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Osee

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NAME AND COUNTRY

Osee (Hôsheá‘– Salvation ), son of Beeri, was one of the Minor Prophets, and a subject of the Ephraimite Kingdom which he calls "the land", whose king is for him "our king", and the localities of which are familiar to him, while he speaks of Juda but seldom and does not even make mention of Jerusalem.

TIME OF HIS MINISTRY

According to the title of the book, Osee prophesied during the reign of Jeroboam II in Israel, and in the time of Ozias, Joatham, Achaz, and Ezechias, kings of Juda, hence from about 750 to 725 B. C. The title, however, is not quite satisfactory and does not seem to be the original one, or, at least, to have been preserved in its primitive form. None of the historical allusions with which the prophecy is filled appears to be connected with any event later than the reign of Manahem ( circa 745-735); there is nothing concerning the Syro-Ephraimite war against Juda, nor the terrible intervention of Tiglath-Pileser III (734-733). The era of the Prophet, therefore, if it is to be judged from his writings, ought to be placed about 750-735; he was perhaps contemporaneous with the closing years of Amos and certainly with the first appearance of Isaias. The reign of Jeroboam II was marked by great and glorious external prosperity; but this prosperity contributed to make the political and religious decadence more rapid. Political dissolution was approaching. Zachary, son of Jeroboam, was assassinated after a reign of six months. His murderer, Sellum, retained the sceptre but one month, and was put to death by Manahem, who occupied the throne for ten years, 745-735. Israel was hastening to its ruin, which was to be completed by the taking of Samaria by Sargon (722).

THE BOOK OF OSEE

It always occupies the first place among the twelve minor prophets, most probably on account of its length. In point of time Amos preceded it. The book is divided into two distinct parts: cc. i-iii, and cc. iv-xiv.

(a) In the first part, Osee relates how, by order of Jahve, he wedded Gomer, a "wife of fornications", daughter of Debelaim, in order to have of her "children of fornications":–symbols, on the one hand, of Israel, the unfaithful spouse who gave to Baal the homage due to Jahve alone; and, on the other, figures of the children of Israel, who in the eyes of Jahve, are but adulterous children. The outraged husband incites the children against their guilty mother, whom he prepares to punish: while for the children themselves is reserved a fate in keeping with their origin. The first is named Jezrahel–the reigning dynasty is about to expiate the blood shed by its ancestor Jehu in the valley of Jezrahel. The second is a daughter, Lô-Ruhamah, "disgraced"–Jahve will be gracious no more to his people. The third is called Lô- ‘Ammi, "not my people"–Jahve will no longer recognize the children of Israel as his people. However, mercy will have the last word. Osee is commanded to receive Gomer again and to prepare her, by a temporary retirement, to renew conjugal intercourse– Israel was to prepare herself in captivity to resume with Jahve the relationship of husband and wife.

Is the marriage of Osee historical or purely allegorical? The hypothesis most in favour at present says that the marriage is historical, and the grounds for it are, (1) the obvious sense of the narrative; (2) the absence of any symbolical sense in the words Gomer and Debelaim; (3) that the second child is a daughter. It appears to us, however, with Davidson (Hastings, "Dict. of the Bible ", II, 421 sqq.) and Van Hoonacker, that the first reason is not convincing. A careful reading of cc. i-iii discloses the fact that the action is extremely rapid, that the events are related merely in order to express a doctrine, and, moreover, they appear to take place within the single time requisite to one or two speeches. And yet, if these events are real, a large part of the Prophet's life must have been spent in these unsavoury circumstances. And again, the names of the children appear to have been bestowed just at the time that their meaning was explained to the people. This is especially the case with regard to the last child: "Call his name, Not my people: for you are not my people …" Another reason for doubting this hypothesis is that it is difficult to suppose that God ordered His Prophet to take an unfaithful wife mearely with a view to her being unfaithful and bearing him adulterous children. And how are we to explain the fact that the prophet retained her notwithstanding her adultery till after the birth of the third child, and again received her after she had been in the possession of another? That the second child was a daughter may be explained by dramatic instinct, or by some other sufficiently plausible motive. There remain the names Gomer and Debelaim. Van Hoonacker proposes as possible translations: consummation (imminent ruin), doomed to terrible scourges; or top (of perversity), addicted to the cakes of figs (oblations offered to Baal ). Nestle also translates Bath Debelaim by daughter of the cakes of figs, but in the sense of a woman to be obtained at a small price (Zeitsch. für alttest. Wissenschaft, XXIX, 233 seq.). These are but conjectures; the obscurity may be due to our ignorance. Certain it is at least that the allegorical meaning, adopted by St. Jerome , satisfies critical exigencies and is more in conformity with the moral sense. The doctrinal meaning is identical in either case and that is the only consideration of real importance.

(b) The second part of the book is the practical and detailed application of the first. Van Hoonacker divides it into three sections, each of which terminated with a promise of salvation (iv-vii, 1a … vii, 1b-xi … xii-xiv). We may accept this division if we also admit his ingenious interpretation of vi, 11-viii, 1a:–And yet Juda, I shall graft on thee a branch (of Ephraim) when I shall re-establish my people; when I shall heal Israel. In the first section he speaks almost exclusively of religious and moral corruption. The princes and especially the priests are chiefly responsible for this and it is on them that the punishment will principally fall; and as he speaks simply of the "house of the king" it would appear that the dynasty of Jehu still occupied the throne. It is different in the following chapters. In vii, 1a- viii, the political and social disorders are especially emphasized. At home there are conspiracies, regicides, anarchy, while abroad alliances with foreign powers are sought. No doubt Menahem was already reigning. And yet the religious disorders remained the principal object of the prophet's reprobation. And in spite of all, mercy ever retains its prerogatives. Jahve will gather together again some day His scattered children. In the last section it is felt that the final catastrophe is close at hand; and, nevertheless, once again, love remains victorious. The book ends with a touching exhortation to the people to turn to God who on His part promises the most tempting blessings. An epiphonema reminds at last every one that the good and the wicked shall receive the retribution each has merited.

STYLE AND TEXT

St. Jerome has described in a few words the style of our Phrophet: "Osee commaticus est, et quasi per sententias loquens." (P. L., XXVIII, 1015.) An intense emotion overpowers the Prophet at the sight of his dying country. He manifests this grief in short broken phrases with little logical sequence, but in which is revealed a tender and afflicted heart. Unfortunately the notorious obscurity of the Prophet hides many details from our view; this obscurity is due also to many allusions which we cannot grasp, and to the imperfect condition of the text. The question has been raised as to whether we possess it at least in its substantial integrity. Some critics claim to have discovered two main series of interpolations; the first, of small extent, consists of texts relative to Juda ; the second, which is of far greater importance, consists of the Messianic passages which, it is said, lie outside the range of the prophet's vision. It is possible to detect several probable glosses in the first series: the second assertion is purely arbitrary. The Messianic texts have all the characteristics of Osee's style; they are closely connected with the context and are entirely in accordance with his general doctrines.

TEACHING

It is fundamentally the same as that of Amos :–the same strict Monotheism, the same ethical conception which paves the way for the Beati pauperes and the worship which must be in spirit and in truth. Only Osee lays much more stress on the idolatry which perhaps had been increased in the interval and was in any case better known to the Ephraimite Prophet than to his Judean predecessor. And Amos had in return a much more extended historical and geographical horizon. Osee sees but the dying Israel. His characteristic point of view is the bond between Jahve and Israel. Jahve is the spouse of Israel, the bride of Jahve,–a profoundly philosophical and mystical image which appears here for the first time and which we find again in Jeremias, Ezechiel, Canticle of Canticles, Apocalypse, etc.

A. The Ancient Alliance

Jahve has taken to Himself His spouse by redeeming her out of the bondage of Egypt. He has united Himself to her on Sinai. The bride owed fidelity and exclusive love, trust, and obedience to the spouse; but alas! how has she observed the conjugal compact? Fidelity.–She has prostituted herself to the Baals and Astartes, degrading herself to the level of the infamous practices of the Canaanite high places. She has worshiped the calf of Samaria and has given herself up to every superstition. No doubt she has also paid homage to Jahve, but a homage wholly external and carnal instead of the adoration which must be above all things internal and which He Himself exacts: "With their flocks, and with their herds they shall go to seek the Lord, and shall not find him…" (v, 6). "For I desire mercy and not sacrifice: and the knowledge of God more than holocausts " (vi, 6). Trust has failed in like manner. Costly alliances were sought with other nations as though the protection of the spouse were not sufficient:–"Ephraim hath given gifts to his lovers (viii, 9). He hath made a covenant with the Assyrians, and carried oil into Egypt " ( Vulgate, xii, 1). The very favours which she has received from Jahve in her ingratitude she ascribes to false gods. She said: "I will go after my lovers, that gave me my bread, and my water, my wool, and my flax" ( Vulgate, ii, 5). Obedience :–All the laws which govern the pact of union have been violated: "Shall I write to him [Ephraim] my manifold laws which have been accounted as foreign" (viii, 12). It is a question here at least primarily of the Mosaic legislation. Osee and Amos in spite of contrary opinion knew at least in substance the contents of the Pentateuch. Anarchy is therefore rife in politics and religion: "They have reigned but not by me: they have been princes, and I knew not: of their silver, and their gold they have made idols to themselves" (viii, 4).

The root of all these evils is the absence of "knowledge of God " (iv-v) for which the priest especially and the princes are to blame, an absence of theoretical knowledge no doubt, but primarily of the practical knowledge which has love for its object. It is the absence of this practical knowledge chiefly that Osee laments. The Prophet employs yet another symbol for the bond of union. He sets forth in some exquisite lines the symbol of the chosen son. Jahve has given birth to Israel by redeeming it out of the bondage of Egypt. He has borne it in his arms, has guided its first feeble steps and sustained it with bonds of love ; he has reared and nourished it (xi, 1 sq.) and the only return made by Ephraim is apostasy. Such is the history of the covenant. The day of retribution is at hand; it has even dawned in anarchy, civil war, and every kind of scourge. The consummation is imminent. It would seem that repentance itself would be unable to ward it off. As later Jeremias, so now Osee announces to his people with indescribable emotion the final ruin: Jezrahel "Disgraced". "Not my people." The children of Israel are about to go into exile, there they "shall sit many days without king, and without prince, and without sacrifice, and without altar, and without ephod and without teraphim" (iii, 4). National authority shall come to an end and public national religion will be no more.

B. The New Covenant

Yet the love of Jahve will change even this evil into a remedy. The unworldly princes now separated from the people, will no longer draw them into sin. The disappearance of the external national religion will cause the idolatrous sacrifices, symbols, and oracles to disappear at the same time. And the road will be open to salvation ; it will come "at the end of days". Jahve cannot abandon forever His chosen son. At the very thought of it He is filled with compassion and his heart is stirred within him. Accordingly after having been the lion which roars against his guilty people He will roar against their enemies, and His children will come at the sound of His voice from all the lands of their exile (xi, 10 sq.). It will be, as it were, a new exodus from Egypt, Juda will be reinstated and a remnant of the tribe of Ephraim shall be joined with him (vi, 11- vii, 1a). "The children of Israel shall return and shall seek the Lord their God, and David their king" (iii, 5). The new alliance shall never be broken: it shall be contracted in justice and in righteousness, in kindness and in love, in fidelity and knowledge of God. There shall be reconciliation with nature and peace among men and with God. Prosperity and unlimited extension of the people of God shall come to pass, and the children of this new kingdom shall be called the sons of the living God. Great shall be the day of Jezrahel (the day when " God will sow"); (ch. ii), ch. i, 1-3 ( Vulgate, i, 10-ii, 1) ought likely to be set at the end of ch. ii. Cf. Condamin in "Revue biblique", 1902, 386 sqq. This is an admirable sketch of the Church which Christ is to found seven and a half centuries later. The doctrine of Osee, like that of Amos, manifests a transcendence which his historical and religious surroundings cannot explain. Digitus Dei est hic.

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More Volume: O 274

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Oils, Holy

Holy Oils

(OLEA SACRA). Liturgical Benediction Oil is a product of great utility the symbolic ...
Ointment in Scripture

Ointment in Scripture

That the use of oily, fragrant materials to anoint the body is a custom going back to remote ...
Ojeda, Alonso de

Alonso de Ojeda

Explorer; b. at Cuenca, Spain, about 1466; d. on the island of Santo Domingo , about 1508. He ...
Okeghem, Jean d'

Jean d'Okeghem

Also called Okekem, Okenghem, Okegnan, Ockenheim. Contrapuntist, founder and head of the second ...
Oklahoma

Oklahoma

I. GEOGRAPHY Oklahoma, the forty-sixth state to be admitted to the Union, is bounded on the north ...
Oláh, Nicolaus

Nicolaus Olah

(OLAHUS) Archbishop of Gran and Primate of Hungary, a distinguished prelate, born 10 ...
Olaf Haraldson, Saint

St. Olaf Haraldson

Martyr and King of Norway (1015-30), b. 995; d. 29 July, 1030. He was a son of King Harald ...
Olba

Olba

A titular see in Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia. It was a city of Cetis in Cilicia Aspera, ...
Old Catholics

Old Catholics

The sect organised in German-speaking countries to combat the dogma of Papal Infallibility. ...
Old Chapter, The

The Old Chapter

The origin of the body, fomerly known as the Old Chapter, dates from 1623, when after a period of ...
Old Hall (St. Edmund's College)

Old Hall (St. Edmund's College)

Located near Ware, Hertfordshire, England ; founded in 1793 after the fall of the English ...
Old Testament

Old Testament

I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...
Old Testament, Canon of the

Canon of the Old Testament

Overview The word canon as applied to the Scriptures has long had a special and consecrated ...
Oldcorne, Ven. Edward

Ven. Edward Oldcorne

Martyr, b. 1561; d. 1606. His father was a Protestant, and his mother a Catholic. He was ...
Oldenburg

Oldenburg

A grand duchy, one of the twenty-six federated states of the German Empire. It consists of three ...
Oldham, Hugh

Hugh Oldman

Bishop of Exeter, b. in Lancashire, either at Crumpsell or Oldham; d. 25 June, 1519. Having ...
Oldoini, Augustino

Augustino Oldoini

Historian and bibliographer, b. 6 Jan., 1612; d. at Perugia, 23 March, 1683. He came from La ...
Olenus

Olenus

A titular see and suffragan of Patras, in Achaia Quarta, one of the twelve primitive cities of ...
Olesnicki, Zbigniew

Zbigniew Olesnicki

(Sbigneus) A Polish cardinal and statesman, b. in Poland, 1389; d. at Sandomir, 1 April, ...
Olier, Jean-Jacques

Jean-Jacques Olier

Founder of the seminary and Society of St-Sulpice, b. at Paris, 20 Sept., 1608; d. there, 2 ...
Olinda

Olinda

Diocese in the north-east of Brazil, suffragan of San Salvador de Bahia. Erected into a vicariate ...
Oliva

Oliva

A suppressed Cistercian abbey near Danzig in Pomerania, founded with the assistance of the ...
Oliva, Gian Paolo

Gian Paolo Oliva

Born at Genoa, 4 October, 1600; died at Rome, at Sant' Andrea Quirinale, 26 November, 1681. In ...
Olivaint, Pierre

Pierre Olivaint

Pierre Olivaint was born in Paris, 22 Feb., 1816. His father, a man of repute but an unbeliever, ...
Oliver, George

George Oliver

Born at Newington in Surrey in 1781; died at Exeter in 1861. After studying for some years at ...
Olivet, Mount

Mount Olivet

(Latin, Mons Olivertus .) Occurring also in the English Bibles as the Mount of Olives ( ...
Olivetans

Olivetans

A branch of the white monks of the Benedictine Order, founded in 1319. It owed its origin to ...
Olivi, Pierre Jean

Pierre Jean Olivi

(PETRUS JOHANNIS) A Spiritual Franciscan and theological author, born at Sérignan, ...
Olivier de la Marche

Olivier de La Marche

Chronicler and poet, b. 1426, at the Chateau de la Marche, in Franche-Comté; d. at ...
Ollé-Laprune, Léon

Leon Olle-Laprune

French Catholic philosopher, b. in 1839; d. at Paris, 19 Feb., 1898. Under the influence of the ...
Olmütz

Olmutz

(OLOMUCENSIS) Archdiocese in Moravia. It is probable that Christianity penetrated into ...
Olympias, Saint

St. Olympias

Born 360-5; died 25 July, 408, probably at Nicomedia. This pious, charitable, and wealthy ...
Olympus

Olympus

A titular see of Lycia in Asia Minor. It was one of the chief cities of the "Corpus Lyciacum", ...
Omaha

Omaha

(OMAHENSIS) The Diocese embraces all that part of the State of Nebraska north of the southern ...
Ombus

Ombus

Titular see and suffragan of Ptolemais in Thebais Secunda. The city is located by Ptolemy (IV, ...
Omer, Saint

St. Omer

Born of a distinguished family towards the close of the sixth or the beginning of the seventh ...
Omission

Omission

(Latin omittere , to lay aside, to pass away). "Omission" is here taken to be the failure to ...
Omnipotence

Omnipotence

(Latin omnipotentia , from omnia and potens , able to do all things). Omnipotence is ...
Onias

Onias

( ’Onías ). Name of several Jewish pontiffs of the third and second centuries ...
Ontario

Ontario

Ontario, the most populous and wealthy province of Canada, has an area of 140,000,000 acres, ...
Ontologism

Ontologism

(from on, ontos , being, and logos , science) Ontologism is an ideological system which ...
Ontology

Ontology

( on, ontos , being, and logos , science, the science or philosophy of being). I. ...
Oostacker, Shrine of

Shrine of Oostacker

A miraculous shrine of the Blessed Virgin, and place of pilgrimage from Belgium, Holland, and ...
Opening Prayer (in the Mass)

Collect

The name now used only for short prayers before the Epistle in the Mass, which occur again at ...
Ophir

Ophir

Ophir, in the Bible , designates a people and a country. The people, for whom a Semitic ...
Oporto

Oporto

(Portucalensis) Diocese in Portugal ; comprising 26 civil concelhos of the districts of ...
Oppenordt, Gilles-Marie

Gilles-Marie Oppenordt

(Oppenord) Born in Paris, 1672; died there, 1742; a celebrated rococo artist, known as "the ...
Oppido Mamertina

Oppido Mamertina

Diocese ; suffragan of Reggio Calabria, Italy, famous for its prolonged resistance to Roger ...
Optatus, Saint

St. Optatus

Bishop of Milevis, in Numidia, in the fourth century. He was a convert, as we gather from St. ...
Optimism

Optimism

Optimism (Latin optimus , best) may be understood as a metaphysical theory, or as an emotional ...
Option, Right of

Right of Option

In canon law an option is a way of obtaining a benefice or a title, by the choice of the new ...
Oracle

Oracle

( oraculum; orare , to speak). A Divine communication given at a special place through ...
Oran

Oran

(ORANENSIS). Diocese in Algiers, separated from the Archdiocese of Algiers, 26 July, 1866, to ...
Orange Free State

Orange Free State

The Orange Free State, one of the four provinces of the Union of South Africa, lies between ...
Orange River

Orange River, South Africa

(also the PREFECTURE APOSTOLIC OF GREAT NAMAQUALAND) Located in South Africa. The vicariate was ...
Orange, Councils of

Councils of Orange

Two councils were held at Orange (Arausio), a town in the present department of Vaucluse in ...
Orans

Orans

(Orante) Among the subjects depicted in the art of the Roman catacombs one of those most ...
Orate Fratres

Orate Fratres

The exhortation (" Pray brethren that my sacrifice and yours be acceptable to God the Father ...
Oratorio

Oratorio

As at present understood, an Oratorio is a musical composition for solo voices, chorus, orchestra, ...
Oratory

Oratory

(Latin oratorium , from orare , to pray ) As a general term, Oratory signifies a place ...
Oratory of Saint Philip Neri, The

The Oratory of Saint Philip Neri

Under this head are included the Italian, Spanish, English, and other communities, which follow ...
Oratory, French Congregation of the

French Congregation of the Oratory

Founded in Paris at the beginning of the seventeenth century by Cardinal Pierre de ...
Orbellis, Nicolas d'

Nicolas d'Orbellis

Franciscan theologian and philosopher, Scotist ; born about 1400; died at Rome, 1475. He seems ...
Orcagna

Orcagna

(The conventional name in art history of A NDREA DI C IONE , also called A RCAGNUOLO or A ...
Orcistus

Orcistus

Titular see in Galatia Secunda. It is only mentioned in Peutinger's "Table". An inscription of ...
Ordeals

Ordeals

( Iudicium Dei ; Anglo-Saxon, ordâl ; German Urteil ). Ordeals were a means of ...
Ordericus Vitalis

Ordericus Vitalis

Historian, b. 1075; d. about 1143. He was the son of an English mother and a French priest who ...
Orders, Holy

Holy Orders

Order is the appropriate disposition of things equal and unequal, by giving each its proper place ...
Orders, The Military

The Military Orders

Including under this term every kind of brotherhood of knights, secular as well as religious, ...
Ordinariate

Ordinariate

(From Ordinary ). This term is used in speaking collectively of all the various organs ...
Ordinary

Ordinary

( Latin ordinarius , i. e., judex ) An Ordinary in ecclesiastical language, denotes any ...
Ordines Romani

Ordines Romani

The word Ordo commonly meant, in the Middle Ages, a ritual book containing directions for ...
Oregon

Oregon

One of the Pacific Coast States, seventh in size among the states of the Union (1910). It received ...
Oregon City

Oregon City

(OREGONOPOLITAN). Includes that part of the state of Oregon west of the Cascade Mountains, ...
Oremus

Oremus

Invitation to pray, said before collects and other short prayers and occurring continually in ...
Orense

Orense

(AURIENSIS) A suffragan of Compostela, includes nearly all of the civil Province of Orense, ...
Oresme, Nicole

Nicole Oresme

Philosopher, economist, mathematician, and physicist, one of the principal founders of modern ...
Organ

Organ

(Greek organon , "an instrument") A musical instrument which consists of one or several sets ...
Organic Articles, The

The Organic Articles

A name given to a law regulating public worship, comprising 77 articles relative to Catholicism, ...
Oria

Oria

(URITANA) Oria, in the Province of Lecce [now the Province of Brindisi -- Ed. ], Apulia, ...
Oriani, Barnaba

Barnaba Oriani

Italian Barnabite and astronomer, b. at Carignano, near Milan, 17 July, 1752; d. at Milan, 12 ...
Oriental Study and Research

Oriental Study and Research

In the broadest sense of the term, Oriental study comprises the scientific investigation and ...
Orientation of Churches

Orientation of Churches

According to Tertullian the Christians of his time were, by some who concerned themselves with ...
Orientius

Orientius

Christian Latin poet of the fifth century. He wrote an elegiac poem ( Commonitorium ) of 1036 ...
Oriflamme

Oriflamme

In verses 3093-5 of the "Chanson de Roland" (eleventh century) the oriflamme is mentioned as a ...
Origen and Origenism

Origen and Origenism

I. LIFE AND WORK OF ORIGEN A. BIOGRAPHY Origen, most modest of writers, hardly ever alludes to ...
Original Sin

Original Sin

I. Meaning II. Principal Adversaries III. Original Sin in ScriptureIV. Original Sin in ...
Orihuela

Orihuela

DIOCESE OF ORIHUELA (ORIOLENSIS, ORIOLANA). The Diocese of Orihuela comprises all the civil ...
Oriol, Saint Joseph

Saint Joseph Oriol

Priest, "Thaumaturgus of Barcelona", b. at Barcelona, 23 November, 1650; d. there, 23 March, ...
Oristano

Oristano

Diocese of Oristano (Arborensis) in Sardinia. Oristano was the capital of the giudicatura ...
Orkneys

Orkneys

A group of islands situated between 58° 41' and 59° 24' N. lat. and 2° 22' and 3° ...
Orléans

Orleans

(AURELIANUM) This Diocese comprises the Department of Loiret, suffragan of Paris since 1622, ...
Orléans, Councils of

Councils of Orleans

Six national councils were held at Orléans in the Merovingian period. I. — At the ...
Orlandini, Niccolò

Niccolo Orlandini

Born at Florence, 1554; died 1606 at Rome, 17 May. He entered the Jesuit novitiate 7 Nov., ...
Orley, Barent Van

Barent van Orley

(Bernard) Painter, b. at Brussels, about 1491; d. there 6 January, 1542. He studied under ...
Orme, Philibert de l'

Philibert de l'Orme

An architect, born about 1512; died 1570. His style, classical and of the more severe Italian ...
Oropus

Oropus

Titular see, suffragan of Anazarbus in Cilicia Secunda. It never really depended on Anazarbus ...
Orosius, Paulus

Paulus Orosius

Historian and Christian apologist ; b. probably at Bracara, now Braga, in Portugal, between 380 ...
Orphans and Orphanages

Orphans and Orphanages

The death of one or both parents makes the child of the very poor a ward of the community. The ...
Orsi, Giuseppe Agostino

Giuseppe Agostino Orsi

A cardinal, theologian, and ecclesiastical historian, born at Florence, 9 May, 1692, of an ...
Orsini

Orsini

One of the most ancient and distinguished families of the Roman nobility, whose members often ...
Orsisius

Orsisius

( Arsisios , Oresiesis-Heru-sa Ast) Egyptian monk of the fourth century; was a disciple ...
Ortelius, Abraham

Abraham Ortelius

(OERTEL) A cartographer, geographer, and archeologist, born in Antwerp, 4 April, 1527; died ...
Orthodox Church

Orthodox Church

The technical name for the body of Christians who use the Byzantine Rite in various languages ...
Orthodoxy

Orthodoxy

Orthodoxy ( orthodoxeia ) signifies right belief or purity of faith. Right belief is not ...
Orthodoxy, Feast of

Feast of Orthodoxy

(or SUNDAY) The first Sunday of the Great Forty days ( Lent ) in the Byzantine Calendar ...
Orthosias

Orthosias

A titular see of Phœnicia Prima, suffragan of Tyre. The city is mentioned for the first ...
Ortolano Ferrarese

Ortolano Ferrarese

Painter of the Ferrara School, b. in Ferrara, about 1490; d. about 1525. His real name was ...
Orval

Orval

(Aurea Vallis, Gueldenthal). Formerly a Cistercian abbey in Belgian Luxemburg, Diocese of ...
Orvieto

Orvieto

DIOCESE OF ORVIETO (URBEVETANA) Diocese in Central Italy. The city stands on a rugged mass of ...
Ory, Matthieu

Matthieu Ory

Inquisitor and theologian, b. at La Caune, 1492; d. at Paris, 1557. Entering the Dominican ...
Osaka

Osaka

(Osachensis). Osaka ( Oye , great river; saka , cliff), one of the three municipal ...
Osbald

Osbald

King of Northumbria, d. 799. Symeon of Durham (Historia Regum) tells us that when Ecfwald, a ...
Osbaldeston, Edward, Venerable

Ven. Edward Osbaldeston

English martyr, b. about 1560; hanged, drawn, and quartered at York, 16 November, 1594. Son of ...
Osbern

Osbern

Hagiographer, sometimes confused with Osbert de Clare alias Osbern de Westminster, b. at ...
Oscott (St. Mary's College)

Oscott (St. Mary's College)

In 1793, a number of the Catholic nobility and gentry of England formed a committee for the ...
Osee

Osee

NAME AND COUNTRY Osee (Hôsheá‘– Salvation ), son of Beeri, was one of ...
Osimo

Osimo

DIOCESE OF OSIMO (AUXIMANA). Diocese in the Province of Ascoli Piceno, Italy. Osimo was ...
Oslo, Ancient See of

Ancient See of Oslo

(ASLOIA, ASLOENSIS.) Oslo occupied part of the site of Christiania (founded 1624). After the ...
Osma

Osma

(OXOMENSIS) The Diocese borders Burgos and Logroño on the north, Soria and Saragossa ...
Osmund, Saint

St. Osmund

Bishop of Salisbury, died 1099; his feast is kept on 4 December. Osmund held an exalted ...
Osnabrück

Osnabrueck

(OSNABRUGENSIS) This diocese, directly subject to the Holy See, comprises, in the Prussian ...
Ossat, Arnaud d'

Arnaud d'Ossat

French cardinal, diplomat, and writer, b. at Larroque-Magnoac (Gascony), 20 July, 1537; d. at ...
Ossory, Diocese of

Ossory

(Ossoriensis.) In the Province of Leinster, Ireland, is bounded on the south by the Suir, on ...
Ostensorium

Ostensorium

(From ostendere , "to show"). Ostensorium means, in accordance with its etymology, a ...
Ostia and Velletri

Ostia and Velletri

SUBURBICARIAN DIOCESE OF OSTIA AND VELLETRI (OSTIENSIS ET VELITERNENSIS). Near Rome, central ...
Ostiensis

Ostiensis

Surname of LEO MARSICANUS, Benedictine chronicler, b. about 1045; d. 22 May, 1115, 1116, or ...
Ostracine

Ostracine

Titular see and suffragan of Pelusium in Augustamnica prima. Pliny (Hist. naturalis, V, xiv) ...
Ostraka, Christian

Christian Ostraka

Inscriptions on clay, wood, metal, and other hard materials. Like papyri, they are valuable ...
Ostrogoths

Ostrogoths

One of the two chief tribes of the Goths, a Germanic people. Their traditions relate that the ...
Oswald, Saint

St. Oswald

Archbishop of York, d. on 29 February, 992. Of Danish parentage, Oswald was brought up by his ...
Oswald, Saint

St. Oswald

King and martyr ; b., probably, 605; d. 5 Aug., 642; the second of seven brothers, sons of ...
Oswin, Saint

St. Oswin

King and martyr, murdered at Gilling, near Richmond, Yorkshire, England, on 20 August, 651, ...
Otfried of Weissenburg

Otfried of Weissenburg

He is the oldest German poet known by name, author of the "Evangelienbuch", a rhymed version of ...
Othlo

Othlo

(OTLOH) A Benedictine monk of St. Emmeran's, Ratisbon, born 1013 in the Diocese of ...
Othmar, Saint

St. Othmar

(Audomar.) Died 16 Nov., 759, on the island of Werd in the Rhine, near Echnez, Switzerland. ...
Otho, Marcus Salvius

Marcus Salvius Otho

Roman emperor, successor, after Galba, of Nero, b. in Rome, of an ancient Etruscan family ...
Otranto

Otranto

ARCHDIOCESE OF OTRANTO (HYDRUNTINA). Otranto is a city of the Province of Lecce, Apulia, ...
Ottawa, Archdiocese of

Ottawa

Archdiocese of Ottawa (Ottawiensis). The Archdiocese of Ottawa, in Canada, originally ...
Ottawa, University of

University of Ottawa

Conducted by the Oblates of Mary Immaculate ; founded in 1848. It was incorporated in 1849 under ...
Otto I, the Great

Otto I (The Great)

Roman emperor and German king, b. in 912; d. at Memleben, 7 May, 973; son of Henry I and his ...
Otto II

Otto II

King of the Germans and Emperor of Rome, son of Otto I and Adelaide, b. 955; d. in Rome, 7 ...
Otto III

Otto III

German king and Roman emperor, b. 980; d. at Paterno, 24 Jan., 1002. At the age of three he was ...
Otto IV

Otto IV

German king and Roman emperor, b. at Argentau (Dept. of Orne), c. 1182; d. 19 May, 1218; son of ...
Otto of Freising

Otto of Freising

Bishop and historian, b. between 1111 and 1114, d. at Morimond, Champagne, France, 22 ...
Otto of Passau

Otto of Passau

All we know of him is in the preface of his work, in which he calls himself a member of the ...
Otto of St. Blasien

Otto of Blasien

Chronicler, b. about the middle of the twelfth century; d. 23 July, 1223, at St. Blasien in the ...
Otto, Saint

Saint Otto

Bishop of Bamberg, b. about 1060; d. 30 June, 1139. He belonged to the noble, though not ...
Ottobeuren

Ottobeuren

(OTTOBURA, MONASTERIUM OTTOBURANUM) Formerly a Benedictine abbey, now a priory, near ...
Ouen, Saint

St. Ouen

(OWEN; DADON, Latin Audaenus ). Archbishop of Rouen, b. at Sancy, near Soissons about ...
Our Father, The

Lord's Prayer

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...
Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd

Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd

The aim of this institute is to provide a shelter for girls and women of dissolute habits, who ...
Our Lady of Good Counsel, Feast of

Feast of Our Lady of Good Counsel

Records dating from the reign of Paul II (1464-71) relate that the picture of Our Lady, at ...
Our Lady of Perpetual Help

Our Lady of Perpetual Succour (Our Lady of Perpetual Help)

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...
Our Lady of Perpetual Succour

Our Lady of Perpetual Succour (Our Lady of Perpetual Help)

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...
Our Lady of the Fields, Brothers of

Brothers of Our Lady of the Fields

A Canadian congregation founded in 1902 at St-Damien de Buckland in the Diocese of Quebec by ...
Our Lady of the Snow

Our Lady of the Snow

("Dedicatio Sanctæ Mariæ ad Nives"). A feast celebrated on 5 August to ...
Our Lady, Help of Christians, Feast of

Feast of Our Lady, Help of Christians

The invocation Auxilium Christianorum (Help of Christians ) originated in the sixteenth ...
Overbeck, Friedrich

Friedrich Overbeck

Convert and painter of religious subjects, b. at Lübeck, 3 July, 1789; d. at Rome, 12 ...
Overberg, Bernhard Heinrich

Bernhard Heinrich Overberg

A German ecclesiastic and educator, born 1 May, 1754; died 9 November, 1826. Of poor parents in ...
Overpopulation, Theories of

Overpopulation Theories

Down to the end of the eighteenth century, very little attention was given to the relation between ...
Oviedo

Oviedo

(OVETENSIS) This diocese comprises the civil province of the same name (the ancient Kingdom ...
Owen, Saint

St. Ouen

(OWEN; DADON, Latin Audaenus ). Archbishop of Rouen, b. at Sancy, near Soissons about ...
Owen, Saint Nicholas

St. Nicholas Owen

A Jesuit lay-brother, martyred in 1606. There is no record of his parentage, birthplace, date ...
Oxenford, John

John Oxenford

Dramatist, critic, translator, and song-writer, b. in London, 12 Aug., 1812; d. there 21 Feb., ...
Oxenham, Henry Nutcombe

Henry Nutcombe Oxenham

An English controversialist and poet, born at Harrow, 15 Nov., 1829; died at Kensington, 23 ...
Oxford

Oxford

Oxford, one of the most ancient cities in England, grew up under the shadow of a convent, said to ...
Oxford Movement, The

The Oxford Movement (1833-1845)

The Oxford Movement may be looked upon in two distinct lights. "The conception which lay at its ...
Oxford, University of

University of Oxford

I. ORIGIN AND HISTORY The most extraordinary myths have at various times prevailed as to the ...
Oxyrynchus

Oxyrynchus

Titular archdiocese of Heptanomos in Egypt. It was the capital of the district of its name, the ...
Ozanam, Antoine-Frédéric

Antoine-Frederic Ozanam

Great grand-nephew of Jacques Ozanam . Born at Milan, 23 April, 1813; died at Marseilles, 8 ...
Ozanam, Jacques

Jacques Ozanam

A French mathematician, born at Bouligneux (Ain), 1640; died in Paris, 3 April, 1717. He came of a ...
Ozias

Ozias

" Yahweh is my strength", name of six Israelites mentioned in the Bible . (1) Ozias, King ...

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