roman virgin, martyred in 226, according to some authorities, more probably in 228, under the ...
Martini, Antonio

Antonio Martini

Archbishop of Florence, Biblical scholar; b. at Prato in Tuscany, 20 April, 1720; d. at ...
Martini, Martino

Martino Martini

(Chinese name Wei ). Distinguished Austrian Jesuit missionary to the Chinese, in the ...
Martini, Simone

Simone Martini

(Also known as SIMONE DI MARTINO, and as SIMONE MEMMI). Sienese painter, born in Siena, 1283; ...
Martinian and Processus, Saints

Sts. Processus and Martinian

The dates of these martyrs are unknown. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" (ed. De ...
Martinique

Martinique

(SANCTI PETRI ET ARCIS GALLICAÆ) Diocese ; Martinique is one of the French Lesser ...
Martinov, John

John Martinov

Born 7 October, 1821; died 26 April, 1894. Having passed through his university course at St. ...
Martinsberg

Martinsberg

(Or P ANNONHALMA ) An important Benedictine abbey in Hungary about fourteen English miles ...
Martinuzzi, George

George Martinuzzi

Monk, bishop, cardinal, b. at Kamicac, Dalmatia, 1482; d. 16 December, 1551. His real name was ...
Martyr

Martyr

The Greek word martus signifies a witness who testifies to a fact of which he has knowledge ...
Martyr d'Anghiera, Peter

Peter Martyr d'Anghiera

Historian of Spain and of the discoveries of her representatives, b. at Arona, near Anghiera, on ...
Martyrology

Martyrology

By martyrology is understood a catalogue of martyrs and saints arranged according to the ...
Martyropolis

Martyropolis

A titular see, suffragan of Amida in the Province of Mesopotamia or Armenia Quarta. It was ...
Martyrs in China

Martyrs in China

The first Christian martyrs in China appear to have been the missionaries of Ili Bâliq ...
Martyrs, Acts of the

Acts of the Martyrs

In a strict sense the Acts of the Martyrs are the official records of the trials of early ...
Martyrs, Japanese

Japanese Martyrs

There is not in the whole history of the Church a single people who can offer to the ...
Martyrs, The Ten Thousand

The Ten Thousand Martyrs

On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. On 18 March: ...
Maruthas, Saint

Saint Maruthas

Bishop of Tagrit or Maypherkat in Mesopotamia, friend of St. John Chrysostom , d. before 420. ...
Mary Anne de Paredes, Blessed

Bl. Mary Anne de Paredes

Born at Quito, Ecuador, 31 Oct. 1618; died at Quito, 26 May, 1645. On both sides of her family ...
Mary de Cervellione

St. Mary de Cervellione

(or DE CERVELLO) Popularly styled "de Socos" (of Help). Born about 1230 at Barcelona ; ...
Mary de Sales Chappuis, Venerable

Mary de Sales Chappuis

(MARIE-THÉRÈSE CHAPPUIS) Belonging to the Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary, ...
Mary Frances of the Five Wounds of Jesus, Saint

St. Mary Frances of the Five Wounds of Jesus

Of the Third Order of St. Francis , b. at Naples, 25 March, 1715; d. there, 6 October, 1791. ...
Mary Magdalen de' Pazzi, Saint

Saint Mary Magdalen De' Pazzi

Carmelite Virgin, born 2 April, 1566; died 25 May, 1607. Of outward events there were very few in ...
Mary Magdalen, Saint

St. Mary Magdalen

Mary Magdalen was so called either from Magdala near Tiberias, on the west shore of Galilee, or ...
Mary of Cleophas

Mary of Cleophas

This title occurs only in John, xix, 25. A comparison of the lists of those who stood at the foot ...
Mary of Egypt, Saint

Saint Mary of Egypt

Born probably about 344; died about 421. At the early age of twelve Mary left her home and came to ...
Mary of Romans 16:6

Mary of Romans 16:6

Unknown outside of this single verse ( omans 16:6 ). She had "laboured much among" the Roman ...
Mary Queen of Scots

Mary Queen of Scots

Mary Stuart, born at Linlithgow, 8 December, 1542; died at Fotheringay, 8 February, 1587. She was ...
Mary Tudor

Mary Tudor

Queen of England from 1553 to 1558; born 18 February, 1516; died 17 November, 1558. Mary was the ...
Mary, Blessed Virgin, The

The Blessed Virgin Mary

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. In general, the ...
Mary, Children of

Children of Mary

The Sodality of Children of Mary Immaculate owes its origin to the manifestation of the Virgin ...
Mary, Devotion to the Heart of

Devotion To the Heart of Mary

As in the article on Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus , this subject will be considered ...
Mary, Devotion to the Virgin

Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary

Down to the Council of Nicaea Devotion to Our Blessed Lady in its ultimate analysis must be ...
Mary, Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The earliest document commemorating this feast comes from the sixth century. St.Romanus, the ...
Mary, Little Brothers of

Little Brothers of Mary

Generally known as Marist School Brothers. This religious teaching institute is modern in its ...
Mary, Missionaries of the Company of

Missionaries of the Company of Mary

The Company of Mary was founded by Blessed Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort in 1713. As early as ...
Mary, Mother of John Mark

Mary the Mother of John Mark

Mary, the mother of John, who was surnamed Mark ( Acts 12:12 ). We know nothing of her; but from ...
Mary, Name of

The Name of Mary

(In Scripture and in Catholic use) New Testament, Mariam and sometimes Maria — ...
Mary, Name of

The Name of Mary

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. The Hebrew ...
Mary, Society of (Marist Fathers)

Society of Mary (Marist Fathers)

(Initials S.M.) A religious order of priests, so called on account of the special devotion ...
Mary, Society of, of Paris

Society of Mary of Paris

This society was founded in 1817 by Very Reverend William Joseph Chaminade at Bordeaux, France. ...
Mary, Tomb of the Blessed Virgin

Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...
Maryland

Maryland

One of the thirteen English colonies which after the Revolution of 1776 became the original States ...
Masaccio

Masaccio

(T OMMASO ). Italian painter, born about 1402, at San Giovanni di Valdarno, a stronghold ...
Mascoutens Indians

Mascoutens Indians

A Wisconsin tribe of Algonquian stock of considerable missionary importance in the seventeenth ...
Masolino da Panicale

Masolino Da Panicale

Son of Cristoforo Fini; b. in the suburb of Panicale di Valdese, near Florence, 1383; d. c. 1440. ...
Mason, Richard Angelus a S. Francisco

Richard Angelus a S. Francisco Mason

English — or Irish — Franciscan writer; b. in Wiltshire, 1599; d. at Douai, 30 ...
Masonry

Masonry (Freemasonry)

The subject is treated under the following heads: I. Name and Definition;II. Origin and Early ...
Maspha

Maspha

Name of several places in the Bible . The Septuagint transcribes Masphá, Massephá, ...
Massé, Enemond

Enemond Masse

One of the first Jesuits sent to New France ; born at Lyons, 1574; died at Sillery, l2 May, ...
Mass, Chapter and Conventual

Chapter and Conventual Mass

As a general rule, churches in which the Divine office is to be said publicly every day must also ...
Mass, Liturgy of the

Liturgy of the Mass

A. Name and Definition The Mass is the complex of prayers and ceremonies that make up the ...
Mass, Music of the

Music of the Mass

Under this heading will be considered exclusively the texts of the Mass (and not, therefore, the ...
Mass, Nuptial

Nuptial Mass

"Missa pro sponso et sponsa", the last among the votive Masses in the Missal. It is composed of ...
Mass, Parochial

Parochial Mass

The parish is established to provide the parishioners with the helps of religion, especially ...
Mass, Sacrifice of the

Sacrifice of the Mass

The word Mass ( missa ) first established itself as the general designation for the ...
Massa Candida

Massa Candida

Under the date 24 August, the "Martyrologium Romanum" records this commemoration: At Carthage, ...
Massa Carrara

Massa Carrara

DIOCESE OF MASSA CARRARA (MASSENSIS). Diocese in Central Italy (Lunigiana and Garfagnana). ...
Massa Marittima

Massa Marittima

(MASSANA) Massa Marittima, in the Province of Grosseto, in Tuscany, first mentioned in the ...
Massachusetts

Massachusetts

One of the thirteen original United States of America . The Commonwealth of Massachusetts covers ...
Massacre, Saint Bartholomew's Day

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

This massacre of which Protestants were the victims occurred in Paris on 24 August, 1572 (the ...
Massaia, Guglielmo

Guglielmo Massaia

A Cardinal, born 9 June, 1809, at Piova in Piedmont, Italy ; died at Cremona, 6 August, 1889. ...
Masses, Bequests for

Bequests For Masses

"The efficacy of prayers for the dead ", remarks the Court of Appeals of the State of New York ...
Masses, Bequests for (Canada)

Bequest For Masses (Canada)

The law governing bequests, being concerned with "property and civil rights ", falls within ...
Masses, Bequests for (England)

Bequests For Masses (England)

Before the Reformation dispositions of property, whether real or personal, for the purposes of ...
Masses, Devises and Bequests for (United States)

Devises and Bequests For Masses (United States)

Prior to the period of the Reformation in England in 1532, Masses for the repose of the souls ...
Massillon, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Massillon

A celebrated French preacher and bishop ; born 24 June, 1663; died 28 September, 1742. The son ...
Massorah

Massorah

The textual tradition of Hebrew Bible, an official registration of its words, consonants, vowels ...
Massoulié, Antoine

Antoine Massoulie

Theologian, born at Toulouse, 28 Oct., 1632; died at Rome, 23 Jan., 1706. At an early age he ...
Massuet, René

Rene Massuet

Benedictine patrologist, of the Congregation of St. Maur; born 13 August, 1666, at St. Ouen de ...
Massys, Quentin

Quentin Massys

(MESSYS, METZYS) A painter, born at Louvain in 1466; died at Antwerp in 1530 (bet. 13 July ...
Master of Arts

Master of Arts

An academic degree higher than that of Bachelor. The conferring of the degree of Master of Arts, ...
Master of Liesborn, The

The Master of Liesborn

A Westphalian painter, who in 1465 executed an altar-piece of note in the Benedictine monastery ...
Master of the Sacred Palace

Master of the Sacred Palace

This office (which has always been entrusted to a Friar Preacher) may briefly be described as ...
Mastrius, Bartholomew

Bartholomew Mastrius

Franciscan, philosopher and theologian, born near Forli, at Meldola, Italy, in 1602; died 3 ...
Mataco Indians

Mataco Indians

(Or Mataguayo). A group of wide tribes of very low culture, ranging over a great part of the ...
Mater

Mater

A titular bishopric in the province of Byzantium, mentioned as a free city by Pliny under the ...
Materialism

Materialism

As the word itself signifies, Materialism is a philosophical system which regards matter as the ...
Maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the

Feast of the Maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Second Sunday in October. The object of this feast is to commemorate the dignity of the Mary ...
Mathathias

Mathathias

The name of ten persons of the Bible , variant in both Hebrew and Greek of Old Testament and in ...
Mathew, Theobald

Theobald Mathew

Apostle of Temperance, born at Thomastown Castle, near Cashel, Tipperary, Ireland, 10 October, ...
Mathieu, François-Désiré

Francois-Desire Mathieu

Bishop and cardinal, born 27 May, 1839; died 26 October, 1908. Born of humble family at ...
Mathusala

Methuselah

One of the Hebrew patriarchs, mentioned in Genesis 5. The word is variously given as Mathusale ...
Matilda of Canossa

Matilda of Canossa

Countess of Tuscany, daughter and heiress of the Marquess Boniface of Tuscany, and Beatrice, ...
Matilda, Saint

St. Matilda

Queen of Germany, wife of King Henry I (The Fowler), b. at the Villa of Engern in Westphalia, ...
Matilda, Saint

St. Mechtilde

(MATILDA VON HACKEBORN-WIPPRA). Benedictine; born in 1240 or 1241 at the ancestral castle of ...
Matins

Matins

I. NAME The word "Matins" ( Latin Matutinum or Matutinae ), comes from Matuta , the Latin ...
Matricula

Matricula

A term having several meanings in the field of Christian antiquity. (1) The word is applied ...
Matteo da Siena

Matteo Da Sienna

(Matteo di Giovanni di Bartolo). Painter, born at Borgo San Sepolcro, c. 1435; died 1495. His ...
Matteo di Termini

Bl. Agostino Novello

(Matteo Di Termini), born in the first half of the thirteenth century, at Termini, a village of ...
Matteo of Aquasparta

Matteo of Aquasparta

A celebrated Italian Franciscan, born at Aquasparta in the Diocese of Todi , Umbria, about ...
Matter

Matter

(Greek hyle ; Latin materia ; French matière ; German materie and stoff ), ...
Matteucci, Carlo

Carlo Matteucci

Physicist, born at Forli, in the Romagna, 21 June, 1811; died at Ardenza, near Leghorn, 25 July, ...
Matthew of Bassi

Matthew of Bassi

Founder and first Superior-General of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins, the principal branch ...
Matthew of Cracow

Matthew of Cracow

Renowned scholar and preacher of the fourteenth century, b. at Cracow about 1335, d. at Pisa, 5 ...
Matthew, Gospel of Saint

Gospel of St. Matthew

I. CANONICITY The earliest Christian communities looked upon the books of the Old Testament as ...
Matthew, Saint

St. Matthew

Apostle and evangelist. The name Matthew is derived from the Hebrew Mattija , being ...
Matthew, Sir Tobie

Sir Tobie Matthew

English priest, born at Salisbury, 3 October, 1577, died at Ghent, 13 October, 1655. He was the ...
Matthias Corvinus

Matthias Corvinus

King of Hungary, son of Janos Hunyady and Elizabeth Szilagyi of Horogssey, was born at ...
Matthias of Neuburg

Matthias of Neuburg

Also NEUENBURG (NEOBURGENSIS). Chronicler, born towards the close of the thirteenth century, ...
Matthias, Saint

St. Matthias

Apostle. The Greek Matthias (or, in some manuscripts, Maththias ), is a name derived ...
Maundy Thursday

Maundy Thursday (Holy Thursday)

The feast of Maundy (or Holy) Thursday solemnly commemorates the institution of the Eucharist ...
Maunoury, Auguste-François

Auguste-Francois Maunoury

Hellenist and exegete, b. at Champsecret, Orne, France, 30 Oct., 1811; d. at Séez, ...
Maurice

Maurice

(Matricius, Maurikios ). Roman Emperor, born in 539; died in November, 602. He sprang from ...
Maurice, Saint

St. Maurice

Leader ( primicerius ) of the Theban Legion, massacred at Agaunum, about 287 (286, 297, 302, ...
Maurists, The

The Maurists

A congregation of Benedictine monks in France, whose history extends from 1618 to 1818. It ...
Maurus Magnentius Rabanus, Blessed

Blessed Maurus Magnentius Rabanus

( Also Hrabanus, Reabanus). Abbot of Fulda, Archbishop of Mainz, celebrated theological ...
Maurus, Saint

Saint Maurus

Deacon, son of Equitius, a nobleman of Rome, but claimed also by Fondi, Gallipoli, Lavello ...
Maurus, Sylvester

Sylvester Maurus

Writer on philosophy and theology, b. at Spoleto, 31 Dec., 1619; d. in Rome, 13 Jan., 1687. He ...
Maury, Jean-Siffrein

Jean-Siffrein Maury

Cardinal and statesman, born at Valréas, near Avignon, 26 June, 1746; died at Rome on ...
Maxentius, Joannes

Joannes Maxentius

Joannes Maxentius, leader of the so-called Scythian monks, appears in history at Constantinople ...
Maxentius, Marcus Aurelius

Maxentius

Roman Emperor 306-12, son of the Emperor Maximinianus Herculius and son-in-law of the chief ...
Maxfield, Venerable Thomas

Ven. Thomas Maxfield

( Vere Macclesfield) English priest and martyr, b. in Stafford gaol, about 1590, martyred ...
Maximianopolis

Maximianopolis

A titular see of Palestina Secunda, suffragan of Scythopolis. Its ancient name, Adad-Remmon, ...
Maximianus

Maximianus

(MARCUS AURELIUS VALERIUS MAXIMIANUS, surnamed HERCULIUS.) Roman Emperor, was adopted by ...
Maximilian

Maximilian

The name of several martyrs. (1) Maximilian of Antioch A soldier, martyred at Antioch, Jan. ...
Maximilian I

Maximilian I

Duke of Bavaria, 1598-1622, Elector of Bavaria and Lord High Steward of the Holy Roman Empire, ...
Maximinus Thrax

Maximinus Thrax

Roman Emperor 235-8, son of a Goth and an Alanic mother. When the Emperor Septimius Severus was ...
Maximinus, Caius Valerius Daja

Caius Valerius Daja Maximinus

Under his uncle Augustus Galerius, the Caesar of Syria and Egypt, from the year 305; in 307 ...
Maximinus, Saint

St. Maximinus

Bishop of Trier, b. at Silly near Poitiers, d. there, 29 May, 352 or 12 Sept., 349. He was ...
Maximopolis

Maximopolis

A titular see of Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. The true name of the city is Maximianopolis, and ...
Maximus of Constantinople, Saint

St. Maximus of Constantinople

Known as the Theologian and as Maximus Confessor , born at Constantinople about 580; died in ...
Maximus of Turin, Saint

St. Maximus of Turin

Bishop and theological writer, b. probably in Rhaetia, about 380; d. shortly after 465. Only ...
Maxwell, William

William Maxwell

Fifth Earl of Nithsdale (Lord Nithsdale signed as Nithsdaill) and fourteenth Lord Maxwell, b. in ...
Maxwell, Winifred

Winifred Maxwell

Countess of Nithsdale, d. at Rome, May, 1749. She was the daughter of William, first Marquis of ...
Maya Indians

Maya Indians

The most important of the cultured native peoples of North America, both in the degree of their ...
Mayer, Christian

Christian Mayer

Moravian astronomer, born at Mederizenhi in Moravia, 20 Aug., 1719, died at Heidelberg, 16 ...
Mayhew, Edward

Edward Mayhew

Born in 1569; died 14 September, 1625. He belonged to the old English family of Mayhew or Mayow of ...
Mayne, Blessed Cuthbert

Cuthbert Mayne

Martyr, b. at Yorkston, near Barnstaple, Devonshire ( baptized 20 March, 1543-4); d. at ...
Maynooth College

Maynooth College

The National College of Saint Patrick, at Maynooth in County Kildare, about twelve miles from ...
Mayo Indians

Mayo Indians

An important tribe occupying some fifteen towns on Mayo and Fuerte rivers, southern Sonora and ...
Mayo, School of

School of Mayo

(Irish Magh Eo , which means, according to Colgan, the Plain of the Oaks, and, according to ...
Mayor, John

John Mayor

(MAJOR, MAIR; also called JOANNES MAJORIS and HADDINGTONUS SCOTUS) A Scotch philosopher and ...
Mayoruna Indians

Mayoruna Indians

A noted and savage tribe of Panoan linguistic stock, ranging the forests between the Ucayali, the ...
Mayotte, Nossi-Bé, and Comoro

Mayotte, Nossi-Be, and Comoro

PREFECTURE APOSTOLIC OF MAYOTTE, NOSSI-BE, AND COMORO (MAYOTTÆ, NOSSIBEÆ, ET ...
Mayr, Beda

Beda Mayr

A Bavarian Benedictine philosopher, apologist, and poet, b. 15 January, 1742 at Daiting near ...
Mayron, Francis

Francis Mayron

(DE MAYRONIS) Born about 1280, probably at Mayronnes, Department of Basses-Alpes, he entered ...
Mazarin, Jules

Jules Mazarin

Born either at Rome or at Piscina in the Abruzzi, of a very old Sicilian family, 14 July, 1602; ...
Mazatec Indians

Mazatec Indians

An important Mexican tribe of Zapotecan linguistic stock, occupying the mountain region of ...
Mazenod, Charles Joseph Eugene de

Mazenod

Bishop of Marseilles, and founder of the Congregation of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, b. at ...
Mazzara del Vallo

Mazzara Del Vallo

DIOCESE OF MAZZARA DEL VALLO (MAZARIENSIS). The city is situated in the province of Trepani, ...
Mazzella, Camillo

Camillo Mazzella

Theologian and cardinal, born at Vitulano, 10 Feb., 1833; d. at Rome, 26 March, 1900. He ...
Mazzolini, Lodovico

Lodovico Mazzolini

(Also known as MAZZOLINI DA FERRARA, LODOVICO FERRARESA, and IL FERRARESE) Italian painter, b. ...
Mazzolini, Sylvester

Sylvester Mazzolini

(M OZOLINI, also P RIERIAS ) Theologian, b. at Priero, Piedmont, 1460; d. at Rome, ...
Mazzuchelli, Pietro Francesco

Pietro Francesco Mazzuchelli

(Also known as IL MORAZZONE, MARAZZONE, and MORANZONE). Milanese painter, b. at Moranzone near ...
Mbaya Indians

Mbaya Indians

(Guaycurü) A predatory tribe formerly ranging on both sides of the Paraguay River, on the ...
McCabe, Edward

Edward McCabe

Cardinal, born in Dublin, 1816; died at Kingstown, 11 February, 1885; he was the son of poor ...
McCarthy, Justin

Justin McCarthy

Irish politician, journalist, novelist, and historian, b. at Cork, 22 Nov., 1830; d. at ...
McCloskey, William George

William George McCloskey

Bishop of Louisville, Kentucky, b. at Brooklyn, N.Y., 10 Nov., 1823; d. 17 September, 1909. He ...
McGee, Thomas D'Arcy

Thomas d'Arcy McGee

An editor, politician, and poet, born at Carlingford, Co. Louth, Ireland, 13 April, 1825; ...
McLoughlin, John

John McLoughlin

Physician and pioneer, born in the parish of La Riviere du Loup, Canada, 19 October, 1784; died ...
McMahon, Martin Thomas

Martin Thomas McMahon

Soldier, jurist; born at Laprairie, Canada, 21 March, 1838; died in New York, 21 April, 1906. His ...
McMaster, James Alphonsus

James Alphonsus McMaster

An editor, convert, born at Duanesburg, New York, U. S. A., 1 April, 1820; died in Brooklyn, New ...
McQuaid, Bernard John

Bernard John McQuaid

The first Bishop of Rochester, U. S. A.; born in New York City, 15 December, 1823; died at ...
McSherry, James Jr.

James McSherry

Jurist, son of the author James McSherry ; born at Frederick, Maryland, 30 December, 1842; died ...
McSherry, James Sr.

James McSherry

Author; born at LibertyTown, Frederick County, Maryland, 29 July, 1819; died at Frederick City, ...
McSherry, Richard

Richard McSherry

Physician; born at Martinsburg, Virginia (now West Virginia ), 21 November, 1817; died ...
Meagher, Thomas Francis

Thomas Francis Meagher

Soldier, politician, b. at Waterford, Ireland, 3 August, 1823; accidentally drowned in the ...
Meath

Meath

(MIDENSIS). Diocese in Ireland, suffragan of Armagh. In extent it is the largest diocese in ...
Meaux

Meaux

(Melsa). A Cistercian abbey about four miles east of Beverley in the East Riding of ...
Meaux, Diocese of

Meaux

(MELDENSIS.) Meaux comprises the entire department of Seine and Marne, suffragan of Sens ...
Mecca

Mecca

Mecca, the capital of Arabia and the sacred city of the Mohammedans, is situated in the district ...
Mechanism

Mechanism

There is no constant meaning in the history of philosophy for the word Mechanism. Originally, ...
Mechitar

Mechitar

(MECHITHAR, MEKHITAR, MCHITAR or MOCHTOR, a word which means "Comforter") Mechitar is the name ...
Mechitarists

Mechitarists

Armenian Benedictines, founded by Mechitar in 1712. In its inception the order was looked upon ...
Mechlin

Mechline

( Latin MECHLINIA; French MALINES; MECHLINIENSIS). Archdiocese comprising the two Belgian ...
Mechtel, Johann

Johann Mechtel

Chronicler; b. 1562 at Pfalzel near Trier (Germany); d. after 1631, perhaps as late as 1653 at ...
Mechtild of Magdeburg

Mechtild of Magdeburg

A celebrated medieval mystic, b. of a noble family in Saxony about 1210; d. at the ...
Mechtilde, Saint

St. Mechtilde

(MATILDA VON HACKEBORN-WIPPRA). Benedictine; born in 1240 or 1241 at the ancestral castle of ...
Mecklenburg

Mecklenburg

A division of the German Empire, consists of the two Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and ...
Medaille, Jean Paul

Jean Paul Medaille

Jesuit missionary; b. at Carcassonne, the capital of the Department of Aude, France, 29 ...
Medal of Saint Benedict

Medal of Saint Benedict

A medal, originally a cross, dedicated to the devotion in honour of St. Benedict. One ...
Medal, Miraculous

Miraculous Medal

The devotion commonly known as that of the Miraculous Medal owes its origin to Zoe Labore, a ...
Medals, Devotional

Devotional Medals

A medal may be defined to be a piece of metal, usually in the form of a coin, not used as money, ...
Medardus, Saint

St. Medardus

Bishop of Noyon, b. at Salency (Oise) about 456; d. in his episcopal city 8 June, about 545. His ...
Medea

Medea

A titular see of Thrace, suffragan of Heraclea. This name and the modern name (Midieh) are ...
Medellín

Medellin

(MEDELLENSIS). Archdiocese in the Republic of Colombia, Metropolitan of Antioquia and ...
Media and Medes

Media and Medes

( Medía, Mêdoi ). An ancient country of Asia and the inhabitants thereof. The ...
Mediator (Christ as Mediator)

Mediator (Christ As Mediator)

The subject will be treated under the following heads: (1) Definition of the word mediator; (2) ...
Medices, Hieronymus

Hieronymus Medices

(DE MEDICIS) Illustrious as a scholastic of acumen and penetration, b. at Camerino in ...
Medici, Catherine de'

Catherine De' Medici

Born 13 April, 1519; died 5 January, 1589. She was the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici (II), Duke ...
Medici, House of

House of Medici

A Florentine family, the members of which, having acquired great wealth as bankers, rose in a ...
Medici, Maria de'

Maria De' Medici

Queen of France ; b. at Florence, 26 April, 1573; d. at Cologne, 3 July, 1642. She was a ...
Medicine and Canon Law

Medicine and Canon Law

In the early centuries the practice of medicine by clerics, whether secular or regular, was not ...
Medicine, History of

History of Medicine

The history of medical science, considered as a part of the general history of civilization, ...
Medina, Bartholomew

Bartholomew Medina

Dominican theologian, b. at Medina, 1527; d. at Salamanca, 1581. With Dominico Soto , Melchior ...
Medina, Juan de

Juan de Medina

Theologian ; born 1490; died 1547; he occupied the first rank among the theologians of the ...
Medina, Miguel de

Miguel de Medina

Theologian, born at Belalcazar, Spain, 1489; died at Toledo, May, 1578. He entered the Franciscan ...
Medrano, Francisco

Francisco Medrano

A Spanish lyric poet, b. in Seville, not to be confounded with Sebastian Francisco de Medrano ...
Medulic, Andras

Andras Medulic

A Croatian painter and engraver, called by Italian authors Medola, Medula, Schiavone, Schiaon, ...
Meehan, Charles Patrick

Charles Patrick Meehan

Irish historical writer and translator, b. in Dublin, 12 July, 1812; d. there 14 March 1890. ...
Megara

Megara

A titular see, suffragan to Corinth, in Achaia. The city, which was built on an arid strip of ...
Megarians

Megarians

The Megarian School is one of the imperfectly Socratic Schools, so called because they developed ...
Mehrerau

Mehrerau

Formerly a Benedictine, now a Cistercian Abbey ; situated on Lake Constance, west of Bregenz, in ...
Meignan, Guillaume-René

Guillaume-Rene Meignan

Cardinal Archbishop of Tours, French apologist and Scriptural exegete, b. at Chauvigné, ...
Meilleur, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Meilleur

French Canadian physician and educator, b. at St. Laurent, P.Q., 9 May, 1796; d. 7 Dec., 1878. He ...
Meinwerk, Blessed

Blessed Meinwerk

Tenth Bishop of Paderborn, d. 1036: Meinwerk (Meginwerk) was born of the noble family of the ...
Meissen

Meissen

A former see of north-east Germany. The present city of Meissen, situated in the Kingdom of ...
Meissonier, Ernest

Ernest Meissonier

French painter, b. at Lyons 21 February, 1815; d. at Paris, 31 January, 1891. If the Lyonese ...
Meléndez Valdés, Juan

Juan Melendez Valdes

Spanish poet and politician, b. at Ribera del Fresno (Badajoz) 11 March, 1754; d. in exile at ...
Melancthon, Philipp

Philipp Melancthon

Collaborator and friend of Luther, born at Bretten (in Unterpfalz, now Baden ), 16 February, ...
Melania (the Younger), Saint

St. Melania (The Younger)

Born at Rome, about 383; died in Jerusalem, 31 December, 439. She was a member of the famous ...
Melbourne

Melbourne

Archdiocese of Melbourne (Melburnen) Located in the state of Victoria, Southeastern ...
Melchers, Paul

Paul Melchers

Cardinal, Archbishop of Cologne, b. 6 Jan., 1813, at Münster, Westphalia ; d. 14 ...
Melchisedech

Melchisedech

[Gr. Melchisedek , from the Hebrew meaning "King of righteousness (Gesenius)] was King of ...
Melchisedechians

Melchisedechians

A branch of the Monarchians, founded by Theodotus the banker. (See MONARCHIANS.) Another quite ...
Melchites

Melchites (Melkites)

(Melkites). ORIGIN AND NAME Melchites are the people of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt who ...
Meletius of Antioch

Meletius of Antioch

Bishop, b. in Melitene, Lesser Armenia ; d. at Antioch, 381. Before occupying the see of ...
Meletius of Lycopolis

Meletius of Lycopolis

Meletius, Bishop of Lycopolis in Egypt, gave his name to a schism of short duration. There ...
Melfi and Rapolla

Melfi and Rapolla

DIOCESE OF MELFI AND RAPOLLA (MELPHIENSIS ET RAPOLLENSIS) Diocese in the province of Potenza, ...
Meli, Giovanni

Giovanni Meli

Sicilian poet, b. at Palermo, 4 March, 1740, d. 20 Dec., 1815. He was the son of a goldsmith of ...
Melia, Pius

Pius Melia

Italian theologian, b. at Rome, 12 Jan., 1800; d. in London, June 1883. He entered the Society ...
Melissus of Samos

Melissus of Samos

A Greek philosopher, of the Eleatic School, b. at Samos about 470 B.C. It is probable that he ...
Melitene

Melitene

The residence of an Armenian Catholic see, also a titulary archbishopric. According to Pliny ...
Melito, Saint

St. Melito

Bishop of Sardis, prominent ecclesiastical writer in the latter half of the second century. Few ...
Melk, Abbey and Congregation of

Abbey and Congregation of Melk

(MOLCK, MELLICUM). Situated on an isolated rock commanding the Danube, Melk has been a noted ...
Melkites

Melchites (Melkites)

(Melkites). ORIGIN AND NAME Melchites are the people of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt who ...
Melleray

Melleray

(MELLEARIUM) Melleray, situated in Brittany (Loire-Inférieure), Diocese of Nantes, in ...
Mellifont Abbey

Abbey of Mellifont

Located three miles from Drogheda, Co. Louth, Diocese of Armagh, it was the first Cistercian ...
Mellitus, Saint

St. Mellitus

Bishop of London and third Archbishop of Canterbury, d. 24 April, 624. He was the leader of ...
Melo

Melo (Uruguay)

Located in Uruguay. It was decided in 1897 to erect two sees suffragan to Montevideo, one of ...
Melos

Melos

A titular see, suffragan of Naxos in the Cyclades. The name seems to have been derived from a ...
Melozzo da Forlí

Melozzo Da Forli

An Italian painter of the Umbrian School, b. at Forlì, 1438; d. there 1494. Lanzi's ...
Melrose Abbey

Abbey of Melrose

The Abbey of Melrose, located in in Roxburghshire, founded in 1136 by King David I, was the ...
Melrose, Chronicle of

Chronicle of Melrose

(CHRONICA DE MAILROS) It opens with the year 735, ends abruptly in 1270, and is founded solely ...
Melzi, Francesco

Francesco Melzi

Born at Milan, about 1490; died 1568. He was a mysterious personage. He was a friend of Leonardo ...
Memberton

Memberton

Principal chief of the Micmac Indians of Nova Scotia at the time of the establishment of the ...
Membre, Zenobius

Zenobius Membre

Born 1645 at Bapaume, Department of Pas-de-Calais, France, he was a member of the Franciscan ...
Memling, Hans

Hans Memling

Flemish painter, b. about 1430-35; d. at Bruges 11 August, 1494. This date was discovered ...
Memorial Brasses

Memorial Brasses

Just when memorial brasses first came into use is not known; the earliest existing dated ...
Memory

Memory

(Latin memoria ) Memory is the capability of the mind, to store up conscious processes, ...
Memphis

Memphis

Ancient capital of Egypt ; diocese of the province of Arcadia or Heptanomos, suffragan of ...
Men of Understanding

Men of Understanding

(HOMINES INTELLIGENTIAE). Name assumed by a heretical sect which in 1410-11 was cited before ...
Menéndez y Pelayo, Marcelino

Marcelino Menendez y Pelayo

Poet, historian and literary critic, b. at Santander, Spain, in 1856; d. at Santander in 1912. ...
Mena, Juan de

Juan de Mena

Spanish poet, born 1411 at Cordova ; died 1456 at Torrelaguna. Prominent at the court of Juan II ...
Menaion

Menaion

( menaîon from mén, "month") The Menaion is the name of the twelve books, one ...
Menas, Saint

St. Menas

Martyr under Diocletian, about 295. According to the Greek Acts published with Latin translation ...
Mencius

Mencius

(Latinized form of Chinese MENG-TZE, i.e. MENG THE SAGE). Philosopher, b. 371 or 372 B.C. He was ...
Mendíburu, Manuel de

Manuel de Mendiburu

Born at Lima, 29 October, 1805; died 21 January, 1885. He was educated in the University of S. ...
Mendaña de Neyra, Alvaro de

Alvaro de Mendana de Neyra

A Spanish navigator and explorer, born in Saragossa, 1541; died in Santa Cruz, Solomon ...
Mende

Mende

(MIMATENSIS) This diocese includes the department of Lozère, in France. Suffragan of ...
Mendel, Mendelism

Mendel, Mendelism

Gregor Johann Mendel (the first name was taken on entrance to his order), b. 22 July, 1822, at ...
Mendes de Silva, João

Joao Mendes de Silva

Better known as Amadeus of Portugal, b. 1420, d. at Milan, 1482, began his religious life in ...
Mendicant Friars

Mendicant Friars

Mendicant Friars are members of those religious orders which, originally, by vow of ...
Mendieta, Jerónimo

Jeronimo Mendieta

A Spanish missionary; born at Vitoria, Spain, 1525; died in the City of Mexico, 9 May, 1604. ...
Mendoza, Diego Hurtade de

Diego Hurtade de Mendoza

A Spanish diplomat and writer, and one of the greatest figures in the history of Spanish ...
Mendoza, Francisco Sarmiento de

Francisco Sarmiento de Mendoza

A Spanish canonist and bishop ; b. of a noble family at Burgos ; d. 1595, at Jaén. ...
Mendoza, Pedro Gonzalez de

Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza

Cardinal and Primate of Spain, b. at Guadalajara, 3 May, 1428; d. there, 11 January, 1495. He ...
Meneses, Osorio Francisco

Osorio Francisco Meneses

Spanish painter, b. at Seville, 1630; d. probably in the same place, 1705. It is extraordinary ...
Menestrier, Claude-François

Claude-Francois Menestrier

Antiquarian, b. at Lyons, 9 March, 1631; d. at Paris, 21 Jan., 1705. He inherited a taste for ...
Menevia

Menevia

(MENEVENSIS) Menevia is said to be derived from Menapia , the name of an ancient Roman ...
Mengarini, Gregario

Gregario Mengarini

Pioneer missionary of the Flathead tribe and philologist of their language, b. in Rome, 21 July, ...
Mengs, Anthon Rafael

Anthon Rafael Mengs

A Bohemian painter, usually regarded as belonging to the Italian or Spanish school, b. at ...
Mennas

Mennas

Patriarch of Constantinople from 536 to 552. Early in 536 Pope St. Agapetus came to ...
Mennonites

Mennonites

A Protestant denomination of Europe and America which arose in Switzerland in the sixteenth ...
Menochio, Giovanni Stefano

Giovanni Stefano Menochio

Jesuit biblical scholar, b. at Padua, 1575; d. in Rome, 4 Feb., 1655. He entered the Society of ...
Menologium

Menologium

Although the word Menologium (in English also written Menology and Menologe) has been in some ...
Menominee Indians

Menominee Indians

A considerable tribe of Algonquian linguistic stock, formerly ranging over north-eastern ...
Mensa, Mensal Revenue

Mensa, Mensal Revenue

( Latin, Mensa, table). The Latin word mensa has for its primitive signification "a table ...
Mensing, John

John Mensing

(MENSINGK) A theologian and celebrated opponent of Luther, born according to some at ...
Mental Reservation

Mental Reservation

The name applied to a doctrine which has grown out of the common Catholic teaching about lying and ...
Mentelin, Johannes

Johannes Mentelin

(MENTEL) Born c. 1410; died 12 Dec., 1478; an eminent German typographer of the fifteenth ...
Menzini, Benedetto

Benedetto Menzini

Priest and poet, b. at Florence, 1646; d. at Rome, 7 Sept., 1704. His family being poor, he ...
Mercadé, Eustache

Eustache Mercade

French dramatic poet of the fifteenth century. The dates of his birth and death are not known. ...
Mercedarians

Mercedarians

(Order of Our Lady of Mercy). A congregation of men founded in 1218 by St. Peter Nolasco, born ...
Mercier, Louis-Honoré

Louis-Honore Mercier

A French Canadian statesman, b. 15 October, 1840, at Ibervile, Quebec, of a family of farmers; ...
Mercuriali, Geronimo

Geronimo Mercuriali

Better known by his Latin name Mercurialis; famous philologist and physician, b. at Forli, 30 ...
Mercy, Brothers of Our Lady of

Brothers of Our Lady of Mercy

Founded at Mechlin in 1839 by Canon J.B. Cornelius Scheppers for the instruction and care of ...
Mercy, Corporal and Spiritual Works of

Corporal and Spiritual Works of Mercy

Mercy as it is here contemplated is said to be a virtue influencing one's will to have ...
Mercy, Sisters of

Sisters of Mercy

A congregation of women founded in Dublin, Ireland, in 1827, by Catherine Elizabeth McAuley, ...
Mercy, Sisters of, of St. Borromeo

Sisters of Mercy of St. Borromeo

Originally a pious association of ladies formed in 1626 for the care of the sick in the ...
Meredith, Edward

Edward Meredith

English Catholic controversialist, b. in 1648, was a son of the rector of Landulph, Cornwall. ...
Merici, Saint Angela

St. Angela Merici

Foundress of the Ursulines, born 21 March, 1474, at Desenzano, a small town on the southwestern ...
Merit

Merit

By merit ( meritum ) in general is understood that property of a good work which entitles the ...
Mermillod, Gaspard

Gaspard Mermillod

Bishop of Lausanne and cardinal, born at Carouge, Switzerland, 22 September, 1824; died in Rome, ...
Merneptah I

Merneptah I (Pharaoh)

(1234?-1214 B.C.), the fourth king of the nineteenth Egyptian dynasty and the supposed Pharaoh ...
Mersenne, Marin

Marin Mersenne

French theologian, philosopher, and mathematician; b. 8 September, 1588, near Oizé (now ...
Mesa

Mesa

(Greek Mosá ; Moabite Stone, ms‘ ; Hebrew, mys‘ , meaning ...
Mesopotamia, Kurdistan, and Armenia

Mesopotamia, Kurdistan, and Armenia

Created by Gregory XVI on 17 Dec., 1832. Mgr. Trioche, Archbishop of Babylon or Bagdad, became ...
Mesrob

Mesrob

(Also called MASHTOTS) One of the greatest figures in Armenian history, he was born about 361 ...
Messalians

Messalians

( Praying folk; participle Pa'el of the Aramaic word meaning "to pray "). An heretical ...
Messene

Messene

A titular see, suffragan to Corinth, in Achaia. Under this name at least, the city dates only ...
Messias

Messiah

(Or Messias .) The Greek form Messias is a transliteration of the Hebrew, Messiah , ...
Messina

Messina

(MESSINENSIS) Located in Sicily. The city is situated, in the shape of an amphitheatre, along ...
Messina, Antonello da

Antonello da Messina

Born at Messina, about 1430; died 1497. After studying for some time in Sicily he crossed over ...
Messingham, Thomas

Thomas Messingham

An Irish hagiologist, born in the Diocese of Meath, and studied in the Irish College, Paris, ...
Metalwork in the Service of the Church

Metalwork

From the earliest days the Church has employed utensils and vessels of metal in its liturgical ...
Metaphrastes, Symeon

Symeon Metaphrastes

( Sumeòn ’o metaphrástes ). The principal compiler of the legends of ...
Metaphysics

Metaphysics

I. The Name. II. The Definition. III. The Rejection of Metaphysics.IV. Relation of Metaphysics to ...
Metastasio, Pietro

Pietro Metastasio

Italian poet, b. at Rome, 1698; d. at Vienna, 1782. Of humble origins, his father, once a ...
Metcalfe, Edward

Edward Metcalfe

Born in Yorkshire, 1792; died a martyr of charity at Leeds, 7 May, 1847. He entered the ...
Metellopolis

Metellopolis

A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, in Asia Minor. The inscriptions make known a Phrygian town ...
Metempsychosis

Metempsychosis

(Greek meta empsychos , Latin metempsychosis : French metempsychose : German ...
Metham, Thomas

Sir Thomas Metham

A knight, confessor of the Faith ; died in York Castle, 1573. He was eldest son of Thomas ...
Methodism

Methodism

A religious movement which was originated in 1739 by John Wesley in the Anglican Church, and ...
Methodius and Cyril, Saints

Sts. Cyril and Methodius

(Or CONSTANTINE and METHODIUS). These brothers, the Apostles of the Slavs, were born in ...
Methodius I

Methodius I

Patriarch of Constantinople (842-846), defender of images during the second Iconoclast ...
Methodius of Olympus, Saint

St. Methodius of Olympus

Bishop and ecclesiastical author, date of birth unknown; died a martyr, probably in 311. ...
Methuselah

Methuselah

One of the Hebrew patriarchs, mentioned in Genesis 5. The word is variously given as Mathusale ...
Methymna

Methymna

A titular see in the island of Lesbos. It was once the second city of the island, and enjoyed ...
Metrophanes of Smyrna

Metrophanes of Smyrna

A leader of the faithful Ignatian bishops at the time of the Photian schism (867). Baronius ...
Metropolis

Metropolis (Titular See)

A titular episcopal see and suffragan of Ephesus. Strabo (XIV, 1, 2; XIV, 1, 15), who speaks of ...
Metropolitan

Metropolitan

Metropolitan , in ecclesiastical language, refers to whatever relates to the metropolis, the ...
Metternich, Klemens Lothar Wenzel Von

Prince von Metternich

Statesman; born at Coblenz, 15 May, 1773; died at Vienna, 11 June, 1859; son of Count Georg, ...
Metz

Metz

A town and bishopric in Lorraine. I. THE TOWN OF METZ In ancient times Metz, then known as ...
Meun, Jean Clopinel de

Jean Clopinel de Meun

(Or MEUNG.) French poet, b. c. 1260 in the little city of Meung-sur-Loire; d. at Paris ...
Mexico

Mexico

GEOGRAPHY The Republic of Mexico is situated at the extreme point of the North American ...
Mexico, Archdiocese of

Mexico

(MEXICANA.) Boundaries The boundaries of the Diocese of Mexico were at first not well defined. ...
Mezger, Francis, Joseph, and Paul

Francis, Joseph, and Paul Mezger

Three brothers, learned Benedictines of the monastery of St. Peter in Salzburg, and professors ...
Mezzofanti, Giuseppe

Giuseppe Mezzofanti

A cardinal, the greatest of polyglots, born 19 September, 1774; died 15 March, 1849. He was the ...
Miami Indians

Miami Indians

An important tribe of Algonquian stock formerly claiming prior dominion over the whole of what ...
Michael Cærularius

Michael Caerularius

( Keroulários ). Patriarch of Constantinople (1043-58), author of the second and ...
Michael de Sanctis, Saint

St. Michael de Sanctis

(DE LOS SANTOS). Born at, Vich in Catalonia, 29 September, 1591; died at Valladolid, 10 ...
Michael O'Loghlen

Michael O'Loghlen

Born at Ennis, Co. Clare, Ireland, in 1789; died 1846. Educated at Ennis Academy, and Trinity ...
Michael of Cesena

Michael of Cesena

(MICHELE FUSCHI) A Friar Minor, Minister General of the Franciscan Order, and theologian, ...
Michael Scotus

Michael Scotus

(SCOTT or SCOT) A thirteenth century mathematician, philosopher, and scholar. He was born in ...
Michael the Archangel, Saint

St. Michael the Archangel

( Hebrew "Who is like God ?"). St. Michael is one of the principal angels ; his name was ...
Michael, Military Orders of Saint

Military Orders of St. Michael

(1) A Bavarian Order, founded in 1721 by Elector Joseph Clemens of Cologne, Duke of Bavaria, ...
Michaud, Joseph-François

Joseph-Francois Michaud

Historian, born at Albens, Savoy, 1767; died at Passy, 30 September, 1839. He belonged to an ...
Micheas of Ephraim

Micheas of Ephraim

Also called Michas. In Hebrew the complete form of the name is Mikhayahu or Mikhayehu ...
Micheas, Book of

Book of Micheas

Micheas (Hebr. Mikhah; Jeremiah 26:18 : Mikhayah keth.), the author of the book which holds the ...
Micheas, Son of Jemla

Micheas, Son of Jemla

Also called Michas. In Hebrew the complete form of the name is Mikhayahu or Mikhayehu ...
Michel, Jean

Jean Michel

A French dramatic poet of the fifteenth century, who revised and enlarged the mystery of the ...
Michelangelo Buonarroti

Michelangelo Buonarroti

Italian sculptor, painter, and architect, b. at Caprese in the valley of the upper Arno, 6 March, ...
Michelians

Michelians

A German Protestant sect which derives its name from "Michel", the popular designation of its ...
Michelis, Edward

Edward Michelis

A theologian, born in St. Mauritz, 6 Feb., 1813; died in Luxemburg, 8 June, 1855. After his ...
Michelozzo di Bartolommeo

Michelozzo di Bartolommeo

An architect and sculptor, born at Florence circa 1391; died 1472. He exercised a quiet, but ...
Michigan

Michigan

The State of Michigan is bounded on the north by Lake Superior, on the east by Canada, Lake Huron ...
Michoacan

Michoacan

(MICHOACANENSIS) Located in Mexico, the Diocese of Michoacan was established in 1536 by Pope ...
Mickiewicz, Adam

Adam Mickiewicz

Born near Novogrodek, Lithuania, 1798; died at Constantinople, 1855. He studied at Novogrodek ...
Micmacs

Micmacs

( Souriquois of the early French ) The easternmost of the Algonquin tribes and probably ...
Micrologus

Micrologus

Either a "synopsis" or a "short explanation", and in the Middle Ages used as an equivalent for ...
Middendorp, Jakob

Jakob Middendorp

Theologian and historian; b. about 1537 at Oldenzaal, or, according to others, at Ootmarsum, ...
Middle Ages

Middle Ages

A term commonly used to designate that period of European history between the fall of the Roman ...
Middlesbrough

Middlesbrough

(MEDIOBURGENSIS) In medieval history it was known as Myddilburga or Middilburga, with many ...
Midianites

Madianites (Midianites)

(In Authorized Version M IDIANITES ). An Arabian tribe ( Septuagint Madienaîoi ...
Midrashim

Midrashim

The term commonly designates ancient rabbinical commentaries on the Hebrew Scriptures. It is the ...
Midwives

Midwives

Midwives come under the canon law of the Church in their relation towards two of the sacraments, ...
Migazzi, Christoph Anton

Migazzi

Cardinal, Prince Archbishop of Vienna, b. 1714, in the Tyrol, d. 14 April, 1803, at Vienna. At ...
Mignard, Pierre

Pierre Mignard

A French painter, born at Troyes, 7 November, 1612; died at Paris, 30 May, 1695. Though destined ...
Migne, Jacques-Paul

Jacques-Paul Migne

Priest, and publisher of theological works, born at Saint-Flour, 25 October, 1800; died at Paris, ...
Migration

Migration

The movement of populations from place to place is one of the earliest social phenomena history ...
Milan

Milan

(MEDIOLANENSIS) Located in Lombardy, northern Italy. The city is situated on the Orona River, ...
Milde, Vinzenz Eduard

Vinzenz Eduard Milde

Prince- Archbishop of Vienna, born at Brünn, in Moravia, in 1777; died at Vienna in ...
Miles Gerard, Venerable

Ven. Miles Gerard

Martyr ; born about 1550 at Wigan; executed at Rochester 13 (30?) April, 1590. Sprung perhaps ...
Miles, George Henry

Georgr Henry Miles

A dramatist and man of letters, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 31 July, 1824; died near ...
Mileto

Mileto

(MILETENSIS) Located in Calabria, in the province of Reggio, southern Italy. According to ...
Miletopolis

Miletopolis

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Cyzicus. Miletopolis was a town north of Mysia, at ...
Miletus

Miletus

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Aphrodisias, in Caria. Situated on the western coast ...
Miletus, Vitus

Vitus Miletus

(Originally MÜLLER) A Catholic theologian, born at Gmünd, Swabia, 1549; died at ...
Milevum

Milevum

A titular see of Numidia. In Ptolemy's "Geography", IV, iii, 7, the city is mentioned under the ...
Milic, Jan

Jan Milic

A pre-Hussite reform preacher and religious enthusiast, born at Kremsier in Moravia, died 29 ...
Military Orders, The

The Military Orders

Including under this term every kind of brotherhood of knights, secular as well as religious, ...
Millennium and Millenarianism

Millennium and Millenarianism

The fundamental idea of millenarianism, as understood by Christian writers, may be set forth ...
Miller, Ferdinand Von

Ferdinand von Miller

Born at Fürstenfeldbruck, 1813; died at Munich, 1887. He laboured for the development of ...
Millet, Jean-François

Jean-Francois Millet

French painter ; b. at Gruchy, near Cherbourg, 4 October, 1814; d. at Barbizon, 20 January, 1875. ...
Millet, Pierre

Pierre Millet

( Or Milet). A celebrated early Jesuit missionary in New York State, b. at Bourges, ...
Milner, John

John Milner

Born in London, 14 October, 1752: died at Wolverhampton, 19 April, 1826. At the age of twelve ...
Milner, Venerable Ralph

Venerable Ralph Milner

Layman and martyr, born at Flacsted, Hants, England, early in the sixteenth century; suffered ...
Milo Crispin

Milo Crispin

Monk, and cantor of the Benedictine Abbey of Bec ; wrote the lives of five of its abbots : ...
Milopotamos

Milopotamos

A titular see of Crete, suffragan of Candia. Certain historians and geographers identify ...
Miltiades, Pope Saint

Pope St. Miltiades

The year of his birth is not known; he was elected pope in either 310 or 311; died 10 or 11 ...
Miltiz, Karl von

Karl von Miltiz

Papal chamberlain and nuncio, b. about 1480, the son of Sigismund von Miltiz, "Landvogt" of ...
Milwaukee

Milwaukee

(MILWAUKIENSIS) Established as a diocese, 28 Nov., 1843; became an archbishopric, 12 ...
Mind

Mind

(Greek nous ; Latin mens , German Geist , Seele ; French ame esprit ). The word ...
Minden

Minden

Diocese of Minden (former see of Westphalia ). Minden on the Weser is first heard of in ...
Ming, John

John Ming

A philosopher and writer, born at Gyswyl, Unterwalden, Switzerland, 20 Sept., 1838; died at ...
Minimi

Minimi

Minimi (or M INIMS ) are the members of the religious order founded by St. Francis of Paula. ...
Minister

Minister

The term minister has long been appropriated in a distinctive way to the clergy. The language ...
Minkelers, Jean-Pierre

Jean-Pierre Minkelers

Inventor of illuminating gas; b. at Maastricht, Holland, 1748; d. there 4 July, 1824. At the age ...
Minnesota

Minnesota

One of the North Central States of the American Union, lies about midway between the eastern and ...
Mino di Giovanni

Mino di Giovanni

(Called DA FIESOLE.) Born 1431; died 1484. He is inscribed in the "Libro della Matricola" of ...
Minor

Minor

( Latin minor ), that which is less, or inferior in comparison with another, the term being ...
Minor Orders

Minor Orders

( Latin Ordines Minores ). The lower degrees of the hierarchy are designated by the name of ...
Minorca

Minorca

(Minoricensis). Suffragan of Valencia, comprises the Island of Minorca, the second in size of ...
Minsk

Minsk

(MINCENSIS) A suffragan of Mohileff, in Western Russia. The city of Minsk is situated on ...
Mint, Papal

Papal Mint

The right to coin money being a sovereign prerogative, there can be no papal coins of earlier ...
Minucius Felix

Minucius Felix

Christian apologist, flourished between 160 and 300; the exact date is not known. His ...
Mirabilia Urbis Romæ

Mirabilia Urbis Romae

The title of a medieval Latin description of the city of Rome, dating from about 1150. ...
Miracle

Miracle

(Latin miraculum , from mirari , "to wonder"). In general, a wonderful thing, the word ...
Miracle Plays and Mysteries

Miracle Plays and Mysteries

These two names are used to designate the religious drama which developed among Christian ...
Miracles, Gift of

Gift of Miracles

The gift of miracles is one of those mentioned by St. Paul in his First Epistle to the ...
Miraculous Medal

Miraculous Medal

The devotion commonly known as that of the Miraculous Medal owes its origin to Zoe Labore, a ...
Miraeus, Aubert

Aubert Miraeus

(Also called Aubert le Mire). Ecclesiastical historian, born at Brussels, 30 Nov., 1573; died ...
Mirandola, Giovanni Francesco Pico della

Giovanni Francesco Pico Della Mirandola

Italian philosopher, nephew of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, b. about 1469; d. 1533. Though very ...
Mirandola, Giovanni Pico della

Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola

Italian philosopher and scholar, born 24 February, 1463; died 17 November, 1494. He belonged to a ...
Miridite, Abbey of

Abbey of Miridite

(MIRIDITARUM, or SANCTI ALEXANDRI DE OROSHI). The name of an abbatia nullius in Albania, ...
Miserere

Miserere

The first word of the Vulgate text of Psalm 1 (Hebrew, li). Two other Psalms (lv and lvi) begin ...
Misericorde, Congregation of the Sisters of

Congregation of the Sisters of Misericorde

A congregation of women founded 16 January, 1848, for the purpose of procuring spiritual and ...
Misocco and Galanca

Prefecture Apostolic of Misocco and Calanca

(MESAUCINAE ET CALANCAE). This prefecture in the canton of Grisons, Switzerland, comprises the ...
Missa Pro Populo

Parochial Mass

The parish is established to provide the parishioners with the helps of religion, especially ...
Missal

Missal

(Latin Missale from Missa , Mass), the book which contains the prayers said by the priest ...
Mission Indians (of California)

Mission Indians (Of California)

A name of no real ethnic significance, but used as a convenient popular and official term to ...
Mission, Congregation of Priests of the

Congregation of the Mission (Vincentians)

A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul. The ...
Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo, Congregation of

Congregation of Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo

Founded by John Baptist Scalabrini, Bishop of Piacenza, Italy (d. 1 June, 1905); approved in ...
Missionaries of St. Francis de Sales of Annecy

Missionaries of St. Francis de Sales of Annecy

Amid the many activities to which St. Francis devoted himself, he long had the desire to found a ...
Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle

Paulist Fathers

Otherwise known as the "Paulist Fathers" A community of priests for giving missions and ...
Missions, California

California Missions

I. LOWER CALIFORNIA California became known to the world through Hernando Cortés, the ...
Missions, Catholic

Catholic Missions

The history of Catholic missions would necessarily begin with the missionary labours of Christ, ...
Missions, Catholic Indian, of Canada

Catholic Indian Missions of Canada

The French discoverers of Canada did not fail to impress the aborigines they met with a vague ...
Missions, Catholic Indian, of the United States

Catholic Indian Missions of the United States

The spiritual welfare of the native tribes of America was a subject of deep concern to the ...
Missions, Catholic Parochial

Catholic Parochial Missions

This term is used to designate certain special exertions of the Church's pastoral agencies, ...
Mississippi

Mississippi

Mississippi, one of the United States of America , takes its name from the Mississippi River ...
Missouri

Missouri

The State of Missouri was carved out of the Louisiana Territory, and derives its name from the ...
Missouri Test-Oath

Missouri Test-Oath

In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...
Mithraism

Mithraism

A pagan religion consisting mainly of the cult of the ancient Indo-Iranian Sun-god Mithra. It ...
Mitre

Mitre

Form, Material, and Use The mitre is a kind of folding-cap. It consists of two like parts, each ...
Mittarelli, Nicola Giacomo

Nicola Giacomo Mittarelli

(In religion GIAN BENEDETTO) A monastic historian, born 2 September, 1707, at Venice ; ...
Mitylene

Mitylene

A titulary archbishopric in the island of Lesbos. Inhabitated, first by the Pelasgians, then by ...
Mivart, St. George Jackson

St. George Jackson Mivart

Corresponding member of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; Member of the Council of ...
Mixe Indians

Mixe Indians

(Also Mije, Latin Mi-she) A mountain tribe in southern Mexico, noted for their extreme ...
Mixed Marriage

Mixed Marriage

(Latin Matrimonia mixta ). Technically, mixed marriages are those between Catholics and ...
Mixteca Indians

Mixteca Indians

(Also Misteca, Latin Mish-te-ka) One of the most important civilized tribes of southern ...
Moab, Moabites

Moab, Moabites

In the Old Testament, the word Moab designates (1) a son of Lot by his elder daughter ( ...
Mobile

Mobile (Alabama)

DIOCESE OF MOBILE ( French MOBILE, Spanish MAUBILA, Latin MOBILIENSIS). Suffragan of New ...
Mocissus

Mocissus

A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia. Procopius (De ædif., V, iv) informs us that this ...
Mocoví Indians

Mocovi Indians

The name is also written Macobio, Mbocobi, Mocobio. They are a warlike and predatory tribe of the ...
Modalism (Monarchianism)

Monarchians

Heretics of the second and third centuries. The word, Monarchiani , was first used by Tertullian ...
Modena

Modena

ARCHDIOCESE OF MODENA (MUTINENSIS) Located in central Italy, between the rivers Secchia and ...
Modernism

Modernism

Origin of the Word Theory of Theological Modernism The essential error of Modernism ...
Modestus, Vitus, and Crescentia, Saints

Sts. Vitus, Modestus, and Crescentia

According to the legend, martyrs under Diocletian ; feast, 15 June. The earliest testimony for ...
Modigliana

Modigliana

DIOCESE OF MODIGLIANA (MUTILIANENSIS) Located in the Province of Florence, in Tuscany. The city ...
Modra

Modra

A titular see of Bithynia Secunda, suffragan of Nicæa. The city of Modra figures only in ...
Mohammed and Mohammedism

Mohammed and Mohammedanism (Islam)

I. THE FOUNDER Mohammed, "the Praised One", the prophet of Islam and the founder of ...
Mohammedan Confraternities

Mohammedan Confraternities

The countries where Mohammedanism prevails are full of religious associations, more or less ...
Mohileff

Mohileff

(Mohyloviensis) Latin Catholic archdiocese and ecclesiastical province in Russia. For the ...
Mohr, Christian

Christian Mohr

Born at Andernach, 1823; died at Cologne, 1888. He practised his profession of sculptor chiefly ...
Mohr, Joseph

Joseph Mohr

Born at Siegburg, Rhine Province, 11 Jan., 1834; died at Munich, 7 February, 1892. Father Mohr did ...
Moigno, François-Napoléon-Marie

Francois-Napoleon-Marie Moigno

Physicist and author, b. at Guéméné (Morbihan), 15 April, 1804; d. at ...
Molai, Jacques de

Jacques de Molai

(DE MOLAY). Born at Rahon, Jura, about 1244; d. at Paris, 18 March, 1314. A Templar at Beaune ...
Molesme, Notre-Dame de

Notre-Dame de Molesme

A celebrated Benedictine monastery in a village of the same name, Canton of Laignes ...
Molfetta, Terlizzi, and Giovinazzo

Molfetta, Terlizzi and Giovinazzo

(MELPHICTENSIS, TERLITIENSIS ET JUVENACENSIS) Molfetta is a city of the province of Bari, in ...
Molière, Jean-Baptiste Poquelin

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin Moliere

(Properly, JEAN-BAPTISTE POQUELIN, the name by which he became known to fame having been assumed ...
Molina, Antonio De

Antonio de Molina

A Spanish Carthusian and celebrated ascetical writer, born about 1560, at Villanueva de los ...
Molina, Juan Ignacio

Juan Ignacio Molina

(Mol. or Molin). Naturalist and scientist ; b. 20 July, 1740, at Guaraculen near Talca ...
Molina, Luis de

Luis de Molina

One of the most learned and renown theologians of the Society of Jesus, b. of noble parentage at ...
Molinism

Molinism

The name used to denote one of the systems which purpose to reconcile grace and free will. This ...
Molinos, Miguel de

Miguel de Molinos

Founder of Quietism, born at Muniesa, Spain, 21 December, 1640; died at Rome, 28 December, ...
Molitor, Wilhelm

Wilhelm Molitor

(Pseudonyms, ULRIC RIESLER and BENNO BRONNER) A poet, novelist, canonist and publicist, born at ...
Molloy, Francis

Francis Molloy

(O'MOLLOY) A theologian, grammarian born in King's County, Ireland, at the beginning of the ...
Molloy, Gerald

Gerald Molloy

A theologian and scientist, born at Mount Tallant House, near Dublin, 10 Sept., 1834; died at ...
Molo, Gasparo

Gasparo Molo

(he wrote his name also MOLA and MOLI) A skilful Italian goldsmith and planisher, chiefly known ...
Moloch

Moloch

( Hebrew Molech , king). A divinity worshiped by the idolatrous Israelites. The Hebrew ...
Molokai

Molokai

An interesting island, one of the North Pacific group formerly known as the Sandwich Islands, or ...
Molyneux, Sir Caryll

Sir Caryll Molyneux

Baronet of Sefton, and third Viscount Molyneux of Maryborough in Ireland, born 1624; died 1699. He ...
Mombritius, Bonino

Bonino Mombritius

A philologist, humanist, and editor of ancient writings, born 1424; died between 1482 and 1502. ...
Monaco, Principality and Diocese of

Principality and Diocese of Monaco

Situated on the Mediterranean Sea, on the skirts of the Turbie and the Tête de Chien ...
Monad

Monad

(From the Greek monas, monados ). Monad , in the sense of "ultimate, indivisible unit," ...
Monarchia Sicula

Monarchia Sicula

A right exercised from the beginning of the sixteenth century by the secular rulers of Sicily, ...
Monarchians

Monarchians

Heretics of the second and third centuries. The word, Monarchiani , was first used by Tertullian ...
Monasteries in Continental Europe, Suppression of

Suppression of Monasteries in Europe

Under this title will be treated only the suppressions of religious houses (whether monastic in ...
Monasteries in England, Suppression of

Suppression of English Monasteries Under Henry VIII

From any point of view the destruction of the English monasteries by Henry VIII must be ...
Monasteries, Double

Double Monasteries

Religious houses comprising communities of both men and women, dwelling in contiguous ...
Monastery, Canonical Erection of a

Canonical Erection of a Monastery

A religious house (monastery or convent ) is a fixed residence of religious persons. It supposes, ...
Monasticism

Monasticism

Monasticism or monachism, literally the act of "dwelling alone" (Greek monos, monazein, monachos ...
Monasticism, Eastern

Eastern Monasticism

(1) Origin The first home of Christian monasticism is the Egyptian desert. Hither during ...
Monasticism, Pre-Chalcedonian

Eastern Monasticism Before Chalcedon

Egypt was the Motherland of Christian monasticism. It sprang into existence there at the ...
Monasticism, Western

Western Monasticism

(1) Pre-Benedictine Period The introduction of monasticism into the West may be dated from ...
Moncada, Francisco De

Francisco de Moncada

Count of Osona, Spanish historian, son of the Governor of Sardinia and Catalonia, born at ...
Mondino dei Lucci

Mondino Dei Lucci

Mondino (a diminutive for Raimondo; Mundinus) dei Lucci. Anatomist, b. probably at Bologna, ...
Mondoñedo

Mondonedo

(Latin MONDUMETUM, or MINDON, MINDONIENSIS, also BRITONIENSIS, DUMIENSIS, and VILLABRIENSIS) ...
Mondovi

Mondovi

DIOCESE OF MONDOVÌ (MONTISREGALIS) Located in Piedmont, province of Cuneo, northern ...
Mone, Franz

Franz Mone

A historian and archeologist, born at Mingolsheim near Bruchsal, Baden, 12 May, 1796; died at ...
Moneta

Moneta

(MONETUS) A theologian, born at Cremona, Italy, date unknown; died at Bologna, 1240. He ...
Mongolia

Mongolia

The name used to designate an immense uneven plateau, part of the Chinese Empire, extending, ...
Mongus, Peter

Peter Mongus

( moggos , "stammerer", or "hoarse".) Intruded Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria (d. ...
Monica, Saint

Saint Monica

Widow ; born of Christian parents at Tagaste, North Africa, in 333; died at Ostia, near Rome, ...
Monism

Monism

(From the Greek monos , "one", "alone", "unique"). Monism is a philosophical term which, ...
Monita Secreta

Monita Secreta

A code of instructions alleged to be addressed by Acquaviva, the fifth general of the Society, to ...
Monk

Monk

A monk may be conveniently defined as a member of a community of men, leading a more or less ...
Monk of Malmesbury, The

The Monk of Malmesbury

Supposed author of a chronicle among the Cottonian manuscripts in the British Museum (Vesp. D. ...
Monogram of Christ

Monogram of Christ

By the Monogram of Christ is ordinarily understood the abbreviation of Christ's name formed by ...
Monomotapa

Monomotapa

Whatever may be the etymological meaning of the word Monomotapa , the origin of which is much ...
Monophysites and Monophysitism

Monophysites and Monophysitism

The history of this sect and of its ramifications has been summarized under E UTYCHIANISM (the ...
Monopoli, Diocese of

Monopoli

(MONOPOLITANA). A diocese in the Province of Bari, in Apulia, southern Italy. The city has a ...
Monopoly, Moral Aspects of

Moral Aspects of Monopoly

According to its etymology, monopoly ( monopolia ) signifies exclusive sale, or exclusive ...
Monotheism

Monotheism

Monotheism (from the Greek monos "only", and theos "god") is a word coined in comparatively ...
Monothelitism and Monothelites

Monothelitism and Monothelites

(Sometimes written MONOTHELETES, from monotheletai , but the eta is more naturally ...
Monreale

Monreale

Located in the province of Palermo, Sicily, on the skirts of Mount Caputo. The city is built in a ...
Monroe, James

James Monroe

A soldier, convert, born in Albemarle county, Virginia, U.S.A. 10 Sept., 1799; died at Orange, ...
Monsabré, Jacques-Marie-Louis

Jacques-Marie-Louis Monsabre

A celebrated pulpit orator, born at Blois, France, 10 Dec., 1827; died at Havre, 21 Feb., ...
Monseigneur

Monseigneur

(From mon , "my" and seigneur , ("elder" or "lord," like Latin senior ) A French ...
Monsell, William, Baron Emly

William Monsell, Baron Emly

Born 21 Sept., 1812; died at Tervoe, Co. Limerick, Ireland, 20 April, 1894. His father was ...
Monsignor

Monsignor

( Dominus meus; monseigneur , My Lord). As early as the fourteenth century it was the custom ...
Monstrance (Ostensorium)

Ostensorium

(From ostendere , "to show"). Ostensorium means, in accordance with its etymology, a ...
Monstrelet, Enguerrand de

Enguerrand de Monstrelet

A French chronicler, born about 1390 or 1395; died in July, 1453. He was most probably a native of ...
Mont-St-Michel

Mont-St-Michel

A Benedictine Abbey, in the Diocese of Avranches, Normandy, France. It is unquestionably the ...
Montañés, Juan Martínez

Juan Martinez Montanes

A noted Spanish sculptor of the seventeenth century, died 1649, sometimes called "the Sevillian ...
Montagna, Bartolomeo

Bartolomeo Montagna

Italian painter, chief representative of the Vicenza School, b. at Orzinuovi about 1450; d. at ...
Montagnais Indians (Chippewayans)

Montagnais Indians (Chippewayans)

A name given in error to the C HIPPEWAYANS , owing to a fancied resemblance to the ...
Montagnais Indians (Quebec)

Montagnais Indians (Quebec)

French for "Mountaineers". The collective designation of a number of bands speaking dialects ...
Montaigne, Michel-Eyquen de

Michel-Eyquen de Montaigne

Writer, b. at the château of Montaigne, in Périgord, France, on 28 Feb., 1533; d. ...
Montalcino

Montalcino

DIOCESE OF MONTALCINO (ILCINENSIS) Montalcino is a small town about twenty miles from Siena, ...
Montalembert, Charles-Forbes-René

Comte de Montalembert

CHARLES-FORBES-RENÉ, COMTE DE MONTALEMBERT. Born in London, 15 April, 1810; died in ...
Montalto

Montalto

DIOCESE OF MONTALTO (MONTIS ALTI) Located in Ascoli Piceno. The situation of the little town ...
Montana

Montana

The third largest of the United States of America , admitted to the Union 8 November, 1889; ...
Montanists

Montanists

Schismatics of the second century, first known as Phrygians, or "those among the Phrygians" ( oi ...
Montanus, Benedictus Arias

Benedictus Arias Montanus

Orientalist, exegete, and editor of the "Antwerp Polyglot", born at Frejenal de la Sierra in ...
Montauban

Montauban

(MONTIS ALBANI) A suffragan of Toulouse, comprises the entire department of Tarn and Garonne. ...
Montault, Xavier Barbier De

Xavier Barbier de Montault

Born at Loudun, 6 February, 1830; died at Blaslay, Vienne ( France ), 29 March, 1901. He came of ...
Montboissier, Blessed Peter of

Blessed Peter of Montboissier

(Better known as PETER THE VENERABLE). Born in Auvergne, about 1092; died at Cluny, 25 ...
Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de Louis-Joseph

Marquis de Montcalm-Gozon

A French general, born 28 Feb., 1712, at Candiac, of Louis-Daniel and Marie-Thérèse ...
Monte Cassino, Abbey of

Abbey of Monte Cassino

An abbey nullius situated about eighty miles south of Rome, the cradle of the Benedictine ...
Monte Vergine

Monte Vergine

An abbey in the province of Naples, Italy, near the town of Avellino, commanding a magnificent ...
Montefeltro

Montefeltro

(FERETRANA) Located in the province of Urbino, in the Marches, Central Italy. The earliest ...
Montefiascone

Montefiascone

(MONTIS FALISCI) Located in the province of Rome. The city is situated nearly 2000 feet above ...
Montemayor, Jorge De

Jorge de Montemayor

(MONTEMÔR) A writer, born at Montemôr, province of Coimbra, Portugal, about 1520; ...
Montenegro

Montenegro

A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea; the territory was in ...
Montepulciano

Montepulciano

DIOCESE OF MONTEPULCIANO (MONTIS POLITIANI) Diocese in the province of Siena, in Tuscany. The ...
Monterey and Los Angeles

Monterey and Los Angeles

DIOCESE OF MONTEREY AND LOS ANGELES (MONTEREYENSIS ET ANGELORUM). Comprises that part of the ...
Montes Pietatis

Montes Pietatis

Montes Pietatius are charitable institutions of credit that lend money at low rates of ...
Montesa, Military Order of

Military Order of Montesa

This order was established in the Kingdom of Aragon to take the place of the Order of the ...
Montesino, Antonio

Antonio Montesino

A Spanish missionary, date of birth unknown; died in the West Indies, 1545. Of his early life ...
Montesinos, Luis de

Luis de Montesinos

Spanish theologian, date and place of birth unknown; d. 7 Oct., 1621. He entered the Dominican ...
Montesqieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de

Baron de Montesquieu

French writer and publicist, b. in the Château de la Brède near Bordeaux, 18 ...
Monteverde, Claudio

Claudio Monteverde

A distinguished musician, born at Cremona, May, 1567; died at Venice, 29 Nov., 1643. He studied ...
Montevideo

Montevideo

(MONTISVIDEI) Located in Uruguay, comprises the whole of the republic. This territory was ...
Montfaucon, Bernard de

Bernard de Montfaucon

French scholar, b. in 1655, at the château de Soulatge, Department of Aude, arrondissement ...
Montfort, Simon de

Simon de Montfort

An Earl of Leicester, date of birth unknown, died at Toulouse, 25 June, 1218. Simon (IV) de ...
Montgolfier, Joseph-Michel

Joseph-Michel Montgolfier

Inventor; b. at Vidalon-lez-Annonay, Department of Ardèche, France, 26 August, 1740; d. ...
Months, Special Devotions for

Special Devotions For Months

During the Middle Ages the public functions of the Church and the popular devotions of the ...
Montmagny, Charles Huault De

Charles Huault de Montmagny

The second French Governor of Canada, born in France towards the end of the sixteenth century, ...
Montmirail, John de

John de Montmirail

(MONTE-MIRABILI) Son of Andrew, Lord of Montmirail and Ferté-Gaucher, and Hildiarde ...
Montmorency, Anne, First Duke of

Anne, First Duke of Montmorency

Born at Chantilly, 15 March, 1492; died at Paris, 12 November, 1567. He belonged to that family ...
Montor, Alexis-François Artaud De

Alexis-Francois Artaud de Montor

A diplomat and historian, born at Paris, 31 July, 1772; died at Paris, 12 Nov., 1849. An ...
Montpellier

Montpellier

The Diocese of Montpellier (Montis Pessulani) comprises the department of Hérault, and is a ...
Montreal, Archdiocese of

Montreal

Metropolitan of the ecclesiastical Province of Montreal. Suffragans: the Dioceses of ...
Montreuil

Montreuil

Charterhouse of Notre-Dame-des-Pres, at Montreuil, in the Diocese of Arras, Department of ...
Montreuil Abbey

Montreuil Abbey

A former convent of Cistercian nuns in the Diocese of Laon, now Soissons, France. Some ...
Montyon, Antoine-Jean-Baptiste-Robert Auget, Baron de

Baron de Montyon

Famous French philanthropist; b. at Paris, 23 December, 1733; d. there 29 December, 1820. He was ...
Moore, Arthur

Arthur Moore

Count, b. at Liverpool, 1849; d. at Mooresfort, Tipperary, Ireland, 1904, was the son of ...
Moore, Michael

Michael Moore

(Or MOOR) Priest, preacher, and professor, b. at Dublin, Ireland, 1640; d. at Paris, 22 ...
Moore, Thomas

Thomas Moore

Poet and biographer, b. 28 May, 1779, at Dublin, Ireland ; d. 26 February, 1852, at Devizes, ...
Mopsuestia

Mopsuestia

A titular see of Cilicia Secunda in Asia Minor and suffragan of Anazarbus. The founding of ...
Moréri, Louis

Louis Moreri

An encyclopaedist, b. at Bargemont in the Diocese of Fréjus, France, 25 March, 1643, d. at ...
Mor, Antonis Van Dashort

Antonis van Dashort Mor

(MOOR) Commonly called ANTONIO MORO, or ANTHONIS MORE, a Dutch painter, b. at Utrecht in 1519; ...
Moral Theology

Moral Theology

Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...
Morales, Ambrosio

Ambrosio Morales

Spanish historian, b. at Cordova, 1513; d. in 1591. After his studies at the University of ...
Morales, Christóbal

Christobal Morales

A composer, born at Seville, 2 Jan., 1512; died at Málaga, 14 June, 1553. From 1 Sept., ...
Morales, Juan Bautista

Juan Bautista Morales

Missionary, b. about 1597 at Ecija in Andalusia, Spain ; d. Fu-ning, China, 17 Sept., 1664. He ...
Morales, Luis de

Luis de Morales

Spanish painter, b. at Badajoz in Estremadura about 1509; d. at Badajoz, 1586. His life was ...
Moralities

Moralities (Morality Plays)

( Also: MORALITY PLAYS or MORAL PLAYS). Moralities are a development or an offshoot of the ...
Morality

Morality

It is necessary at the outset of this article to distinguish between morality and ethics , ...
Moran, Francis Patrick

Francis Patrick Cardinal Moran

Third Archbishop of Sydney, b. at Leighlinbridge, Ireland, 16 Sept., 1830; d. at Manly, Sydney, ...
Moratín, Leandro Fernandez de

Leandro Fernandez de Moratin

Spanish poet and playwright, b. at Madrid, 10 March, 1760; at Paris, 21 June, 1828. He is ...
Moravia

Moravia

( German MÄHREN). Austrian crown land east of Bohemia. In the century before the Christian ...
Moravian Brethren

Bohemian Brethren

(MORAVIAN BRETHREN, or UNITAS FRATRUM). DEFINITION AND DOCTRINAL POSITION "Bohemian Brethren" ...
Morcelli, Stefano Antonio

Stefano Antonio Morcelli

An Italian Jesuit and learned epigraphist; b. 17 January, 1737, at Chiari near Brescia ; d. ...
More, Helen

Helen More

(DAME GERTRUDE.) Benedictine nun of the English Congregation; b. at Low Leyton, Essex, ...
More, Henry

Henry More

Great-grandson of the martyred English chancellor ; b., 1586; d. at Watten in 1661. Having ...
More, Thomas, Saint

St. Thomas More

Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...
Morel, Gall

Gall Morel

Poet, scholar, aesthete, and educationist, b. at St. Fiden, Switzerland, on 24 March, 1803; d. at ...
Morell, Juliana

Juliana Morell

Dominican nun, b. at Barcelona, Spain, 16 February, 1594; d. at the convent of the Dominican ...
Morelos, José María

Jose Maria Morelos

Mexican patriot, b. at Valladolid (now called Morelia in his honour ), Mexico, on 30 September, ...
Moreto y Cabaña, Augustine

Augustin Moreto y Cabana

Spanish dramatist; b. at Madrid, 9 April, 1618, d. at Toledo, 28 Octoher, 1669. He received what ...
Morgagni, Giovanni Battista

Giovanni Battista Morgagni

Called by Virchow, the "Father of Modern Pathology", a distinguished Italian physician and ...
Morgan, Venerable Edward

Venerable Edward Morgan

Welsh priest, martyr, b. at Bettisfield, Hanmer, Flintshire, executed at Tyburn, London, 26 ...
Morghen, Raffaello

Raffaello Morghen

Italian engraver, b. at Portici, 19 June, 1768 (1761?); d. at Florence, 8 April, 1833. His ...
Moriarty, David

David Moriarty

Bishop and pulpit orator, b. in Ardfert, Co. Kerry, in 1812; d. 1 October, 1877. He received ...
Morigi, Michaelangelo (Caravaggio)

Caravaggio (Michaelangelo Morigi)

A Milanese painter, b. at Caravaggio in 1569, d. at Porto d' Ercole in 1609. His family name was ...
Morimond, Abbey of

Abbey of Morimond

Fourth daughter of Cîteaux situated in Champagne, Diocese of Langres , France ; was ...
Morin, Jean

Jean Morin

A French priest of the Oratory, b. at Blois, in 1591, d. at Paris, 28 Feb., 1659. According to ...
Mormons

Mormonism

( Also called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.) This religious body had ...
Morocco

Morocco

(Prefecture Apostolic of Morocco). The country known as Morocco (from Marrakesh, the name of ...
Morone, Giovanni

Giovanni Morone

Cardinal, Bishop of Modena, b. at Milan 25 Jan., 1509; d. at Rome, 1 Dec., 1580. He belonged ...
Moroni, Gaetano

Gaetano Moroni

The author of the well-known "Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica", b. at Rome, 17 ...
Moroni, Giovanni Battista

Giovanni Battista Moroni

A painter, b. at Bondo, near Albino, in the territory of Bergamo, between 1520 and 1525; d. at ...
Morris, John

John Morris

Canon, afterwards Jesuit, F.S.A., b. in India, 4 July, 1826; d. at Wimbledon, 22 Oct., 1893, ...
Morris, John Brande

John Brande Morris

Born at Brentford, Middlesex, 4 September, 1812; died at Hammersmith, London, 9 April, 1880; he ...
Morris, Martin Ferdinand

Martin Ferdinand Morris

Lawyer and jurist, b. 3 December, 1834, at Washington, D.C.; d. 12 September, 1909, at Washington, ...
Morse

Morse

( Latin morsus ). Also called the MONILLE, FIRMULA, FIRMULE, PECTOIRALE, originally the ...
Morse, Venerable Henry

Ven. Henry Morse

Martyr ; b. in 1595 in Norfolk; d. at Tyburn, 1 Feb., 1644. He was received into the church at ...
Mortification

Mortification

One of the methods which Christian ascesticism employs in training the soul to virtuous and ...
Mortmain

Mortmain

(Old Fr., morte meyn ), dead-hand, or "such a state of possession of land as makes it ...
Morton, John

John Morton

Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury, b. in Dorsetshire about 1420, d. at Knowle, Kent, 15 Sept., ...
Morton, Robert

Ven. Robert Morton

English priest and martyr, b. at Bawtry, Yorks, about 1548; executed in Lincoln's Inn Fields, ...
Mosaic Legislation

Mosaic Legislation

The body of juridical, moral, and ceremonial institutions, laws and decisions comprised in the ...
Mosaics

Mosaics

Mosaics, as a term, according to the usual authorities is derived through generations of gradual ...
Moschus, Johannes

Johannes Moschus

( ho tou Moschou , son of Moschus) A monk and ascetical writer, b. about 550 probably at ...
Moscow

Moscow

(Russian Moskva ). The ancient capital of Russia and the chief city of the government ...
Moses

Moses

Hebrew liberator, leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian, lived in the thirteenth and early part ...
Moses Bar Cephas

Moses Bar Cephas

A Syriac bishop and writer, b. at Balad about 813; d. 12 Feb., 903. He is known through a ...
Moses Maimonides, Teaching of

Teaching of Moses Maimonides

Moses ben Maimun (Arabic, Abu Amran Musa), Jewish commentator and philosopher, was born of ...
Moses of Chorene

Moses of Chorene

(MOSES CHORENENSIS) Perhaps the best known writer of Armenia, called by his countrymen "the ...
Mossul

Mossul

The seat of a Chaldean archdiocese, a Syrian diocese, and an Apostolic Mission. The origin of ...
Most Precious Blood, Archconfraternity of the

Archconfraternity of the Most Precious Blood

Confraternities which made it their special object to venerate the Blood of Christ first arose in ...
Most Precious Blood, Feast of the

Feast of the Most Precious Blood

For many dioceses there are two days to which the Office of the Precious Blood has been ...
Most Pure Heart of Mary, Feast of the

Feast of the Most Pure Heart of Mary

In its principal object this feast is identical with the feast of the "Inner Life of Mary", ...
Mostar and Markana-Trebinje

Mostar and Markana-Trebinje

(MANDATRIENSIS, MARCANENSIS ET TRIBUNENSIS) When at the Berlin Congress (1878) ...
Mosynoupolis

Mosynoupolis

Titular see, suffragan of Trajanopolis in Rhodope. A single bishop is known, Paul, who assisted ...
Motet

Motet

A short piece of music set to Latin words, and sung instead of, or immediately after, the ...
Motolinia, Toribio de Benavente

Toribio de Benavente Motolinia

Franciscan missionary, b. at Benavente, Spain, at the end of the fifteenth century; d. in the ...
Motu Proprio

Motu Proprio

The name given to certain papal rescripts on account of the clause motu proprio (of his own ...
Mouchy, Antoine de

Antoine de Mouchy

(Called DEMOCHARES.) Theologian and canonist, b. 1494, at Ressons-sur-Matz, near Beauvais, in ...
Moufang, Franz Christoph Ignaz

Franz Christoph Ignaz Moufang

Theologian, b. at Mainz, 17 Feb., 1817; d. there, 27 Feb., 1890. His early studies were made at ...
Moulins

Moulins

D IOCESE OF M OULINS (M OLINENSIS ). Suffragan of Sens -- comprises the entire ...
Mount Athos

Mount Athos

Athos is a small tongue of land that projects into the Aegean Sea, being the eastern-most of the ...
Mount Calvary, Congregations of

Congregations of Mount Calvary

I. DAUGHTERS OF MOUNT CALVARY Founded in 1619 by Virginia Centurione (d. 1651), daughter of the ...
Mount Carmel, Feast of Our Lady of

Feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel

This feast was instituted by the Carmelites between 1376 and 1386 under the title ...
Mount Saint Mary's College

Mount St. Mary's College

Mount St. Mary's College , the second oldest among the Catholic collegiate institutions in the ...
Movers, Franz Karl

Franz Karl Movers

Exegete and Orientalist, b. at Koesfeld, Westphalia, 17 July, 1806; d. at Breslau, 28 Sept., ...
Moxos Indians

Moxos Indians

(MOYOS INDIANS). According to one authority, they are named from Musu, their Quichua name; ...
Moy De Sons, Karl Ernst, Freiherr Von

Karl Ernst, Freiherr von Moy de Sons

A jurist, born 10 August, 1799, at Munich ; died 1 August, 1867, at Innsbruck (Tyrol). He ...
Moye, Ven. John Martin

Ven. John Martin Moye

Priest of the Diocese of Metz, founder of the Sisters of Divine Providence, missionary in China, ...
Moylan, Francis

Francis Moylan

Bishop of Cork, born at Cork, 1739; died in 1815. He was the son of a rich merchant. As the ...
Moylan, Stephen

Stephen Moylan

An American patriot and merchant, born in Ireland in 1734; died at Philadelphia, 11 April, ...
Mozambique

Mozambique

(Mocambique) The former official and still usual name given to the Portuguese possessions on ...
Mozarabic Rite

Mozarabic Rite

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. History and Origin; II. Manuscripts and ...
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

One of the greatest musical geniuses in history, born at Salzburg, Austria, 27 January, 1756; died ...
Mozetena Indians

Mozetena Indians

A group of some half dozen tribes constituting a distinct linguistic stock upon the headwaters of ...
Mozzetta

Mozzetta

A short, cape-shaped garment, covering the shoulders and reaching only to the elbow, with an open ...
Mozzi, Luigi

Luigi Mozzi

Controversialist, born at Bergamo, 26 May, 1746; died near Milan, 24 June, 1813. He entered the ...
Mrak, Ignatius

Ignatius Mrak

The second Bishop of Marquette, U.S.A., born 16 October, 1818, in Hotovle, in the Diocese of ...
Muchar, Albert Anton Von

Albert Anton von Muchar

An historian, born at Linez, Tyrol, 22 Nov., 1781; died at Graz, Styria, 6 June, 1849. He was ...
Mulhall, Michael George

Michael George Mulhall

Statistician, b. in Dublin, 29 September, 1829; d. there 13 Dec., 1900. He was educated at the ...
Mulholland, St. Clair Augustine

St. Clair Augustine Mulholland

Born at Lisburn, Co. Antrium, Ireland, 1 April 1839; died at Philadelphia, 17 Feb., 1910. ...
Mullanphy, John

John Mullanphy

Merchant, philanthropist, b. near Enniskillen, Co. Fremanagh, Ireland, 1758; d. at St. Louis, ...
Mullock, John T.

John Mullock

Bishop of St. John's, Newfoundland, born in 1807 at Limerick, Ireland ; died at St. John's, ...
Mundwiler, Fintan

Fintan Mundwiler

Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of St. Meinrad, Indiana, born at Dietikon in Switzerland, ...
Munich-Freising

Munich-Freising

ARCHDIOCESE OF MUNICH-FREISING (MONASENSIS ET FRISINGENSIS). An archdiocese in Bavaria. This ...
Munkács

Munkacs

Diocese in Hungary, of Greek Catholic Rite, suffragan of Gran. It dates from the fifteenth ...
Mura, Saint

St. Mura

Born in Co. Donegal, Ireland, about 550. He was appointed Abbot of Fahan by St. Columba. The ...
Muratori, Luigi Antonio

Luigi Antonio Muratori

Librarian in Modena, one of the greatest scholars of his time, b. 21 Oct., 1672; d. 23 Jan., ...
Muratorian Canon

Muratorian Canon

Also called the Muratorian Fragment, after the name of the discoverer and first editor, L. A. ...
Murder

Homicide

( Latin homo , man; and caedere , to slay) Homicide signifies, in general, the killing of a ...
Muret, Marc-Antoine

Marc-Antoine Muret

French humanist, b. at Muret, near Limoges, in 1526; d. at Rome, in 1585. He studied at Poitiers ...
Muri

Muri

(MURI-GRIES) An abbey of monks of the Order of S. Benedict, which flourished for over ...
Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban

Bartolome Esteban Murillo

Spanish painter ; b. at Seville, 31 December, 1617; d. there 5 April, 1682. His family surname ...
Murner, Thomas

Thomas Murner

Greatest German satirist of the sixteenth century, b. at Oberehnheim, Alsace, 24 Dec., 1475; d. ...
Muro-Lucano

Muro-Lucano

(MURANENSIS) Located in the province of Potenza, in Basilicata, southern Italy. The town is ...
Murray, Daniel

Daniel Murray

An Archbishop of Dublin, b. 1768, at Sheepwalk, near Arklow, Ireland ; d. at Dublin. He was ...
Murray, John O'Kane

John O'Kane Murray

Physician, historian, b. in County Antrim, Ireland, 12 Dec., 1847; d. at Chicago, Illinois, ...
Murray, Patrick

Patrick Murray

Theologian, b. Clones, County Monaghan, Ireland, 18 November, 1811; d. 15 Nov., 1882, in ...
Museums, Christian

Christian Museums

Though applicable to collections composed of Christian objects representative of all epochs, ...
Mush

Mush

An Armenian Catholic see, comprising the sanjaks of Mush and Seert, in the vilayet of Bitlis. It ...
Mush, John

John Mush

(Alias RATCLIFFE) A priest, b. in Yorkshire, 1551 or 1552; d. at Wenge, Co. Bucks, 1612 or ...
Music of the Mass

Music of the Mass

Under this heading will be considered exclusively the texts of the Mass (and not, therefore, the ...
Music, Ecclesiastical

Church Music

By this term is meant the music which, by order or with the approbation of ecclesiastical ...
Musical Instruments in Church Services

Musical Instruments in Church Services

For almost a thousand years Gregorian chant, without any instrumental or harmonic addition, was ...
Musso, Cornelius

Cornelius Musso

Friar Minor Conventual, Bishop of Bitonto, prominent at the Council of Trent ; born at Piacenza ...
Musti

Musti

A titular see of Proconsular Africa, suffragan of Carthage. This town, which was a Roman ...
Musuros, Markos

Markos Musuros

A learned Greek humanist, born 1470 at Retimo, Crete; died 1517 at Rome. The son of a rich ...
Mutis, José Celestino

Jose Celestino Mutis

Eminent naturalist and scientist in South America, b. at Cadiz, Spain , 6 April, 1732; d. at ...
Muzzarelli, Alfonso

Alfonso Muzzarelli

A learned Italian Jesuit, b. 22 August, 1749, at Ferrara ; d. 25 May, 1813, at Paris. He ...
Mylasa

Mylasa

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Aphrodisias, or Stauropolis, in Caria. This city, the ...
Myndus

Myndus

A titular see of Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis. This city, known through its coins and ...
Myra

Myra

A titular see of Lycia in Asia Minor. The city was from time immemorial one of the chief places ...
Myrina

Myrina

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. Herodotus (I, 149) mentions it as one of the ...
Myriophytum

Myriophytum

A titular see of Thracia Prima and suffragan of Heraclea. The early history of this city is ...
Mysore

Mysore

(MAISOUR); DIOCESE OF MYSORE (MYSURIENSIS) Diocese in India, suffragan to Pondicherry, ...
Mysteries and Miracle Plays

Miracle Plays and Mysteries

These two names are used to designate the religious drama which developed among Christian ...
Mystery

Mystery

(Greek mysterion , from myein , "to shut", "to close".) This term signifies in general ...
Mystical Body of the Church

Mystical Body of the Church

The analogy borne by any society of men to an organism is sufficiently manifest. In every ...
Mystical Marriage

Mystical Marriage

In the Old and the New Testament , the love of God for man, and, in particular His relations ...
Mystical Theology

Mystical Theology

Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...
Mysticism

Mysticism

(From myein , to initiate). Mysticism , according to its etymology, implies a relation to ...

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