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Japanese Martyrs

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There is not in the whole history of the Church a single people who can offer to the admiration of the Christian world annals as glorious, and a martyrology as lengthy, as those of the people of Japan. In January, 1552, St. Francis Xavier had remarked the proselytizing spirit of the early neophytes. "I saw them", he wrote, "rejoicing in our successes, manifesting an ardent zeal to spread the faith and to win over to baptism the pagans they conquered." He foresaw the obstacles that would block the progress of the faith in certain provinces, the absolutism of this or that daimyo , a class at that time very independent of the Mikado and in revolt against his supreme authority. As a matter of fact, in the province of Hirado, where he made a hundred converts, and where six years after him, 600 pagans were baptized in three days, a Christian woman (the proto-martyr) was beheaded for praying before a cross. In 1561 he diamyo forced the Christians to abjure their faith, "but they preferred to abandon all their possessions and live in the Bungo, poor with Christ, rather than rich without Him", wrote a missionary, 11 October, 1562. When, under the Shogunate of Yoshiaki, Ota Nobunaga, supported by Wada Koresama, a Christian, had subdued the greater part of the provinces and had restored monarchical unity, there came to pass what St. Francis Xavier had hoped for. At Miyako (the modern Kiyoto) the faith was recognized and a church built 15 Aug., 1576. Then the faith continued to spread without notable opposition, as the daimyos followed the lead of the Mikado (Ogimachi, 1558-1586) and Ota Nobunaga. The toleration or favor of the central authority brought about everywhere the extension of the Christian religion, and only a few isolated cases of martyrdom are known (Le Catholicisme au Japon, I, 173).

It was not until 1587, when there were 200,000 Christians in Japan, that an edict of persecution, or rather of prescription, was passed to the surprise of everyone, at the instigation of a bigoted bonze , Nichijoshonin, zealous for the religion of his race. Twenty-six residences and 140 churches were destroyed; the missionaries were condemned to exile, but were clever enough to hide or scatter. They never doubted the constancy of their converts ; they assisted them in secret and in ten years there were 100,000 other converts in Japan. We read of two martyrdoms, one at Takata, the other at Notsuhara; but very many Christians were dispossessed of their goods and reduced to poverty. The first bloody persecution dates from 1597. It is attributed to two causes: (1) Four years earlier some Castilian religious had come from the Philippines and, in spite of the decisions of the Holy See, had joined themselves to the 130 Jesuits who, on account of the delicate situation created by the edict were acting with great caution. In spite of every charitable advice given them, these men set to work in a very indiscreet manner, and violated the terms of the edict even in the capital itself; (2) a Castilian vessel cast by the storm on the coast of Japan was confiscated under the laws then in vigour. Some artillery was found on board, and Japanese susceptibililties were further excited by the lying tales of the pilot, so that the idea went abroad that the Castilians were thinking of annexing the country. A list of all the Christians in Miyado and Osaka was made out, and on 5 Feb., 1597, 26 Christians, among whom were 6 Fransciscan missionaries, were crucified at Nagasaki. Among the 20 native Christians there was one, a child of 13, and another of 12 years. "The astonishing fruit of the generous sacrifice of our 26 martyrs " (wrote a Jesuit missionary) "is that the Christians, recent converts and those of maturer faith, have been confirmed in the faith and hope of eternal salvation ; they have firmly resolved to lay down their lives for the name of Christ. The very pagans who assisted at the martyrdom were struck at seeing the joy of the blessed ones as they suffered on their crosses and the courage with which they met death".

Ten years before this another missionary had foreseen and predicted that "from the courage of the Japanese, aided by the grace of God, it is to be expected that persecution will inaugurate a race for martyrdom ". True it is that the national and religious customs of the people predisposed them to lay down their lives with singular fatalism ; certain of their established usages, religious suicide, hara-kiri , had developed a contempt for death; but if grace does not destroy nature it exalts it, and their fervent charity and love for Christ led the Japanese neophytes to scourgings that the missionaries had to restrain. When this love for Christ had grown strong in the midst of suffering freely chosen, it became easier for the faithful to give the Saviour that greatest proof of love by laying down their lives in a cruel death for His name's sake. "The fifty crosses, ordered for the holy mountain of Nagasaki, multiplied ten or a hundred fold, would not have sufficed" (wrote one missionary) "for all the faithful who longed for martyrdom ". Associations ( Kumi ) were formed under the patronage of the Blessed Virgin with the object of preparing the members by prayer and scourgings even to blood, to be ready to lay down their lives for the faith. After the persecution of 1597, there were isolated cases of martyrdom until 1614, in all about 70. The reigns of Ieyasu, who is better known in Christian annals by the name of Daifu Sama, and of his successors Hidetada and Iemitziu, were the more disastrous. We are not concerned now with the causes of that persecution, which lasted half a century with some brief intervals of peace. According to Mr. Ernest Satow (quoted by Thurston in "The Month", March, 1905, "Japan and Christianity"): "As the Jesuit missionaries conducted themselves with great tact, it is by no means improbable that they might have continued to make converts year by year until the great part of the nation had been brought over to the Catholic religion, had it not been for the rivalry of the missionaries of other orders." These were the Castilian religious; and hence the fear of seeing Spain spread its conquests from the Philippines to Japan. Furthermore the zeal of certain religious Franciscans and Dominicans was wanting in prudence, and led to the persecution.

Year by year after 1614 the number of marytrdoms was 55, 15, 25, 62, 88, 15, 20. The year 1622 was particularly fruitful in Christian heroes. The Japanese martyrology counts 128 with name, Christian name and place of execution. Before this the four religious orders, Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians and Jesuits, had had their martyrs, but on 10 Sept., 1622, 9 Jesuits, 6 Dominicans, 4 Franciscans, and 6 lay Christians were put to death at the stake after witnessing the beheading of about 30 of the faithful. From December until the end of September, 1624, there were 285 martyrs. The English captain, Richard Cocks (Calendar of State Papers: Colonial East Indies, 1617-1621, p. 357) "saw 55 martyred at Miako at one time. . .and among them little children 5 or 6 years old burned in their mother's arms, crying out: ' Jesus receive our souls'. Many more are in prison who look hourly when they shall die, for very few turn pagans ". We cannot go into the details of these horrible slaughters, the skilful tortures of Mount Unaen, the refined cruelty of the trench. After 1627 death grew more and more terrible for the Christians ; in 1627, 123 died, during the years that followed, 65, 79, and 198. Persecution went on unceasingly as long as there were missionaries, and the last of whom we learn were 5 Jesuits and 3 seculars, who suffered the torture of the trench from 25 to 31 March, 1643. The list of martyrs we know of (name, Christian name, and place of execution) has 1648 names. If we add to this group the groups we learn of from the missionaries, or later from the Dutch travellers between 1649 and 1660, the total goes to 3125, and this does not include Christians who were banished, whose property was confiscated, or who died in poverty. A Japanese judge, Arai Hakuseki, bore witness about 1710, that at the close of the reign of Iemitzu (1650) "it was ordered that the converts should all lean on their own staff". At that time an immense number, from 200,000 to 300,000 perished. Without counting the members of Third Orders and Congregations, the Jesuits had, according to the martyrology (Delplace, II, 181-195; 263-275), 55 martyrs, the Franciscans 36, the Dominicans 38, the Augustinians 20. Pius IX and Leo XIII declared worthy of public cult 36 Jesuit martyrs, 25 Franciscans, 21 Dominicans, 5 Augustinians and 107 lay victims. After 1632 it ceased to be possible to obtain reliable data or information which would lead to canonical beatification. When in 1854, Commodore Perry forced an entry to Japan, it was learned that the Christian faith, after two centuries of intolerance, was not dead. In 1865, priests of the foreign Missions found 20,000 Christians practising their religion in secret at Kiushu. Religious liberty was not granted them by Japanese law until 1873. Up to that time in 20 provinces, 3404 had suffered for the faith in exile or in prison ; 660 of these had died, and 1981 returned to their homes. In 1858, 112 Christians, among whom were two chief-baptizers, were put to death by torture. One missionary calculates that in all 1200 died for the faith.

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John Beche, Blessed

John Beche

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St. John Berchmans

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St. John Bosco (Don Bosco)

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St. John Boste

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( Alias John Jones; alias John Griffith; in religion, Godfrey Maurice). Priest and martyr, ...
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Born at Kenty, near Oswiecim, Diocese of Krakow, Poland, 1412 (or 1403); died at Krakow, 1473, ...
John Capistran, Saint

St. John Capistran

Born at Capistrano, in the Diocese of Sulmona, Italy, 1385; died 23 October, 1456. His father had ...
John Chrysostom, Saint

St. John Chrysostom

( Chrysostomos , "golden-mouthed" so called on account of his eloquence). Doctor of the ...
John Climacus, Saint

St. John Climacus

Also surnamed SCHOLASTICUS, and THE SINAITA, b. doubtlessly in Syria, about 525; d. on Mount ...
John Colombini, Blessed

Bl. John Colombini

Founder of the Congregation of Jesuati; b. at Siena, Upper Italy, about 1300; d. on the way to ...
John Cornelius and Companions, Venerable

Ven. John Cornelius and Companions

John Cornelius (called also Mohun) was born of Irish parents at Bodmin, in Cornwall, on the ...
John Damascene, Saint

Saint John Damascene

Born at Damascus, about 676; died some time between 754 and 787. The only extant life of the ...
John de Britto, Blessed

St. John de Britto

Martyr ; born in Lisbon, 1 March, 1647, and was brought up in court; martyred in India 11 ...
John Felton, Blessed

Bl. John Felton

Martyr, date and place of birth unknown, was executed in St. Paul's Churchyard, London, 8 ...
John Fisher, Saint

St. John Fisher

Cardinal, Bishop of Rochester, and martyr ; born at Beverley, Yorkshire, England, 1459 ...
John Forest, Blessed

Bl. John Forest

Born in 1471, presumably at Oxford, where his surname was then not unknown; suffered 22 May, ...
John Francis Regis, Saint

St. John Francis Regis

Born 31 January, 1597, in the village of Fontcouverte (department of Aude); died at la Louvesc, 30 ...
John Hambley, Venerable

Ven. John Hambley

English martyr (suffered 1587), born and educated in Cornwall, and converted by reading one ...
John I, Pope Saint

Pope St. John I

Died at Ravenna on 18 or 19 May (according to the most popular calculation), 526. A Tuscan by ...
John II, Pope

Pope John II

(533-535). The date of the birth of this pope is not known. He was a Roman and the son of ...
John III, Pope

Pope John III

(561-574). A Roman surnamed Catelinus, d. 13 July, 574. He was of a distinguished family, ...
John Ingram, Venerable

Ven. John Ingram

English martyr, born at Stoke Edith, Herefordshire, in 1565; executed at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 26 ...
John IV, Pope

Pope John IV

(640-642). A native of Dalmatia, and the son of the scholasticus (advocate) Venantius. The ...
John IX, Pope

Pope John IX

(898-900). Not only is the date of John's birth unknown, but the date of his election as ...
John Joseph of the Cross, Saint

St. John Joseph of the Cross

Born on the Island of Ischia, Southern Italy, 1654; d. 5 March, 1739. From his earliest years ...
John Larke, Blessed

Bl. John Larke

English martyr ; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1543-4. He was rector of St. Ethelburga's ...
John Malalas

John Malalas

A Monophysite Byzantine chronicler of the sixth century, born at Antioch where he spent most if ...
John Nelson, Blessed

Blessed John Nelson

English Jesuit martyr, b. at Skelton, four miles from York, in 1534; d. at Tyburn, 3 February, ...
John Nepomucene, Saint

St. John Nepomucene

Born at Nepomuk about 1340; died 20 March, 1393. The controversy concerning the identity of John ...
John of Antioch

John of Antioch

There are four persons commonly known by this name. I John, Patriarch of Antioch ...
John of Avila, Blessed

Bl. John of Avila

Apostolic preacher of Andalusia and author, b. at Almodóvar del Campo, a small town in ...
John of Beverley, Saint

Saint John of Beverley

Bishop of Hexham and afterwards of York; b. at Harpham, in the East Riding of Yorkshire; d. at ...
John of Biclaro

John of Biclaro

(Johannes Biclariensis.) Chronicler, born in Portugal, probably about the middle of the sixth ...
John of Cornwall

John of Cornwall

(JOHANNES CORNUBIENSIS, JOHANNES DE SANCTO GERMANO). John of Cornwall lived about 1176. He was ...
John of Ephesus

John of Ephesus

(Also known as JOHN OF ASIA). The earliest, and a very famous, Syriac historian. He was born ...
John of Fécamp

John of Fecamp

(Also known as JEANNELIN on account of his diminutive stature). Ascetic writer, b. near Ravenna ...
John of Falkenberg

John of Falkenberg

Author, b. at Falkenberg, Pomerania, Prussia, date unknown; d. about 1418 in Italy &151; ...
John of Fermo, Blessed

Blessed John of Fermo

More often called JOHN OF LA VERNA, from his long sojourn on that holy mountain, b. at Fermo ...
John of Genoa

John of Genoa

(Often called Balbi, or de Balbis.) Grammarian; born at Genoa, date unknown; died there ...
John of God, Saint

St. John of God

Born at Montemor o Novo, Portugal, 8 March, 1495, of devout Christian parents ; died at ...
John of Hauteville

John of Hauteville

Moralist and satirical poet of the twelfth century (flourished about 1184). Little is known of his ...
John of Janduno

John of Janduno

An Averroistic philosopher, theologian, and political writer of the fourteenth century. John of ...
John of Montecorvino

John of Montecorvino

A Franciscan and founder of the Catholic mission in China, b. at Montecorvino in Southern ...
John of Montesono

John of Montesono

Theologian and controversialist, born at Monzón, Spain ; dates of birth and death ...
John of Nikiû

John of Nikiu

An Egyptian chronicler who flourished in the latter part of the seventh century. The little we ...
John of Paris

John of Paris

( Called also Quidort and de Soardis). Theologian and controversialist; born at Paris, ...
John of Parma, Blessed

Blessed John of Parma

Minister General of the Friars Minor (1247-1257), b. at Parma about 1209; d. at Camerino 19 ...
John of Ragusa

John of Ragusa

(Sometimes confounded with John of Segovia ). A Dominican theologian, president of the ...
John of Roquetaillade (de Rupescissa)

John of Roquetaillade (De Rupescissa)

Franciscan alchemist, date of birth unknown; d. probably at Avignon, 1362. After pursuing the ...
John of Rupella

John of Rupella

Franciscan theologian, b. at La Rochelle (Rupella), towards the end of the twelfth century; d. ...
John of Sahagun, Saint

Saint John of Sahagun

Hermit, b. 1419, at Sahagún (or San Fagondez) in the Kingdom of Leon, in Spain ; d. 11 ...
John of Saint Thomas

John of St. Thomas

(Family name John Poinsot), theologian, born at Lisbon, 9 June, 1589; died at Fraga, Spain, 17 ...
John of Salisbury

John of Salisbury

(JOHANNES DE SARESBERIA, surnamed PARVUS). Born about 1115; died 1180; a distinguished ...
John of Segovia

John of Segovia

A Spanish theologian, b. at Segovia towards the end of the fourteenth century; d. probably in ...
John of the Cross, Saint

St. John of the Cross

Founder (with St. Teresa) of the Discalced Carmelites, doctor of mystic theology, b. at ...
John of Victring

John of Victring

(JOHANNES VICTORENSIS or DE VICTORIA). Chronicler, b. probably between 1270 and 1280; d. at ...
John of Winterthur

John of Winterthur

(Johannes Vitoduranus.) Historian, born about 1300 at Winterthur (Switzerland); died ...
John Parvus

John Parvus

Called in his day, JEHAN PETIT or LE PETIT. A French theologian and professor in the ...
John Payne, Blessed

Bl. John Payne

Born in the Diocese of Peterborough ; died at Chelmsford, 2 April, 1582. He went to Douai in ...
John Rigby, Saint

St. John Rigby

English martyr ; b. about 1570 at Harrocks Hall, Eccleston, Lancashire; executed at St. Thomas ...
John Roberts, Saint

St. John Roberts

First Prior of St. Gregory's, Douai (now Downside Abbey ), b. 1575-6; martyred 10 ...
John Rochester, Blessed

Bl. John Rochester

Priest and martyr, born probably at Terling, Essex, England, about 1498; died at York, 11 May, ...
John Sarkander, Blessed

Bl. John Sarkander

Martyr of the seal of confession, born at Skotschau in Austrian Silesia, 20 Dec., 1576; died at ...
John Scholasticus

John Scholasticus

( ho Scholastikos ; also called J OHN OF A NTIOCH ) Patriarch of Constantinople (J OHN ...
John Shert, Blessed

Bl. John Shert

A native of Cheshire; took the degree of B.A. at Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1566. Successively ...
John Stone, Blessed

Bl. John Stone

English martyr, executed at the Dane-John, Canterbury, probably in December, 1539, for denying ...
John Story, Blessed

Bl. John Story

( Or Storey.) Martyr ; born 1504; died at Tyburn, 1 June, 1571. He was educated at ...
John Talaia

John Talaia

Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria (481-482) at the time of the Monophysite troubles. He had ...
John the Almsgiver, Saint

St. John the Almsgiver

(JOANNES ELEEMOSYNARIUS; JOANNES MISERICORS). Patriarch of Alexandria (606-16), b. at Amathus ...
John the Baptist, Saint

St. John the Baptist

The principal sources of information concerning the life and ministry of St. John the Baptist are ...
John the Deacon

John the Deacon

(J OHANNES D IACONUS ). Among the writers of the Middle Ages who bear this name, four ...
John the Evangelist, Saint

St. John the Evangelist

I. New Testament Accounts II. The Alleged Presbyter John III. The Later Accounts of John IV. Feasts ...
John the Faster

John the Faster

( ‘o nesteutés, jejunator ) Patriarch of Constantinople (John IV, 582-595), ...
John the Silent, Saint

John the Silent

(Hesychastes, Silentiarius). Bishop of Colonia, in Armenia, b. at Nicopolis, Armenia, 8 ...
John Twenge, Saint

St. John Twenge

Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...
John V, Pope

Pope John V

(685-686). A Syrian whose father was one Cyriacus; when he was born is not known; d. 2 ...
John VI, Pope

Pope John VI

(701-705). A Greek, the date of whose birth is unknown; d. 11 January, 705. He ascended the ...
John VII, Pope

Pope John VII

(705-707). The year of his birth is unknown; d. 18 October, 707. Few particulars of his life ...
John VIII, Pope

Pope John VIII

(Reigned 872-82) A Roman and the son of Gundus. He seems to have been born in the first ...
John X, Pope

Pope John X

Born at Tossignano, Romagna; enthroned, 914; died at Rome, 928. First a deacon, he became ...
John XI, Pope

Pope John XI

Date of birth unknown, became pope in 931; d. 936. He was the son of Marozia by her first ...
John XII, Pope

Pope John XII

Date of birth unknown; reigned 955-64. The younger Alberic, after the downfall of his mother, ...
John XIII, Pope

Pope John XIII

Date of birth unknown; enthroned on 1 Oct., 965; d. 6 Sept., 972. After the death of John XII ...
John XIV, Pope

Pope John XIV

Date of birth unknown; d. 984. After the death of Benedict VII, Bishop Peter Campanora of Pavia, ...
John XIX (XX), Pope

Pope John XIX (XX)

Enthroned in 1024; d. 1032. After the death of the last patricius of the House of Crescentius, ...
John XV (XVI), Pope

Pope John XV (XVI)

Enthroned 985; d. April, 996. After John XIV had been removed by force, the usurper, Boniface ...
John XVI (XVII)

Antipope John XVI (XVII)

Antipope 997-998; d. probably in 1013. After the death of John XV, Bruno, a relative of Otto ...
John XVII (XVIII), Pope

Pope John XVII (XVIII)

Date of birth unknown; d. 6 Nov., 1003. When Sylvester II died on 12 May, 1003, there was no ...
John XVIII (XIX), Pope

Pope John XVIII (XIX)

Successor of John XVII, consecrated Christmas, 1003; d. June, 1009. He was the son of a Roman ...
John XXI (XX), Pope

Pope John XXI (XX)

Born at Lisbon between 1210 and 1220; enthroned, 1276; died at Viterbo, 20 May, 1277. The son ...
John XXII, Pope

Pope John XXII

(JACQUES D'EUSE) Born at Cahors in 1249; enthroned, 5 September, 1316; died at Avignon, 4 ...
John XXIII

Antipope John XXIII

Antipope of the Pisan party (1400-15), b. about 1370; d. 22 November, 1419. Cardinal Baldassare ...
John, Epistles of

Epistles of Saint John

Three canonical books of the New Testament written by the Apostle St. John. The subject will ...
John, Gospel of

Gospel of Saint John

This subject will be considered under the following heads: I. Contents and Scheme of the ...
Johnson, Blessed Robert

Bl. Robert Johnson

Born in Shropshire, entered the German College, Rome, 1 October, 1571. Ordained priest at ...
Johnson, Blessed Thomas

Bl. Thomas Johnson

Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...
Johnson, Lionel Pigot

Lionel Pigot Johnson

Born at Broadstairs on the Kentish coast, 15 Mar., 1867; died 4 Oct., 1902. He was the youngest ...
Johnston, Richard Malcolm

Richard Malcolm Johnston

Educator, author, b. 8 March, 1822, at Powellton, Georgia, U.S.A.; d. at Baltimore, Maryland, 23 ...
Joinville, Jean, Sire de

Jean, Sire de Joinville

Seneschal of Champagne, historian, b. in 1225; d. at Joinville, 1317. His family held an ...
Joliet, Louis

Louis Joliet

(Or JOLLIET). Louis Joliet, a discoverer and the son of a wagon-maker, was born at Quebec, ...
Joliette

Joliette

(JOLIETTENSIS). Diocese created by Pius X , 27 January, 1904 by division of the Archdiocese ...
Jolly, Philipp Johann Gustav von

Philipp Johann Gustav von Jolly

German physicist, born at Mannheim, 26 September, 1809; died at Munich, 24 December, 1884. His ...
Jonas

Jonah

The fifth of the Minor Prophets. The name is usually taken to mean "dove", but in view of the ...
Jonas of Bobbio

Jonas of Bobbio

(Or Jonas of Susa ) Monk and hagiographer, b. about the close of the sixth century at ...
Jonas of Orléans

Jonas of Orleans

Bishop and ecclesiastical writer, born in Aquitaine; died in 843 or 844. From 818, when he ...
Jonathan

Jonathan

(Hebrew, " Yahweh hath given", cf. Theodore; Septuagint 'Ionáthan .) Name of several ...
Jones, Inigo

Inigo Jones

A famous English architect, b. 15 July, 1573, in London ; d. 21 June, 1652, and was buried in ...
Jones, Venerable Edward

Ven. Edward Jones

Priest and martyr, b. in the Diocese of St. Asaph, Wales, date unknown; d. in London, 6 May ...
Jordan, The

The Jordan

(In Hebrew Yâdên, from the root Yârâd, to descend). The difference ...
Jordanis

Jordanis (Jornandes)

Historian, lived about the middle of the sixth century in the Eastern Roman Empire. His family ...
Jordanus of Giano

Jordanus of Giano

(DE JANO). Italian Minorite, b. at Giano in the Valley of Spoleto, c. 1195; d. after 1262. ...
Jornandes

Jordanis (Jornandes)

Historian, lived about the middle of the sixth century in the Eastern Roman Empire. His family ...
Josaphat

Josaphat

( Hebrew for " Yahweh hath judged"; Septuagint 'Iosaphát ). Fourth King of Juda ...
Josaphat and Barlaam

Barlaam and Josaphat

The principal characters of a legend of Christian antiquity, which was a favourite subject of ...
Josaphat Kuncevyc, Saint

St. Josaphat Kuncevyc

Martyr, born in the little town of Volodymyr in Lithuania (Volyn) in 1580 or -- according to ...
Josaphat, Valley of

Valley of Josaphat

(JEHOSHAPHAT). Mentioned in only one passage of the Bible ( Joel 3 -- Hebrew text, 4). In ...
Joseph

Joseph

The eleventh son of Jacob, the firstborn of Rachel, and the immediate ancestor of the tribes ...
Joseph Calasanctius of the Mother of God, Pious Workers of Saint

Pious Workers of St. Joseph Calasanctius

Founded at Vienna, 24 November, 1889, by Father Anton Maria Schwartz for all works of charity, ...
Joseph Calasanctius, Saint

St. Joseph Calasanctius

Called in religion "a Matre Dei", founder of the Piarists, b. 11 Sept., 1556, at the castle of ...
Joseph II

Joseph II

(1741-90). German Emperor (reigned 1765-90), of the House of Hapsburg-Lorraine, son and ...
Joseph of Arimathea

Joseph of Arimathea

All that is known for certain concerning him is derived from the canonical Gospels. He was born ...
Joseph of Cupertino, Saint

St. Joseph of Cupertino

Mystic, born 17 June, 1603; died at Osimo 18 September, 1663; feast, 18 September. Joseph ...
Joseph of Exeter

Joseph of Exeter

(JOSEPHUS ISCANUS.) A twelfth-century Latin poet; b. at Exeter, England. About 1180 he went ...
Joseph of Issachar

Joseph of Issachar

A man of the tribe of Issachar, and the father of Igal who was one of the spies sent by Moses ...
Joseph of Leonessa, Saint

St. Joseph of Leonessa

In the world named Eufranio Desiderio; born in 1556 at Leonessa in Umbria; died 4 February, ...
Joseph's Society for Colored Missions, Saint

St. Joseph's Society For Colored Missions

This organization began its labours in 1871, when four young priests from Mill Hill were put in ...
Joseph's Society for Foreign Missions, Saint

St. Joseph's Society For Foreign Missions

(Mill Hill, London, N.W.) A society of priests and laymen whose object is to labour for ...
Joseph, Saint

St. Joseph

Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary and foster-father of Our Lord Jesus Christ . LIFE Sources ...
Joseph, Sisters of Saint

Sisters of Saint Joseph

CONGREGATION OF THE SISTERS OF ST. JOSEPH Founded at Le Puy, in Velay, France, by the Rev. ...
Josephites

Josephites

(Sons of St. Joseph) A congregation devoted to the Christian education of youth, founded in ...
Josephus, Flavius

Flavius Josephus

Jewish historian, born A.D. 37, at Jerusalem ; died about 101. He belonged to a distinguished ...
Joshua

Josue (Joshua)

The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books. ( ...
Josias

Josias

(J OSIAH – Hebrew for " Yahweh supports"; Septuagint 'Iosías ). A pious ...
Josue

Josue (Joshua)

The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books. ( ...
Joubert, Joseph

Joseph Joubert

French philosopher ; b. at Martignac (Dordogne), 7 May, 1754, d. at Villeneuve-le-Roi (Yonne), 4 ...
Jouffroy, Claude-François-Dorothée de

Claude-Francois-Dorothee de Jouffroy

M ARQUIS d' A BBANS . Mechanician, b. at Abbans, near Besançon, 30 Sept., 1751; d. ...
Jouffroy, Jean de

Jean de Jouffroy

French prelate and statesman; b. at Luxeuil (Franche-Comté) about 1412; d. at the priory ...
Jouin, Louis

Louis Jouin

Linguist, philosopher, author, b. at Berlin, 14 June, 1818, d. at New York, 10 June, 1899. He ...
Jouvancy, Joseph de

Joseph de Jouvancy

(JOSEPHUS JUVENCIUS). Poet, pedagogue, philologist, and historian, b. at Paris, 14 September, ...
Jouvenet, Jean

Jean Jouvenet

Surnamed T HE G REAT . French painter, b. at Rouen in 1644, d. at Paris, 5 April, 1717. ...
Jovellanos, Gaspar Melchor de

Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos

(Also written JOVE-LLANOS). Spanish statesman and man of letters, at Gijon, Asturias, 5 Jan., ...
Jovianus, Flavius Claudius

Flavius Claudius Jovianus

Roman Emperor, 363-4. After the death of Julian the Apostate (26 June, 363), the army making ...
Jovinianus

Jovianus

An opponent of Christian asceticism in the fourth century, condemned as a heretic (390). Our ...
Jovius, Paulus

Paulus Jovius

(GIOVIO). Historian, b. at Como, Italy, 9 April, 1483, d. at Florence, 11 Dec., 1552. Having ...
Joyeuse, Henri, Duc de

Henri, Duc de Joyeuse

Born in 1563 and not, as is mistakenly stated in the "Biographic Michaud ", in 1567; died at ...
Juan Bautista de Toledo

Juan Bautista de Toledo

An eminent Spanish sculptor and architect; b. at Madrid (date not known); d. there 19 May, ...
Jubilate Sunday

Jubilate Sunday

The third Sunday after Easter, being so named from the first word of the Introit at Mass ...
Jubilee, Holy Year of

Holy Year of Jubilee

The ultimate derivation of the word jubilee is disputed, but it is most probable that the ...
Jubilee, Year of (Hebrew)

Year of Jubilee (Hebrew)

According to the Pentateuchal legislation contained in Leviticus, a Jubilee year is the year that ...
Jubilees, Book of

Book of Jubilees

( ta Iobelaia ). An apocryphal writing, so called from the fact that the narratives and ...
Juda

Juda

The name of one of the Patriarchs, the name of the tribe reputed to be descended from him, the ...
Judaism

Judaism

At the present day, the term designates the religious communion which survived the destruction of ...
Judaizers

Judaizers

(From Greek Ioudaizo , to adopt Jewish customs -- Esther 8:17 ; Galatians 2:14 ). A ...
Judas Iscariot

Judas Iscariot

The Apostle who betrayed his Divine Master . The name Judas ( Ioudas ) is the Greek form of ...
Judas Machabeus

Judas Machabeus

Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the ...
Judde, Claude

Claude Judde

French preacher and spiritual father; born at Rouen, about 20 December, 1661; died at Paris, ...
Jude, Epistle of Saint

Epistle of Saint Jude

The present subject will be treated under the following heads: I. The Author and the ...
Judea

Judea

Like the adjective Ioudaios , the noun Ioudaia comes from the Aramæan Iehûdai ...
Judge, Ecclesiastical

Ecclesiastical Judge

(J UDEX E CCLESIASTICUS ) An ecclesiastical person who possesses ecclesiastical ...
Judges, The Book of

Judges

The seventh book of the Old Testament , second of the Early Prophets of the Hebrew canon. I. ...
Judgment, Divine

Divine Judgment

This subject will be treated under two heads: I. Divine Judgment Subjectively and Objectively ...
Judgment, General

General Judgment (Last Judgment)

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...
Judgment, Last

General Judgment (Last Judgment)

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...
Judgment, Particular

Particular Judgment

A. Dogma of Particular Judgment The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that ...
Judica Sunday

Judica Sunday

Name given to the fifth Sunday of Lent, and derived from the first words of the Introit of ...
Judith, Book of

Book of Judith

HISTORY Nabuchodonosor, King of Nineveh, sends his general Holofernes to subdue the Jews. The ...
Julia Billiart, Saint

Saint Julie Billiart

( Also Julia). Foundress, and first superior-general of the Congregation of the Sisters of ...
Julian and Basilissa, Saints

Saints Julian and Basilissa

Husband and wife; died at Antioch or, more probably, at Antinoe, in the reign of Diocletian, ...
Julian of Eclanum

Julian of Eclanum

Born about 386; died in Sicily, 454; the most learned among the leaders of the Pelagian ...
Julian of Speyer

Julian of Speyer

Often called J ULIANUS T EUTONICUS . A famous composer, poet, and historian of the ...
Julian the Apostate

Julian the Apostate

(FLAVIUS CLAUDIUS JULIANUS). Roman emperor 361-63, b. at Constantinople in 331, d. 26 June, ...
Juliana Falconieri, Saint

St. Juliana Falconieri

Born in 1270; died 12 June, 1341. Juliana belonged to the noble Florentine family of Falconieri. ...
Juliana of Liège, Saint

St. Juliana of Liege

Nun, b. at Retinnes, near Liège, Belgium, 1193; d. at Fosses, 5 April, 1258. At the age ...
Juliana of Norwich

Juliana of Norwich

English mystic of the fourteenth century, author or recipient of the vision contained in the book ...
Juliana, Saint

St. Juliana

Suffered martyrdom during the Diocletian persecution. Both the Latin and Greek Churches mention ...
Julie Billiart, Saint

Saint Julie Billiart

( Also Julia). Foundress, and first superior-general of the Congregation of the Sisters of ...
Juliopolis

Juliopolis

Titular see in the province of Bithynia Secunda, suffragan of Nicaea. The city was founded under ...
Julitta and Quiricus

Sts. Quiricus and Julitta

Martyred under Diocletian. The names of these two martyrs, who in the early Church enjoyed a ...
Julius Africanus

Julius Africanus

(c. 160-c. 240; the full name is Sextus Iulius Africanus, Greek Sextos Ioulios Aphrikanos ). ...
Julius I, Pope Saint

Pope Saint Julius I

(337-352). The immediate successor of Pope Silvester, Arcus, ruled the Roman Church for ...
Julius II, Pope

Pope Julius II

(GIULIANO DELLA ROVERE). Born on 5 December, 1443, at Albissola near Savona; crowned on 28 ...
Julius III, Pope

Julius III

(GIAMMARIA CIOCCHI DEL MONTE). Born at Rome, 10 September, 1487; died there, 23 March, 1555. ...
Jumièges, Abbey of

Benedictine Abbey of Jumieges

Jumièges, situated on the north bank of the Seine, between Duclair and Caudebec, in ...
Junípero Serra

Junipero Serra

Born at Petra, Island of Majorca, 24 November, 1713; died at Monterey, California, 28 August, ...
Jungmann, Bernard

Bernard Jungmann

A dogmatic theologian and ecclesiastical historian, born at Münster in Westphalia, 1 ...
Jungmann, Josef

Josef Jungmann

Born 12 Nov., 1830, at Münster, Westphalia ; died at Innsbruck, 25 Nov., 1885. In 1850 he ...
Jurisdiction, Ecclesiastical

Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction

The right to guide and rule the Church of God. The subject is here treated under the following ...
Jus Spolii

Jus Spolii

(RIGHT OF SPOIL; also called JUS EXUVIARUM and RAPITE CAPITE) Jus Spolii, a claim, exercised in ...
Jussieu, De

De Jussieu

Name of five French botanists. (1) ANTOINE DE JUSSIEU, physician and botanist, b. at Lyons, ...
Juste

Juste

The name conventionally applied to a family of Italian sculptors, whose real name was Betti, ...
Justice

Justice

Justice is here taken in its ordinary and proper sense to signify the most important of the ...
Justification

Justification

(Latin justificatio ; Greek dikaiosis .) A biblio-ecclesiastical term; which denotes the ...
Justin de Jacobis, Blessed

Blessed Justin de Jacobis

Vicar Apostolic of Abyssinia and titular Bishop of Nilopolis, h. at San Fele, Province of ...
Justin Martyr, Saint

St. Justin Martyr

Christian apologist, born at Flavia Neapolis, about A.D. 100, converted to Christianity about ...
Justina and Cyprian, Saints

Sts. Cyprian and Justina

Christians of Antioch who suffered martyrdom during the persecution of Diocletian at ...
Justinian I

Justinian I

Roman Emperor (527-65) Flavius Anicius Julianus Justinianus was born about 483 at Tauresium ...
Justiniani, Benedetto

Benedetto Justiniani

(GIUSTINIANI). Theological and Biblical writer, born at Genoa, about the year 1550; died at ...
Justiniani, Nicholas

Nicholas Justiniani

Date of birth unknown, became monk in the Benedictine monastery of San Niccoló del Lido ...
Justinianopolis

Justinianopolis

A titular see of Armenia Prima, suffragan of Sebaste. This see is better known in history ...
Justus, Saint

St. Justus

Fourth Archbishop of Canterbury ; died 627 (?). For the particulars of his life we are almost ...
Juvencus, C. Vettius Aquilinus

Juvencus

Christian Latin poet of the fourth century. Of his life we know only what St. Jerome tells us ...
Juvenile Courts

Juvenile Courts

Tribunals for the trial of children charged with crimes or offences. The maximum age is usually ...

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