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Ecclesiastical Abbreviations

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The words most commonly abbreviated at all times are proper names , titles (official or customary), of persons or corporations, and words of frequent occurrence. A good list of those used in Roman Republican and early Imperial times may be seen in Egbert's Latin Inscriptions (New York, 1896), 417-459. The Jewish scribes and Talmudic scholars also had frequent recourse to abbreviations.

Between the seventh and ninth centuries the ancient Roman system of abbreviations gave way to a more difficult one that gradually grew up in the monastic houses and in the chanceries of the new Teutonic kingdoms. Merovingian, Lombard, and Anglo-Saxon scripts offer each their own abbreviations, not to speak of the unique scotica manus or libri scottice scripti (Irish hand, or books written in the medieval Irish hand). Eventually such productive centres of technical manuscripts as the Papal Chancery, the theological schools of Paris and Oxford, and the civil-law school of Bologna set the standards of abbreviations for all Europe. The medieval manuscripts abound in abbreviations, owing in part to the abandonment of the uncial, or quasi-uncial, and the almost universal use of the cursive, hand. The medieval writer inherited a few from Christian antiquity; others he invented or adapted, in order to save time and parchment. They are found especially in manuscripts of scholastic theology and canon law, annals and chronicles, the Roman law, and in administrative documents, civil and privileges, bulls, rescripts). They multiplied with time, and were never so numerous as on the eve of the discovery of printing; many of the early printed books offer this peculiarity, together with other characteristics of the manuscript page. The development of printing brought about the abandonment of many abbreviations, while it suggested and introduced new ones a process also favoured by the growth of ecclesiastical legislation, the creation of new offices, etc. There was less medieval abbreviation in the text of books much used on public occasions, e.g. missals, antiphonaries, bibles; in one way or another the needs of students seem to have been the chief cause of the majority of medieval abbreviations. The means of abbreviation were usually full points or dots (mostly in Roman antiquity), the semicolon (eventually conventionalized), lines (horizontal, perpendicular, oblong, wavy curves, and commas). Vowel-sounds were frequently written not after, but over, the consonants. Certain letters, like p and q , that occur with extreme frequency, e.g. in prepositions and terminations, became the source of many peculiar abbreviations ; similarly, frequently recurring words like et (and), est (is).

Habit and convenience are today the principal motives for using abbreviations. Most of those in actual use fall under one or other of the following heads:

I. Administrative;
II. Liturgical;
III. Scholastic;
IV. Chronological.

I. The first class of abbreviations includes those used in the composition of Pontifical documents. They were once very numerous, and lists of them may be seen in the works quoted below (e.g. Quantin, Prou). It may be well to state at once that since 29 December, 1878, by order of Leo XIII, the great papal documents ( Litterae Apostolicae ) are no longer written in the old Gothic hand known as bollatico ; all abbreviations, with the exception of a few obvious ones, like S.R.E., were abolished by the same authority (Acta S. Sedis, XI, 465-467). In the transaction of ordinary business the Roman Congregations are wont to use certain brief and pithy formulas (e.g. Negative = "No"; Negative et amplius = "No with emphasis"). They are not, correctly speaking, abbreviations. For a list of these see CANON LAW. This class includes also the abbreviations for the names of most sees. The full Latin titles of all existing ( Latin ) dioceses may be seen in the Roman annual, "Gerarchia Cattolica", a complete list of the Latin names of all known dioceses (extant or extinct) is found in the large folio work of the Comte de Mas Latrie, "Trésor de chronologie, d'histoire et de géographie" (Paris, 1884). For the same purpose the reader may also consult the episcopal catalogues of the Benedictine Gams, "Series Episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae" (Ratisbon, 1873-86), and the Franciscan Conrad Eubel, "Hierarchia Catholica Medii Ævi" (Münster, 1898-1902). Under this general heading may be included all abbreviated forms of addresses in ordinary intercourse, whether of individuals or of members of religious orders, congregations, institutes, to which may be added the forms of addresses usual for members of Catholic lay societies and the Papal orders of merit. The abbreviations of the titles of Roman Congregations, and of the individual canonical ecclesiastical authorities, belong also to this class.

II. A second class of abbreviations includes those used in the description of liturgical acts or the directions for their performance, e.g. the Holy Mass, the Divine Office (Breviary), the ecclesiastical devotions, etc. Here may also be classed the abbreviated forms for the name of God, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost ; also for the names of the Blessed Virgin, the saints, etc.; likewise abbreviations used in the administration of the Sacraments, mortuary epitaphs, etc. (to which class belong the numerous Catacomb inscriptions); finally some miscellaneous abbreviations like those used in the publication of documents concerning beatification and canonization.

III. In the third class belong scholastic abbreviations, used to designate honorific titles acquired in the schools, to avoid the repetition of lengthy titles of books and reviews, or to facilitate reference to ecclesiastical and civil legislation.

IV. In the fourth class of abbreviations belong all such as are used to describe the elements of the year, civil or ecclesiastical.


Absoluo. -- Absolutio ("Absolution ")
Alr. -- Aliter ("Otherwise")
Aplica. -- Apostolica ("Apostolic")
Appatis. -- Approbatis ("Having been approved")
Archiepus. -- Archiepiscopus ("Archbishop" )
Aucte. -- Auctoritate ("By the Authority")
Canice. -- Canonice ("Canonically")
Card. -- Cardinalis ("Cardinal" )
Cens. -- Censuris ("Censures" -- abl. or dat. case)
Circumpeone. -- Circumspectione ("Circumspection" -- abl. case)
Coione. -- Communione ("Communion" -- abl. case)
Confeone. -- Confessione ("Confession" -- abl. case)
Consciae. -- Conscientiae ("Of [or to] conscience ")
Constbus -- Constitutionibus ("Constitutions" -- abl. or dat. case)
Discreoni. -- Discretioni ("To the Discretion")
Dispensao. -- Dispensatio ("Dispensation")
Dnus -- Dominus ("Lord", "Sir", or "Mr.")
Ecclae. -- Ecclesiae ("Of [or to] the Church")
Ecclis. -- Ecclesiasticis ("Ecclesiastical")
Effum. -- Effectum ("Effect")
Epus. -- Episcopus ("Bishop")
Excoe. -- Excommunicatione ("Excommunication" -- abl. case)
Exit. -- Existit ("Exists")
Fr. -- Frater ("Brother")
Frum. -- Fratrum ("Of the Brothers")
Gnalis -- Generalis ("General")
Humil. -- Humiliter ("Humbly")
Humoi. -- Hujusmodi ("Of this kind")
Igr. -- Igitur ("Therefore")
Infraptum. -- Infrascriptum ("Written below")
Intropta. -- Introscripta ("Written within")
Irregulte. -- Irregularitate ("Irregularity" -- abl. case)
Lia. -- Licentia ("License")
Litma. -- Legitima ("Lawful")
Lre. -- Litterae ("Letters")
Lte. -- Licite ("Lawfully", or "licitly")
Magro. -- Magistro ("Master" -- dat. or abl. case)
Mir. -- Misericorditer ("Mercifully")
Miraone. -- Miseratione ("Pity" -- abl. case)
Mrimonium. -- Matrimonium ("Matrimony")
Nultus. -- Nullatenus ("Nowise")
Ordinaoni. -- Ordinationi ("Ordination" -- dat. case)
Ordio. -- Ordinario ("Ordinary" -- dat. or abl. case)
Pbr. -- Presbyter ("Priest")
Penia. -- Poenitentia ("Penance", or "repentance")
Peniaria. -- Poenitentiaria ("Penitentiary"; i.e. Bureau of the Apostolic Penitentiary)
Pntium. -- Praesentium ("Of those present", or, "Of this present writing")
Poe. -- Posse ("To be able", or, "The ability to do a thing")
Pontus. -- Pontificatus ("Pontificate")
PP. -- Papa ("Pope")
Pr. -- Pater ("Father")
Pror. -- Procurator
Ptur. -- Praefertur ("Is preferred", or, "Is brought forward")
Ptus. -- Praefatus ("Aforesaid")
Qd. -- Quod ("Because", "That", or, "Which")
Qmlbt. -- Quomodolibet ("In any manner whatsoever")
Qtnus. -- Quatenus ("In so far as")
Relione. -- Religione ("Religion", or, "Religious Order" -- abl. case)
Rlari. -- Regulari ("Regular")
Roma. -- Romana ("Roman")
Salri. -- Salutari ("Salutary")
Snia. -- Sententia ("Opinion")
Sntae., Stae. -- Sanctae ("Holy", or, "Saints" -- feminine)
Spealer. Specialiter ("Specially")
Spualibus Spiritualibus ("In spiritual matters")
Supplioni. Supplicationibus ("Supplication" -- dat. or abl. case)
Thia, Theolia. Theologia ("Theology")
Tli. Tituli ("Titles")
Tm. -- Tantum ("So much", or, "Only")
Tn. -- Tamen ("Nevertheless")
Venebli -- Venerabili ("Venerable")
Vrae. -- Vestrae ("Your")


A.B. -- Artium Baccalaureus ("Bachelor of Arts")
Ab. -- Abbas ("Abbot")
Abp. -- Archbishop
Abs. -- Absens ("Absent")
A.C. -- Auditor Camerae (Auditor of the Papal Treasury)
AC -- Ante Christum ("Before Christ ")
ACN -- Ante Christum Natum ("Before the Birth ofChrist ")
A.D. -- Anno Domini ("Year of Our Lord")
a.d. -- ante diem ("The day before")
Adm. Rev. -- Admodum Reverendus ("Very Reverend")
Adv. -- Adventus ("Advent ")
Alb. -- Albus ("White" -- Breviary)
al. -- alii, alibi, alias ("others", "elsewhere", "otherwise")
A.M. -- Anno Mundi ("Year of the World")
A.M. -- Artium Magister ("Master of Arts")
A.M.D.G. -- Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam ("For the greater glory of God ")
An. -- Annus ("Year")
Ann. -- Anni ("Years")
Ana, Ant. -- Antiphon
Apost. -- Apostolus ("Apostle")
Ap. Sed. -- Apostolica Sedes ("Apostolic See ")
Ap. Sed. Leg. -- Apostolicae Sedis Legatus ("Legate of the Apostolic See ")
Archiep. -- Archiepiscopus ("Archbishop" )
Archid. -- Archidiaconus ("Archdeacon")
Archiprb. -- Archipresbyter ("Archpriest")
A.R.S. -- Anno Reparatae Salutis ("In the year of Our Redemption ")
A.U. -- Alma Urbs ("Beloved City" -- i.e.,Rome )
Authen. -- Authentica ("Authentic" -- e.g. letters)
Aux. -- Auxilium, Auxilio ("Help", "With the help of")
B.A. -- Baccalaureus Artium ("Bachelor of Arts" )
B. BB. -- Beatus, Beati ("Blessed")
B.C. -- Before Christ
B.C.L. -- Baccalaureus Civilis [or Canonicae] Legis ("Bachelor of Civil [or Canon] Law")
B.D. -- Bachelor of Divinity
B.F. -- Bona Fide ("In Good Faith")
Ben. -- Benedictio ("Blessing")
Benevol. -- Benevolentia ("Benevolence")
Bon. Mem. -- Bonae Memoriae ("Of Happy Memory")
B.P. -- Beatissime Pater ("Most Holy Father")
Bro. -- Brother
B. Se. -- Baccalaureus Scientiarum ("Bachelor of Sciences")
B.U.J. -- Baccalaureus Utriusque Juris ("Bachelor of Both Laws" -- i.e., civil and canon)
B.T. -- Baccalaureus Theologiae ("Bachelor of Theology")
B.V. -- Beatitudo Vestra ("Your Holiness")
B.V. -- Beata Virgo ("Blessed Virgin" )
B.V.M. -- Beata Virgo Maria ("Blessed Virgin Mary" )
Cam. -- Camera (Papal Treasury)
Cam. Ap. -- Camera Apostolica ("Apostolic Camera" -- i.e. Papal Treasury)
Can. -- Canonicus
Canc. -- Cancellarius ("Chancellor")
Cap. -- Capitulum ("Little Chapter" -- Breviary)
Cap. de seq. -- Capitulum de Sequenti ("Little chapter of the following feast" -- Breviary)
Capel. -- Capella ("Chapel")
Caus. -- Causa ("Cause")
C.C. -- Curatus ("Curate" -- used chiefly inIreland )
CC. VV. -- Clarissimi Viri ("Illustrious Men")
Cen. Eccl. -- Censura Ecclesiastica ("Ecclesiastical Censure")
Cla. -- Clausula ("Clause")
Cl., Clico. -- Clericus, Clerico ("Cleric")
Clun. -- Cluniacenses ("Monks of Cluny" )
C.M. -- Causa Mortis ("On occasion of death")
Cod. -- Codex (Manuscript)
Cog. Leg. -- Cognatio Legalis ("Legal Cognation")
Cog. Spir. -- Cognatio Spiritualis ("Spiritual Cognation")
Coll. Cone. -- Collectio Conciliorum ("Collection of the Councils")
Comm. Prec. -- Commemoratio Praecedentis ("Commemoration of the preceding feast" -- Breviary)
Comm. Seq. -- Commemoratio Sequentis ("Commemoration of the following feast" -- Breviary)
Compl. -- Completorium ("Compline " -- Breviary)
Con. -- Contra ("against")
Cone. -- Concilium ("Council")
Conf. -- Confessor
Conf. Doct. -- Confessor et Doctor (Breviary)
Conf. Pont. -- Confessor Pontifex ("Confessor and Bishop" -- Breviary)
Cons. -- Consecratio ("Consecration")
Consecr. -- Consecratus ("Consecrated")
Const. Ap. -- Constitutio Apostolica ("Apostolic Constitution ")
Cr. -- Credo ("Creed" -- Breviary)
D. -- Dominus ("Lord")
d. -- dies ("day")
D.C.L. -- Doctor Civilis [or Canonicae] Legis ("Doctor of Civil [or Canon] Law")
D.D. -- Doctores ("Doctors")
D.D. -- Donum dedit; Dedicavit ("Gave", "dedicated")
D.D. -- Doctor Divinitatis ("Doctor of Divinity" -- i.e. Theology)
Dec. -- Decanus ("Dean")
Def. -- Defunctus ("Deceased")
D.G. -- Dei Gratia ("By the Grace of God ")
D.N. -- Dominus Noster ("Our Lord")
D.N.J.C. -- Dominus Noster Jesus Christus ("Our Lord Jesus Christ" )
DN, DNS, DNUS -- Dominus ("Lord")
Doct. -- Doctor (Breviary)
Dom. -- Dominica ("Sunday")
D.O.M. -- Deo Optimo Maximo ("To God, the Best and Greatest")
Doxol. -- Doxologia ("Doxology" -- Breviary)
D.R. -- Decanus Ruralis ("Rural Dean")
DS -- Deus ("God" )
D.Se. -- Doctor Scientiarum ("Doctor of Sciences ")
D.V. -- Deo Volente ("God willing")
Dupl. -- Duplex ("Double feast" -- Breviary)
Dupl. Maj. -- Duplex Major ("Double Major feast")
Dupl. I. Cl. -- Duplex Primae Classis ("Double First Class feast" -- Breviary)
Dupl. II. Cl. -- Duplex Secundae Classis ("Double Second Class feast" -- Breviary)
Eccl. -- Ecclesiasticus ("Ecclesiastic")
E., Eccl. -- Ecclesia ("The Church")
El. -- Electio, Electus ("Election", "Elect")
Emus -- Eminentissimus ("Most Eminent")
EPS, EP., Episc. -- Episcopus ("Bishop")
Et. -- Etiam ("Also, Even")
Evang. -- Evangelium ("Gospel" -- Breviary)
Ex. -- Extra ("Outside of")
Exe. -- Excommunicatus, Excommunicatio ("Excommunicated, Excommunication" )
Fel. Mem. -- Felicis Memoriae ("Of Happy Memory")
Fel. Rec. -- Felicis Recordationis ("Of Happy Memory")
Fer. -- Feria ("Weekday")
Fr., F. -- Frater, Frere ("Brother")
Fund. -- Fundatio ("Foundation")
Gen. -- Generalis ("General")
Gl. -- Gloria ("Glory to God ", etc.)
Gr. -- Gratia ("Grace")
Grad. -- Gradus ("Grade")
Grat. -- Gratias ("Thanks"); or Gratis ("Without expense")
hebd. -- Hebdomada ("Week")
Hom. -- Homilia ("Homily" -- Breviary)
hor. -- hora ("hour")
IC -- Jesus (first and third letters of His name in Greek)
Id. -- Idus ("Ides")
Igr. -- Igitur ("Therefore")
I.H.S. -- Iesus Hominum Salvator ("Jesus Saviour of Men" -- usual interpretation). Really a faulty Latin transliteration of the first three letters of JESUS in Greek (IHS for IHC).
Ind. -- Indictio ("Indiction")
Ind. -- Index
Inq. -- Inquisitio ("Inquisition" )
i.p.i. -- in partibus infidelium ("among theinfidels ")
Is. -- Idus ("Ides")
J.C. -- Jesus Christus ("Jesus Christ")
J.C.D. -- Juris Canonici Doctor, Juris Civilis Doctor ("Doctor of Canon Law", "Doctor of Civil Law")
J.D. -- Juris Doctor ("Doctor of Law")
J.M.J. -- Jesus, Maria, Joseph ("Jesus, Mary, Joseph")
Jo., Joann. -- Joannes ("John")
J.U.D. -- Juris Utriusque Doctor ("Doctor of Both Laws" -- Civil and Canon)
Jud. -- Judicium ("Judgment")
J.U.L. -- Juris Utriusque Licentiatus ("Licentiate of Both Laws")
Jur. -- Juris ("Of Law")
Kal. -- Kalendae ("Calends")
Laic. -- Laicus ("Layman")
Laud. -- Laudes ("Lauds " -- Breviary)
L.C.D. -- Legis Civilis Doctor ("Doctor of Civil Law")
l.c.; loc. cit. -- Loco citato ("at the place already cited")
Lect. -- Lectio ("Lesson")
Legit. -- Legitime, Legitimus ("Legally", "legitimate")
L.H.D. -- Litterarum Humaniorum Doctor ("Doctor of Literature")
Lib., Lo. -- Liber, Libro ("Book", "In the book")
Lic. -- Licentia, Licentiatus ("License", "Licentiate")
Litt. -- Littera ("Letter")
LL.B. -- Legum Baccalaureus ("Bachelor of Laws")
LL.D. -- Legum Doctor ("Doctor of Laws")
LL.M. -- Legum Magister ("Master of Laws")
Loc. -- Locus ("Place")
Lov. -- Lovanium ("Louvain")
Lovan. -- Lovanienses (Theologians of Louvain )
L.S. -- Loco Sigilli ("Place of the Seal")
Lud. -- Ludovicus
M. -- Maria ("Mary")
M.A. -- Magister Artium ("Master of Arts")
Mag. -- Magister ("Master")
Mand. -- Mandamus ("We command")
Mand. Ap. -- Mandatum Apostolicum ("Apostolic Mandate", e.g. for a bishop's consecration )
Mart., M., MM. -- Martyr, Martyres ("Martyr", "Martyrs" -- Breviary)
Mat. -- Matutinum ("Matins " -- Breviary)
Matr. -- Matrimonum ("Marriage")
Mgr. -- Monseigneur, Monsignore ("My Lord")
Miss. -- Missa ("Mass" -- Breviary); Missionarius ("Missionary")
Miss. Apost., M.A. -- Missionarius Apostolicus ("Missionary Apostolic")
M.R. -- Missionarius Rector ("Missionary Rector")
m.t.v. -- mutatur terminatio versiculi ("the termination of the little verse is changed" -- Breviary)
Nativ. D.N.J.C. -- Nativitas Domini Nostri Jesu Christi ("Nativity of Our Lord Jesus Christ")
N. D. -- Nostra Domina, Notre Dame ("Our Lady")
Nigr. -- Niger ("Black" -- Breviary)
No. -- Nobis ("to us", "for us")
Nob. -- Nobilis, Nobiles ("Noble", "Nobles")
Noct. -- Nocturnum ("Nocturn ")
Non. -- Nonae ("Nones")
Nostr. -- Noster, nostri ("Our", "of our")
Not. -- Notitia ("Knowledge")
N.S. -- Notre Seigneur, Nostro Signore ("Our Lord")
N.S. -- New Style
N.T. -- Novum Testamentum ("New Testament ")
Ntri. -- Nostri ("Of our")
Nup. -- Nuptiae ("Nuptials")
Ob. -- Obiit ("Died")
Oct. -- Octava ("Octave" -- Breviary)
Omn. -- Omnes, Omnibus ("All", "to all")
Op. Cit. -- Opere Citato ("In the work cited")
Or. -- Oratio ("Prayer" -- Breviary)
Ord. -- Ordo, Ordinatio, Ordinarius ("Order", "Ordination", "Ordinary")
Or. Orat. -- Orator ("Petitioner"), Oratorium ("Oratory")
O.S. -- Old Style
O.T. -- Old Testament
Oxon. -- Oxonium, Oxonienses ("Oxford", "Theologians or Scholars of Oxford")
P. -- Pater, Pere ("Father")
Pa. -- Papa ("Pope"); Pater ("Father")
Pact. -- Pactum ("Agreement")
Pasch. -- Pascha ("Easter" -- Breviary)
Patr. -- Patriarcha ("Patriarch")
Pent. -- Pentecostes ("Pentecost" -- Breviary)
Ph.B. -- Philosophiae Baccalaureus ("Bachelor of Philosophy")
Ph.D. -- Philosophiae Doctor ("Doctor of Philosophy")
Phil. -- Philosophia ("Philosophy")
Ph.M. -- Philosophiae Magister ("Master of Philosophy")
P.K. -- Pridie Kalendas ("The day before the Calends")
Poenit. -- Poenitentia ("Penance")
Poenit. Ap. -- Poenitentiaria Apostolica ("Office of the Apostolic Penitentiary")
Pont. -- Pontifex ("Pontiff", i.e. Bishop -- Breviary)
Pont. -- Pontificatus ("Pontificate")
Pont. Max. -- Pontifex Maximus ("Supreme Pontiff ")
Poss. -- Possessor, Possessio ("Possessor", "Possession")
PP. -- Papa ("Pope"); Pontificum ("Of the popes ")
P.P. -- Parochus ("Parish Priest" -- used mostly in Ireland )
PP. AA. -- Patres Amplissimi ("Cardinals" )
P.P.P. -- Propria Pecunia Posuit ("Erected at his own expense")
P.R. -- Permanens Rector ("Permanent Rector")
Praef. -- Praefatio ("Preface" of the Mass -- Breviary)
Presbit. -- Presbyter, Priest
Prof. -- Professus, Professio, Professor ("Professed", "Profession", "Professor")
Prop. Fid. -- Propaganda Fide (Congregation of the Propaganda, Rome )
Propr. -- Proprium ("Proper" -- Breviary)
Prov. -- Provisio, Provisum ("Provision", "Provided")
Ps. -- Psalmus ("Psalm")
Pub., Publ. -- Publicus, Publice ("Public", "Publicly")
Purg. Can. -- Purgatio Canonica ("Canonical Disculpation")
Quadrag. -- Quadragesima ("Lent", also the "Fortieth day" beforeEaster -- Breviary)
Quinquag. -- Quinquagesima (The "Fiftieth day" beforeEaster -- Breviary)
R. -- Responsorium ("Responsory" -- Breviary)
R. -- Roma (Rome )
Rescr. -- Rescriptum ("Rescript")
R.D. -- Rural Dean
Req. -- Requiescat ("May he [or she] rest", i.e. in peace)
Resp. -- Responsum ("Reply")
R.I.P. -- Requiescat In Pace ("May he or she rest in peace")
Rit. -- Ritus ("Rite", "Rites")
Rom. -- Romanus, Romana ("Roman")
R. P. -- Reverendus Pater, Reverend Pere ("Reverend Father")
RR. -- Rerum ("Of Things, Subjects" -- e.g. SS. RR. Ital., Writers on Italian [historical] subjects); Regesta
Rt. Rev. -- Right Reverend
Rub. -- Ruber ("Red" -- Breviary)
Rubr. -- Rubrica ("Rubric")
S., Sacr. -- Sacrum ("Sacred")
Sab., Sabb. -- Sabbatum ("Sabbath", Saturday)
Saec. -- Saeculum (Century)
Sal. -- Salus, Salutis ("Salvation", "of Salvation")
Salmant. -- Salmanticenses (Theologians of Salamanca)
S.C. -- Sacra Congregatio ("Sacred Congregation")
S.C.C. -- Sacra Congregatio Concilii ("Sacred Congregation of the Council", i.e. of Trent )
S.C.EE.RR. -- Sacra Congregatio Episcoporum et Regularium ("Sacred Congregation of Bishops and Regulars")
S.C.I. -- Sacra Congregatio Indicis ("Sacred Congregation of the Index")
S.C.P.F. -- Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide ("Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith")
SCS -- Sanctus ("Saint")
s.d. -- sine datâ (undated book)
S.D. -- Servus Dei (Servant of God )
Semid. -- Semiduplex ("Semi" double feast -- Breviary)
Septuag -- Septuagesima ("Seventieth day" beforeEaster ; always a Sunday -- Breviary)
Sexag. -- Sexagesima ("Sixtieth day" before Easter -- Breviary)
Sig. -- Sigillum ("Seal")
Simpl. -- Simplex ("Simple" feast -- Breviary)
Sine Com. -- Sine Commemoratione ("Without commemoration" of other feast, or feasts -- Breviary)
s.l. -- sine loco ("without indication" of place of printing)
s.l.n.d. -- sine loco nec data ("without indication of place" or "without date of printing")
S.M. -- Sanctae Memoriae ("Of Holy Memory")
Soc. -- Socius, Socii ("Companion", "Companions" -- Breviary)
S. Off. -- Sanctum Officium (Congregation of the Holy Office, Inquisition )
S.P. -- Sanctissime Pater ("Most Holy Father")
S.P., S. Petr. -- Sanctus Petrus ("St. Peter" )
S.P. -- Summus Pontifex ("Supreme Pontiff ", Pope)
S.P.A. -- Sacrum Palatium Apostolicum ("Sacred Apostolic Palace", Vatican, Quirinal)
Sr. -- Sister
S.R.C. -- Sacra Rituum Congregatio ("Sacred Congregation of Rites")
S.R.E. -- Sancta Romana Ecclesia, Sanctae Romanae Ecclesia ("Most Holy Roman Church"; or, "of the Most Holy Roman Church")
SS. -- Scriptores ("Writers")
SS.D.N. -- Sanctissimus Dominus Noster ("Our Most Holy Lord [Jesus Christ]", also a title of the Pope)
S., SS. -- Sanctus, Sancti ("Saint", "Saints")
S.T.B. -- Sacrae Theologiae Baccalaureus ("Bachelor of Sacred Theology")
S.T.D. -- Sacred Theologiae Doctor ("Doctor of Sacred Theology")
S.T.L. -- Sacrae Theologiae Licentiatus ("Licentiate of Sacred Theology")
Suffr. -- Suffragia ("Suffrages" -- i.e. prayers of the saints ; Breviary)
S.V. -- Sanctitas Vestra ("Your Holiness")
Syn. -- Synodus ("Synod")
Temp. -- Tempus, Tempore ("Time", "in time")
Test. -- Testes, Testimonium ("Witnesses", "Testimony")
Theol. -- Theologia ("Theology")
Tit. -- Titulus, Tituli ("Title", "Titles")
Ult. -- Ultimo ("Last" -- day, month, year)
Usq. -- Usque ("As far as")
Ux. -- Uxor ("Wife")
V., Ven., VV. -- Venerabilis, Venerabiles ("Venerable")
V., Vest. -- Vester ("Your")
Vac. -- Vacat, Vacans ("Vacant")
Val. -- Valor ("Value")
Vat. -- Vaticanus ("Vatican" )
Vba. -- Verba ("Words")
Vers. -- Versiculus ("Versicle" -- Breviary)
Vesp. -- Vesperae ("Vespers " -- Breviary)
V.F., Vic. For. -- Vicarius Foraneus ("Vicar-Forane")
V.G. -- Vicarius Generalis ("Vicar-General ")
Vid. -- Vidua ("Widow" -- Breviary)
Vid., Videl. -- Videlicet ("Namely")
Vig. -- Vigilia ("Vigil" of a feast -- Breviary)
Viol. -- Violaceus ("Violet" -- Breviary)
Virg. -- Virgo ("Virgin" -- Breviary)
Virid. -- Viridis ("Green" -- Breviary)
V.M. -- Vir Magnificus ("Great Man")
V. Rev. -- Very Reverend
V.T. -- Vetus Testamentum
XC., XCS. -- Christus ("Christ" -- first, middle, and last letters of the Greek name)


A.D. -- Ante Diem (e.g. in the phrase, "Ante Diem VI [or Sextum] Kal. Apriles", is equivalent to the sixth day before the Calends of April, counting both the Calends and the day intended to be indicated); or Anima Dulcis ("Sweet Soul")
A.Q.I.C. -- Anima Quiescat In Christo ("May his [or her] Soul Repose in Christ")
B., BMT. -- Bene Merenti ("To the Well-Deserving")
B.M. -- Bonae Memoriae ("Of Happy Memory")
B.F. -- Bonae Feminae ("To the Good Woman")
B.I.C. -- Bibas [for Vivas] In Christo ("May you Live In Christ")
B.M.F. -- Bene Merenti Fecit ("He erected this to the Well-Deserving")
B.Q. -- Bene Quiescat ("May he [or she] Rest Well")
C. -- Consul
CC. -- Consules ("Consuls")
C.F. -- Clarissima Femina ("Most Illustrious Woman")
Cl. V. -- Clarissimus Vir ("Most Illustrious Man")
C.O. -- Conjugi Optimo ("To my Excellent Husband")
C.O.B.Q. -- Cum Omnibus Bonis Quiescat ("May he [or she] Repose With All Good souls ")
COI. -- Conjugi ("To my Husband [or Wife]")
CS., COS. -- Consul
COSS. -- Consules ("Consuls")
C.P. -- Clarissima Puella ("Most Illustrious Maiden")
D. -- Depositus ("Laid to rest"); or Dulcis ("Dear One")
D.D. -- Dedit, Dedicavit ("Gave", "Dedicated")
DEP. -- Depositus ("Laid to rest")
D.I.P. -- Dormit In Pace ("Sleeps in Peace")
D.M. -- Diis Manibus ("To the Manes [of]")
D.M.S. -- Diis Manibus Sacrum ("Sacred to the Manes [of]")
D.N. -- Domino Nostro ("To Our Lord")
DD. NN. -- Dominis Nostris ("To Our Lords")
E.V. -- Ex Voto ("In Fulfilment of a Vow")
EX. TM. -- Ex Testamento ("In accordance with the Testament of")
E VIV. DISC. -- E Vivis Discessit ("Departed from Life")
F. -- Fecit ("Did"); or Filius ("Son"); or Feliciter ("Happily")
F.C. -- Fieri Curavit ("Caused to be made")
F.F. -- Fieri Fecit ("Caused to be made")
FF. -- Fratres ("Brothers"); Filii ("Sons")
FS. -- Fossor ("Digger")
H. -- Haeres ("Heir"); Hic ("Here")
H.L.S. -- Hoc Loco Situs ("Laid [or Put] in This Place")
H.M.F.F. -- Hoc Monumentum Fieri Fecit ("Caused This Monument to be Made")
H.S. -- Hic Situs ("Laid Here")
ID. -- Idibus ("On the Ides")
IDNE. -- Indictione ("In the Indiction" -- a chronological term)
I.L.H. -- Jus Liberorum Habens ("Possessing the Right of Children" -- i.e., eligibility to public office under age)
INB. -- In Bono ("In Good [odour]")
IND. -- Same as IDNE
INP -- In Pace ("In Peace")
I.X. -- In Christo ("In Christ")
K. -- Kalendas ("Calends"); or Care, Carus, Cara ("Dear One"); or Carissimus[a] ("Dearest")
K.B.M. -- Karissimo Bene Merenti ("To the Most Dear and Well-deserving")
L. -- Locus ("Place")
L.M. -- Locus Monumenti ("Place of the Monument")
L.S. -- Locus Sepulchri ("Place of the Sepulchre")
M. -- Martyr, or Memoria ("Memory") or Monumentum ("Monument")
MM. -- Martyres ("Martyrs")
M.P. -- Monumentum Posuit ("Erected a Monument")
MRT. -- Merenti ("To the Deserving")
N. -- Nonas ("Nones"); or Numero ("Number")
NN. -- Nostris ("To Our" -- with a plural) or Numeri ("Numbers")
O. -- Hora ("Hour"); Obiit ("Died")
OB. IN XTO. -- Obiit In Christo ("Died In Christ")
OMS. -- Omnes ("All")
OP. -- Optimus (Excellent, or Supremely Good)
P. -- Pax ("Peace"); or Pius ("Dutiful"); or Ponendum ("To be Placed"); or Pridie ("The Day Before"); or Plus ("More")
P.C. -- Poni Curavit ("Caused to be Placed")
P.C., P. CONS. -- Post Consulatum ("After the Consulate")
P.I. -- Poni Jussit ("Ordered to be Placed")
P.M. -- Plus Minus ("More or Less"); or Piae Memoriae ("Of Pious Memory"); or Post Mortem ("After Death")
PP. -- Praepositus ("Placed over")
PR.K. -- Pridie Kalendas ("The Day Before the Calends")
PRB. -- Presbyter ("Priest")
PR.N. -- Pridie Nonas ("The Day Before the Nones")
P.T.C.S. -- Pax Tibi Cum Sanctis ("Peace to Thee With the Saints")
PZ. -- Pie Zeses ("May you Live Piously" -- Greek)
Q., Qui. -- Quiescit ("He Rests")
Q.B.AN. -- Qui Bixit [for Vixit] Annos ("Who lived . . . years")
Q.I.P. -- Quiescat In Pace ("May he [or she] Rest in Peace")
Q.V. -- Qui Vixit ("Who Lived")
R. -- Requiescit ("He Rests"); or Refrigerio ("In [a place of] Refreshment")
Reg. -- Regionis ("Of the Region")
S. -- Suus ("His"); or Situs ("Placed"); or Sepulchrum ("Sepulchre")
SC. M. -- Sanctae Memoriae ("Of Holy Memory")
SD. -- Sedit ("He sat")
SSA. -- Subscripta ("Subscribed")
S.I.D. -- Spiritus In Deo ("Spirit [rests] inGod ")
S.P. -- Sepultus ("Buried"); or Sepulchrum ("Sepulchre")
SS. -- Sanctorum (Of the Saints)
S.V. -- Sacra Virgo ("Holy Virgin")
T., TT. -- Titulus, Tituli ("Title", "Titles")
TM. -- Testamentum ("Testament")
V. -- Vixit ("He Lived"); or Vixisti ("Thou didst Live")
VB. -- Vir Bonus ("A Good Man")
V.C. -- Vir Clarissimus ("A Most Illustrious Man")
VV. CC. -- Viri Clarissimi ("Most Illustrious Men")
V.H. -- Vir Honestus ("A Worthy Man")
V. X. -- Vivas, Care [or Cara] ("Mayest thou Live, Dear One"); or Uxor Carissima ("Most Dear Wife")
X., XPC., XS. -- Christus ("Christ")


A.A. -- Augustiniani Assumptionis (Assumptionists)
A.B.A. -- Antoniani Benedictini Armeni (Mechitarists)
C.J.M. -- Congregation Jesu et Mariae (Eudist Fathers)
C.M. -- Congregatio Missionis (Lazarists )
C.M. -- Congregatio Mariae (Fathers of the Company of Mary)
C.P. -- Congregatio Passionis (Passionists )
C.PP.S. -- Congregatio Pretiosissimi Sanguinis (Fathers of the Most Precious Blood)
C.R. -- Congregatio Resurrectionis (Resurrectionist Fathers)
C.R.C.S. -- Clerici Regulares Congregationis Somaschae (Somaschi Fathers)
C.R.I.C. -- Canonici Regulares Immaculate Conecptionis ("Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception")
C.R.L. -- Canonici Regulares Lateranenses ("Canons Regular of the Lateran")
C.R.M. -- Clerici Regulares Minores ("Clerks Regular Minor", Mariani)
C.R.M.D. -- Clerici Regulares Matris Dei ("Clerks Regular of the Mother of God" )
C.R.M.I. -- Clerici Regulares Ministrantes Infirmis ("Clerks Regular Attendant on the Sick", Camillini, Camilliani)
C.R.P. -- Congregatio Reformatorum Praemonstratensium (Premonstratensians )
C.R.S.P. -- Clerici Regulares Sancti Pauli (Barnabites)
C.R.S.P. -- Clerici Regulares Pauperum Matris Dei Scholarum Piarum ("Clerks Regular of the Poor Men of the Mother of God for Pious Schools", Piarists)
C.R.T. -- Clerici Regulares Theatini (Theatines)
C.S.B. -- Congregatio Sancti Basilii (Basilians)
C.S.C. -- Congregatio Sanctae Crucis (Fathers and Brothers of the Holy Cross)
C.S.P. -- Congregatio Sancti Pauli (Paulists)
C.S.Sp. -- Congregatio Sancti Spiritus (Fathers of the Holy Ghost)
C.S.V. -- Clerici Sancti Viatoris (Clerks, or Clerics, of St. Viateur)
C.SS.CC. -- Congregatio Sacratissimorum Cordium (Missionaries of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary)
C. SS. R. -- Congregatio Sanctissimi Redemptoris (Redemptorists )
Inst. Char. -- Institutum Charitatis (Rosminians)
M.C. -- Missionaries of Charity
M.S. -- Missionaries of La Salette [France]
M.S.C. -- Missionarii Sancti Caroli ("Missionaries of St. Charles")
M.S.C. -- Missionarii Sacratissimi Cordis ("Missionaries of the Most Sacred Heart")
O.C. -- Ordo Charitatis (Fathers of the Order of Charity)
O. Camald. -- Ordo Camaldulensium (Camaldolese )
O. Cart. -- Ordo Cartusiensis (Carthusians )
O. Cist. -- Ordo Cisterciensium (Cistercians)
O.C.C. -- Ordo Carmelitarum Calceatorum (Carmelites)
O.C.D. -- Ordo Carmelitarum Discalceatorum (Discalced, or Barefoot, Carmelites)
O.C.R. -- Ordo Reformatorum Cisterciensium (Cistercians, Trappists)
O.F.M. -- Ordo Fratrum Minorum (Observant Franciscans)
O.M. -- Ordo [Fratrum] Minimorum (Minims of St. Francis of Paul)
O. Merced. -- Ordo Beatae Mariae Virginis de Redemptione Captivorum (Mercedarians, Nolaschi)
O.M.C. -- Ordo Minorum Conventualium (Conventual Franciscans)
O.M. Cap., O.F.M. Cap., O.M.C. -- Ordo Minorum Cappucinorum (Capuchins)
O.M.I. -- Oblati Mariae Immaculatae (Oblate Fathers of Mary Immaculate)
O.P., Ord Fratr. Praed. -- Ordo Praedicatorum (Dominicans)
Ord. Praem. -- Ordo Praemonstratensium (Premonstratensians, Norbertines )
O.S.A. -- Ordo [Eremitarum] Sancti Augustini (Augustinians)
O.S.B. -- Ordo Sancti Benedicti (Benedictines )
O.S.C. -- Oblati Sancti Caroli (Oblate Fathers of St. Charles)
O.S.F.C. -- Ordinis Sancti Francisci Capuccini (Franciscan Capuchins)
O.S.F.S. -- Oblati Sancti Francisci Salesii (Oblate Fathers of St. Francis of Sales)
O.S.H. -- Ordo [Eremitarum] Sancti Hieronymi (Hieronymites )
O.S.M. -- Ordo Servorum Mariae (Servites)
O.SS.C. -- Oblati Sacratissimi Cordis ("Oblate Fathers of the Sacred Heart")
O. Trinit. -- Ordo Sanctissimae Trinitatis (Trinitarians)
P.O. -- Pr tres de l Oratoire, Presbyteri Oratorii (Oratorians)
P.S.M. -- Pia Societas Missionum (Fathers of the Pious Society of Missions, Pallottini)
P.S.S. -- Presbyteri Sancti Sulpicii, Pr tres de S. Sulpice (Sulpicians)
S.C. -- Salesianorum Congregatio (Congregation of St. Francis of Sales -- Salesian Fathers)
S.D.S. -- Societas Divini Salvatoris ("Society of the Divine Saviour")
S.D.V. -- Societas Divini Verbi (Fathers of the Divine Word )
S.J. -- Societas Jesu ("Society of Jesus", i.e. the Jesuits )
S.M. -- Societas Mariae (Marists)
S.P.M. -- Societas Patrum Misericordiae (Fathers of Mercy)
S.S.S. -- Societas Sanctissimi Sacramenti (Fathers of the Blessed Sacrament)

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More Volume: E 411

Filter 411 entries by typing in the 'Search' box below. Click/Touch the letter below to view encyclopedia articles within that volume.



Precentor of Canterbury and historian, born 1064 (?); died 1124 (?). Brought up at Christ ...
Eanbald I

Eanbald I

The first Archbishop of York by that name (not to be confused with Eanbald II ). Date of birth ...
Eanbald II

Eanbald II

Date of birth unknown; died 810 or 812. He received his education in the famous School of York ...
East Indies, Patriarchate of the

Patriarchate of the East Indies

In consequence of an agreement between the Holy See and the Portuguese Government in 1886, ...


The English term, according to the Ven. Bede (De temporum ratione, I, v), relates to Estre, a ...
Easter Controversy

Easter Controversy

Ecclesiastical history preserves the memory of three distinct phases of the dispute regarding ...
Eastern Churches

Eastern Churches

I. DEFINITION OF AN EASTERN CHURCH An accident of political development has made it possible to ...
Eastern Schism

Eastern Schism

From the time of Diotrephes ( 3 John 1:9-10 ) there have been continual schisms, of which the ...


(Or Eosterwini). Abbot of Wearmouth, was the nephew of St. Benedict Biscop ; born 650, died ...
Easton, Adam

Adam Easton

Cardinal, born at Easton in Norfolk; died at Rome, 15 September (according to others, 20 ...
Eata, Saint

St. Eata

Second Bishop of Hexham ; date of birth unknown; died 26 October, 686. Whether this ...


(EBO) Archbishop of Reims, b. towards the end of the eighth century; d. 20 March, 851. Though ...
Ebendorfer, Thomas

Thomas Ebendorfer

German chronicler, professor, and statesman, b. 12 August, 1385, at Haselbach, in Upper Austria ...
Eberhard of Ratisbon

Eberhard of Ratisbon

(Or Salzburg; also called Eberhardus Altahensis). A German chronicler who flourished about the ...
Eberhard, Matthias

Matthias Eberhard

Bishop of Trier, b. 15 Nov., 1815, at Trier (Germany), d. there 30 May, 1876. After ...
Ebermann, Veit

Veit Erbermann

(Or Ebermann). Theologian and controversialist, born 25 May, 1597, at Rendweisdorff, in ...


By this name were designated one or more early Christian sects infected with Judaistic errors. ...


The name of two German mystics, whom historical research has shown to have been in no wise ...


(Septuagint èkklesiastés , in St. Jerome also C ONCIONATOR, "Preacher"). ...
Ecclesiastical Addresses

Ecclesiastical Addresses

It is from Italy that we derive rules as to what is fitting and customary in the matter of ...
Ecclesiastical Architecture

Ecclesiastical Architecture

The best definition of architecture that has ever been given is likewise the shortest. It is "the ...
Ecclesiastical Archives

Ecclesiastical Archives

Ecclesiastical archives may be described as a collection of documents, records, muniments, and ...
Ecclesiastical Art

Ecclesiastical Art

Before speaking in detail of the developments of Christian art from the beginning down to the ...
Ecclesiastical Buildings

Ecclesiastical Buildings

This term comprehends all constructions erected for the celebration of liturgical acts, whatever ...
Ecclesiastical Forum

Ecclesiastical Forum

That the Church of Christ has judicial and coercive power is plain from the constitution given ...

Ecclesiasticus (Sirach)

(Abbrev. Ecclus.; also known as the Book of Sirach.) The longest of the deuterocanonical books ...
Eccleston, Samuel

Samuel Eccleston

Fifth Archbishop of Baltimore, U.S.A. born near Chestertown, Maryland, 27 June, 1801; died at ...
Eccleston, Thomas of

Thomas of Eccleston

Thirteenth-century Friar Minor and chronicler, dates of birth and death unknown. He styles ...
Echard, Jacques

Jacques Echard

Historian of the Dominicans, born at Rouen, France, 22 September, 1644; died at Paris, 15 ...
Echave, Baltasar de

Baltasar de Echave

Painter, born at Zumaya, Guipuzcoa, Spain, in the latter part of the sixteenth century; died in ...


A titular see of Thessaly, Greece. Echinus, ( Echinos , also Echinous ) was situated on the ...
Echter von Mespelbrunn, Julius

Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn

Prince- Bishop of Würzburg, b. 18 March, 1545, in the Castle of Mespelbrunn, Spessart ...
Echternach, Abbey of

Abbey of Echternach

(Also EPTERNACH, Latin EPTERNACENSIS). A Benedictine monastery in the town of that name, in ...
Eck, Johann

Johann Eck

Theologian and principal adversary of Luther, b. 15 Nov., 1486, at Eck in Swabia; d. 10 Feb., ...
Eckart, Anselm

Anselm Eckart

Missionary, born at Bingen, Germany, 4 August, 1721; died at the College of Polstok, Polish ...


(Ekbert, Egbert) Abbot of Schönau, born in the early part of the twelfth century of a ...
Eckhart, Johann Georg von

Johann Georg von Eckhart

(Called Eccard before he was ennobled) German historian, b. at Duingen in the principality of ...
Eckhart, Meister

Meister Eckhart

( Also spelled Eckard, Eccard. Meister means "the Master"). Dominican preacher, theologian ...
Eckhel, Joseph Hilarius

Joseph Hilarius Eckhel

German numismatist, b. 13 January, 1737, at Enzesfeld near Pottenstein, in Lower Austria, where ...


(Greek ek, legein ; Latin eligere , to select) A philosophical term meaning either a ...

Political Economy



Supernatural ecstasy may be defined as a state which, while it lasts, includes two elements: ...


R EPUBLIC OF E CUADOR (L A R EPÚBLICA DEL E CUADOR ). An independent state of ...
Ecumenical Councils

General Councils

This subject will be treated under the following heads: Definition Classification ...

Union of Christendom

The Catholic Church is by far the largest, the most widespread, and the most ancient of ...


A title applied to two different collections of old Norse literature, the poetical or "Elder Edda" ...


The family name of four engravers. Gerard Edelinck Born in Antwerp c. 1640; died in ...
Eden, Garden of

The Garden of Eden

( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...
Edesius and Frumentius

Edesius and Frumentius

Tyrian Greeks of the fourth century, probably brothers, who introduced Christianity into ...


A titular archiepiscopal see in that part of Mesopotamia formerly known as Osrhoene. The name ...
Edgeworth, Henry Essex

Henry Essex Edgeworth

Better known as L' ABBÉ E DGEWORTH DE F IRMONT Confessor of Louis XVI, and ...


Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, though not its largest city, derives its name from the time ...
Editions of the Bible

Editions of the Bible

In the present article we understand by editions of the Bible the printed reproductions of its ...
Edmund Arrowsmith, Venerable

Ven. Edmund Arrowsmith

English martyr, born in 1585 at Haddock; executed at Lancaster, 23 August, 1628. He is of great ...
Edmund Campion, Saint

St. Edmund Campion

English Jesuit and martyr ; he was the son and namesake of a Catholic bookseller, and was born ...
Edmund Rich, Saint

St. Edmund Rich

Archbishop of Canterbury, England, born 20 November, c. 1180, at Abingdon, six miles from ...
Edmund the Martyr, Saint

St. Edmund the Martyr

King of East Anglia, born about 840; died at Hoxne, Suffolk, 20 November, 870. The earliest and ...
Edmund, Congregation of Saint

Congregation of St. Edmund

Founded in 1843, by Jean-Baptiste Muard, at Pontigny, France, for the work of popular missions. ...


IN GENERAL In the broadest sense, education includes all those experiences by which intelligence ...
Education of the Blind

Education of the Blind

Although the education of the blind as a class dates back no further than the year 1784, ...
Education of the Deaf

Education of the Deaf and Dumb

Education essentially includes the process of encouraging, strengthening, and guiding the ...
Educational Association, The Catholic

The Catholic Educational Association

The Catholic Educational Association is a voluntary organization composed of Catholic educators ...
Edward III

Edward III

King of England (1312-77), eldest son of Edward II and Isabella, daughter of Philip IV of ...
Edward Powell, Blessed

Blessed Edward Powell

With Blessed Thomas Abel there suffered Edward Powell, priest and martyr, b. in Wales about ...
Edward the Confessor, Saint

St. Edward the Confessor

King of England, born in 1003; died 5 January, 1066. He was the son of Ethelred II and Emma, ...
Edward the Martyr, Saint

St. Edward the Martyr

King of England, son to Edgar the Peaceful, and uncle to St. Edward the Confessor ; b. about ...
Edwin, Saint

St. Edwin

(Æduini.) The first Christian King of Northumbria, born about 585, son of Ælla, ...


(Or Eadwig.) King of the English, eldest son of Edmund and St. Aelfgifu, born about 940; died ...
Egan, Boetius

Boetius Egan

Archbishop of Tuam, born near Tuam, Ireland, 1734; died near Tuam, 1798. He belonged to a ...
Egan, Michael

Michael Egan

First bishop of Philadelphia, U.S.A. b. in Ireland, most probably in Galway, in 1761; d. at ...

Egbert (King)

(ECGBERHT or ECGBRYHT) Frequently though incorrectly called "First King of England ", died ...
Egbert, Archbishop of Trier

Egbert, Archbishop of Trier

Died 8 or 9 December, 993. He belonged to the family of the Counts of Holland. His parents, ...
Egbert, Archbishop of York

Egbert, Archbishop of York

Archbishop of York, England, son of Eata, brother of the Northumbrian King Eadbert and cousin ...
Egbert, Saint

St. Egbert

A Northumbrian monk, born of noble parentage c. 639; d. 729. In his youth he went for the sake ...

Egfrid (King of Northumbria)

(Also known as ECFRID, ECHGFRID, EGFERD). King of Northumbria, b. 650; d. 685. He ascended the ...


(Less correctly EGINHARD), historian, born c. 770 in the district watered by the River Main in the ...
Egloffstein, Frederick W. von

Frederick W. von Egloffstein

Born at Aldorf, near Nuremberg, Bavaria, 18 May, 1824; died in New York, 1885. He served in the ...
Egmont, Lamoral, Count of

The Count of Egmont

Born at the Château de La Hamaide, in Hainault, 18 Nov., 1522; beheaded at Brussels, 5 ...


( Latin ego, I, self), the designation given to those ethical systems which hold self-love to ...
Eguiara y Eguren, Juan José

Juan Jose Eguiara y Eguren

Born in Mexico towards the close of the seventeenth century; died 29 January, 1763. He received ...
Egwin, Saint

St. Egwin

Third Bishop of Worcester ; date of birth unknown; d. (according to Mabillon ) 20 December, ...


This subject will be treated under the following main divisions: I. General Description; II. ...
Egyptian Church Ordinance

Egyptian Church Ordinance

The Egyptian Church Ordinance is an early Christian collection of thirty-one canons regulating ...
Eichendorff, Josef Karl Benedikt

Freiherr von Eichendorff

JOSEF KARL BENEDIKT, FREIHERR VON EICHENDORFF. "The last champion of romanticism", b. 10 March, ...


Eimhin, Saint

St. Eimhin

Abbot and Bishop of Ros-mic-Truin ( Ireland ), probably in the sixth century. He came of the ...


(Less correctly EGINHARD), historian, born c. 770 in the district watered by the River Main in the ...
Einsiedeln, Abbey of

Abbey of Einsiedeln

A Benedictine monastery in the Canton of Schwyz, Switzerland, dedicated to Our Lady of the ...
Eisengrein, Martin

Martin Eisengrein

A learned Catholic theologian and polemical writer, born of Protestant parents at Stuttgart, 28 ...
Eithene, Saint

St. Eithene

Styled "daughter of Baite", with her sister Sodelbia; commemorated in the Irish calendars under ...
Eithne, Saint

St. Eithne

St. Eithne, styled "of the golden hair", is commemorated in the Irish martyrologies under the 11th ...


Name of five monks of the (Swiss) Abbey of St. Gall from the tenth to the thirteenth century. ...
Ekkehard of Aura

Ekkehard of Aura

(URAUGIENSIS) Benedictine monk and chronicler, b. about 1050; d. after 1125. Very little is ...
El Cid

El Cid

(Rodrigo, or Ruy, Diaz, Count of Bivar). The great popular hero of the chivalrous age of ...
El Greco

El Greco

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...


A titular see of Asia Minor. Elaea, said to have been founded by Menestheus, was situated at a ...


Elba, the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago, is today a part of the Italian province of ...
Elbel, Benjamin

Benjamin Elbel

A first-class authority in moral theology , b. at Friedberg, Bavaria, in 1690; d. at ...


(Or H ELKESAITES ). A sect of Gnostic Ebionites, whose religion was a wild medley of ...
Elder, George

George Elder

Educator, b. 11 August, 1793, in Kentucky, U.S.A.; d. 28 Sept., 1838, at Bardstown. His parents, ...
Elder, William Henry

William Henry Elder

Third Bishop of Natchez, Mississippi, U.S.A. and second Archbishop of Cincinnati, b. in ...


( Hebrew al‘wr , God's help). 1. Eleazar, son of Aaron Elizabeth, daughter of Aminadab ...


Denotes in general one chosen or taken by preference from among two or more; as a theological ...


( Latin electio , from eligere , to choose from) This subject will be treated under the ...
Election, Papal

Papal Elections

For current procedures regarding the election of the pope, see Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic ...
Eleutherius, Pope Saint

Pope St. Eleutherius

Pope (c. 174-189). The Liber Pontificalis says that he was a native of Nicopolis, Greece. From ...
Eleutherius, Saint

St. Eleutherius

( French ELEUTHERE). Bishop of Tournai at the beginning of the sixth century. Historically ...


A titular see in Palaestina Prima. The former name of this city seems to have been Beth Gabra, ...
Elevation, The

The Elevation

What we now know as par excellence the Elevation of the Mass is a rite of comparatively ...
Elhuyar y de Suvisa, Fausto de

Fausto de Elhuyar y de Suvisa

A distinguished mineralogist and chemist, born at Logroño, Castile, 11 October, 1755; ...

Heli (Eli)

Heli the Judge and High Priest Heli (Heb. ELI, Gr. HELI) was both judge and high-priest, whose ...


Elias (Hebrew 'Eliahu , "Yahveh is God "; also called Elijah). The loftiest and most ...
Elias of Cortona

Elias of Cortona

Minister General of the Friars Minor , b., it is said, at Bevilia near Assisi, c. 1180; d. at ...
Elias of Jerusalem

Elias of Jerusalem

Died 518; one of the two Catholic bishops (with Flavian of Antioch) who resisted the attempt of ...
Elie de Beaumont, Jean-Baptiste-Armand-Louis-Léonce

Jean-Baptiste-Armand-Louis-Leonce Elie de Beaumont

Geologist, b. at Canon (Dép. Calvados), near Caen, France, 25 Sept., 1798; d. at Canon, 21 ...
Eligius, Saint

St. Eligius

( French Eloi). Bishop of Noyon-Tournai, born at Chaptelat near Limoges, France, c. 590, of ...


Elias (Hebrew 'Eliahu , "Yahveh is God "; also called Elijah). The loftiest and most ...
Elined, Saint

St. Elined

Virgin and martyr, flourished c. 490. According to Bishop Challoner (Britannia Saneta, London, ...

Eliseus (Elisha)

(E LISHA ; Hebrew ’lysh‘, God is salvation ). A Prophet of Israel. After ...


A famous Armenian historian of the fifth century, place and date of birth unknown, d. 480. ...

Eliseus (Elisha)

(E LISHA ; Hebrew ’lysh‘, God is salvation ). A Prophet of Israel. After ...
Eliud, Saint

St. Teilo

(Eliud.) "Archbishop" of Llandaff, born at Eccluis Gunniau, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died at ...


(" God is an oath " -- Exodus 6:23 ). Zachary's wife and John the Baptist's mother; was ...
Elizabeth Ann Seton, Saint

St. Elizabeth Ann Seton

Foundress and first superior of the Sisters of Charity in the United States ; born in New York ...
Elizabeth Associations

Elizabeth Associations

( Elisabethenvereine .) Charitable associations of women in Germany which aim for the ...
Elizabeth of Hungary, Saint

St. Elizabeth of Hungary

Also called St. Elizabeth of Thuringia, born in Hungary, probably at Pressburg, 1207; died at ...
Elizabeth of Portugal, Saint

St. Elizabeth of Portugal

Queen (sometimes known as the PEACEMAKER); born in 1271; died in 1336. She was named after her ...
Elizabeth of Reute, Saint

Blessed Elizabeth of Reute

Member of the Third Order of St. Francis, born 25 November, 1386, at Waldsee in Swabia, of John ...
Elizabeth of Schönau, Saint

St. Elizabeth of Schonau

Born about 1129; d. 18 June, 1165.-Feast 18 June. She was born of an obscure family, entered the ...
Elizabeth, Sisters of Saint

Sisters of St. Elizabeth

Generally styled "Grey Nuns ". They sprang from an association of young ladies established by ...
Ellis, Philip Michael

Philip Michael Ellis

First Vicar Apostolic of the Western District, England, subsequently Bishop of Segni, ...
Ellwangen Abbey

Ellwangen Abbey

The earliest Benedictine monastery established in the Duchy of Wurtemberg, situated in the ...


See also GOD. ( Septuagint, theos ; Vulgate, Deus ). Elohim is the common name for ...
Elphege, Saint

St. Elphege

(Or ALPHEGE). Born 954; died 1012; also called Godwine, martyred Archbishop of Canterbury, ...


D IOCESE OF E LPHIN (E LPHINIUM ) Suffragan of Tuam, Ireland, a see founded by St. ...


A titular see of Palaestina Tertia, suffragan of Petra. This city is called Chellous in the ...
Elvira, Council of

Council of Elvira

Held early in the fourth century at Elliberis, or Illiberis, in Spain, a city now in ruins not far ...


ANCIENT DIOCESE OF ELY (ELIENSIS; ELIA OR ELYS). Ancient diocese in England. The earliest ...
Elzéar of Sabran

St. Elzear of Sabran

Baron of Ansouis, Count of Ariano, born in the castle of Saint-Jean de Robians, in Provence, ...


The doctrine that emanation (Latin emanare , "to flow from") is the mode by which all things ...
Emancipation, Ecclesiastical


In ancient Rome emancipation was a process of law by which a slave released from the ...
Ember Days

Ember Days

Ember days (corruption from Lat. Quatuor Tempora , four times) are the days at the beginning of ...


(Greek: embolismos , from the verb, emballein , "to throw in") Embolism is an insertion, ...


ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY That in Christian worship embroidery was used from early times to ...
Emerentiana, Saint

St. Emerentiana

Virgin and martyr, d. at Rome in the third century. The old Itineraries to the graves of the ...
Emery, Jacques-André

Jacques-Andre Emery

Superior of the Society of St-Sulpice during the French Revolution , b. 26 Aug., 1732, at Gex; ...


A titular see of Phœnicia Secunda, suffragan of Damascus, and the seat of two Uniat ...
Emigrant Aid Societies

Emigrant Aid Societies

Records of the early immigration to the North American colonies are indefinite and ...
Emiliana and Trasilla, Saints

Sts. Trasilla and Emiliana

Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...
Emiliani, Saint Jerome

St. Jerome Emiliani

Founder of the Order of Somascha; b. at Venice, 1481; d. at Somascha, 8 Feb., 1537; feast, 20 ...


Emmanual ( Septuagint Emmanouel ; A.V., Immanuel ) signifies " God with us" ( Matthew 1:23 ), ...


A titular see in Pa1æstina Prima, suffragan of Cæsarea. It is mentioned for the ...
Emmeram, Saint

St. Emmeram

Bishop of Poitiers and missionary to Bavaria, b. at Poitiers in the first half of the seventh ...
Emmeram, Saint, Abbey of

Abbey of St. Emmeram

A Benedictine monastery at Ratisbon (Regensburg), named after its traditional founder, the ...
Emmerich, Anne Catherine

Ven. Anne Catherine Emmerich

An Augustinian nun, stigmatic, and ecstatic, born 8 September, 1774, at Flamsche, near ...


(Lat. empirismus, the standpoint of a system based on experience). Primarily, and in its ...
Ems, Congress of

Congress of Ems

The Congress of Ems was a meeting of the representatives of the German Archbishops Friedrich ...
Emser, Hieronymus

Hieronymus Emser

The most ardent literary opponent of Luther, born of a prominent family at Ulm, 20 March, 1477; ...
Encina, Juan de la

Juan de la Encina

(JUAN DE LA ENZINA). Spanish dramatic poet, called by Ticknor the father of the Spanish ...
Enciso, Diego Ximenez de

Diego Ximenez de Enciso

Dramatic poet, b. in Andalusia, Spain, c. 1585; date of death unknown. All trace of him is lost ...
Enciso, Martín Fernández de

Martin Fernandez de Enciso

Navigator and geographer, b. at Seville, Spain, c. 1470; d. probably about 1528 at Seville. It ...


(Greek egkolpion , that which is worn on the breast). The name given in early Christian ...


[ ’Egkrateîs (Irenæus) ’Egkratetai (Clement of Alexandria, ...


( Latin Litterœ Encyclicœ ) According to its etymology, an encyclical (from the ...


An abridgment of human knowledge in general or a considerable department thereof, treated from a ...


(1) The writers of the eighteenth century who edited or contributed articles to the ...
Endlicher, Stephan Ladislaus

Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher

Austrian botanist (botanical abbreviation, Endl. ), linguist, and historian, b. at Pressburg, ...


( German Stiftung , French fondation , Italian fondazione , Latin fundatio ) An ...
Energy, The Law of Conservation of

The Law of Conservation of Energy

Amongst the gravest objections raised by the progress of modern science against Theism, the ...


( Septuagint usually ’Eggadí ; Hebrew ‘En Gédhi, "Fountain of the ...
Engel, Ludwig

Ludwig Engel

Canonist, b. at Castle Wagrein, Austria ; d. at Grillenberg, 22 April 1694. He became a ...
Engelberg, Abbey of

Abbey of Engelberg

A Benedictine monastery in Switzerland, formerly in the Diocese of Constance, but now in that ...


Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Admont in Styria, b. of noble parents at Volkersdorf ...
Engelbert of Cologne, Saint

Saint Engelbert of Cologne

Archbishop of that city (1216-1225); b. at Berg, about 1185; d. near Schwelm, 7 November, 1225. ...
Engelbrechtsen, Cornelis

Cornelis Engelbrechtsen

(Also called ENGELBERTS and ENGELBRECHT, and now more usually spelt ENGELBRECHTSZ). Dutch ...
England (1066-1558)

England (Before the Reformation)

This term England is here restricted to one constituent, the largest and most populous, of the ...
England (After 1558)

England (Since the Reformation)

The Protestant Reformation is the great dividing line in the history of England, as of Europe ...
England (Before 1066)

The Anglo-Saxon Church

I. ANGLO-SAXON OCCUPATION OF BRITAIN The word Anglo-Saxon is used as a collective name for ...
England, John

John England

First Bishop of Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.; b. 23 September, 1786, in Cork, Ireland ...
Englefield, Sir Henry Charles, Bart.

Sir Henry Charles Englefield

Antiquary and scientist, b. 1752; d. 21 March, 1822. He was the eldest son of Sir Henry ...
English College, The, in Rome

The English College, in Rome

I. FOUNDATION Some historians (e.g., Dodd, II, 168, following Polydore Vergil, Harpsfield, ...
English Confessors and Martyrs (1534-1729)

English Confessors and Marytrs (1534-1729)

Though the resistance of the English as a people to the Reformation compares very badly with the ...
English Hierarchy, Reorganization of the

Reorganization of the English Hierarchy

On 29 September, 1850, by the Bull "Universalis Ecclesiae", Pius IX restored the Catholic ...
English Literature

English Literature

It is not unfitting to compare English Literature to a great tree whose far spreading and ever ...
English Revolution of 1688

English Revolution of 1688

James II, having reached the climax of his power after the successful suppression of Monmouth's ...
Ennodius, Magnus Felix

Magnus Felix Ennodius

Rhetorician and bishop, b. probably at Arles, in Southern Gaul, in 474; d. at Pavia, Italy, 17 ...


(Greek Enoch ). The name of the son of Cain ( Genesis 4:17, 18 ), of a nephew of Abraham ...
Enoch, Book of

The Book of Enoch

The antediluvian patriarch Henoch according to Genesis "walked with God and was seen no more, ...
Ensingen, Ulrich

Ulrich Ensingen

(ULRICH ENSINGER) Belonged to a family of architects who came from Einsingen near Ulm, ...


A superstructure which lies horizontally upon the columns in classic architecture. It is divided ...


(From Greek ’enthronízein , to place on a throne). This word has been employed ...


Jealousy is here taken to be synonymous with envy. It is defined to be a sorrow which one ...
Eoghan, Saints

Sts. Eoghan

(1) EOGHAN OF ARDSTRAW was a native of Leinster, and, after presiding over the Abbey of ...
Epée, Charles-Michel de l'

Charles-Michel de l'Epee

A philanthropic priest and inventor of the sign alphabet for the instruction of the deaf and ...


(Greek épaktai hemérai; Latin dies adjecti ). The surplus days of the ...


( eparchia ). Originally the name of one of the divisions of the Roman Empire. Diocletian ...


DIOCESE OF EPERIES (EPERIENSIS RUTHENORUM). Diocese of the Greek Ruthenian Rite, suffragan to ...
Ephesians, Epistle to the

Epistle to the Ephesians

This article will be treated under the following heads: I. Analysis of the Epistle; II. ...


A titular archiespiscopal see in Asia Minor, said to have been founded in the eleventh century ...
Ephesus, Council of

Council of Ephesus

The third ecumenical council, held in 431. THE OCCASION AND PREPARATION FOR THE COUNCIL The ...
Ephesus, Robber Council of

Robber Council of Ephesus (Latrocinium)

(L ATROCINIUM ). The Acts of the first session of this synod were read at the Council of ...
Ephesus, Seven Sleepers of

The Seven Sleepers of Ephesus

The story is one of the many examples of the legend about a man who falls asleep and years after ...


( Hebrew aphwd or aphd ; Greek ’ís, ’ephód, ...
Ephraem, Saint

St. Ephraem

(EPHREM, EPHRAIM). Born at Nisibis, then under Roman rule, early in the fourth century; died ...
Ephraemi Rescriptus, Codex

Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus

(Symbol C). The last in the group of the four great uncial manuscripts of the Greek Bible, ...
Ephraim of Antioch

Ephraim of Antioch

( Ephraimios ). One of the defenders of the Faith of Chalcedon (451) against the ...


This term has two distinct, though cognate, meanings. In its popular sense, the word stands for a ...


Epiklesis ( Latin invocatio ) is the name of a prayer that occurs in all Eastern liturgies ...
Epimachus and Gordianus, Saints

Sts. Gordianus and Epimachus

Martyrs, suffered under Julian the Apostate , 362, commemorated on 10 May. Gordianus was a judge ...


A titular see in Cilicia Secunda, in Asia Minor, suffragan of Anazarbus. This city is ...


Surnamed SCHOLASTICUS, or in modern terms, THE PHILOLOGIST, a translator of various Greek works in ...
Epiphanius of Constantinople

Epiphanius of Constantinople

Died 535. Epiphanius succeeded John II (518-20) as Patriarch of Constantinople. It was the time ...
Epiphanius of Salamis

Epiphanius of Salamis

Born at Besanduk, near Eleutheropolis, in Judea, after 310; died in 403. While very young he ...


Known also under the following names: (1) ta epiphania , or he epiphanios , sc. hemera ...
Episcopal Subsidies

Episcopal Subsidies

( Latin subsidia , tribute, pecuniary aid, subvention) Since the faithful are obliged to ...

Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America

The history of this religious organization divides itself naturally into two portions: the period ...


( Epistéme , knowledge, science, and lógos , speech, thought, discourse). ...
Epistle (in Scripture)

Epistle (In Scripture)

Lat. epistola ; Greek ’epistolé ; in Hebrew, at first only the general term ...
Epping, Joseph

Joseph Epping

German astronomer and Assyriologist, b. at Neuenkirchen near Rhine in Westphalia, 1 Dec., 1835; ...
Erasmus, Desiderius

Desiderius Erasmus

The most brilliant and most important leader of German humanism, b. at Rotterdam, Holland, 28 ...
Erastus and Erastianism

Erastus and Erastianism

The name "Erastianism" is often used in a somewhat loose sense as denoting an undue subservience ...
Erbermann, Veit

Veit Erbermann

(Or Ebermann). Theologian and controversialist, born 25 May, 1597, at Rendweisdorff, in ...
Ercilla y Zúñiga, Alonso de

Alonso de Ercilla y Zuniga

Spanish soldier and poet, born in Madrid, 7 August, 1533; died in the same city, 29 November, ...
Erconwald, Saint

St. Erconwald

Bishop of London, died about 690. He belonged to the princely family of the East Anglian Offa, ...
Erdeswicke, Sampson

Sampson Erdeswicke

Antiquarian, date of birth unknown; died 1603. He was born at Sandon in Staffordshire, his ...
Erdington Abbey

Erdington Abbey

Erdington Abbey, situated in a suburb of Birmingham, Warwickshire, England, belongs to the ...
Erhard of Ratisbon, Saint

St. Erhard of Ratisbon

Bishop of that city in the seventh century, probably identical with an Abbot Erhard of ...


DIOCESE OF ERIE (ERIENSIS). Established 1853; it embraces the thirteen counties of ...
Erin, The Twelve Apostles of

The Twelve Apostles of Erin

By this designation are meant twelve holy Irishmen of the sixth century who went to study at the ...
Eriugena, John Scotus

John Scotus Eriugena

An Irish teacher, theologian, philosopher, and poet, who lived in the ninth century. NAME ...


Ermland, or Ermeland (Varmiensis, Warmia), a district of East Prussia and an exempt bishopric. ...
Ernakulam, Vicariate Apostolic of

Vicariate Apostolic of Ernakulam in India

In May, 1887, the churches of Syrian Rite in Malabar were separated from those of the Latin ...
Ernan, Saints

St. Ernan

Name of four Irish saints. O'Hanlon enumerates twenty-five saints bearing the name Ernan, ...
Ernst of Hesse-Rheinfels

Ernst of Hesse-Rheinfels

Landgrave, b. 9 Dec., 1623, at Cassel; d. 12 May, 1693, at Cologne. He was the sixth son of ...


Architect, b. at Beauvais, France, in 1040; d. 1124. He studied under Lanfranc at the monastery ...
Errington, William

William Errington

Priest, founder of Sedgley Park School, b. 17 July, 1716; d. 28 September, 1768. He was son of ...


Error, reduplicatively regarded, is in one way or another the product of ignorance. But besides ...
Erskine, Charles

Charles Erskine

Cardinal, b. at Rome, 13 Feb., 1739; d. at Paris, 20 March, 1811. He was the son of Colin ...
Erthal, Franz Ludwig von

Franz Ludwig von Erthal

Prince- Bishop of Würzburg and Bamberg, b. at Lohr on the Main, 16 September, 1730; d. at ...
Erthal, Friedrich Karl Joseph, Freiherr von

Friedrich Karl Joseph, Freiherr von Erthal

Last Elector and Archbishop of Mainz, b. 3 Jan., 1719, at Mainz ; d. 25 July, 1802, at ...
Erwin of Steinbach

Erwin of Steinbach

One of the architects of the Strasburg cathedral, date of birth unknown; d. at Strasburg, 17 ...


A titular see in Asia Minor. According to legend the city was founded by colonists from Crete. ...
Erzerum (Theodosiopolis)

Erzerum (Theodosiopolis)

DIOCESE OF ERZERUM (ERZERUMIENSIS ARMENIORUM). The native name, Garin (Gr. Karenitis ; ...


( ‘sw , hairy). The eldest son of Isaac and Rebecca, the twin-brother of Jacob. The ...
Esch, Nicolaus van

Nicolaus van Esch

(ESCHIUS) A famous mystical theologian, b. in Oisterwijk near Hertogenbosch (Boisle-Duc), ...


That branch of systematic theology which deals with the doctrines of the last things ( ta ...
Escobar y Mendoza, Antonio

Antonio Escobar y Mendoza

Born at Valladolid in 1589; died there, 4 July, 1669. In his sixteenth year he entered the ...
Escobar, Marina de

Ven. Marina de Escobar

Mystic and foundress of a modified branch of the Brigittine Order b. at Valladolid, Spain, 8 ...
Escorial, The

The Escorial

A remarkable building in Spain situated on the south-eastern slope of the Sierra Guadarrama about ...

Esdras (Ezra)

(Or EZRA.) I. ESDRAS THE MAN Esdras is a famous priest and scribe connected with Israel's ...
Esglis, Louis-Philippe Mariauchau d'

Louis-Philippe Mariauchau d'Esglis

Eighth Bishop of Quebec, Canada ; born Quebec, 24 April, 1710; died 7 June, 1788. After ...


Archbishop of Lund, Skåne, Sweden ; b. about 1100; d. at Clairvaux, 6 (7?) Sept., 1181; ...


A littoral race occupying the entire Arctic coast and outlying islands of America from below Cook ...
Esnambuc, Pierre Belain, Sieur d'

Pierre Belain, Sieur d'Esnambuc

Captain in the French marine, b. 1565, at Allouville, near Yvetot (Seine-Inferieure); d. at St. ...


( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...
Espejo, Antonio

Antonio Espejo

A Spanish explorer, whose fame rests upon a notable expedition which he conducted into New ...
Espen, Zeger Bernhard van

Zeger Bernhard van Espen

(also called ESPENIUS) A Belgian canonist, born at Louvain, 9 July, 1646; died at ...
Espence, Claude D'

Claude d'Espence

(ESPENCÆUS) A French theologian, born in 1511 at Châlons-sur-Marne; died 5 Oct., ...
Espinel, Vincent

Vincent Espinel

Poet and novelist; born at Ronda (Malaga), Spain, 1544; died at Madrid, 1634. He studied at ...
Espinosa, Alonso De

Alonso de Espinosa

Spanish priest and historian of the sixteenth century. Little is known of his early life. He is ...


An Espousal is a contract of future marriage between a man and a woman, who are thereby ...
Espousals of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Espousals of the Blessed Virgin Mary

(DESPONSATIO BEATÆ MARIÆ VIRGINIS) A feast of the Latin Church. It is certain ...
Essence and Existence

Essence and Existence

( Latin essentia, existentia ) Since they are transcendentals, it is not possible to put ...


One of three leading Jewish sects mentioned by Josephus as flourishing in the second century ...
Est, Willem Hessels van

Willem Hessels van Est

(ESTIUS.) A famous commentator on the Pauline epistles, born at Gorcum, Holland, in 1542; ...
Establishment, The

The Establishment

(Or ESTABLISHED CHURCH) The union of Church and State setting up a definite and distinctive ...
Estaing, Comte d'

Comte d'Estaing



(From the Hebrew meaning star, happiness ); Queen of Persia and wife of Assuerus, who is ...
Estiennot de la Serre, Claude

Claude Estiennot de la Serre

Benedictine of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, b. at Varennes, France, 1639; d. at Rome, 1699. ...


( aeternum , originally aeviternum, aionion, aeon -- long). Eternity is defined by ...

Ethelbert, Archbishop of York

Archbishop of York, England, date of birth uncertain; d. 8 Nov., 781 or 782. The name also ...
Ethelbert, Saint

St. Ethelbert

Date of birth unknown; d. 794; King of the East Angles, was, according to the "Speculum ...
Ethelbert, Saint

St. Ethelbert (King of Kent)

King of Kent; b. 552; d. 24 February, 616; son of Eormenric, through whom he was descended from ...
Etheldreda, Saint

St. Ethelreda

Queen of Northumbria; born (probably) about 630; died at Ely, 23 June, 679. While still very young ...
Ethelwold, Saint

St. Ethelwold

St. Ethelwold, Bishop of Winchester, was born there of good parentage in the early years of the ...
Etherianus, Hugh and Leo

Hugh and Leo Etherianus

Brothers, Tuscans by birth, employed at the court of Constantinople under the Emperor Manuel I ...


(ÆTHELHEARD, ETHELREARD) The fourteenth Archbishop of Canterbury, England, date of ...


I. Definition Many writers regard ethics (Gr. ethike ) as any scientific treatment of the ...


The name of this region has been derived, through the Greek form, aithiopia , from the two ...


A famous Armenian monastery, since 1441 the ecclesiastical capital of the schismatic Armenians, ...


A titular see of Phoenicia Secunda or Libanensis, in Palestine. The true name of this city ...


A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris in Asia Minor. Eucarpia ( Eukarpia ), mentioned by Strabo ...
Eucharist, as a Sacrament

The Blessed Eucharist as a Sacrament

Since Christ is present under the appearances of bread and wine in a sacramental way, the ...
Eucharist, as a Sacrifice

Sacrifice of the Mass

The word Mass ( missa ) first established itself as the general designation for the ...
Eucharist, Early Symbols of the

Early Symbols of the Eucharist

Among the symbols employed by the Christians of the first ages in decorating their tombs, those ...
Eucharist, Introduction to the


Eucharist, Real Presence of Christ in

The Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...
Eucharistic Congresses

Eucharistic Congresses

Eucharistic Congresses are gatherings of ecclesiastics and laymen for the purpose of ...
Eucharistic Prayer

Canon of the Mass

This article will be divided into four sections: (I) Name and place of the Canon; (II) History of ...
Eucharius, Saint

Saint Eucharius

First Bishop of Trier (Treves) in the second half of the third century. According to an ...
Eucherius, Saint

St. Eucherius (4th Century)

Bishop of Lyons, theologian, born in the latter half of the fourth century; died about 449. On ...


The name of one of the chief Service-books of the Byzantine Church ; it corresponds more or less ...
Eudes, Blessed Jean

Blessed Jean Eudes

French missionary and founder of the Eudists and of the Congregation of Our Lady of Charity; ...

Eudists (Society of Jesus and Mary)

(Society of Jesus and Mary) An ecclesiastical society instituted at Caen, France, 25 March, ...


(E UDOKIA ). Ælia Eudocia, sometimes wrongly called Eudoxia, was the wife of ...


A titular see of Galatia Secunda in Asia Minor, suffragan of Pessinus. Eudoxias is mentioned ...
Eugendus, Saint

St. Eugendus

(AUGENDUS; French OYAND, OYAN) Fourth Abbot of Condat (Jura), b. about 449, at Izernore, ...
Eugene I, Saint, Pope

Pope Saint Eugene I

Eugene I was elected 10 Aug., 654, and died at Rome, 2 June, 657. Because he would not submit to ...
Eugene II, Pope

Pope Eugene II

Elected 6 June, 824; died 27 Aug., 827. On the death of Pascal I (Feb.-May, 824) there took place ...
Eugene III, Pope

Pope Blessed Eugene III

Bernardo Pignatelli, born in the neighbourhood of Pisa, elected 15 Feb., 1145; d. at Tivoli, 8 ...
Eugene IV, Pope

Pope Eugene IV

Gabriello Condulmaro, or Condulmerio, b. at Venice, 1388; elected 4 March, 1431; d. at Rome, 23 ...


Eugenics literally means "good breeding". It is defined as the study of agencies under social ...
Eugenius I

Eugenius I

Archbishop of Toledo, successor in 636 of Justus in that see ; d. 647. Like his predecessor he ...
Eugenius II (the Younger)

Eugenius II

Archbishop of Toledo from 647 to 13 Nov., 657, the date of his death. He was the son of a Goth ...
Eugenius of Carthage, Saint

Saint Eugenius of Carthage

Unanimously elected Bishop of Carthage in 480 to succeed Deogratias (d. 456); d. 13 July, 505. ...
Eulalia of Barcelona, Saint

St. Eulalia of Barcelona

A Spanish martyr in the persecution of Diocletian (12 February, 304), patron of the ...


(Greek eulogia , "a blessing"). The term has been applied in ecclesiastical usage to the ...
Eulogius of Alexandria, Saint

Saint Eulogius of Alexandria

Patriarch of that see from 580 to 607. He was a successful combatant of the heretical errors ...
Eulogius of Cordova, Saint

Eulogius of Cordova

Spanish martyr and writer who flourished during the reigns of the Cordovan Caliphs, Abd-er-Rahman ...


A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana in Asia Minor, and suffragan to Hierapolis. It was founded ...
Eunan, Saint

St. Adamnan (Eunan)

(Or Eunan). Abbot of Iona, born at Drumhome, County Donegal, Ireland, c. 624; died at the ...


A phase of extreme Arianism prevalent amongst a section of Eastern churchmen from about 350 ...
Euphemius of Constantinople

Euphemius of Constantinople

Euphemius of Constantinople (490-496) succeeded as patriarch Flavitas (or Fravitas, 489-490), who ...
Euphrasia, Saint

Saint Euphrasia

Virgin, b. in 380; d. after 410. She was the daughter of Antigonus, a senator of Constantinople, ...
Euphrosyne, Saint

St. Euphrosyne

Died about 470. Her story belongs to that group of legends which relate how Christian virgins, in ...


A titular see of Epirus Vetus in Greece, suffragan of Nicopolis. Euroea is mentioned by ...


NAME The conception of Europe as a distinct division of the earth, separate from Asia and ...


A titular see in Provincis Euphratensis, suffragan of Hierapolis. The former name of this city ...
Eusebius Bruno

Eusebius Bruno

Bishop of Angers, b. in the early part of the eleventh century; d. at Angers, 29 August, 1081. ...
Eusebius of Alexandria

Eusebius of Alexandria

Ecclesiastical writer and author of a number of homilies well known in the sixth and seventh ...
Eusebius of Cæsarea

Eusebius of Caesarea

Eusebius Pamphili, Bishop of Cæsarea in Palestine, the "Father of Church History "; b. ...
Eusebius of Dorylæum

Eusebius of Dorylaeum

Eusebius, Bishop of Dorylæum in Asia Minor, was the prime mover on behalf of Catholic ...
Eusebius of Laodicea

Eusebius of Laodicea

An Alexandrian deacon who had some fame as a confessor and became bishop of Laodicea in ...
Eusebius of Nicomedia

Eusebius of Nicomedia

Bishop, place and date of birth unknown; d. 341. He was a pupil at Antioch of Lucian the ...
Eusebius, Chronicle of

Chronicle of Eusebius

Consists of two parts: the first was probably called by Eusebius the "Chronograph" or ...
Eusebius, Saint

St. Eusebius (of Vercelli)

Bishop of Vercelli, b. in Sardinia c. 283; d. at Vercelli, Piedmont, 1 August, 371. He was ...
Eusebius, Saint

St. Eusebius of Samosata

Bishop of Samosata (now Samsat) in Syria ; date of birth unknown: d. in 379 or 380. History ...
Eusebius, Saint

St. Eusebius (Of Rome)

A presbyter at Rome ; date of birth unknown; d. 357(?). He was a Roman patrician and ...
Eusebius, Saint, Pope

Pope St. Eusebius

Successor of Marcellus, 309 or 310. His reign was short. The Liberian Catalogue gives its duration ...
Eustace, John Chetwode

John Chetwode Eustace

Antiquary, b. in Ireland, c. 1762; d. at Naples, Italy, 1 Aug., 1815. His family was English, ...
Eustace, Maurice

Maurice Eustace

Eldest son of Sir John Eustace, Castlemartin, County Kildars, Ireland, martyred for the Faith, ...
Eustace, Saint

St. Eustace

Date of birth unknown; died 29 March, 625. He was second abbot of the Irish monastery of ...
Eustachius and Companions, Saints

Sts. Eustachius and Companions

Martyrs under the Emperor Hadrian, in the year 188. Feast in the West, 20 September; in the East, 2 ...
Eustachius, Bartolomeo

Bartolomeo Eustachius

A distinguished anatomist of the Renaissance period — "one of the greatest anatomists ...
Eustathius of Sebaste

Eustathius of Sebaste

Born about 300; died about 377. He was one of the chief founders of monasticism in Asia Minor, ...
Eustathius, Saint

St. Eustathius of Antioch

Bishop of Antioch, b. at Side in Pamphylia, c. 270; d. in exile at Trajanopolis in Thrace , ...
Eustochium Julia, Saint

St. Eustochium Julia

Virgin, born at Rome c. 368; died at Bethlehem, 28 September, 419 or 420. She was the third of ...


( ) A deacon of Alexandria and later Bishop of Sulca. He lived towards the middle of ...


(From Greek eu , well, and thanatos , death), easy, painless death. This is here considered ...
Euthymius, Saint

St. Euthymius

(Styled THE GREAT). Abbot in Palestine; b. in Melitene in Lesser Armenia, A.D. 377; d. A.D. ...
Eutropius of Valencia

Eutropius of Valencia

A Spanish bishop ; d. about 610. He was originally a monk in the Monasterium Servitanum , ...


An heresiarch of the fifth century, who has given his name to an opinion to which his teaching and ...


Eutychianism and Monophysitism are usually identified as a single heresy. But as some ...
Eutychianus, Saint, Pope

Pope Saint Eutychianus

He succeeded Pope Felix I a few days after the latter's death, and governed the Church from ...


Melchite Patriarch of Alexandria, author of a history of the world, b. 876, at Fustat (Cairo); ...
Eutychius I

Eutychius I

Patriarch of Constantinople, b. about 512, in Phrygia; d. Easter Day , 5 April, 582. He became ...


Ecclesiastical historian and last of the continuators of Eusebius of Caesarea, b. in 536 at ...


Born about 345, in Ibora, a small town on the shores of the Black Sea; died 399. He is numbered ...


Liturgical books containing those portions of the Gospels which are read during Mass or in the ...
Evangelical Alliance, The

The Evangelical Alliance

An association of Protestants belonging to various denominations founded in 1846, whose object, ...
Evangelical Church

Evangelical Church

(IN PRUSSIA) The sixteenth-century Reformers accused the Catholic Church of having ...
Evangelical Counsels

Evangelical Counsels

( Or COUNSELS OF PERFECTION). Christ in the Gospels laid down certain rules of life and ...


In the New Testament this word, in its substantive form, occurs only three times: Acts, xxi, 8; ...
Evaristus, Pope Saint

Pope St. Evaristus

Date of birth unknown; died about 107. In the Liberian Catalogue his name is given as Aristus. In ...


( Hebrew hawwah ). The name of the first woman, the wife of Adam, the mother of Cain, Abel, ...
Eve of a Feast

Eve of a Feast

(Or VIGIL; Latin Vigilia ; Greek pannychis ). In the first ages, during the night before ...
Evesham Abbey

Evesham Abbey

Founded by St. Egwin, third Bishop of Worcester, about 701, in Worcestershire, England, and ...


Evil, in a large sense, may be described as the sum of the opposition, which experience shows to ...
Evin, Saint

St. Abban of New Ross

St. Abban of New Ross -- also known as St. Ewin, Abhan, or Evin, but whose name has been locally ...


The first Bishop of Antioch after St. Peter. Eusebius mentions him thus in his "History": ...
Evolution, Catholics and

Catholics and Evolution

One of the most important questions for every educated Catholic of today is: What is to be ...
Evolution, History and Scientific Foundation of


The world of organisms comprises a great system of individual forms generally classified ...


Located in Portugal, raised to archiepiscopal rank in 1544, at which time it was given as ...


DIOCESE OF EVREUX (EBROICENSIS) Diocese in the Department of Eure, France ; suffragan of the ...
Ewald, Saints

St. Ewald

(Or HEWALD) Martyrs in Old Saxony about 695. They were two priests and natives of ...
Ewin, Saint

St. Abban of New Ross

St. Abban of New Ross -- also known as St. Ewin, Abhan, or Evin, but whose name has been locally ...
Ewing, Thomas

Thomas Ewing

Jurist and statesman, b. in West Liberty, Virginia (now West Virginia ), U.S.A. 28 December, ...
Ex Cathedra

Ex Cathedra

Literally "from the chair", a theological term which signifies authoritative teaching and is ...


A process prescribed or assigned for testing qualification; an investigation, inquiry. ...
Examination of Conscience

Examination of Conscience

By this term is understood a review of one's past thoughts, words and actions for the purpose of ...
Examiners, Apostolic

Apostolic Examiners

So called because appointed by the Apostolic See for service in Rome. In 1570 Pius V ...
Examiners, Synodal

Synodal Examiners

So called because chosen in a diocesan synod. The Council of Trent prescribes at least six ...


(Greek Exarchos ). A title used in various senses both civilly and ecclesiastically. In ...
Excardination and Incardination

Incardination and Excardination

(Latin cardo, a pivot, socket, or hinge--hence, incardinare, to hang on a hinge, or fix; ...
Exclusion, Right of

Right of Exclusion

(Latin Jus Exclusivæ . The alleged competence of the more important Catholic ...


This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. General Notions and Historical ...
Executor, Apostolic

Apostolic Executor

A cleric who puts into execution a papal rescript, completing what is necessary in order ...


A semicircular stone or marble seat; a rectangular or semicircular recess; the portico of the ...
Exegesis, Biblical

Biblical Exegesis

Exegesis is the branch of theology which investigates and expresses the true sense of Sacred ...


Exemption is the whole or partial release of an ecclesiastical person, corporation, or ...


(Synonymous with REGIUM PLACET) Exequatur, as the Jansenist Van Espen defines it, is a ...
Exeter, Ancient Diocese of


Exmew, Blessed William

Bl. William Exmew

Carthusian monk and martyr ; suffered at Tyburn, 19 June, 1535. He studied at Christ's ...
Exodus ( See Pentateuch)


Pentateuch , in Greek pentateuchos , is the name of the first five books of the Old ...


( See also DEMONOLOGY, DEMONIACS, EXORCIST, POSSESSION.) Exorcism is (1) the act of driving ...


( See also DEMONOLOGY, DEMONIACS, EXORCISM, POSSESSION.) (1) In general, any one who ...
Expectation of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Feast of the Expectation of the Blessed Virgin

( Exspectatio Partus B.V.M. ) Celebrated on 18 December by nearly the entire Latin Church. ...


(From the Latin expectare , to expect or wait for.) An expectative, or an expectative grace, ...
Expeditors, Apostolic

Apostolic Expeditors

(Latin Expeditionarius literarum apostolicarum, Datariae Apostolicae sollicitator atque ...
Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament

Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament

Exposition is a manner of honouring the Holy Eucharist, by exposing It, with proper solemnity, to ...


(From Latin ex-tendere , to spread out.) That material substance is not perfectly ...
Extension Society, The Catholic Church


IN THE UNITED STATES The first active agitation for a church extension or home mission society ...
Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP)


( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...


( Extra , outside; vagari , to wander.) This word is employed to designate some papal ...
Extreme Unction

Extreme Unction

A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect ...
Exul Hibernicus

Exul Hibernicus

The name given to an Irish stranger on the Continent of Europe in the time of Charles the ...


The hymn in praise of the paschal candle sung by the deacon, in the liturgy of Holy ...
Exuperius, Saint

Saint Exuperius

(Also spelled Exsuperius). Bishop of Toulouse in the beginning of the fifth century; place ...
Eyb, Albrecht von

Albrecht von Eyb

One of the earliest German humanists, born in 1420 near Anabach in Franconia; died in 1475. After ...
Eyck, Hubert and Jan van

Hubert and Jan van Eyck

Brothers, Flemish illuminators and painters, founders of the school of Bruges and ...
Eycken, Jean Baptiste van

Jean Baptiste Van Eycken

Painter, born at Brussels, Belgium, 16 September, 1809; died at Schaerbeek, 19 December, 1853. ...
Eymard, Venerable Pierre-Julien

Venerable Pierre-Julien Eymard

Founder of the Society of the Blessed Sacrament , and of the Servants of the Blessed Sacrament, ...
Eymeric, Nicolas

Nicolas Eymeric

Theologian and inquisitor, born at Gerona, in Catalonia, Spain, c. 1320; died there 4 January, ...
Eyre, Thomas

Thomas Eyre

First president of Ushaw College ; born at Glossop, Derbyshire; in 1748; died at Ushaw, 8 May, ...
Eyston, Charles

Charles Eyston

Antiquary, born 1667; died 5 November, 1721; he was a member of the ancient family of Eyston, ...


Ezechias (Hebrew = "The Lord strengtheneth"; Septuagint Ezekias ; in the cuneiform inscriptions ...


Ezekiel, whose name, Yehézq'el signifies "strong is God ", or "whom God makes strong" ...

Asiongaber (Ezion-Geber)

More properly Ezion-geber, a city of Idumea, situated on the northern extremity of the ...


A writer of the fifth century, born at Golp, in the province of Taikh, a tributary valley of the ...

Esdras (Ezra)

(Or EZRA.) I. ESDRAS THE MAN Esdras is a famous priest and scribe connected with Israel's ...


A priest of Bamberg in the eleventh century, author of a famous poem known as the "Song of the ...

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