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Greek Catholics in America

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The Uniat churches of the Byzantine or Greek Rite were almost unknown to the United States some twenty-five years ago [1884]. Occasionally a priest of that rite from Syria came to America to ask assistance for his people who were struggling amid the Moslems, but while his visit was a matter of curiosity, his rite and the peoples who followed it were wholly unknown to American Catholics. To-day, however, emigration has increased to such an extent and is drawn from so many lands and peoples that there are representatives of most of the Eastern rites in America, and particularly those of the Greek Rite. These have lately arrived in large numbers and have erected their churches all over the country. The chief races which have brought the Greek Rite with them to the United States are the various Slavs of Austro-Hungary, and they are now approaching such a position of material well-being and intellectual development as to be reckoned with as one of the factors of Catholic life in the United States. Other races have also brought the Greek Rite with them and established it where they have settled. The advent of the Slavs into the United States really commenced about 1879-1880. Those of the Greek Rite came from the north-eastern portion of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, where they inhabited chiefly the northern and southern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, which form the boundary line between Galicia and Hungary. The first of the new-corners were miners in the coal districts. During the troublous times in Pennsylvania, from 1871 to 1879, when the "Molly Maguires" terrorized the mining districts and practically defied the authority of the State, the various coal companies determined to look abroad for foreign labour to replace their lawless workmen, and so they introduced the Austrian Slav to the mining regions of Pennsylvania. His success in wage-earning induced his countrymen to follow, and the coal companies and iron-masters of Pennsylvania were quick to avail themselves of the new and less costly labour. This was before any of the present contract labour laws were enacted. The Slav was willing to work for longer hours than the English-speaking labourer, to perform heavier work, and to stolidly put up with inconveniences which his predecessor would not brook. He came from a land in which he had originally been a serf (serfdom was abolished in Austria-Hungary in 1848, and in Russia in 1861), then a degraded poverty-stricken peasant with hardly anything to call his own, and it was no wonder that America seemed to offer him boundless opportunity to earn a living and improve his condition. At first he was a cheap man ; but in the course of a very short time the Slav became not a mere pair of strong hands, but a skilled worker, and as such he drove out his competitors, and his success drew still more of his countrymen across the sea. In the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania there were in 1880 but some 1900 Slavs ; in 1890, over 40,000; and in 1900, upwards of 81,000. The same proportion holds good of the bituminous coal-mining districts and of the iron regions in that and other states. Taking simply the past four years (1905-1908), the immigration of the Slovaks and Ruthenians, both of the Greek Catholic Rite, has amounted to 215,972. This leaves out of consideration the immigration (147,675) of the Croatians and Slavonians for the same period, though a considerable portion of them are also of the Greek Rite. These Slavs brought with them their Greek Catholic rites and practices, but they were illiterate, ignorant, the poorest of the poor, and knew nothing of the English language. Herding together in camps and settlements, and working like serfs at the most exhausting labour, they had but little opportunity to improve themselves or to learn the language, customs, and ways of the Americans around them, while both American and foreign-born Catholics failed to recognize in them fellow-Catholics, and so passed them scornfully by, and the American of the older stock and anti-Catholic prejudices too often held them in supreme contempt. Yet as soon as they gathered some little substance and formed a. settled community they sent for their clergy. When these arrived, they, too, were often imbued with national and racial prejudices, and knew too little of the English language and American ideas and customs to initiate immediately the progress of their people, yet they created for them churches, schools, and a branch of their native literature upon American soil, and gradually brought them into touch with the people around them. In this they were seconded by many educated laymen who also followed their countrymen, and the result has been that the Greek Rite has now been established in the United States much more solidly and with greater virility than it is in many of the dioceses in south-eastern Europe. Other races and nationalities have also established themselves besides the Slavs ; and there are in America also the Rumanians, the Syrians, and the Italians who follow the Greek Rite. But the people who have been foremost and most enthusiastic inthe support of and devotion to their Oriental Rite are the so-called Ruthenians, a name used to designate the Ruthenians proper and also those Slovaks who are their immediate neighbours. In order to understand fully their position and relations in America, some of their history and peculiarities should be given.

I. RUTHENIAN GREEK CATHOLICS

The word Ruthenian is derived from the later Latin Ruthenia, the former name for Russia, and of course the Ruthenians might well be called Russians. Indeed, the present Ruthenians declare that they are the original Russians, and that the present Russia and Russians owe their name and nation to the accident of successful conquest and assimilation. Their own name for themselves is Rusini, and it is probable that Ruthenian was merely an attempt to put this word into Latin. The word Rutheni is first found in the writings of the Polish annalist, Martinus Gallus (1190), and the Danish historian, Saxo Grammaticus (1203). The original word Rusini is derived from Rus, the abstract word for Russian fatherland or dwelling-place of the Slavic people; and the English word "Russian" may therefore mean a derivative from the word Rus, as denominating the race, or it may mean a subject of the Russian Empire. The former is russky the latter rossiisky, in the Russian and Ruthenian languages, and hence, while the first word is translated either as Russian or Ruthenian, it carries no special reference to the Russian Empire. These people are also called "Little Russians" (an expression chiefly used for them in the Russian Empire), originally an allusion to their stature as contrasted with the Muscovites. Their language is known as Ruthenian or Little Russian, and is spoken in Northern Hungary, Galicia Bukowina, and in the Provinces of Volhynia, Podolia, Chelm, and Kiev in Russia. It is quite similar to the Russian language of the Russian Empire (sometimes called Great Russian), bearing about the same relation to it as Lowland Scotch does to English, or Plattdeutsch to German, and rather closer than Portuguese does to Spanish. The Ruthenians (in Austria ) and Little Russians (in Russia ) use the Russian alphabet and write their language in almost the same orthography as the Great Russians of St. Petersburg and Moscow, but they pronounce it in many cases very differently, quite as the French and English might pronounce differently a word written the same in each language. This fact has led in late years to a recension of the Russian alphabet in Galicia and Bukowina by the governmental authorities, and by dropping some letters and adding one or two more and then spelling all the words just as they are pronounced, they have produced a new language at least to the eye. This is the "phonetic" alphabet and orthography, and as thus introduced it differentiates the Ruthenian language of these provinces more than ever from the Russian. The phonetic system of orthography is still fiercely opposed at home and in America, and as an Austrian governmental measure it is regarded by many as an effort to detach the Ruthenians from the rest of the Russian race and in a measure to Polonize them. This battle of the reformed phonetic spelling rages as fiercely in the United States as in Austria. Indeed the Greek Catholic bishop here has found it necessary to issue his official documents in both the phonetic and the etymologic spelling (as the older form is called), so as to meet the views of both parties. The phonetic spelling has never been introduced among the Ruthenians in Hungary, and their section of the language is still written in the customary form, there and in the United States. Besides the Ruthenians there are also the Slovaks who live in Northern and North-western Hungary, close neighbours to the Ruthenians, who are Greek Catholics, and who speak a language almost like the Bohemian, yet similar to the Ruthenian. It is written, however, with Roman letters, and the pronunciation follows the Bohemian more than the Ruthenian. These people seem to have been originally Ruthenian, but became gradually changed and moulded by the Bohemians and their language and for a long time wrote their language in the same manner as the Bohemian. The Bohemians, however, are in the Austrian part of the empire, while the Slovaks are in Hungary. They have emigrated to the United States in large numbers, and are about equally divided between the Greek and Roman Rites. This again necessitates the publication of church matters, prayer books, journals, etc., in the Slovak language. It illustrates the difficulties of the Greek Catholic priests in the United States since they are likely to have in their parishes Ruthenians (of the old and new orthographies), Slovaks, and even those who speak only Hungarian, having lost their Slavic tongue. It is no uncommon thing to find a Greek Catholic priest capable of speaking five languages: Ruthenian, Slovak, Hungarian, German, and English. It is these people as a whole who are comprehended under the term Ruthenian, although that term applies strictly to those speaking Russian and using the Russian alphabet. After the eleventh century the larger portion of Russians fell away from the unity of the Church in the schism of Constantinople, while a minority continued faithful to the Catholic Church, and later many more returned to unity. The Holy See, therefore, made use of the ancient word Ruthenian to designate those Russians who followed the Greek Rite in unity with the Holy See , in order to distinguish them from the Northern Russians who adhered to the schism. Later on, those Russians who joined the union under the Polish kings received the same name, and the word Ruthenian is today used exclusively to designate the Russians of Austro-Hungary, who are Greek Catholics in contradistinction to the Russians of the Russian Empire, who are of the Greek Orthodox faith.

The language of the Mass and the other liturgical services according to the Byzantine Rite is the ancient Slavonic (staroslavianski), and the Greek Liturgy was originally translated by Sts. Cyril and Methodius about the year 868, and it has remained substantially the same ever since. It is curious to notice that the Ruthenian language is much closer, both in spelling and pronunciation, to the church Slavonic than the present Russian language of St. Petersburg and Moscow. The letters in which the church books are printed are the Cyrillic, or Kirillitsa said to have been invented or, rather, adapted by St. Cyril from the Greek alphabet, together with some additional letters of his own invention. It consists of forty-three letters of archaic form as used in the church books, but has been altered and reduced in modern Russian and Ruthenian to thirty-five letters. In the year 879 Pope John VIII formally authorized the use of the Slavonic language forever in the Mass and in the whole liturgy and offices of the Church, according to the Greek Rite, and its use has been continued ever since by the Catholic and the Orthodox (schismatic) Greeks of the Slavic races. This is the language used in the Sluzhebnik (Missal), Trebnik (Ritual), Chasoslov (Book of Hours), and other church books of the Ruthenian Greek Catholics in America.

After the schism of Constantinople (1054) most of the Russians became estranged from the unity of the Church. (See under GREEK CHURCH, Vol. VI, pp. 760-62.) In 1595 the Russian bishops of Lithuania and Little Russia determined to return to unity with the Holy See, and held a council at Brest-Litovsk, at which a decree of union was adopted, and where they chose two of their number, Ignatius Potzey and Cyril Terletzki, to go to Rome and take the oath of submission to the pope. They declared that they desired to return to the full unity of the Church as it existed before the schism of Photius and Cærularius, so as to have in Russia one united Catholic Church again. No change in their rites or their calendar was required by Rome, but the whole of the ancient Greek Liturgy, service, and discipline (excepting a few schismatic saints' days and practices) was to go on as before. In December, 1595, Clement VIII solemnly ratified the union of the two Churches in the Bull "Magnus Dominus". On 6 October, 1596, the union between the Eastern and Western Churches was proclaimed and ratified in the Russian part of the Kingdom of Poland. A large number of the Russian bishops immediately went over to the union. In Chelm the Russian Bishop Zbiruiski led the way with his whole diocese, and his successor, Methodius Terletzki, was a valiant champion of the Uniat Church. This Greek Uniat Church even produced a martyr for the Faith, St. Josaphat, Archbishop of Polotzk, who was slain by the Orthodox partisans in 1633. In Galicia, however, the union was slower. While priests and congregations became Uniat, the Bishops of Peremysl and Lemberg stood out for nearly a century. But on 23 June, 1691, Innocent Vinnitzki, Bishop of Peremysl, joined the union, and in 1700 Joseph Shumlanski, Bishopof Lemberg (it was afterwards restored to metropolitan dignity by the pope in 1807), also took the oath of union with the Holy See. From that time till now the Russians on the northern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains and on both sides of the River Dniester have been united with Rome. On the southern side of the Carpathians the Russians also accepted the union. In the year 1636 Vassili Tarasovitch, Bishop of Munkács, acknowledged the pope as the head of the Church and for it he was persecuted, imprisoned and forced to resign his see. But union with the Holy See could not be stayed by such means, and on 24 April, 1646, it was accomplished in the city of Ungvar by Peter Rostoshinski; the then Bishop of Munkács, and George Yakusitch, Bishop of Agri (Erlau). These two bishops in solemn council, with sixty three priests, abjured the schism and confessed themselves Greek clergy holding the Faith of Sts. Cyril and Methodius in communion with Rome. Since that time the Ruthenian people (including the Greek Slovaks) in the Kingdom of Hungary have acknowledged the pope as the visible head of the undivided Catholic Church.

These Ruthenians have continued to practise their ancient Greek-Slavonic rites and usages, and their forms of worship introduced into the United States seem strange to the Catholic accustomed only to the Roman Rite, and have made them objects of distrust and even active dislike, so that a few of the most salient differences may be pointed out, although a full statement will be found in the various articles on the Eastern rites, ceremonies, and vestments. The Mass itself is said in ancient Slavonic, the altar is separated from the body of the church by a high partition called the iconostasis, upon which the pictures of Christ and His Mother, as well as various saints, are placed, and the vestments of the Mass are quite different. The stole is a broad band looped around the neck and hanging straight down in front, the chasuble is cut away at the front and closely resembles the Roman cope, and instead of the maniple two broad cuffs are worn, while a broad belt takes the place of the girdle or cincture. Married men may be ordained to the diaconate and priesthood ; but bishops must be celibate, nor can a deacon or priest marry after ordination. Priests impart the Sacrament of Confirmation to children immediately after baptism, and Communion is given to the laity under both forms, the consecrated species being mingled together in the chalice and administered to the communicant with a spoon. Organs are not used in their churches, and their church year follows the Julian Calendar, which is now thirteen days behind the Gregorian calendar in use in the United States and Western Europe. Besides this, the Ruthenians (and the Russian Orthodox likewise), display the so-called "three-armed" (or Russian)  cross fashioned in this manner upon their churches and use it upon their missals, prayer-books, paintings and banners, as well as other objects. They make the sign of the cross in the reverse direction to the Roman method, and in their religious services the men and women are segregated from each other upon different sides of their churches.

It is from these people, inhabiting Galicia, Bukowina, and Hungary, that the Ruthenian Greek Catholic population has come. Their earliest immigration to the United States began in 1879, from the western portion of Galicia near the Carpathian Mountains, the so-called Lemkovschini, and then spread throughout the Galician and Hungarian sides of the mountains. At first it was hardly noticed, but it grew year by year, the earliest immigrants coming from Grybow, Gorlice, Jaslo, Neu Sandec, Krosno, and Sanok in Galicia, and from Szepes, Saros, Abauj, and Ung in Hungary, until finally the governmental authorities began to notice it. At the post offices in many of the mountain places in the Ruthenian portion of Galicia it was observed that the peasants were receiving large sums of money from their fathers, sons, or brothers in America. The news spread rapidly, the newspapers and officials taking it up, and so emigration was at once stimulated to the highest degree. Every year it has increased, and Ruthenian societies are formed here to assist their newly-arrived brethren to find employment and to give information to those at home about America.. It is impossible to tell exactly how many Ruthenian and Slovak Greek Catholics have come to the United States, because no statistics have been kept by the United States Government in regard to religious faith of immigrants, and not always accurate ones in regard to race or nationality. Still the immigration reports show that immigration from Austria-Hungary from 1861 to 1868 was annually in the hundreds; and from 1869 to 1879 it ranged from 1500 to 8000 annually; and in 1880 it suddenly rose to 17,000. From 1880 to 1908 the total immigration from Austria-Hungary to the United States amounted to 2,780,000, and about twenty percent of these were Ruthenians and Slovaks. Within the last four years (1905-1908) the immigration of the Slovaks and Ruthenians has amounted to 215,972. To this must be added the Croatians and Slavonians (117,695), a large proportion of whom are of the Greek Rite . It is estimated that there are at present in the United States between 350,000 and 400,000 Greek Catholic Ruthenians, including as such the Greek Catholic Slovaks and Croato-Slovenians. The largest number (over one-half) are in Pennsylvania, while New York, New Jersey, and Ohio have each a very large number of them, and the remainder are scattered all through the New England and Western states. From the best information obtainable in advance of the coming census of 1910 their distribution is as follows:--

Pennsylvania
New York
New Jersey
Ohio
Connecticut
Illinois
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
Missouri 190,000
50,500
40,000
35,500
10,000
8,000
7,500
1,500
6,500 Indiana
Minnesota 
Colorado, Dakota,
Nebraska and 
Montana, about
West Virginia, 
Virginia and the 
Southern States, 
about 6,000
3,000
 

8,000
 
 

5,000

After the Ruthenian immigration had begun in considerable numbers, it was but natural that they should desire to establish a Church of their own rite. At Shenandoah, Pennsylvania, the Ruthenian settlement had so increased that towards the end of 1884 they sent a petition to Archbishop (afterwards Cardinal ) Sylvester Sembratovitch, Metropolitan of Lemberg praying that a Greek Catholic priest might be sent to them to found a parish of the Greek Rite at that place. The petitioners promised to build a church for him if he were sent. In the following year (1885) Rev. Ivan Volanski, of the Diocese of Lemberg, arrived in the United States the first Greek Catholic priest to take up work among his people here. On his arrival he presented himself in Philadelphia with his letters but being a married priest, he encountered great difficulty in being recognized as a Catholic priest in good standing. However, he proceeded to Shenandoah, where under great difficulties and discouragements he organgized his congregation and for about a year celebrated Mass and other services in a hired hall, for he was unable to obtain the use of the local Latin churches for Greek services. The matter of his regularity and his acceptance as a priest in Pennsylvania for the Ruthenians was finally arranged through Cardinal Sembratovitch. Early in 1886 he completed at Shenandoah a little frame church dedicated to St. Michael the Archangel, the first Greek Catholic church in America. He then organized there the first Greek Catholic Society, that of St. Nicholas, built and organized & small parochial school, and then proceeded to form congregations and to found churches in other places where the Ruthenians were thickly settled. During his stay he organized congregations and started churches at Hazleton (1887), Kingston (1888), and Olyphant (1888) in Pennsylvania, at Jersey City, New Jersey (1889), and at Minneapolis, Minnesota (1889). Finding his Ruthenian people without any reading-matter in their own language, he sent to Galicia for Russian type, and in the latter part of 1886 he obtained a few fonts from the Shevchenko printing office at Lemberg. He then commenced the publication in "phonetic" Ruthenian of a small paper issued every two weeks at Shenandoah under the name of "America". This paper lived until about 1890, but got involved in the labour troubles in the mining districts which destroyed much of its usefulness. In the spring of 1887 the Metropolitan of Lemberg sent him another priest, Rev. Zeno Lakovitch (unmarried), and a lay teacher, Volodimir Semenovitch from the University of Lemberg. Father Lakovitch laboured at Kingston and at Wilkesbarre, where he died a year later. In 1888 Rev. Constantine Andrukovitch was sent from Lemberg, and, in addition to his parochial work, he, with Father Volanski, undertook to establish a series of stores in several towns in Pennsylvania to sell goods to the Ruthenians and thus avoid the enormous prices which the mining companies charged them. The business venture was unsuccessful, and, with other matters, it caused the recall of Father Volanski to Galicia. He remained there some time, then was sent as a missionary to Brazil, where his wife died, when he returned to Galicia, where he was a parish priest until his death in 1905. This business venture also caused the suspension of Father Andrukovitch, who returned to Galicia in 1892. The next three Greek clergymen were Rev. Theophan Obushkevitch (of Galicia), Rev. Cornelius Laurisin, and Rev. Augustin Laurisin (of Hungary ), who took up their missionary work energetically. The first two are still Greek Catholic parish priests in this country. Since their coming there has been a constant accession of Ruthenian Greek priests from Galicia and Hungary, and the building of churches and schools has gone on with increasing success. Even quite costly churches have been built. In Jersey City the old church has given way to a fine stone and brick church, which is an excellent specimen of Russian architecture, while at Homestead and Shamokin, Pennsylvania, there are quite costly churches erected. Many of the Greek churches are purchases from Protestant denominations altered and rearranged for the necessities of their rite, while one or two are churches brought over from the schismatics. The first Greek Catholic Mass in New York City was celebrated in the basement of St. Brigid's church on Avenue A (which was put at the disposal of the Greeks by the late Archbishop Corrigan ), on 19 April, 1890, by the Rev. Alexander Dzubay, who is still in active parish work in America. This Greek congregation afterwards bought a church in Brooklyn (St. Elias, 1892), and there was no Ruthenian church in Manhattan until the Greek Catholic church of St. George was opened in 1905. In February, 1909, the Greek Bishop Soter bought a Protestant Episcopal church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, refitted it, and consecrated it as the Greek Cathedral of St. Mary of the Immaculate Conception , and in the adjoining parish house and rectory will also open a seminary for the education of American priests of the Greek Rite. Of course many Ruthenian settlements in various localities are too poor to build and maintain a church, nor are there just at present sufficient priests in America to attend to their spiritual needs. Still there are at present (1909) about 140 Ruthenian Greek Catholic churches in the United States and there are also ten more new ones projected for waiting congregations. Their churches are distributed as follows:--

Pennsylvania New York
Ohio
New Jersey
Connecticut
Illinois
Massachusetts 80
14
12
10
4
4
4 Indiana
Missouri
West Virginia
Minnesota
Rhode Island
Virginia 3
3
2
2
1
1

The Ruthenian Greek Catholic clergy in the United States consists (1909), of one bishop and 118 priests, originating from the following dioceses :--

Diocese Monks   Secular Clergy       Celibates Married Widowers Lemberg 4 8 5 5 Premysl   6 12 2 Stanislau   2 2 1 Eperies 2 1 13 10 Munkács   1 30 5 Kreutz   1     Scranton   1 2   Philadelphia   4     Pittsburg   1       ____
6 ____
25 ____
64 ____
23

Several of these priests are converts from the Orthodox Greek Church in the United States. As has been said, men who are already married are ordained to the diaconate and priesthood in the Greek Church, and so it naturally followed that married priests were sent to America. While a married priesthood seems repugnant to a Catholic of the Latin Rite, yet it is strongly adhered to by the Greek Catholics as vaguely a part of their nationality and Eastern Rite. All American Greek Catholic priests will hereafter be ordained from celibate candidates only, according to the provisions of the Apostolic Letter "Ea semper", which will be referred to later. The growing importance of the Greek Rite in America, the dissensions arising out of old-country political factions among the Ruthenians, which will be mentioned later on, and which occasioned serious interference with the normal growth of the Greek Church, and the increasing intensity of the efforts of the Russian Orthodox to detach the Ruthenians in America from their faith and unity (see GREEK ORTHODOX CHURCH IN AMERICA ) caused the Holy Father in 1907 to provide a Greek Catholic bishop for America. Previous to this (1902) the Holy See had sent the Right Rev. Andrew Hodobay, titular abbot and canon of the Greek Diocese of Eperies, as Apostolic visitor to the Ruthenians in America, who examined the conditions of the Catholics of the Greek Rite in all parts of the United States and returned to Europe in 1906 with his report. The choice of a bishop for the Ruthenian Greek Catholics fell upon the Right Rev. Stephen Soter Ortynski, a Basilian monk, hegumenos of the monastery of St. Paul, Michaelovka, Galicia. On 12 May, 1907 he was consecrated titular Bishop of Daulia by the Most Rev. Andrew Roman Ivanovitch Scheptitzky, Greek Metropolitan of Lemberg, and the other Greek bishops of Galicia, and he arrived in America on 27 August, 1907. Shortly after his arrival (September, 1907) the Apostolic Letter "Ea semper", concerning the new bishop for the Ruthenian Greek Catholics in the United States his powers and duties, and the general constitution of the Greek Rite in America was published. It created considerable dissatisfaction among the Greek clergy and laity inasmuch as it did not provide for any diocesan power or authority for the new bishop, but placed him as an auxiliary to the Latin bishops, and as it modified several of their immemorial privileges in various ways. The Sacrament of Confirmation was thereafter to be withheld from infants at baptism, and was not to be conferred by priests, but was reserved for the bishop only (as in the Latin Rite and among the Greeks in Italy ), and married priests were not thereafter to be ordained in America or to be sent thither from abroad, while the regulations as to the marriage of persons of the two rites were also modified. The Greek Ruthenian laity saw in it an attack upon their Slavic nationality and Eastern Rite, an idea which the Russian Orthodox Church eagerly fostered and magnified. They were told by the Orthodox that the whole letter was a latinization of their Greek Rite in regard to confirmation and Holy orders, and was a nullification in America of the Decrees of the popes that their rite should be kept intact. This resulted in some losses (about 10,000) from the Ruthenians to the Russian Church, but already many of them are coming back. Matters, however, adjusted themselves, and the work of the new bishop is having good results. The whole matter of a Greek bishop in America is so far in an experimental stage, and it rests upon the extent of the current and future immigration, the stability and solidarity of the Ruthenians in their adherence to their faith and rite, as to what powers and authority their bishop shall ultimately have. Where there is an evident and actual need for it the Holy See has always granted the erection of Oriental dioceses, but where a minority of a population seems bound to become assimilated with, and eventually absorbed into, the surrounding population the case may be entirely otherwise. The newly appointed bishop has had success in establishing churches and parochial schools and in inducing his Ruthenian flock to become American citizens and identify themselves with American life while not abandoning their faith and their Eastern Rite. He aims to establish English-Ruthenian schools in each Greek parish and to open a Ruthenian American seminary at Philadelphia for the education of American-born Ruthenians as priests of the Greek Rite. There is already one American-Ruthenian priest, lately ordained. In purely theological matters they will be educated as in Latin seminaries, if not actually sent there for lectures, but in the Oriental church rites, discipline, liturgical language, music, and customs the proposed seminary will fill a place for the Ruthenians which our present diocesan seminaries do not fill. The number of church or parochial schools of the Ruthenians is about fifty, where instruction in English, Ruthenian, church catechism, and the elements of a general education is given. No organized Sunday-school system has as yet been established amongst them, nor are there any nuns or religious engaged in teaching in the United States.

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In order to understand somewhat clearly the situation of the Ruthenians in America, account must be taken of their national home politics, which they bring with them and fight out often quite bitterly in this country. As already said, they are from the northern and southern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains. The northern Ruthenians derisively call their southern brethren "Hungarians" (Madyari), while the latter return the compliment by calling the former "Poles" (Poliaki). The point of this lies in the fact that each of the nationalities named is cordially detested by the Ruthenians on either side. But these are merely surface divisions between the two bodies of the same race. Their actual factional differences are much deeper. There may be said to be, broadly speaking, three Ruthenian parties or factions in the United States : (1) The Moscophiles, or Moskalophiles (Moskal is the Little Russian word for a Great Russian), who aim at an imitation, if not an actual adoption, of all things Russian as found in the present Empire of Russia looking towards Moscow as the seed and kernel of Russian or Slavic development, and who are strong supporters of Panslavism; (2) the Ukraintzi, or Ukrainians (the Ukraine is the adjoining border-land provinces of Russia and Galicia), who stand for the interests of the Ruthenian people in Austria and of the Little Russians in Russia, as distinct and apart from the Great Russians, and who desire to develop the Ruthenian (Little Russian) language, literature, and race along their own lines, entirely distinct and apart from that of the present-day Russian Empire; and (3) the Ugro-russki, or Hungarian Ruthenians, who keep all the old Russian racial traditions, reverencing their Russian language, literature, and ancestry as models to follow in their development, but at the same time refusing to follow the ideas of Moscow and St. Petersburg in such development, either in Hungary or in the United States. The first two parties are Galicians, the last one Slovaks and Hungarian Ruthenians. These parties are sometimes divided into smaller factions, perplexing for an outsider to understand, such as those who desire to introduce the Hungarian language and customs, even using Hungarian in the liturgy of the Church. It is needless to say that none of these larger parties ever agree upon any one subject other than their Slavic nationality and Greek Rite. The Moscophiles often unite with the Greek Orthodox and Russian societies upon the slightest pretext when Russo-Slavic ideals are to be proclaimed, and are fiercely against everything that does not look Russiaward, for Russia is their big brother. On the other hand the Ukraintzi will have nothing to do with modern Russia ; it is behind the age and lags in the march of civilization; and they have besides offended both the other parties by adopting the "phonetic" style of spelling. This offence seems to be intensified because the new Greek bishop is somewhat of their way of thinking. The Ugro-russki are violently opposed to whatever does not accord with the racial views and traditions of the Ruthenian and Slovak people within the borders of Hungary, and do not agree with the views and actions of either of the other two parties. Consequently, the Greek Catholic bishop has to publish his official communications in Ruthenian, both phonetic and old-style, and in Slovak, in order to reach all his people.

Of course these Greek Catholics of such varied views have organized into societies. Each church has its own local religious and singing societies, but there are other and larger bodies known as "brotherhoods" or lodges (bratstva), which have been of great assistance in building up the Ruthenian churches. They are usually of the nature of mutual benefit societies, assist in finding work, helping in religious matters and the like, having always the Greek Rite and the Ruthenian race as their main inspiration. Some of them provide that their members must show that they have made their Easter communion or forfeit membership, and provide for the dropping of a member when he ceases to be a Catholic. These brotherhoods or lodges are combined into a general federation or union which takes in the whole United States . It has its annual convention composed of delegates from the various brotherhoods and always has some well-known Greek Catholic priest as its spiritual director. The largest and oldest of these federated societies is the "Soyedineniya Greko-Kaftolicheskikh Russkikh Bra

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Gédoyn, Nicolas

Nicolas Gedoyn

A French translator and literary critic; b. at Orléans, 17 June, 1667; d. 10 August, 1744, ...
Génebrard, Gilbert

Gilbert Genebrard

A learned Benedictine exegete and Orientalist, b. 12 December, 1535, at Riom, in the department ...
Génicot, Edward

Edward Genicot

Moral theologian, b. at Antwerp, Belgium, 18 June, 1856; d. at Louvain, 21 February, 1900. After ...
Géramb, Baron Ferdinand de

Baron Ferdinand de Geramb

In religion, Brother Mary Joseph; Abbot and procurator-general of La Trappe, came of a noble and ...
Gérando, Joseph-Marie de

Joseph-Marie de Gerando

A French statesman and writer, born at Lyons, 29 February, 1772; died at Paris, 10 November, ...
Gérard, Abbot of Brogne, Saint

St. Gerard

Born at Staves in the county of Namur, towards the end of the ninth century; died at Brogne or ...
Géry, Saint

St. Gery

(Latin Gaugericus ). Bishop of Cambrai - Arras ; b. of Roman parents, Gaudentius and ...
Gómara, Francisco Lopez de

Francisco Lopez de Gomara

( Or GOMORA.) Born at Seville, Spain, in 1510; studied at the University of Alcalá, ...
Görres, Guido

Guido Gorres

Historian, publicist, and poet; b. at Coblenz on 28 May, 1805; d. at Munich on 14 July, 1852. He ...
Görres, Johann Joseph

Johann Joseph Goerres

Born at Coblenz, in the heart of the Rhine country, 25 January, 1776; died at Munich, 29 January, ...
Görz

Goerz

( Italian GORIZIA; Slovene GORICA). Capital of the Austrian crown-land Görz and ...
Göttweig, Abbey of

Abbey of Gottweig

(GOTTWEIH, GOTTVICUM, GOTTVICENSE). A Benedictine abbey situated on a hill of the same name, ...
Gügler, Joseph Heinrich Aloysius

Joseph Guegler

Born at Udligerschwyl, near Lucerne, Switzerland, 25 August, 1782; died at Lucerne, 28 February, ...
Günther of Cologne

Gunther of Cologne

(also GUNTHAR) An archbishop of that city, died 8 July, 873. He belonged to a noble ...
Günther, Anton

Anton Guenther

Philosopher ; b. 17 Nov., 1783, at Lindenau, near Leitmeritz, Bohemia ; d. at Vienna, 24 ...
Gabala

Gabala

A titular see of Syria Prima. Ten bishops of this city are known between 325 and 553, the ...
Gabbatha

Gabbatha

The Aramaic appellation of a place in Jerusalem, designated also under the Greek name of ...
Gaboon

Gaboon

V ICARIATE A POSTOLIC OF G ABUN Formerly called the Vicariate Apostolic of the Two ...
Gabriel Possenti, Blessed

Bl. Gabriel Possenti

Passionist student; renowned for sanctity and miracles ; born at Assisi, 1 March, 1838; died ...
Gabriel Sionita

Gabriel Sionita

A learned Maronite, famous for his share in the publication of the Parisian polyglot of the ...
Gabriel the Archangel, Saint

St. Gabriel the Archangel

"Fortitudo Dei", one of the three archangels mentioned in the Bible . Only four appearances of ...
Gabriel, Brothers of Saint

Brothers of St. Gabriel

The Congregation of the Brothers of Christian Instruction of St. Gabriel was originally founded ...
Gad

Gad

( , fortune, luck). A proper name which designates in the Bible , (I), a patriarch; (II), a ...
Gadara

Gadara

A titular see of Palaestina Prima; there were two sees of this name, one in Palaestina Prima, ...
Gaddi, Agnolo, Giovanni, and Taddeo

Agnolo, Giovanni, and Taddeo Gaddi

Florentine artists, Taddeo being the father of Agnolo and Giovanni. The dates of their birth ...
Gaeta

Gaeta

ARCHDIOCESE OF GAETA (CAIETANA). Archdiocese in the province of Caserta in Campania (Southern ...
Gaetano, Saint

St. Cajetan

(GAETANO.) Founder of the Theatines, born October, 1480 at Vicenza in Venetian territory; ...
Gagarin, Ivan Sergejewitch

Ivan Sergejewitch Gargarin

Gagarin was of the princely Russian family which traces its origin to the ancient rulers of ...
Gagliardi, Achille

Achille Gagliardi

Ascetic writer and spiritual director ; born at Padua, Italy, in 1537; died at Modena, 6 ...
Gahan, William

William Gahan

A priest and author; born 5 June, 1732, in the parish of St. Nicholas, Dublin ; died ...
Gaillard, Claude Ferdinand

Claude Ferdinand Gaillard

A French engraver and painter ; b. at Paris, 7 Jan., 1834; d. there, 27 Jan., 1887. His early ...
Gal, Saint

St. Gal

Of the ninety-eight bishops who have occupied the see of Clermont-Ferrand (Auvergne) the ...
Galantini, Ippolito, Blessed

Bl. Ippolito Galantini

Founder of the Congregation of Christian Doctrine of Florence; b. at Florence of obscure ...
Galatians, Epistle to the

Epistle to the Galatians

GALATIA In the course of centuries, gallic tribes, related to those that invaded Italy and ...
Galatino, Pietro Colonna

Pietro Colonna Galatino

Friar Minor, philosopher, theologian, Orientalist ; b. at Galatia (now Cajazzo) in Apulia; d. at ...
Galerius, Valerius Maximianus

Valerius Maximianus Galerius

Galerius, a native of Illyria, was made Caesar 1 March, 293, by Diocletian, whose daughter ...
Galien, Joseph

Joseph Galien

Dominican, professor of philosophy and theology at the University of Avignon, meteorologist, ...
Galilee

Galilee

( Septuagint and New Testament Galilaia ). The native land of Jesus Christ, where He began ...
Galilei, Alessandro

Allesandro Galilei

An eminent Florentine architect ; born 1691; died 1737. Having attained some distinction, he ...
Galilei, Galileo

Galileo Galilei

Generally called GALILEO. Born at Pisa, 15 February, 1564; died 8 January, 1642. His father, ...
Galitzin, Elizabeth

Elizabeth Galitzin

Princess, religious of the Sacred Heart ; born at St. Petersburg, 22 February, 1797; died in ...
Gall, Abbey of Saint

Abbey of St. Gall

In Switzerland, Canton St. Gall, 30 miles southeast of Constance ; for many centuries one of ...
Gall, Saint

Saint Gall

(GALLUS; in the most ancient manuscript he is called GALLO, GALLONUS, GALLUNUS, and sometimes ...
Galla

Galla

Vicariate Apostolic embracing the territory of the Galla or Oromo tribes in Abyssinia. In its ...
Galla, Saint

Saint Galla

A Roman widow of the sixth century; feast, 5 October. According to St. Gregory the Great ...
Gallait, Louis

Louis Gallait

Flemish painter ; born at Tournai, 10 May, 1810; died in Brussels, 20 November, 1887. He ...
Galland, Antoine

Antoine Galland

French Orientalist and numismatist, b. at Rollot, near Montdidier, in Picardy, 1646, d. at ...
Gallandi, Andrea

Andrea Gallandi

Oratorian and patristic scholar, born at Venice, 7 December, 1709; died there 12 January, 1779, ...
Galle

Galle

DIOCESE OF GALLE (GALLENSIS). Diocese in Ceylon, created by Leo XIII 25 Aug., 1893, by ...
Gallego, Juan Nicasio

Juan Nicasio Gallego

Priest and poet; born at Zamora, Spain, 14 December, 1777; died at Madrid, 9 January, 1853; ...
Galletti, Pietro Luigi

Pietro Luigi Galletti

Benedictine, historian and archaeologist; b. at Rome in 1724; d. there, 13 December, 1790. He ...
Gallia Christiana

Gallia Christiana

A documentary catalogue or list, with brief historical notices, of all the dioceses and ...
Gallican Rite, The

The Gallican Rite

This subject will be treated under the following six heads: I. History and Origin; II. ...
Gallicanism

Gallicanism

This term is used to designate a certain group of religious opinions for some time peculiar to the ...
Gallicanus, Saints

Sts. Gallicanus

The following saints of this name are commemorated on 25 June: (1) St. Gallicanus Roman ...
Gallienus, Publius Licinius Egnatius

Gallienus

Roman emperor; b. about 218; d. at Milan, 4 March, 268; appointed regent by his father Valerian ...
Gallifet, Joseph de

Joseph de Gallifet

Priest ; b. near Aix, France, 2 May 1663; d. at Lyons, 1 September, 1749. He entered the ...
Gallipoli

Gallipoli

DIOCESE OF GALLIPOLI (GALLIPOLITANA). Diocese in the province of Lecce (Southern Italy ). ...
Gallitzin, Adele Amalie

Adele Amalie Gallitzin

(Or GOLYZIN). Princess; b. at Berlin, 28 Aug., 1748; d. at Angelmodde, near Münster, ...
Gallitzin, Demetrius Augustine

Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin

Prince, priest, and missionary, born at The Hague, Holland, 22 December, 1770; died at Loretto, ...
Galloway, Diocese of

Galloway

(Gallovidiana). Situated in the southwest of Scotland. It comprises the Counties of Dumfries, ...
Galluppi, Pasquale

Pasquale Galluppi

Philosopher, b. at Tropea, in Calabria, 2 April, 1770; d. at Naples, 13 Dec., 1846, where from ...
Gallwey, Peter

Peter Gallwey

Born at Killarney, 13 Nov., 1820; d. in London, 23 Sept., 1906; one of the best-known London ...
Galtelli-Nuoro

Galtelli-Nuoro

(Galtellinensis-Norensis) Diocese in the province of Sassari (Sardinia), on a hill of the ...
Galura, Bernhard

Bernhard Galura

Prince- Bishop of Brixen ; b. 21 August, 1764, at Herbolzheim, Bresigau; d. 17 May, 1856. After ...
Galvani, Luigi

Luigi Galvani

Physician, b. at Bologna, Italy, 9 September, 1737; d. there, 4 December, 1798. It was his ...
Galveston

Galveston

DIOCESE OF GALVESTON (GALVESTONIENSIS). The Diocese of Galveston was established in 1847 and ...
Galway and Kilmacduagh

Galway and Kilmacduagh

DIOCESE OF GALWAY AND KILMACDUAGH (GALVIENSIS ET DUACENSIS). Diocese in Ireland ; an ...
Gama, Vasco da

Vasco da Gama

The discover of the sea route to East Indies; born at Sines, Province of Alemtejo, Portugal, ...
Gamaliel

Gamaliel

(Greek form of the Hebrew name meaning "reward of God "). The name designates in the New ...
Gamans, Jean

Jean Gamans

Born 8 July, 1606, at Ahrweiler (according to other sources at Neuenahr, about two miles from ...
Gambling

Gambling

Gambling , or gaming , is the staking of money or other thing of value on the issue of a game ...
Gams, Pius Bonifacius

Pius Bonifacius Gams

An ecclesiastical historian, b. at Mittelbuch, Würtemberg, 23 January, 1816; d. Munich, ...
Gandolphy, Peter

Peter Gandolphy

(Or Gandolphi.) Jesuit preacher; b. in London, 26 July, 1779; d. at East Sheen, Surrey, 9 ...
Gangra

Gangra

A titular see in the province of Paphlagonia; in the native tongue the word signifies goat, and ...
Gansfort, John Wessel

John Wessel Goesport (Gansfort)

(GANSFORT). A fifteenth-century Dutch theologian, born at Gröningen in 1420; died there ...
Gap

Gap

(VAPINCENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Aix, includes the department of the Hautes-Alpes. ...
García Moreno, Gabriel

Gabriel Garcia Moreno

Ecuadorean patriot and statesman; b. at Guayaquil, 24 December, 1821; assassinated at Quito, 6 ...
García, Anne

Anne Garcia

Better known as Venerable Anne of St. Bartholomew, Discalced Carmelite nun, companion of St. ...
Garcia, Saint Gonsalo

St. Gonsalo Garcia

Born of a Portuguese father and a Canarese mother in Bassein, East India, about the year 1556 or ...
Garcilasso de la Vega

Garcilasso de la Vega (1503-1536)

Spanish lyric poet; b. at Toledo, 6 Feb., 1503; d. at Nice, 14 Oct., 1536. A noble and a ...
Garcilasso de la Vega

Garcilasso de la Vega (1503-1536)

Historian of Peru ; b. at Cuzco, Peru, 12 April, 1539; d. at Córdoba, Spain, c. 1617. The ...
Gardellini, Aloisio

Aloisio Gardellini

Born at Rome, 4 Aug., 1759; died there, 8 Oct., 1829. He is famous chiefly for his collection of ...
Garesché, Julius Peter

Julius Peter Garesche

Soldier; born 26 April, 1821, near Havana, Cuba; killed at the battle of Stone River, Tennessee, ...
Garet, Jean

Jean Garet

Benedictine of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Havre about 1627; died at ...
Gargara

Gargara

A titular see in the province of Asia, suffragan of Ephesus. The city appears to have been ...
Garin, André

Andre Garin

An Oblate missionary and parish priest, born 7 May, 1822, at Côte-Saint-André, ...
Garland

Garland

A wreath of flowers or evergreens formerly used in connection with baptismal, nuptial, and ...
Garland, John

John Garland

An English poet and grammarian, who lived in the middle of the thirteenth century. He tells us ...
Garlick, Venerable Nicholas

Ven. Nicholas Garlick

Priest and martyr, born at Dinting, Derbyshire, c. 1555; died at Derby, 24 July, 1588. He ...
Garneau, François-Xavier

Francois-Xavier Garneau

A French Canadian historian, b. at Quebec, 15 June, 1809, of François-Xavier Garneau and ...
Garnet, Henry

Henry Garnet

(Garnett.) English martyr, b. 1553-4; d. 1606, son of Brian Garnet, master of Nottingham ...
Garnet, Saint Thomas

St. Thomas Garnet

Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...
Garnier, Charles

Charles Garnier

Jesuit Missionary, born at Paris, 1606, of Jean G. and Anne de Garault; died 7 December, 1649. He ...
Garnier, Jean

Jean Garnier

Church historian, patristic scholar, and moral theologian ; b. at Paris, 11 Nov., 1612; d. at ...
Garnier, Julien

Julien Garnier

Jesuit missionary, born at Connerai, France, 6 January, 1642; d. in Quebec, 1730. He entered ...
Garrucci, Raffaele

Raffaele Garrucci

A historian of Christian art, b. at Naples, 22 January, 1812; d. at Rome, 5 May, 1885. He ...
Garzon

Garzon

(GARZONENSIS.) Suffragan diocese of Popayan in the Republic of Colombia . It comprises the ...
Gaspare del Bufalo, Blessed

St. Gaspare Del Bufalo

Founder of the Missionaries of the Most Precious Blood (C.P.P.S.); b. at Rome on the feast of ...
Gaspe, Philippe-Aubert de

Philippe-Aubert de Gaspe

A French Canadian writer, b. at Quebec, 30 Oct., 1786, of a family ennobled by Louis XIV in ...
Gassendi, Pierre

Pierre Gassendi

(GASSENDY, GASSEND.) A French philosopher and scientist ; b. at Champtercier, a country ...
Gasser von Valhorn, Joseph

Joseph Gasser von Valhorn

An Austrian sculptor, b. 22 Nov., 1816 at Prägraten, Tyrol; d. 28 Oct., 1900. He was first ...
Gassner, Johann Joseph

Johann Joseph Gassner

A celebrated exorcist ; b. 22 Aug., 1727, at Braz, Vorarlberg, Austria ; d. 4 April, 1779, at ...
Gaston, William

William Gaston

Jurist; b. at Newbern, North Carolina , U.S.A. 19 Sept., 1778: d. at Raleigh, North Carolina ...
Gatianus, Saint

St. Gatianus

Founder and bishop of Tours ; b. probably at Rome ; d. at Tours, 20 December, 301. He came ...
Gau, Franz Christian

Franz Christian Gau

Architect and archeologist, b. at Cologne, 15 June, 1790; d. at Paris, January, 1854. In 1809 he ...
Gaubil, Antoine

Antoine Gaubil

A French Jesuit and missionary to China, b. at Gaillac (Aveyron), 14 July, 1689; d. at Peking, ...
Gaudentius of Brescia

Gaudentius of Brescia

(GAUDENTIUS BRIXIENSIS or BONTEMPS.) A theologian of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins ; ...
Gaudentius, Saint

St. Gaudentius

Bishop of Brescia from about 387 until about 410; he was the successor of the writer on ...
Gaudete Sunday

Gaudete Sunday

The third Sunday of Advent, so called from the first word of the Introit at Mass ( Gaudete ...
Gaudier, Antoine de

Antoine de Gaudier

A writer on asectic theology ; b. at Château-Thierry, France, 7 January, 1572; d. at ...
Gaudiosus

Gaudiosus

Bishop of Tarazona (Turiasso), Spain ; died about 540. Our information concerning the life ...
Gaul, Christian

Christian Gaul

The Church of Gaul first appeared in history in connexion with the persecution at Lyons under ...
Gaultier, Aloisius-Edouard-Camille

Aloisius-Edouard-Camille Gaultier

Priest and schoolmaster; b. at Asti, Piedmont, about 1745, of French parents ; d. at Paris, 18 ...
Gaume, Jean-Joseph

Jean-Joseph Gaume

French theologian and author, b. at Fuans (Franche-Comté) in 1802; d. in 1879. While ...
Gavantus, Bartolommeo

Bartolommeo Gavantus

(GAVANTO) Liturgist, a member of the Barnabite Order ; b. at Monza, 1569; d. at Milan, 14 ...
Gaza

Gaza

( Hebrew 'Azzah , "the strong") A titular see of Palaestina Prima, in the Patriarchate ...
Gazzaniga, Pietro Maria

Pietro Maria Gazzaniga

A theologian, b. at Bergamo, Italy, 3 March, 1722; d. at Vicenza, 11 Dec., 1799. At a very ...
Gebhard (III) of Constance

Gebhard (III) of Constance

Bishop of that city and strenuous defender of papal rights against imperial encroachments ...
Gebhart, Emile

Emile Gebhart

A French professor and writer, b. 19 July, 1839, at Nancy ; d. 22 April, 1908, in Paris. He was ...
Gedeon

Gideon

Gideon or Gedeon (Hebrew "hewer"), also called JEROBAAL ( Judges 6:32 ; 7:1 ; etc.), and ...
Gegenbauer, Josef Anton

Josef Anton Gegenbauer

An accomplished German historical and portrait painter, b. 6 March, 1800, at Wangen, ...
Geiler von Kayserberg, Johann

Johann Geiler von Kayserberg

A celebrated German pulpit orator, b. at Schaffhausen, Switzerland, 16 March, 1445; d. at ...
Geissel, Johannes von

Johannes von Geissel

Cardinal, Archbishop of Cologne, b. 5 February, 1796, at Gimmeldingen, in the Palatinate; d. 8 ...
Gelasius I, Pope Saint

Pope St. Gelasius I

Died at Rome, 19 Nov., 496. Gelasius, as he himself states in his letter to the Emperor ...
Gelasius II, Pope

Pope Gelasius II

Born at Gaeta, year unknown; elected 24 Jan., 1118; died at Cluny, 29 Jan., 1119. No sooner had ...
Gelasius of Cyzicus

Gelasius of Cyzicus

Ecclesiastical writer. He was the son of a priest of Cyzicus, and wrote in Bithynia, about 475, ...
Gemblours

Gemblours

(Gembloux, Gemblacum) A suppressed Benedictine monastery about nine miles north-west of ...
Genealogy (in the Bible)

Genealogy (In the Bible)

The word genealogy occurs only twice in the New Testament : I Tim., i, 4, and Tit., iii, 9. ...
Genealogy of Christ

Genealogy of Christ

It is granted on all sides that the Biblical genealogy of Christ implies a number of exegetical ...
General Chapter

General Chapter

( Latin capitulum , a chapter). The daily assembling of a community for purposes of ...
General Judgment

General Judgment (Last Judgment)

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...
Generation

Generation

( Latin Vulgate, generatio ). This word, of very varied meaning, corresponds to the two ...
Genesareth

Genesareth

( Gennesaret .) This is the name given to the Lake of Tiberias in Luke 5:1; called ...
Genesius

Genesius

(1) Genesius (of Rome) A comedian at Rome, martyred under Diocletian in 286 or 303. Feast, 25 ...
Genevieve, Saint

St. Genevieve

Patroness of Paris, b. at Nanterre, c. 419 or 422; d. at Paris, 512. Her feast is kept on 3 ...
Genezareth, Land of

Land of Genezareth

By this name is designated in Mark, vi, 53, a district of Palestine bordering on the Sea of ...
Genga, Girolamo

Girolamo Genga

A painter, born at Urbino in 1476; died at the same place, 1551. This talented craftsman was ...
Gennadius I, Saint

St. Gennadius I

Patriarch of Constantinople (458-471), has left scarcely any writings. Facundus (Defensio, II, ...
Gennadius II

Gennadius II

Patriarch of Constantinople (1454-1456). His original name was George Scholarius ( Georgios ...
Gennadius of Marseilles

Gennadius of Marseilles

(GENNADIUS SCHOLASTICUS). A priest whose chief title to fame is his continuation of St. ...
Gennings, Edmund and John

Edmund and John Jennings

The first, a martyr for the Catholic Faith, and the second, the restorer of the English province ...
Genoa

Genoa

ARCHDIOCESE OF GENOA (JANUENSIS) Archdiocese in Liguria, Northern Italy. The city is situated ...
Gentile da Fabriano

Gentile Da Fabriano

Italian painter ; b. probably about 1378 in the District of the Marches; d. probably 1427. The ...
Gentiles

Gentiles

( Hebrew Gôyîm ; Greek ethne, ethnikoi , Hellenes ; Vulgate Gentes, Gentiles, ...
Gentili, Aloysius

Aloysius Gentili

Born 14 July, 1801, at Rome ; died 26 September, 1848, at Dublin. He was proficient in poetry, ...
Genuflexion

Kneeling and Genuflection

To genuflect [ Latin genu flectere , geniculare (post-classic), to bend the knee; Greek ...
Geoffrey of Clairvaux

Geoffrey of Clairvaux

A disciple of Bernard, was b. between the years 1115 and 1120, at Auxerre; d. some time after ...
Geoffrey of Dunstable

Geoffrey of Dunstable

Also known as GEOFFREY OF GORHAM. Abbot of St. Alban's, d. at St. Alban's, 26 Feb., 1146. He ...
Geoffrey of Monmouth

Geoffrey of Monmouth

(GAUFRIDUS ARTURUS, GALFRIDUS MONEMETENSIS, GALFFRAI or GRUFFYD AB ARTHUR). Bishop of St. ...
Geoffrey of Vendôme

Geoffrey of Vendome

(GOFFRIDUS ABBAS VINDOCINENSIS.) A cardinal, b. in the second half of the eleventh century of ...
Geography and the Church

Geography and the Church

The classic historians of geography, Alexander von Humboldt, Carl Ritter, and Oscar Peschel, never ...
Geography, Biblical

Biblical Geography

With the exception of the didactic literature, there is no book in the Bible which, to a greater ...
George Hamartolus

George Hamartolus

A monk at Constantinople under Michael III (842-867) and the author of a chronicle of some ...
George of Trebizond

George of Trebizond

A Greek scholar of the early Italian Renaissance ; b. in Crete (a Venetian possession from ...
George Pisides

George Pisides

(Or THE PISIDIAN). A Byzantine poet lived in the first half of the seventh century. From his ...
George the Bearded

George the Bearded

(Also called THE RICH.) Duke of Saxony, b. at Dresden, 27 August, 1471; d. in the same city, ...
George, Orders of Saint

Orders of St. George

Knights of St. George appear at different historical periods and in different countries as ...
George, Saint

St. George

Martyr, patron of England, suffered at or near Lydda, also known as Diospolis, in Palestine, ...
Georgetown University

Georgetown University

Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia , "is the oldest Catholic literary ...
Georgia

Georgia

STATISTICS The area of Georgia is 59,475 sq. m., and it is the largest of the original thirteen ...
Georgius Syncellus

Georgius Syncellus

(Greek Georgios ho Sygkellos ). Died after 810; the author of one of the more important ...
Gerace

Gerace

DIOCESE OF GERACE (HIERACENSIS). Diocese in the province of Reggio in Calabria (Southern Italy ...
Gerald, Saint

St. Gerald

Bishop of Mayo, an English monk, date of birth unknown; died 13 March, 731; followed St. ...
Geraldton

Geraldton

DIOCESE OF GERALDTON (GERALDTONENSIS). Diocese in Australia, established in 1898, comprises ...
Gerard Majella, Saint

St. Gerard Majella

Born in Muro, about fifty miles south of Naples, in April, 1726; died 16 October, 1755; ...
Gerard of Cremona

Gerard of Cremona

A twelfth-century student of Arabic science and translator from Arabic into Latin; born at ...
Gerard, Archbishop of York

Gerard, Archbishop of York

Date of birth unknown; died at Southwell, 21 May, 1108. He was a nephew of Walkelin, Bishop of ...
Gerard, Bishop of Toul, Saint

St. Gerard, Bishop of Toul

Born at Cologne, 935; died at Toul, 23 April, 994. Belonging to a wealthy and noble family, he ...
Gerard, John

John Gerard

Jesuit ; born 4 October, 1564; died 27 July, 1637. He is well known through his autobiography, a ...
Gerard, Richard

Richard Gerard

Confessor ; born about 1635; died 11 March, 1680 (O.S.). The Bromley branch of the Gerard ...
Gerard, Ven. Miles

Ven. Miles Gerard

Martyr ; born about 1550 at Wigan; executed at Rochester 13 (30?) April, 1590. Sprung perhaps ...
Gerardus Odonis

Gerardus Odonis

Also Geraldus Othonis , or Ottonis , a medieval theologian and Minister General of the ...
Gerasa

Gerasa

A titular see in the province of Arabia and the Patriarchate of Antioch. According to ...
Gerberon, Gabriel

Gabriel Gerberon

A Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation ; b. at St-Calais, Department of Sarthe, France, 12 ...
Gerbet, Olympe-Phillipe

Olympe-Philippe Gerbet

A French bishop and writer; b. at Poligny (Jura), 1798; d. at Perpignan (Pyrénées ...
Gerbillon, Jean-François

Jean-Francois Gerbillon

French missionary; born at Verdun, 4 June, 1654; died at Peking, China, 27 March, 1707. He ...
Gerdil, Hyacinthe Sigismond

Hyacinthe Sigismond Gerdil

Cardinal and theologian ; b. at Samoëns in Savoy, 20 June, 1718; d. at Rome, 12 August ...
Gerhard of Zütphen

Gerhard of Zutphen

(ZERBOLT OF ZUTPHEN) Born at Zütphen, 1367; died at Windesheim, 1398; a mystical writer ...
Gerhoh of Reichersberg

Gerhoh of Reichersberg

Provost of that place and Austin canon , one of the most distinguished theologians of Germany ...
Germain, Saint, Bishop of Auxerre

Saint Germain, Bishop of Auxerre

Bishop of Auxerre, born at Auxerre c. 380; died at Ravenna, 31 July, 448. He was the son of ...
Germain, Saint, Bishop of Paris

Saint Germain, Bishop of Paris

Bishop of Paris ; born near Autun, Saône-et-Loire, c. 496; died at Paris, 28 May, 576. ...
Germaine Cousin, Saint

St. Germaine Cousin

Born in 1579 of humble parents at Pibrac, a village about ten miles from Toulouse ; died in ...
German Gardiner, Blessed

Bl. German Gardiner

Last martyr under Henry VIII ; date of birth unknown; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1544; ...
German Literature

German Literature

I. FROM OLDEST PRE-CHRISTIAN PERIOD TO 800 A.D. There are no written monuments before the eighth ...
Germanicia

Germanicia

A titular see in the province of Euphratensis and the patriarchate of Antioch; incorrectly ...
Germanicopolis

Germanicopolis

A titular see in the province of Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia. The city took its name from ...
Germans in the United States

Germans in the United States

Germans, either by birth or descent, form a very important element in the population of the ...
Germanus I, Saint

St. Germanus I

Patriarch of Constantinople (715-30), b. at Constantinople towards the end of the reign of ...
Germany

Germany

I. BEFORE 1556 From their first appearance in the history of the world the Germans represented ...
Germany, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern

Vicariate Apostolic of Northern Germany

(VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF THE NORTHERN MISSIONS) Its jurisdiction covers the Grand Duchies of ...
Germia

Germia

A titular see of Galatia Secunda, a suffragan of Pessinus ; mentioned by Hierocles in the ...
Gerona

Gerona

DIOCESE OF GERONA (GERUNDENSIS) The Diocese of Geronia in Catalonia, Spain, suffragan of ...
Gerrha

Gerrha

A titular see in the province of Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium in the Patriarchate ...
Gerson, Jean de Charlier de

Jean de Charlier de Gerson

The surname being the name of his native place; b. in the hamlet of Gerson 14 December, 1363; d. ...
Gertrude of Aldenberg, Blessed

Bl. Gertrude of Aldenberg

Abbess of the Premonstratensian convent of Aldenberg, near Wetzlar, in the Diocese of Trier ; ...
Gertrude of Hackeborn

Gertrude of Hackeborn

Cistercian Abbess of Helfta, near Eisleben; born near Halberstadt in 1232; died towards the end ...
Gertrude of Nivelles, Saint

St. Gertrude of Nivelles

Virgin, and Abbess of the Benedictine monastery of Nivelles; born in 626; died 17 March, 659. ...
Gertrude the Great, Saint

St. Gertrude the Great

Benedictine and mystic writer; born in Germany, 6 Jan., 1256; died at Helfta, near Eisleben, ...
Gertrude van der Oosten, Venerable

Ven. Gertrude van Der Oosten

Beguine ; born at Voorburch, Holland ; died at Delft, 6 Jan., 1358. She was born of peasant ...
Gervaise, Dom François Armand

Dom Francois Armand Gervaise

Discalced Carmelite, b. at Paris, 1660; d. at Reclus, France, 1761. After completing his ...
Gervase of Canterbury

Gervase of Canterbury

(GERVAS US DOROBORNENSIS) English chronicler, b. about 1141; d. in, or soon after, 1210. If ...
Gervase of Tilbury

Gervase of Tilbury

(TILBERIENSIS) Medieval writer, b. probably at Tilbury, in the County of Essex, England, ...
Gervase, George

George Gervase

(Jervise.) Priest and martyr, born at Boscham, Suffolk, England, 1571; died at Tyburn, 11 ...
Gervasius and Protasius, Saints

Sts. Gervasius and Protasius

Martyrs of Milan, probably in the second century, patrons of the city of Milan and of ...
Gesellenvereine

Gesellenvereine

German Catholic societies for the religious, moral, and professional improvement of young men. ...
Gesta Dei per Francos

Gesta Dei Per Francos

Gesta Dei per Francos is the title adopted by Guibert de Nogent (died about 1124) for his history ...
Gesta Romanorum

Gesta Romanorum

A medieval collection of anecdotes, to which moral reflections are attached. It was compiled ...
Gethsemane

Gethsemani

Gethsemani (Hebrew gat , press, and semen , oil) is the place in which Jesus Christ ...
Gethsemane, Abbey of Our Lady of

Abbey of Our Lady of Gethsemani

An abbey of the Order of Reformed Cistercians, commonly called Trappists, established in ...
Gezireh

Gezireh

Gezireh (or Djezireh), seat of two Catholic residential sees, one Chaldean, the other Syrian. ...
Gfrörer, August Friedrich

August Friedrich Gfroerer

German historian; b. at Calw, Würtemberg, 5 March, 1803; d. at Karlsbad, 6 July, 1861. ...
Ghardaia

Ghardaia

Prefecture Apostolic in the French Sahara, separated in 1901 from the Vicariate Apostolic of ...
Ghent

Ghent

DIOCESE OF GHENT (GANDENSIS or GANDAVENSIS). The Diocese of Ghent at present comprises the ...
Ghibellines and Guelphs

Guelphs and Ghibellines

Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the ...
Ghiberti, Lorenzo di Cione

Lorenzo di Cione Ghiberti

Sculptor ; b. at Florence about 1381; d. there, December, 1455. He ushered in the early ...
Ghirlandajo

Ghirlandajo

(D OMENICO DI T OMMASO B IGORDI ). A famous Florentine painter ; b. 1449; d. 11 Jan., ...
Ghislain, Saint

St. Ghislain

Confessor and anchorite in Belgium ; b. in the first half of the seventh century; d. at ...
Ghost Dance

Ghost Dance

The principal ceremonial rite of a peculiar Indian religion with originated about 1887 with ...
Giannone, Pietro

Pietro Giannone

Italian historian, born 7 May, 1676, at Ischitella in the province of Capinata, Naples ; died ...
Gibail and Batrun

Gibail and Batrun

A Maronite residential see. Gibail is merely the modern name of Byblos a titular see of ...
Gibault, Pierre

Pierre Gibault

Missionary, b. at Montreal, Canada, 1737; d. at New Madrid, about 1804; son of Pierre Gibault ...
Gibbons, John

John Gibbons

Jesuit theologian and controversialist; b. 1544, at or near Wells, Somersetshire; died 16 Aug. or ...
Gibbons, Richard

Richard Gibbons

Brother of Father John Gibbons, born at Winchester, 1550 or 1549; died at Douai, 23 June, 1632. ...
Giberti, Gian Matteo

Gian Matteo Giberti

Cardinal, and Bishop of Verona, the natural son of Francesco Giberti, a Genoese naval ...
Giberti, Jean-Pierre

Jean-Pierre Gibert

Canonist; b. at Aix, Provence, in 1660; d. at Paris in 1736. He became a cleric at an early ...
Gibraltar

Gibraltar

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF GIBRALTAR. Gibraltar is a rugged promontory in the province of ...
Gideon

Gideon

Gideon or Gedeon (Hebrew "hewer"), also called JEROBAAL ( Judges 6:32 ; 7:1 ; etc.), and ...
Giffard, Bonaventure

Bonaventure Giffard

Born at Wolverhampton, England, 1642; died at Hammersmith, Middlesex, 12 March, 1734; second son ...
Giffard, Godfrey

Godfrey Giffard

Bishop of Worcester, b. about 1235; d. 26 Jan., 1301. He was the son of Hugh Giffard of Boyton ...
Giffard, William

William Giffard

Second Norman Bishop of Winchester from 1100 to 1129. Little is known of his history anterior ...
Gifford, William

William Gifford

Archbishop of Reims ; b. in Hampshire, 1554; d. at Reims, 11 April, 1629. He was the son of ...
Gift of Miracles

Gift of Miracles

The gift of miracles is one of those mentioned by St. Paul in his First Epistle to the ...
Gift, Supernatural

Supernatural Gift

A supernatural gift may be defined as something conferred on nature that is above all the ...
Gil de Albornoz, Alvarez Carillo

Alvarez Carillo Gil de Albornoz

A renowned cardinal, general, and statesman; b. about 1310 at Cuenca in New Castile ; d. 23 ...
Gil of Santarem, Blessed

Blessed Gil of Santarem

A Portuguese Dominican : b. at Vaozela, diocese of Viseu, about 1185; d. at Santarem, 14 May, ...
Gilbert de la Porrée

Gilbert de la Porree

(Gilbertus Porretanus) Bishop of Poitiers, philosopher, theologian and general scholar; b. ...
Gilbert Foliot

Gilbert Foliot

Bishop of London, b. early in the twelfth century of an Anglo-Norman family and connected ...
Gilbert Islands

Gilbert Islands

Vicariate apostolic ; comprises the group of that name, besides the islands of Ellice and ...
Gilbert of Sempringham, Saint

St. Gilbert of Sempringham

Founder of the Order of Gilbertines , b. at Sempringham, on the border of the Lincolnshire fens, ...
Gilbert, Nicolas-Joseph-Laurent

Nicolas-Joseph-Laurent Gilbert

Poet, b. at Fontenoy-le-Château, 1751; d. at Paris, 12 November, 1780. His parents were ...
Gilbert, Sir John Thomas

Sir John Thomas Gilbert

Irish archivist and historian, b. in Dublin, 23 January, 1829; d. there, 23 May, 1898. He was ...
Gilbertines, Order of

Order of Gilbertines

Founded by St. Gilbert, about the year 1130, at Sempringham, Gilbert's native place, where he was ...
Gildas, Saint

St. Gildas

Surnamed the Wise; b. about 516; d. at Houat, Brittany, 570. Sometimes he is called "Badonicus" ...
Giles, Saint

St. Giles

(Latin Ægidius.) An Abbot, said to have been born of illustrious Athenian parentage ...
Gillespie, Eliza Maria

Eliza Maria Gillespie

(In religion Mother Mary of St. Angela). Born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, 21 ...
Gillespie, Neal Henry

Neal Henry Gillespie

Brother of Eliza Maria Gillespie ; b. in Washington County, Pennsylvania, 19 January 1831; d. at ...
Gillis, James

James Gillis

Scottish bishop ; b. at Montreal, Canada, 7 April, 1802; d. at Edinburgh, 24 February 1864. He ...
Gilmore, Patrick Sarsfield

Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore

A musician, born at Ballygar Galway, Ireland, 25 Dec., 1829; died at St. Louis, 24 Sept., 1892; ...
Gindarus

Gindarus

A titular see of Syria Prima, in the Patriarchate of Antioch. Pliny (Hist. nat. V, 81) ...
Ginoulhiac, Jacques-Marie-Achille

Jacques-Marie-Achille Ginoulhiac

A French bishop ; b. at Montpellier (department of Herault) 3 Dec., 1806; d. there 17 Nov., ...
Gioberti, Vincenzo

Vincenzo Gioberti

An Italian statesman and philosopher ; b. at Turin, 5 April, 1801; d. at Paris, 26 October, ...
Giocondo, Fra Giovanni

Fra Giovanni Giocondo

An Italian architect, antiquary, archaeologist, and classical scholar, b. in Verona, c. 1445; ...
Giordani, Tommasso

Tommasso Giordani

A composer, b. at Naples in 1738; d. at Dublin, Ireland, February 1806. The family came to ...
Giordano, Luca

Luca Giordano

Neapolitan painter ; b. at Naples, 1632; d. in the same place, 12 Jan., 1705. He was esteemed ...
Giorgione

Giorgione

(GIORGIO BARBARELLI, ZORZO DA CASTELFRANCO) Italian painter, b. at Castelfranco in or before ...
Giotto di Bondone

Giotto di Bondone

A Florentine painter, and founder of the Italian school of painting, b. most probably, in 1266 ...
Giovanelli, Ruggiero

Ruggiero Giovanelli

Composer, b. at Velletri, near Rome, in 1560; d. at Rome, 7 January, 1625. In 1584 he was ...
Giovanni Dominici, Blessed

Blessed Giovanni Dominici

(BANCHINI or BACCHINI was his family name). Cardinal, statesman and writer, born at ...
Giraldi, Giovanni Battista

Giovanni Battista Giraldi

(Surnamed CINTIO) Italian dramatist and novelist; b. at Ferrara, Italy, 1504; d. there, ...
Giraldi, Ubaldo

Ubaldo Giraldi

(UBALDUS A SANCTO CAJETANO). An Italian canonist; b. in 1692; d. in 1775. He was a member of ...
Giraldus Cambrensis

Giraldus Cambrensis

Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald de Barry) was a distinguished writer, historian, and ecclesiastic of ...
Girard, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Girard

Known as Père Girard, a Swiss pedagogue, b. at Fribourg, 17 December, 1765; d. there, 6 ...
Girardon, François

Francois Girardon

A noted sculptor of the reign of Louis XIV, b. at Troyes, France, 1630; d. at Paris, 1715. The ...
Giraud de Borneil

Giraud de Borneil

A Provençal troubadour, b. about the middle of the twelfth century, at Excideuil in the ...
Girba

Girba

A titular see in the province of African Tripoli. It is an island, in ancient times called ...
Girgenti

Girgenti

DIOCESE OF GIRGENTI (AGRIGENTINA). Girgenti is the capital of a province in Sicily and is ...
Gisbert, Blaise

Blaise Gisbert

French rhetorician and critic; born at Cahors, 21 February, 1657; died at Montpellier, 21 ...
Giuliani, Veronica

St. Veronica Giuliani

Born at Mercatello in the Duchy of Urbino, Italy, 1660; died at Citt` di Castello, 9 July, 1727. ...
Giulio Romano

Giulio Romano

Properly GIULIO DEI GIANNUZZI, also known as GIULIO PIPPI. A famous architect and painter, the ...
Giuseppe Giusti

Giuseppe Giusti

A poet and patriot ; b. 1809, at Monsumano near Pescia, Italy ; d. 31 March, 1850, at ...
Giuseppe Maria Tommasi, Blessed

Bl. Giuseppe Maria Tommasi

A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...
Glaber, Raoul

Raoul Glaber

Benedictine chronicler; b. in Burgundy before 1000; d. at Cluny about 1050. In early boyhood he ...
Glabrio, Manius Acilius

Manius Acilius Glabrio

Consul at Rome during A.D. 91, with Trajan. He belonged to one of the noblest families of ...
Glagolitic

Glagolitic

(Or G LAGOLITSA ; Slavonic glagol, a word; glagolati, to speak). An ancient alphabet ...
Glaire, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Glaire

Priest, hebraist, and Biblical scholar; b. at Bordeaux, 1 April, 1798; d. at Issy, near Paris, ...
Glanville, Ranulf de

Ranulf de Glanville

Chief Justiciar of England ; b. at Stratford, Suffolk, England, date unknown; d. before Acre, ...
Glarean, Henry

Henry Glarean

(LORITI) The most distinguished of Swiss humanists, poet, philosopher, geographer, ...
Glasgow

Glasgow

I. ARCHDIOCESE OF GLASGOW (GLASGUENSIS) Archdiocese in the south-west of Scotland, comprising at ...
Glastonbury Abbey

Glastonbury Abbey

[G LESTINGABURH; called also Y NISWITRIN (Isle of Glass) and A VALON (Isle of Apples)] ...
Glebe

Glebe

Glebe ( Latin gleba ) originally signified, in common law , any farm, estate, or parcel of ...
Glendalough, School of

School of Glendalough

Glendalough (the Valley of the Two Lakes) is a picturesque and lonely glen in the heart of the ...
Gloria in Excelsis Deo

Gloria in Excelsis Deo

The great doxology ( hymnus angelicus ) in the Mass is a version of a very old Greek form". ...
Gloria, Laus et Honor

Gloria, Laus Et Honor

A hymn composed by St. Theodulph of Orléans in 810, in Latin elegiacs, of which the ...
Glory

Glory

This word has many shades of meaning which lexicographers are somewhat puzzled to differentiate ...
Glory Be

Doxology

In general this word means a short verse praising God and beginning, as a rule, with the Greek ...
Glosses, Glossaries, Glossarists

Glosses, Glossaries, Glossarists

(IN CANON LAW) A gloss (Gk. glossa , Lat. glossa , tongue, speech) is an interpretation ...
Glosses, Scriptural

Scriptural Glosses

I. ETYMOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL MEANINGS The modern English word gloss is derived directly from the ...
Glossolalia

Gift of Tongues (Glossolalia)

(Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...
Gloves, Episcopal

Episcopal Gloves

Liturgical gloves ( chirothecœ , called also at an earlier date manicœ , wanti ...
Gluttony

Gluttony

(From Lat. gluttire , to swallow, to gulp down), the excessive indulgence in food and drink. ...
Gnesen-Posen

Gnesen-Posen

Archdiocese in the Kingdom of Prussia. The archdiocese includes the Dioceses of Gnesen and ...
Gnosticism

Gnosticism

The doctrine of salvation by knowledge. This definition, based on the etymology of the word ( ...
Goa

Goa

(GOANENSIS.) Patriarchate of the East Indies, the chief see of the Portuguese dominions in the ...
Goajira, Vicariate Apostolic of

Goajira

Goajira is the most northern portion of South America is a peninsula running into the Caribbean ...
Goar, Jacques

Jacques Goar

A Dominican and hellenist, b. at Paris, 1601, d. 23 September, 1653. He entered the convent of ...
Goar, Saint

St. Goar

An anchorite of Aquitaine; b. about 585; d. near Oberwesel (Germany), 6 July, 649. He came of a ...
Gobat, George

George Gobat

Moral theologian ; born at Charmoilles, in the Diocese of Basil, now in the Department of the ...
Gobban Saer

Gobban Saer

Regarded in traditional lore as the greatest Irish architect of the seventh century, and ...
Gobelinus, Person

Person Gobelinus

(Persona.) Born in 1358; died 17 November, 1421. He was a Westphalian and was known as an ...
God

God

Etymology of the Word "God" Discusses the root-meaning of the name "God", which is derived from ...
God, Existence of

Existence of God

The topic will be treated as follows: I. As Known Through Natural ReasonA. The Problem Stated1. ...
God, Nature and Attributes of

Nature and Attributes of God

I. As Known Through Natural ReasonA. Infinity of GodB. Unity or Unicity of God C. Simplicity of ...
God, Relation of the Universe to

Relation of God to the Universe

1. Essential Dependence of the Universe on God (Creation and Conservation) In developing the ...
God, Three Persons of

The Blessed Trinity

This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...
Godard, Saint

St. Godard

(Also spelled GOTHARD, GODEHARD). Bishop of Hildesheim in Lower Saxony ; born about the ...
Godden, Thomas

Thomas Godden

(True name Tylden.) Born at Addington, Kent, 1624; died in London, 1 Dec., 1688. His father, ...
Godeau, Antoine

Antoine Godeau

Bishop, poet and exegete ; b. at Dreux in the diocese of Chartres, 1605; d. at Vence, 21 ...
Godeberta, Saint

St. Godeberta

Born about the year 640, at Boves, a few leagues from Amiens, in France ; died about the ...
Godelina, Saint

St. Godelina

(GODELINA.) Born at Hondeforte-lez-Boulogne, c. 1049; died at Ghistelles, 6 July, 1070. The ...
Godet des Marais, Paul

Paul Godet Des Marais

Bishop of Chartres, France ; b. at Talcy, near Blois, 1647; d. at Chartres, 1709. He studied ...
Godfrey Goodman

Godfrey Goodman

Born at Ruthin, Denbighshire, 28 February, 1582-3; died at Westminster, 19 January, 1656. He was ...
Godfrey of Bouillon

Godfrey of Bouillon

Duke of Lower Lorraine and first King of Jerusalem, son of Eustache II, Count of Boulogne, and ...
Godfrey of Fontaines

Godfrey of Fontaines

(GODEFRIDUS DE fontIBUS, DOCTOR VENERANDUS) A scholastic philosopher and theologian ; born ...
Godfrey of Viterbo

Godfrey of Viterbo

German writer of the twelfth century. Nothing is known as to the place or date of his birth, ...
Godinez

Michael Wadding

(GODINEZ). Mystical theologian, born at Waterford, Ireland, in 1591; died in Mexico, Dec. ...
Godric

Godric

The name of two Abbots of Croyland. Godric I (870-941) Godrick I was the successor of the Abbot ...
Goesport, John Wessel

John Wessel Goesport (Gansfort)

(GANSFORT). A fifteenth-century Dutch theologian, born at Gröningen in 1420; died there ...
Goetz, Marie Josephine

Marie Josephine Goetz

Second superior-general of the Society of the Sacred Heart, daughter of Joseph Goetz of ...
Goffe, Stephen

Stephen Goffe

(Or Gough) Oratorian; b. 1605; d. at Paris, Christmas Day, 1681. He was the son of Stephen ...
Goffine, Leonard

Leonard Goffine

(Or G OFFINÉ ). Born at Cologne, or according to some, at Broich, 6 December, 1648; ...
Gog and Magog

Gog and Magog

Names, respectively, of a king and of his supposed kingdom, mentioned several times in chapters 38 ...
Golden Bull

Bulla Aurea (Golden Bull)

(Golden Bull ). A fundamental law of the Holy Roman Empire; probably the best known of all ...
Golden Calf

Golden Calf

An object of worship among the Hebrews, mention of which occurs principally in Exodus 32 where ...
Golden Rose

Golden Rose

A precious and sacred ornament made of pure gold by skilled artificers, which the popes have ...
Goldoni, Carlo

Carlo Goldoni

Dramatist; b. at Venice, 25 Feb., 1707; d. at Paris, 6 Jan., 1793. Goldoni is especially ...
Goldwell, Thomas

Thomas Goldwell

Bishop of St. Asaph, the last survivor of the ancient hierarchy of England ; b. probably at ...
Golgotha

Mount Calvary

The place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ. NAME Etymology and Use The word Calvary ( ...
Gomes De Amorim, Francisco

Francisco Gomes de Amorim

Portuguese poet, dramatist, and novelist; b. at Avelomar, near Oporto, 13 August, 1827; d. 4 ...
Gondulphus

Gondulphus

(GUNDULFUS). The name of three saints, of whom one was Bishop of Tongres (Maestricht), the ...
Gonet, Jean Baptiste

Jean Baptiste Gonet

Theologian, b. about 1616 at Beziers, in the province of Languedoc; d. there 24 Jan., 1681. From ...
Gonnelieu, Jérôme de

Jerome de Gonnelieu

Theologian, ascetical writer, and preacher; born at Soissons, 8 Sept., 1640; died at Paris, 28 ...
González de Santalla, Thyrsus

Thyrsus Gonzalez de Santalla

Theologian and thirteenth general of the Society of Jesus, b. at Arganda, Spain, 18 January, ...
González, Zeferino

Zeferino Gonzalez

Dominican, cardinal, theologian, and philosopher, b. at Villoria in the Province and Diocese ...
Gonzaga, Ercole

Ercole Gonzaga

(Hercules.) Cardinal ; b. at Mantua, 23 November, 1505; d. 2 March, 1563. He was the Son of ...
Gonzaga, Saint Aloysius

St. Aloysius Gonzaga

Born in the castle of Castiglione, 9 March, 1568; died 21 June, 1591. At eight he was placed in ...
Gonzaga, Scipione

Scipione Gonzaga

Cardinal ; b. at Mantua, 11 November, 1542; d. at San Martino, 11 January, 1593. He belonged to ...
Gonzalez, Saint Peter

St. Peter Gonzalez

Popularly known as St. Elmo, b. in 1190 at Astorga, Spain ; d. 15 April, 1246, at Tuy. He was ...
Gonzalo de Berceo

Gonzalo de Berceo

Spanish poet, active between 1220 and 1242. Born in the closing years on twelfth century, he ...
Good

Good

"Good" is one of those primary ideas which cannot be strictly defined. In order to fix its ...
Good Faith

Good Faith

A phrase employed to designate the mental and moral state of honest, even if objectively ...
Good Friday

Good Friday

Definition and etymology Good Friday, called Feria VI in Parasceve in the Roman Missal, he ...
Good Hope, Cape of (Eastern)

Eastern Vicariate of the Cape of Good Hope

The Eastern Vicariate of the Cape of Good Hope was established in 1847, when the Vicariate of the ...
Good Hope, Cape of (Western)

Western Vicariate of the Cape of Good Hope

The Western vicariate and the Central prefecture, although different in name, are virtually one. ...
Good Samaritan, Sisters of the

Sisters of the Good Samaritan

A congregation of Tertiaries Regular of St. Benedict, established 2 February, 1857, at Sydney, ...
Good Shepherd, Our Lady of Charity of the

Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd

The aim of this institute is to provide a shelter for girls and women of dissolute habits, who ...
Good, Highest, The

The Highest Good

"We always act with a view to some good. The good is the object which all pursue, and for the ...
Goodman, Ven. John

Ven. John Goodman

Priest and martyr ; born in the Diocese of Bangor, Wales, 1590; died 1642. He was educated at ...
Goossens, Pierre-Lambert

Pierre-Lambert Goossens

Cardinal, Archbishop of Mechlin (Belgium), b. at Perck, near Vilvorde, 18 July, 1827; d. at ...
Gordian

Gordian

( Latin GORDIANUS.) There were three Roman emperors of this name, who reigned between A.D. ...
Gordianus and Epimachus, Saints

Sts. Gordianus and Epimachus

Martyrs, suffered under Julian the Apostate , 362, commemorated on 10 May. Gordianus was a judge ...
Gordon Riots

Gordon Riots

This agitation, so called from the head and spirit of the movement, Lord George Gordon, ...
Gordon, Andrew

Andrew Gordon

A Benedictine monk, physicist ; b. 15 June, 1712, at Cofforach in Forfarshire, Scotland ; d. ...
Gordos

Gordos

A titular see in the province of Lydia, suffragan of Sardis. The city is mentioned by Strabo, ...
Gorgonius, Saint

St. Gorgonius

Martyr, suffered in 304 at Nicomedia during the persecution of Diocletian. Gorgonius held a high ...
Gorkum, The Martyrs of

The Martyrs of Gorkum

The year 1572, Luther and Calvin had already wrested from the Church a great part of Europe. ...
Gortyna

Gortyna

A titular see, and in the Greek Church metropolitan see, of the Island of Crete. The city, ...
Goscelin

Goscelin

(Or GOTSELIN, according to the spelling in the earliest manuscripts of his works.) A ...
Gospel and Gospels

Gospel and Gospels

The word Gospel usually designates a written record of Christ's words and deeds. It is very ...
Gospel in the Liturgy

Gospel in the Liturgy

I. HISTORY From the very earliest times the public reading of parts of the Bible was an important ...
Gospel of Mark

Gospel of Mark

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Contents, Selection and Arrangement of ...
Goss, Alexander

Alexander Goss

Second Bishop of Liverpool ; born at Ormskirk, Lancashire, 5 July, 1814; died. at St. Edward's ...
Gossaert, Jan

Jan Gossaert

Called M ABUSE from Maubeuge in Hainaut. Flemish painter ; b. about 1472; d. at Middelburg ...
Gosselin, Jean-Edmé-Auguste

Jean-Edme-Auguste Gosselin

Ecclesiastical author; b. at Rouen, France, 28 Sept., 1787; d. at Paris, 27 Nov., 1858. He ...
Gother, John

John Gother

(Or JOHN GOTER) Priest and controversialist; b. at Southampton, date unknown; d. at sea on a ...
Gothic Architecture

Gothic Architecture

The term Gothic was first used during the later Renaissance, and as a term of contempt. Says ...
Gottfried von Strasburg

Gottfried von Strasburg

One of the greatest of Middle High German epic poets. Of his life we know absolutely nothing; ...
Gotti, Vincent Louis

Vincent Louis Gotti

Cardinal and theologian, b. at Bologna, 5 Sept., 1664; d. in Rome, 18 Sept., 1742. He received ...
Gottschalk of Orbais

Gottschalk of Orbais

A medieval theologian ; b. about 800, d. after 866, probable 30 October, 868 (or 869), in the ...
Gottschalk, Saint

St. Gottschalk

(GODESCALCUS). Martyr Prince of the Wends; d. at Lenzen on the Elbe, 7 June 1066. His feast ...
Goulburn

Goulburn

(Gulburnensis). One of the six suffragan sees of the ecclesiastical province of Sydney, ...
Gounod, Charles-François

Charles-Francois Gounod

One of the most distinguished French musicians and composers of the nineteenth century, b. in ...
Goupil, René

Rene Goupil

Jesuit missionary; born 1607, in Anjou; martyred in New York State, 23 September, 1642. Health ...
Gousset, Thomas-Marie-Joseph

Thomas-Marie-Joseph Gousset

French cardinal and theologian ; b. at Montigny-les-Charlieu, a village of ...
Government Authority

Civil Authority

Civil Authority is the moral power of command, supported (when need be) by physical coercion, ...
Gower, John

John Gower

Poet; born between 1327-1330, probably in Kent; died October, 1408. He was of gentle blood and ...
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco José de

Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes

Painter and etcher, b. in Fuendetodos, Aragon, Spain, 31 March, 1746; d. in Bordeaux, 16 ...
Goyaz, Diocese of

Goyaz

(Goyasiensis). Co-extensive with the state of the same name, one of the twenty states which, with ...
Gozo, Diocese of

Gozo

The diocese of Gozo (Goulos-Gaudisiensis), comprises the Island of Gozo in the Mediterranean ...
Gozzi, Carlo

Carlo Gozzi

Italian author, born at Venice, 1720; died 1806. He spent in military service three years that ...
Gozzoli

Gozzoli

(BENOZZO DI LESE DI SANDRO, surnamed GOZZOLI). Painter ; b. at Florence, 1420; d. at Pisa ...
Gozzolini, Saint Sylvester

St. Sylvester Gozzolini

Founder of the Sylvestrines, b. of the noble family of the Gozzolini at Osimo, 1177; d. 26 ...
Grässel, Lorenz

Lorenz Grassel

Coadjutor-elect of Baltimore ; born at Ruemannsfelden, Bavaria, 18 August, 1753; died at ...
Gröne, Valentin

Valentin Grone

A Catholic theologian, b. at Paderborn, 7 December, 1817; d. at Irmgarteichen, in the district ...
Grün, Anastasius

Anastasius Grun

A pseudonym for Anton Alexander (Maria), Count von Auersperg, an Austrian poet; b. at Laibach in ...
Grace

Grace

Actual Grace Explains the concept of actual grace, which is defined in the article as "a ...
Grace at Meals

Grace at Meals

In Apostolic times St. Paul counsels the faithful: "Whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever ...
Grace, Actual

Actual Grace

Grace ( gratia, Charis ), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual creatures ...
Grace, Controversies on

Controversies on Grace

These are concerned chiefly with the relation between grace and free will. How can the ...
Grace, Supernatural

Sanctifying Grace

Grace ( gratia, Charis ), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual ...
Grace, William Russell

William Russell Grace

Philanthropist and merchant, born at Cork, Ireland, 10 May, 1832; died at New York, 21 March, ...
Gradual

Gradual

( Latin Graduale , from gradus , a step) Gradual, in English often called Grail, is the ...
Gradual Psalms

Gradual Psalms

Fifteen psalms -- namely, Psalms 119-133 (in Hebrew 120-134) -- bear a Hebrew inscription which ...
Gradwell, Robert

Robert Gradwell

Bishop; b. at Clifton-in-the-Fylde, Lancashire, 26 Jan., 1777; d. in London, 15 March, 1833; went ...
Graffiti

Graffiti

The term in common usage among archaeologists to designate a class of rude inscriptions scratched ...
Graham, Patrick

Patrick Graham

First Archbishop of St. Andrews and Metropolitan of Scotland, date of birth uncertain; d. ...
Grail, The Holy

The Holy Grail

The name of a legendary sacred vessel , variously identified with the chalice of the Eucharist ...
Gramont, Eugénie de

Eugenie de Gramont

Religious of the Society of the Sacred Heart ; b. at Versailles, 17 September, 1788; d. at ...
Gran

Gran

( Hungarian ESZTERGOM; Latin STRIGONIUM, STRIGONIENSIS) Located in Hungary. From the ...
Granada

Granada

Archdiocese of Granada (Granatensis). Archdiocese in Spain, founded by St. Cecilius about ...
Granada, University of

University of Granada

The origin of this university is to be traced to the Arab school at Cordova, which, when the ...
Grancolas, Jean

Jean Grancolas

Doctor of the Sorbonne, theologian, liturgist; b. near Chateaudun, about 1660; d. at Paris, 1 ...
Grand Rapids

Grand Rapids

(Grandormensis) Diocese created 12 May, 1882 out of the diocese of Detroit, and made to ...
Grande Chartreuse, La

La Grande Chartreuse

The mother-house of the Carthusian Order lies in a high valley of the Alps of Dauphine, at an ...
Granderath, Theodor

Theodor Granderath

Born 19 June, 1839, at Giesenkirchen, Rhine Province; died 19 March, 1902, at Valkenburg, ...
Grandidier, Philippe-André

Philippe-Andre Grandidier

Priest and historian, b. at Strasburg, Alsace, 9 Nov., 1752; d. at the Abbey of Luntzel ...
Grandmont, Abbey and Order of

Grandmont

Abbey and Order in the department of Hte-Vienne, France. The exact date of the foundation of the ...
Grant, Thomas

Thomas Grant

First Bishop of Southwark ; b. at Ligny-les-Aires, Arras, France, 25 Nov., 1816; d. at Rome, ...
Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de

Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle

Known in history as CARDINAL DE GRANVELLE (GRANVELLA). Born at Ornans in Franche-Comté, ...
Gras, Venerable Louise de Marillac Le

Venerable Louise de Marillac Le Gras

Foundress of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul , born at Paris, 12 August, 1591, ...
Grasse, François-Joseph-Paul

Grasse

Count and Marquess de Grasse-Tilly, lieutenant-general of the naval forces; b. near Toulon, 1723; ...
Grassis, Paris de

Paris de Grassis

Master of ceremonies to Julius II and Leo X ; b. at Bologna, about 1470; d. at Rome, 10 June, ...
Gratian

Gratian

Roman Emperor; son of Valentinian I; born at Sirmium, 359; died at Lyons, 383. Before he had ...
Gratian, Jerome

Jerome Gratian

Spiritual director of St. Teresa and first Provincial of the Discalced Carmelites ; born at ...
Gratian, Johannes

Johannes Gratian

(GRATIANUS). The little that is known concerning the author of the "Concordantia discordantium ...
Gratianopolis

Gratianopolis

A titular see in Caesarea Mauretania, Africa. This city does not figure in a list of the ...
Gratius, Ortwin

Ortwin Gratius

(VAN GRAES) Humanist ; b. 1475 at Holtwick, near Coesfeld, Westphalia ; d. at Cologne, 22 ...
Gratry, Auguste-Joseph-Alphonse

Auguste-Joseph-Alphonse Gratry

French priest and writer; b. at Lille, 30 March, 1805; d. at Montreux, Switzerland, 7 February, ...
Gratz, Peter Aloys

Peter Aloys Gratz

Schoolmaster and exegete, b. 17 Aug., 1769, at Mittelberg, Allgäu, Bavaria ; d. at ...
Gravier, Jacques

Jacques Gravier

Jesuit missionary; born 1651 at Moulins, where he studied classics and philosophy under the ...
Gravina and Montepeloso

Gravina and Montepeloso

DIOCESE OF GRAVINA AND MONTEPELOSO (GRAVINENSIS ET MONTIS PELUSII). Gravina is a town in the ...
Gravina, Dominic

Dominic Gravina

Theologian ; b. in Sicily, about 1573; d. in the Minerva, at Rome, 26 Aug., 1643. He entered the ...
Gravina, Giovanni Vincenzo

Giovanni Vincenzo Gravina

Italian jurist and littérateur of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; b. at ...
Graz, University of

University of Graz

The University of Graz, located in the capital of the Province of Steiermark, owes its ...
Great Falls

Great Falls

DIOCESE OF GREAT FALLS (GREATORMENSIS). Created by Pope Pius X, 18 May, 1904; comprises the ...
Greco, El

El Greco

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...
Greece

Greece

Greece will be treated in this article under the following heads: I. The Land and the People; II. ...
Greek Catholics in America

Greek Catholics in America

The Uniat churches of the Byzantine or Greek Rite were almost unknown to the United States ...
Greek Church

Greek Church

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Explanation of Terms; II. The Greek ...
Greek Orthodox Church in America

Greek Orthodox Church in America

The name Orthodox Church is generally used to distinguish those of the Greek Rite who are ...
Greek Rites

Greek Rites

(1) Rite, Language, Religion These are three things that must always be distinguished. A rite is ...
Green Bay

Green Bay (Wisconsin)

(SINUS VIRIDIS) The Diocese of Green Bay — established 3 March, 1868, from the territory ...
Green, Hugh

Hugh Green

Martyr ; born about 1584; martyred 19 August, 1642. His parents, who were Protestants, sent him ...
Green, Thomas Louis

Thomas Louis Green

Priest and controversialist; b. at Stourbridge, Worcestershire, 1799; d. at Newport, Shropshire, ...
Greenland

Greenland

An island stretching from within the Arctic Circle south to about 59 degrees N. latitude, being ...
Gregorian Chant

Gregorian Chant

The name is often taken as synonymous with plain chant, comprising not only the Church music of ...
Gregory Bæticus

Gregory Baeticus

Bishop of Elvira, in the province of Baetica, Spain, from which he derived his surname; d. ...
Gregory I, Pope Saint

St. Gregory the Great

Doctor of the Church ; born at Rome about 540; died 12 March 604. Gregory is certainly one of ...
Gregory II, Pope Saint

Pope St. Gregory II

(Reigned 715-731). Perhaps the greatest of the great popes who occupied the chair of Peter ...
Gregory III, Pope Saint

Pope St. Gregory III

(Reigned 731-741.) Pope St. Gregory III was the son of a Syrian named John. The date of his ...
Gregory IV, Pope

Pope Gregory IV

Elected near the end of 827; died January, 844. When Gregory was born is not known, but he was a ...
Gregory IX

Pope Gregory IX

(UGOLINO, Count of Segni). Born about 1145, at Anagni in the Campagna; died 22 August, 1241, ...
Gregory of Heimburg

Gregory of Heimburg

Humanist and Statesman, b. at Würzburg in the beginning of the fifteenth century; d. at ...
Gregory of Nazianzus, Saint

St. Gregory of Nazianzus

Doctor of the Church, born at Arianzus, in Asia Minor, c. 325; died at the same place, 389. He ...
Gregory of Neocaesarea, Saint

St. Gregory of Neocaesarea

Known at THAUMATURGUS, ( ho Thaumatourgos , the miracle-worker). Born at Neocæsarea in ...
Gregory of Nyssa, Saint

Saint Gregory of Nyssa

Date of birth unknown; died after 385 or 386. He belongs to the group known as the "Cappadocian ...
Gregory of Rimini, Saint

Gregory of Rimini

An Augustinian theologian ; born at Rimini, Italy, in the second half of the thirteenth ...
Gregory of Tours, Saint

St. Gregory of Tours

Born in 538 or 539 at Arverni, the modern Clermont-Ferrand; died at Tours, 17 Nov., in 593 or ...
Gregory of Utrecht, Saint

St. Gregory of Utrecht

Abbot; b. about 707 or 708; d. 775 or 780. Gregory was born of a noble family at Trier. His ...
Gregory of Valencia

Gregory of Valencia

Professor of the University of Ingolstadt , b. at Medina, Spain, March, 1550 (1540, 1551?); d. ...
Gregory the Illuminator

Gregory the Illuminator

Born 257?; died 337?, surnamed the Illuminator (Lusavorich). Gregory the Illuminator is the ...
Gregory V, Pope

Pope Gregory V

Born c. 970; died 4 February, 999. On the death of John XV the Romans sent a deputation to Otto ...
Gregory VI

Gregory VI (Antipope)

On the death of Sergius IV in June, 1012, "a certain Gregory", opposed the election of ...
Gregory VI, Pope

Pope Gregory VI

(JOHN GRATIAN). Date of birth unknown; elected 1 May 1045; abdicated at Sutri, 20 December, ...
Gregory VII, Pope Saint

Pope St. Gregory VII

(HILDEBRAND). One of the greatest of the Roman pontiffs and one of the most remarkable men ...
Gregory VIII

Gregory VIII (Antipope)

Antipope. He was Mauritius Burdinus (Bordinho, Bourdin), who was placed upon the papal chair by ...
Gregory VIII, Pope

Pope Gregory VIII

(ALBERTO DI MORRA). Born about the beginning of the twelfth century, at Benevento ; elected ...
Gregory X

Pope Gregory X

Born 1210; died 10 January, 1276. The death of Pope Clement IV (29 November, 1268) left the ...
Gregory XI

Pope Gregory XI

(PIERRE ROGER DE BEAUFORT). Born in 1331, at the castle of Maumont in the Dioceses of Limoges ...
Gregory XII

Pope Gregory XII

(ANGELO CORRARIO, now CORRER). Legal pope during the Western Schism ; born at Venice, of a ...
Gregory XIII, Pope

Pope Gregory XIII

(UGO BUONCOMPAGNI). Born at Bologna, 7 Jan., 1502; died at Rome, 10 April, 1585. He studied ...
Gregory XIV, Pope

Pope Gregory XIV

(N ICCOLÒ S FONDRATI ). Born at Somma, near Milan, 11 Feb., 1535; died at Rome, 15 ...
Gregory XV, Pope

Pope Gregory XV

(ALESSANDRO LUDOVISI). Born at Bologna, 9 or 15 January, 1554; died at Rome, 8 July, 1623. ...
Gregory XVI, Pope

Pope Gregory XVI

(MAURO, or BARTOLOMEO ALBERTO CAPPELLARI). Born at Belluno, then in the Venetian territory, 8 ...
Greifswald, University of

University of Greifswald

The oldest university of Prussia, founded in 1456. Even before this, Greifswald had, for a short ...
Greith, Karl Johann

Karl Johann Greith

Bishop and church historian, b. at Rapperswyl, Switzerland, 25 May, 1897; d. at St. Gall, 17 ...
Gremiale

Gremiale

A square or oblong cloth which the bishop, according to the "Cæremoniale" and ...
Grenoble

Grenoble

DIOCESE OF GRENOBLE (GRATIANOPOLITANA) Now comprises the Department of Isère and the Canton ...
Gresemund, Dietrich

Dietrich Gresemund

German humanist ; b. in 1477, at Speyer ; d. 1512, at Mainz. His father, also named Dietrich, ...
Greslon, Adrien

Adrien Greslon

French missionary; b. at Perigueux, in 1618; entered the Society of Jesus at Bordeaux, 5 ...
Gresset, Jean Baptiste

Jean Baptiste Gresset

Born 29 August, 1709; died 16 June, 1777, at Amiens. Having finished his studies at the college ...
Gretser, Jacob

Jacob Gretser

A celebrated Jesuit writer; b. at Markdorf in the Diocese of Constance in 1562; d. at ...
Greuze, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Greuze

French painter, b. at Tournus in Ardeche, 21 August, 1725; d. at Paris, 21 March, 1805. His ...
Grey Nuns

Grey Nuns

The Order of Sisters of Charity of the Hôpital Général of Montreal, commonly ...
Grey Nuns of the Cross

Grey Nuns of the Cross

A community founded in 1745 at Monteal by Madame d'Youville, known as the Grey Sisters, or Grey ...
Griffin, Gerald

Gerald Griffin

A novelist, dramatist, lyricist; b. 12 December, 1803, at Limerick, Ireland ; d. at Cork, 12 ...
Griffin, Martin Ignatius Joseph

Martin Ignatius Joseph Griffin

Journalist, historian, b. at Philadelphia, 23 Oct., 1842; d. there, 10 Nov., 1911. In early ...
Griffiths, Thomas

Thomas Griffiths

Born in London, 2 June, 1791; died 19 August, 1847; the first and only Vicar Apostolic of the ...
Grillparzer, Franz

Franz Grillparzer

An Austrian poet, b. at Vienna, 15 January, 1791, d. 21 January, 1872. After desultory ...
Grimaldi, Francesco Maria

Francesco Maria Grimaldi

Italian physicist, b. at Bologna, 2 April, 1618; d. in the same city, 28 Dec., 1663. He entered ...
Grimaldi, Giovanni Francesco

Giovanni Francesco Grimaldi

An eclectic painter of the Bolognese school ; b. at Bologna, 1606; d. at Rome, 1680. He was a ...
Grimmelshausen, Johann Jacob Christoffel von

Johann Jacob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen

The greatest German novelist of the seventeenth century. What we know of his life is largely ...
Groote, Gerard

Gerard Groote

( Or Geert De Groote; Gerhardus Magnus.) Founder of the "Brethren of the Common Life" , b. ...
Gropper, John

John Gropper

An eminent jurist and theologian, b. 24 Feb., 1503, at Soest, Westphalia ; d. at Rome, 13 March, ...
Grosseteste, Robert

Robert Grosseteste

Bishop of Lincoln and one of the most learned men of the Middle Ages ; b. about 1175; d. 9 ...
Grosseto

Grosseto

(Grossetana) Grosseto, suffragan diocese of Siena, has for its episcopal city the capital ...
Grosswardein

Grosswardein

( Hungarian Nagy-Várad; Magno-Varadinensis) A diocese of the Latin Rite in ...
Grottaferrata, Abbey of

Abbey of Grottaferrata

( Latin Crypta ferrata .) A Basilian monastery near Rome, sometimes said to occupy the site ...
Grueber, Johann

Johann Grueber

A German Jesuit missionary in China and noted explorer of the seventeenth century; b. at Linz, ...
Guéranger, Prosper Louis Pascal

Prosper Louis Pascal Gueranger

Benedictine and polygraph; b. 4 April, 1805, at Sablé-sur-Sarthe; d. at Solesmes, 30 ...
Guérard, Robert

Robert Guerard

Born at Rouen, 1641; died at the monastery of Saint-Ouen, 2 January, 1715. For some time he ...
Guérin

Guerin

(1) Eugénie de Guérin A French writer; b. at the château of La Cayla, in ...
Guérin, Anne-Thérèse

Anne-Therese Guerin

(In religion, Mother Theodore) Born at Etables (Côte du Nord), Brittany, France, 2 ...
Guadalajara

Guadalajara

(Guadalaxara) Archdiocese in Mexico, separated from the Diocese of Michoacan by Paul III, 31 ...
Guadalupe, Shrine of

Shrine of Guadalupe

Guadalupe is strictly the name of a picture, but was extended to the church containing the ...
Guadeloupe

Guadeloupe

(Or Basse Terre; Guadalupensis; Imæ Telluris) Diocese in the West Indies, comprises the ...
Guadix, Diocese of

Guadix

(GUADICENSIS) The Diocese of Guadix, in Spain, comprises the greater part of the Province of ...
Guaicuri Indians

Guaicuri Indians

(Pronounced Waikuri .) A group of small tribes, speaking dialectic forms of a common ...
Guamanga, Diocese of

Ayacucho

( Or Guamanga). A Peruvian diocese, suffragan to Lima. The See of Guamanga was erected by ...
Guaraní Indians

Guarani Indians

(Pronounced Waraní .) One of the most important tribal groups of South America, ...
Guarantees, Law of

Law of Guarantees

(LA LEGGE DELLE GUARENTIGIE) A name given to the law passed by the senate and chamber of the ...
Guarda, Diocese of

Guarda

(EGITANIENSIS.) Province of Beira, Portugal. Near the episcopal city are the ruins of Idanha, ...
Guardi, Francesco

Francesco Guardi

Venetian painter ; born at Venice, 1712; died in the same city, 1793. He was a pupil of ...
Guardian Angels

Guardian Angels

( See also FEAST OF THE GUARDIAN ANGELS .) That every individual soul has a guardian angel ...
Guardian Angels, Feast of

Feast of Guardian Angels

This feast, like many others, was local before it was placed in the Roman calendar. It was not ...
Guardianship, in Civil Jurisprudence

Guardianship, in Civil Jurisprudence

Guardianship is "the condition or fact of being a guardian; the office or position of guardian" ...
Guarini, Battista

Battista Guarini

An Italian poet, b. at Ferrara, 1538, d. at Venice, 7 Oct., 1612. His father, Francesco ...
Guarino da Verona

Guarino Da Verona

A humanist, b. 1370, at Verona, Italy ; d. 1460, at Ferrara. He studied Latin in the school ...
Guastalla, Diocese of

Guastalla

(GUASTELLENSIS). In the province of Reggio Emilia (Central Italy ) on the left bank of the Po ...
Guastallines

Guastallines

Luigia Torelli, Countess of Guastalla (b. about 1500; d. 29 Oct., 1559 or 1569), widowed for ...
Guatemala, Santiago de

Santiago de Guatemala

(Sancti Jacobi majoris de Guatemala) Archdiocese conterminous with the Republic of Guatemala, ...
Guayaquil

Guayaquil

A RCHDIOCESE OF G UAYAQUIL (G UAYAQUILENSIS ). Guayaquil, the capital of the Ecuadorian ...
Gubbio

Gubbio

Diocese of Eugubinensis, in the province of Perugia in Umbria (Central Italy ). The city ...
Gudenus, Moritz

Moritz Gudenus

A German convert to the Catholic faith from the Protestant ministry; b. 11 April, 1596, at ...
Gudula, Saint

Saint Gudula

(Latin, Guodila ). Born in Brabant, Belgium, of Witger and Amalberga, in the seventh ...
Guelphs and Ghibellines

Guelphs and Ghibellines

Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the ...
Guglielmini, Giovanni Battista

Giovanni Battista Guglielmini

Scientist, b. at Bologna, 16 August, 1763; d. in the same city, l5 December, 1817. He is known as ...
Guiana

Guiana

(Or Guayana .) Guiana was the name given to all that region of South America which extends ...
Guibert of Ravenna

Guibert of Ravenna

An antipope, known as Clement III, 1080 (1084) to 1100; born at Parma about 1025; died at ...
Guicciardini, Francesco

Francesco Guicciardini

An historian and statesman; born at Florence, 1483; died there, 23 May, 1540. His parents, Piero ...
Guido of Arezzo

Guido of Arezzo

(Guido Aretinus). A monk of the Order of St. Benedict, b. (according to Dom Morin in the ...
Guigues du Chastel

Guigues du Chastel (Guigo de Castro)

(Guigo de Castro). Fifth prior of the Grande Chartreuse, legislator of the Carthusian Order ...
Guijon, André

Andre Guijon

Bishop and orator; born in November, 1548, at Autun ; died in September, 1631. He was the son ...
Guilds

Guilds

Guilds were voluntary associations for religious, social, and commercial purposes. These ...
Guiney, Patrick Robert

Patrick Robert Guiney

Second and eldest surviving son of James Roger Guiney and Judith Macrae; born at Parkstown, Co. ...
Guiscard, Robert

Robert Guiscard

Duke of Apulia and Calabria, founder of the Norman state of the Two Sicilies; born about 1016; ...
Guise, House of

House of Guise

The House of Guise, a branch of the ducal family of Lorraine, played an important part in the ...
Guitmund

Guitmund

A Bishop of Aversa, a Benedictine monk, theologian, and opponent of Berengarius ; born at an ...
Gulf of St. Lawrence

Gulf of St. Lawrence

Vicariate erected 12 September, 1905, and formed from the prefecture Apostolic of the same name ...
Gunpowder Plot, The

The Gunpowder Plot

(Oath taken May, 1604, plot discovered November, 1605). Robert Catesby, the originator of the ...
Gunther, Blessed

Blessed Gunther

A hermit in Bohemia in the eleventh century; b. about 955; d. at Hartmanitz, Bohemia, 9 ...
Gurk

Gurk

(GURCENSIS) A prince-bishopric of Carinthia, suffragan to Salzburg, erected by Archbishop ...
Gury, Jean-Pierre

Jean-Pierre Gury

Moral theologian ; b. at Mailleroncourt, Haute-Saône, 23 January, 1801; d. at Merc ur, ...
Gusmão, Bartholomeu Lourenço de

Bartholomeu Lourenco de Gusmao

Naturalist, and the first aeronaut; b. in 1685 at Santos in the province of São Paulo , ...
Gutenberg, Johann

Johann Gutenberg

(Henne Gänsfleisch zur Laden, commonly called Gutenberg). Inventor of printing; born about ...
Guthlac, Saint

St. Guthlac

Hermit; born about 673; died at Croyland, England, 11 April, 714. Our authority for the life ...
Guyon, Jeanne-Marie-Bouvier de La Motte-

Madame Guyon

A celebrated French mystic of the seventeenth century; born at Montargis, in the Orléanais, ...
Guzmán, Fernando Pérez de

Fernando Perez de Guzman

Señor de Batres; Spanish historian and poet (1376-1458). He belonged to a family ...
Györ

Gyor

( German RAAB; Latin JAURINENSIS). A Hungarian see, suffragan to the Archdiocese of ...

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