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The Brehon Laws

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Brehon law is the usual term for Irish native law, as administered in Ireland down to almost the middle of the seventeenth century, and in fact amongst the native Irish until the final consummation of the English conquest. It derives its name from the Irish word Breitheamh (genitive Breitheamhan , pronounced Brehoon or Brehon) which means a judge.

That we have ample means for becoming acquainted with some of the principal provisions of the Brehon code is entirely owing to the labours of two men, O'Curry and O'Donovan, who were the first Irish scholars since the death of the great hereditary Irish antiquarian, Duald Mac Firbis ( murdered by an English settler in 1670), to penetrate and understand the difficult and highly technical language of the ancient law tracts. After much laborious work in the libraries of Trinity College Dublin, in the Royal Irish Academy, in the British Museum, and in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, O'Curry transcribed eight volumes full of the so-called Brehon Laws containing 2,906 pages, and O'Donovan nine more volumes containing 2,491 pages. Nor was their labour by any means exhaustive. There are many more valuable Brehon documents still untranscribed in the library of Trinity College, in the British Museum, and in the Bodleian, and possibly some fragments in the Royal Irish Academy and other repositories. From the labours of O'Donovan and O'Curry the Government published in the Master of the Rolls series five great tomes and a sixth containing a glossary. But these five large volumes do not by any means contain the whole of Irish law literature, which, in its widest sense, that is, including such pieces as the "Book of Rights ", would probably fill at least ten such volumes.

CONTENTS OF THE BREHON LAW BOOKS

The first two volumes of the Brehon Law, as published, contain the Seanchus Mór (Shanahus More) or "Great Immemorial Custom" which includes a preface to the text, in which we are told the occasion of its being first put together and "purified", and the Law of Distress, a process which always had much influence in Irish legislation. The second volume contains the Law of Hostage Sureties, also a very important item in ancient Irish life, the law of fosterage, of tenure of stock, and of social connections. The third volume contains the important document known as the "Book of Acaill" which is chiefly taken up with the law of torts and injuries. This book professes to be a compilation of the various dicta and judgments of King Cormac Mac Airt who lived in the third century, and of Cennfaeladh, a famous warrior who fought in the Battle of Moyrath (c. 634), and afterwards became a renowned jurist, who lived in the seventh. The fourth and fifth volumes consist of isolated law tracts, on taking possession, on tenancy, right of water, divisions of land, social ranks, the laws relating to poets and their verse, the laws relating to the Church, chiefs, husbandmen, pledges, renewals of covenants, etc.

Although all these tracts go commonly under the generic name of the Brehon Laws, they are not really codes of law at all, or at least not essentially so. They are rather the digests or compilations of generations of learned lawyers. The text of the Seanchus Mór , for instance, which is contained in the first two volumes, is comparatively brief. That part of it relating to the law of immediate seizure must, according to M. d'Arbois de Jubainville, have been written before the year 600, but not before the introduction of Christianity into Ireland, which probably took place in the third century. The rest of the Seanchus is not so old. The year 438 is that given by the Irish annalists themselves for the redaction of the Seanchus Mór which according to its own commentary was the joint effort of three kings, of two clerics, of Ross a doctor of the Bérla Féine or legal dialect, of Dubhthach a doctor of literature, of Fergus a doctor of poetry, and of St. Patrick himself, who struck out of it all that "clashed with the law of God ". It is impossible to say how far certain parts of the law may have reached back into antiquity and become stereotyped by usage before they became stereotyped in writing. The text of the Seanchus Mór itself is not extensive. It is the great amount of commentaries written by generations of lawyers upon the text, and then the additional annotations written upon these commentaries by other lawyers, which swells the whole to such a size.

IRISH SOCIAL ORGANIZATION

We are able to gather fairly well from these books the remains only of what must once have been an immense law literature, the social organization of a pure Aryan people, closely cognate with the ancestors of the modern Gauls, Spaniards, and Britons; and from what we learn of the ancestors of the present Irish people we may deduce a good deal that is probably no less applicable to the other Aryan Celts.

Broadly speaking, the country was governed by a ruling class called "Kings", of different grades, the highest being the King of Ireland, and next to these were the nobles or princes called in Irish Flaith (pronounced like flah or floih). In all there were, including kings and flaiths , nominally at least, seven different kinds of aires (arras), or nobles, and provision was carefully made that a wealthy farmer, or peasant grown rich through cattle, could, if he possessed twice the wealth of the lowest of the seven, and had held it for certain generations, become an aire , or noble, of the seventh, or lowest degree. Thus wealth and descent were carefully balanced over against each other. "He is an inferior chief whose father is not a chief", says the law. But it took care at the same time not to close to anyone the avenues to chieftainship. Under ancient Irish law the land did not belong to the king or the chief or the landlord, but to the tribe, and the lowest of the free-tribesmen had as much an inalienable right to his share as had the chief himself. In process of time parts of the tribal territory appear to have become alienated to subtribes or families, and the chief, who always exercised certain administrative duties with respect to the land, appears to have had certain specific portions of the tribal land allotted to himself for his own use, and for the maintenance of his household and relatives. He was in no sense, however, what is now known as a landlord, although the whole tendency of later times was to increase his power at the expense of his tribe and vassals.

FREE-TRIBESMEN

The great bulk of the ancient Irish cultivators were the Féine (Faina) or free-tribesmen from whom the Brehon law is called in Irish Féineachas , or the "Law of the Free-tribesmen". In process of time many of these in hours of distress naturally found themselves involved in something like pecuniary transactions with their head-chiefs, and, owing to poverty, or for some other reason, were driven to borrow or accept cattle from them, either for milk or tillage. These tribesmen then became the chieftain's céiles (kailas) or vassals. They were known as Saer-stock and Daer-stock Céiles . The Saer-stock tenant — saer means free in the Irish language — accepted only a limited amount of stock; and retained his tribal rights, always most carefully guarded by the Brehon law, in their integrity. But the Daer-stock — daer means unfree — tenant, who took stock from his chief, became liable for heavier but still carefully defined duties. For instance for every three heifers deposited with him by his chief, he became liable to pay his chief the "proportionate stock of a calf of the value of a sack with its accompaniments", and refections for three persons in the summer, and work for three days. The tribesman, it will be observed, by accepting stock from his chief parted to some extent with his freedom, but his interests were carefully looked after by law, and it was provided that after food-rent and service had been rendered for seven years, if the chief should die, the tenant should become entitled to the stock deposited with him. If, on the other hand, the tenant died, his heirs were partly relieved from their obligation. It will be observed that while this to some extent resembles the well-known Metayer system, so common on the continent of Europe, where the landlord supplies the stock and the land, and the tenant the labour and the skill, it differs from it in this, namely that in Ireland the saer- and daer-stock farmer did not supply the land, which was theirs by right of their free tribesmanship. In this way, namely, by accepting stock from their overlords, a rent-paying class grew up in Ireland, to which undoubtedly in time a large proportion of the ancient Irish came to belong, but the rent was paid not for the land but for the chief's property deposited with the tenant.

But outside of the Free-tribesman (the Féine and Céile ) there grew up gradually a class of tenants who were not free, who in fact must have been in something very like a state of servitude. These were known by the name of fuidirs or bothachs , i.e. cottiers. They appear to have been principally composed of broken men, outcasts from foreign tribes, fugitives from justice, and the like, who, driven out of or forsaking their own tribes, sought refuge under some other chief. These men must have been natural objects of suspicion if not of detestation to the free tribesmen, and, being themselves absolutely helpless, and having no tribal rights of their own, they became entirely dependent upon their chief, who settled them down upon the outlying or waste lands of the tribe, or possibly at times upon his own separate land which as chief he held in severalty, and imposed upon them far heavier tolls or rents than the law permitted to be exacted from any other members of the tribe. As Ireland became more troubled by Northmen, Normans, and English, this class of tenant increased in numbers, so many tribes were broken or destroyed, and the survivors dispersed to find refuge in other tribes and under other chiefs. In this way there grew up gradually, even under Irish law, a body of tenants to whom their chiefs must have stood in the light of something like English landlords.

THE IRISH FAMILY OR FINE

A curious Irish social unit was the fine (finna), consisting of one group of five persons and three groups of four, all males. The head of the family, called the ceann-fine (Kan-finna), and four members made up the first group, called geil-fine , the other three groups of four each were called deirbh-fine ( true family ), iar-fine (after family ), and inn-fine (end family ). On the birth of a new male member in the geil-fine the eldest member of the group was moved up into the next four (the deirbh-fine ), and one out of that four into the next four, and one out of the last four was moved out of the fine altogether, into the clan, or sept, this last male thereby ceasing to be a member of the family, or fine. The sept, to use the English term, sprang from the family, or the family after some generations grew into the sept and then into the clan, contracting a greater share of artificiality in proportion to its enlargement. Because, while all the members of the sept could actually point to a common descent, the descent from a single ancestor in the case of the whole tribe was more or less founded upon fiction. The portion of territory ruled over by a sub-king was called tuath (too-a) and contained within it, at all events in later times, members of different descents. The chief, both of the tuath and the sept, was elected by the tribe or clansmen. The law of primogeniture did not obtain in Ireland, and the selection was made of the man who being of the chieftain's near blood could best defend the tribe and lead it in both war and peace. "The head of every tribe", says the Brehon Law tract the Cain Aigillne , "should be the man of the tribe who is the most experienced, the most notable, the most wealthy, the most learned, the most truly popular, the most powerful to oppose, the most steadfast to sue for profits and to be sued for losses." As early as the third century, in a well-known piece of Irish literature, Cairbre, afterwards King of Ireland, is depicted as asking his father Cormac Mac Airt the question: "For what qualifications is a king elected over countries and tribes of people?" And Cormac in his answer embodied the views of practically every clan in Ireland down to the beginning of the seventeenth century. "He is chosen", said the king, "from the goodness of his shape and family, from his experience and wisdom, from his prudence and magnanimity, from his eloquence and bravery in battle, and from the number of his friends." He was, however, always chosen from the near kindred of the reigning chieftain.

IRISH CRIMINAL LAW

There seems to have been no hard and fast line drawn between civil and criminal offences in the Brehon law. They were both sued for in the same way before a Brehon, who heard the case argued, and either acquitted or else found guilty and assessed the fine. In the case of a crime committed by an individual all the sept were liable. If the offence were one against the person, and the criminal happened to die, then the liability of the sept was wiped out, for, according to the maxim, "the crime dies with the criminal". If, however, the offence had been one causing damage to property or causing material loss, then the sept remained still liable for it, even after the death of the criminal. This regulation resulted in every member of the sept having a direct interest in suppressing crime.

There was always a fine inflicted for manslaughter, even unpremeditated, which was called an eric. If the manslaughter was premeditated, or what we would call murder, the eric was doubled, and it was distributed to the relatives of the slain in the proportion to which they were entitled to inherit his property. If the eric were not paid, then the injured person or family had a right to put the criminal to death. This acceptance of a blood-fine or eric for murder was a great source of scandal to the English, but, as Keating points out in the preface to his history of Ireland written in Irish, it was really a beneficent and logical institution, made necessary by the number of tribes into which Ireland was divided. Nor was the punishment, though short of the capital one, by any means light, and it at least insured compensation to the murdered man's relatives, a compensation amounting to the entire "honour-price" of the murderer. For every man, from king to fuidir (the lowest class of tenant), had what was in Irish law termed his eineachlan , or honour-price, and this was forfeited in part or in whole, according to well-defined rules for various crimes. It was always forfeited for taking human life. Clergy we find more heavily punished than laymen. A man of high rank was always fined more than one of low rank for the same misdemeanour. An assault on a person of rank was more severely punished than one on an ordinary man. Fines for crimes against the person were particularly heavy; two cows, for instance, was the fine for a blow which raised a lump but did not draw the blood. The punishments awarded by the Brehons were of a most humane character. There is no trace of torture or of ordeal in ancient Irish law.

From the earliest times in which the English invaders made the acquaintance of the Brehon law system they denounced it with the most unsparing invective. But all the Norman chiefs who ruled over Irish tribal lands governed their territories by it in preference to English law, and in Elizabeth's reign the great Shane O'Neill pointed out with bitter irony that if his Irish laws were so barbarous as the queen's ministers alleged, it was passing strange that three hundred families had migrated from the English pale and the beneficent operations of English law to take refuge in his dominions. As early as 1367 an English Statute of Kilkenny denounced Brehon laws "wicked and damnable". "Lewd" and "unreasonable" are the epithets applied to it by Sir John Davies. "In many things repugning quite both to God's law and man's " is how the poet Edmund Spenser characterized it.

The student, however, who views these laws dispassionately today, and merely from a juridical point of view, will find in them, to use the words of the great English jurist Sir Henry Maine, "a very remarkable body of archaic law unusually pure from its origin". It is, in fact, a body of law that reflects for us early Aryan custom in its purity, almost perfectly untainted or uninfluenced by that Roman law which overran so much of the rest of Europe. It is true that Brehon law does bear certain resemblances to Roman law, but they are of the slightest, and not even so strong as its resemblance to the Hindoo codes. It has in truth certain relations to all known bodies of Aryan law from the Tiber to the Ganges, some to the Roman laws of earliest times, some to the Scandinavian, some to the Slavonic, and some particularly strong ones to the Hindoo laws and quite enough to old Germanic law of all kinds "to render valueless", to use the words of Sir Henry Maine, "the comparison which the English observers so constantly institute with the laws of England ". "Much of it", says Maine, "is (now) worthless save for historical purposes, but on some points it really does come close to the most advanced legal doctrines of our day". "There is a singularly close approach", he remarks in another place, "to modern doctrines on the subject of contributory negligence, and I have found it possible to extract from the quaint texts of the 'Book of Acaill' some extremely sensible rulings on the difficult subject of the measure of damages, for which it would he in vain to study the writings of Lord Coke though these last are relatively of much later date ". But he points out how heavily the Brehon Law pays in other respects for this striking anticipation of the modern legal spirit by its too frequent air of fancifulness and unreality and indulgence of imagination. In the "Book of Acaill", for instance, which, as mentioned before, is chiefly concerned with the law of torts, we find four long pages concerned solely with the injuries received from dogs in dogfights — Ireland was famous for its hounds, and dog-fights figure more than once in old Irish literature — setting forth in the most elaborate way all the qualifications of the governing rule required in the case of owners, in the case of spectators, in the case of the "impartial interposer", in the case of the "half-interposer", that is the man who tries to separate the dogs with a bias in favour of one of them, in the case of an accidental onlooker, in the case of a youth under age, and in the case of an idiot. The Brehons, in fact, appear to have never hesitated about inventing or imagining facts upon which to base their theoretical judgments. They endeavour to deal with all cases and all varieties of circumstances, and they have special rules for almost every relation of life and every detail of the social economy. A great number of the cases which come under discussion in the law books appear to be rather problematical than real, cases propounded by a teacher to his pupils to be argued on according to general principles, rather than actual subject for legal discussion.

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ORIGIN AND GRADUAL GROWTH

Ancient Irish law was not produced by a process resembling legislation, but grew up gradually round the dicta and judgments of the most famous Brehons. These Brehons may very well have been in old times the Irish equivalents of the Gaulish Druids. There were only four periods in the entire history of Ireland when special laws were said to have been enacted by legislative authority: first during the reign of that Cormac Mac Airt already mentioned, in the third century; second, when St. Patrick came; third, by Cormac mac Culinan, the King- Bishop of Cashel, who died in 908; and lastly by Brian Boru, about a century later. But the great mass of the Brehon code appears to have been traditional or to have grown with the slow growth of custom. The very first paragraph of the Law of Distress takes us back to a case which happened in the reign of Conn of the Hundred Battles in the second century, and this passage was already so antique at the close of the ninth century that it required a gloss, for Cormac mac Culinan (who died in 908) alludes in his glossary to the gloss upon this passage. There are many allusions in this glossary to the Seanchus Mór , always referring to the glossed text, which must consequently have been in existence before the year 900. The text of the Seanchus Mor relies upon the judgments of famous Brehons such as Sencha in the first century, but there is no allusion in its text to any books or treatises. The gloss, however, is full of such allusions. Fourteen different books of civil law are alluded to in it. Cormac in his glossary alludes to five. Only one of the five alluded to by Cormac is among the fourteen mentioned in the Seanchus Mor. This shows that the number of books upon law must in old times have been legion. They perished, with so much of the rest of Irish literature, under the horrors of the English invasion and the penal laws, when an Irish manuscripts was a source of danger to the possessor.

The essential idea of modern law is entirely absent from the Brehons, if by law is meant a command, given by some one possessing authority, to do or to forbear doing a certain thing under pains and penalties. There is no sanction laid down in the Brehon laws against those who violated them, nor did the State provide any such sanction. This was the great inherent weakness of Irish jurisprudence, that it lacked the controlling hand of a strong central government to enforce its decisions. It is a weakness inseparable from a tribal organization in which the idea of the State, which had begun to emerge under the early Irish kings, had been repressed. When a Brehon had heard a case and delivered his judgment, there was no machinery of law set in motion to force the litigant to accept it. The only executive authority in ancient Ireland which lay behind the decision of the judge was the traditional obedience and good sense of the people, and it does not appear that this was ever found wanting. The Brehons never appear to have had any trouble in getting their decisions accepted by the common people. The public appear to have seen to it that the Brehon's decision was always carried out. This was indeed the very essence of democratic government, with no executive authority behind it but the will of the people. There can be no doubt whatever that the system trained an intelligent and law-abiding public. Even Sir John Davies, the Elizabethan jurist, confesses "there is no nation or people under the Sunne that doth love equall and indifferent justice better than the Irish ; or will rest better satisfied with the execution thereof although it be against themselves, so that they may have the protection and benefit of the law when upon just cause they do desire it".

INFLUENCE OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH UPON BREHON LAW

With regard to the influence of the Catholic Church upon Irish law as administered by the Brehons it is difficult to say much that is positive. Its influence was probably greatest in a negative direction. We have seen that the Brehons claimed the sanction of St. Patrick for the laws contained in the Seanchus Mór . We may also take it for granted that it was owing to the introduction of Christianity that Irish law began to be written down. The Gauls, as Caesar tells us, had a superstition about committing their sacred things, which of course included their law, to writing, and if the Irish had the same, as is very probable, it did not survive the introduction of the Christian religion. Then the eric-fine for homicide, although it probably did not owe its origin to Christianity, yet supported itself "as a middle course between forgiveness and retaliation" by the case of one Nuada who had murdered St. Patrick's charioteer, being put to death for his crime and Patrick obtaining heaven for him. "At this day", says the text, "we keep between forgiveness an retaliation, for as at present no one has the power of bestowing heaven, as Patrick had at that day, so no one is put to death for his intentional crimes so long as eric-fine is obtained, and whenever eric-fine is not obtained he is put to death for his intentional crimes, and exposed on the sea for his unintentional crimes." Sir Henry Maine seems to think that the conception of a Will was grafted upon the Brehon Law by the Church, but if this were so, one would have expected that the law terms relating to it would have been derived from Latin sources; this, however, is not so, the terms being of purely native origin. In another most important matter, however, the Law of Contract, the Church may have exercised a greater influence; the sacredness of bequests and of promises being equally important to it as the donee of pious gifts. It is also likely that much of the law relating to the alienation of land, all the land belonging originally to the tribe, was influenced by the Church, and indeed the Church seems to have been the grantee primarily contemplated in these regulations. There is a great mass of jurisdiction relating to its territorial rights, and no doubt this must have affected the outside body of law as well. But all bodies of law are exceedingly unmalleable, and tend to resist the absorption of foreign elements; and Sir Henry Maine's conclusion is that "there has certainly been nothing like an intimate interpenetration of ancient Irish law by Christian principle". Still the effect of Christian principles must certainly have been great, but they were probably powerful as a negative rather than as a positive factor.

EXTINGUISHED BY THE ENGLISH

The Brehon law code was ultimately extinguished by the English in every part of Ireland. So soon as they conquered a territory they stamped it out, banished or slew the Brehons, and governed the land by English law. It would have been a very inconvenient doctrine for them that the tribe owned the land or that the people had rights as apart from the chief. Whenever a chief made his submission he was recognized as owner and landlord of the territory of the tribe, and the territory was adjudged to descend by primogeniture to his eldest son. In this way the hereditary rights of the mass of the people of Ireland were taken from them, and they were reduced to the rank of ordinary tenants, and, the native nobility being soon exterminated, they mostly fell into the hands of English landlords, and were finally subjected to those rack rents which have made the name of Irish tenant an object of commiseration for so many generations. The Brehon laws remained in force in every part of Ireland where the Irish held sway until the final conquest of the country. It has been shown that the system of land-tenure which the Fitzgeralds found obtaining in Munster in 1170 was left unchanged by them, and the land burdened with no additional charges until their subjugation in 1586. Duald Mac Firbis, the celebrated antiquary, who died in 1670, mentions that even in his own day he had known Irish chieftains who governed their clans according to "the words of Fithal and the Royal Precepts", that is according to the books of the Brehon Law. Amongst the many bitter injustices inflicted upon Ireland and the Irish by the English conquest none has had more cruel or more far-reaching effects than the abrogation of the Brehon law relating to land-tenure and division of property.

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Tanagra

Tanagra (Hellas)

A titular see in Hellas, suffragan of Corinth ; it was a town of Bœotia, in a fertile ...
Tancred

Tancred, Prince of Antioch

Prince of Antioch, born about 1072; died at Antioch, 12 Dec., 1112. He was the son of Marquess ...
Taney, Roger Brooke

Roger Brooke Taney

(Pronounced Tawney ) Fifth chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, ...
Tanguay, Cyprien

Cyprien Tanguay

Genealogist, born at Quebec, 1819; died 1902. After a course of classics and theology at Quebec ...
Tanis

Tanis

A titular see, suffragan of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima, capital of the fourteenth district ...
Tanner, Adam

Adam Tanner

Controversialist, born at Innsbruck in 1571; died at Unken, 25 May, 1632. He entered the Society ...
Tanner, Conrad

Conrad Tanner

Abbot of Einsiedeln, born at Arth in the Canton of Schwyz, 28 Dec., 1752; died 7 April, 1825. He ...
Tanner, Edmund

Edmund Tanner

Bishop of Cork and Cloyne, Ireland, 1574-1579; born about 1526; died 1579. The statement in ...
Tanner, Matthias

Matthias Tanner

Born at Pilsen in Bohemia, 28 Feb., 1630; died at Prague, 8 Feb., 1692. He entered the Society ...
Tantum Ergo

Tantum Ergo

The opening words of the penultimate stanza of the Vesper hymn (see PANGE LINGUA GLORIOSI, II) ...
Tanucci, Bernardo

Bernardo Tanucci

Marchese, Italian statesman, born at Stia in Tuscany, of poor family, in 1698 died at Naples, 29 ...
Taoism

Taoism

(TAO-KIAO.) Taoism is the second of the three state religions ( San-kiao ) of China. ...
Taos Pueblo

Taos Pueblo

An important town of the Pueblo group, inhabited by Indians speaking the Tigua language of ...
Taparelli, Aloysius

Aloysius Taparelli

(D'AZEGLIO, christened PROSPERO) Philosopher and writer on sociological subjects, born at ...
Tapestry

Tapestry

A word of French origin naming a fabric in which the two processes of weaving and embroidering ...
Tapis, Esteban

Esteban Tapis

Born at Santa Coloma de Farnes, Catalonia, Spain, 25 Aug., 1754; died 3 Nov., 1825. He entered ...
Tarabotti, Helena

Helena Tarabotti

Nun and authoress, b. at Venice, 1605; d. there 1652. Obliged by her father, who was descended ...
Tarachus, Probus, and Andronicus, Saints

Sts. Tarachus, Probus, and Andronicus

Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...
Taranto

Taranto

DIOCESE OF TARANTO (TARENTINA) Diocese in southern Italy, on a bay in the Gulf of Taranto. The ...
Tarapacá

Tarapaca

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF TARAPACA (DE TARAPACA). Situated in Chile, bounded on the north by the ...
Tarasius, Saint

St. Tarasius

Patriarch of Constantinople, date of birth unknown; died 25 February, 806. He was the son of the ...
Tarazona

Tarazona

DIOCESE OF TARAZONA (TURIASONENSIS) The Diocese of Tarazona comprises the Spanish provinces of ...
Tarbes

Tarbes

DIOCESE OF TARBES (TARBIA) The Diocese of Tarbes comprises the Department of the ...
Tarentaise

Tarentaise

(TARANTASIENSIS) Tarentaise comprises the arrondissement of Moutiers in the Department of ...
Targum

Targum

Targum is the distinctive designation of the Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the Old ...
Tarisel, Pierre

Pierre Tarisel

Master-mason to the king, b. about 1442; d. in August, 1510. (In 1555 the title of architect was ...
Tarkin, Saint

St. Tarkin

(Talarican.) Bishop of Sodor (including the western islands of Scotland ), was probably of ...
Tarnow

Tarnow

DIOCESE OF TARNOW (TARNOVIENSIS). Diocese in western Galicia, Austria. The See of Posen, ...
Tarquini, Camillus

Camillus Tarquini

Cardinal, Jesuit canonist and archaeologist, b. at Marta in the diocese of Montefiascone, ...
Tarragona

Tarragona

ARCHDIOCESE OF TARRAGONA (TARRACONENSIS) Bounded on the north by Barcelona and Lérida, ...
Tarsicius, Saint

St. Tarsicius

Martyr. The only positive information concerning this Roman martyr is found in the poem composed ...
Tarsus

Tarsus

A metropolitan see of Cilicia Prima. It appears to have been of Semitic origin and is ...
Tartaglia, Nicolò

Nicolo Tartaglia

(T ARTALEA ). Italian mathematician, b. at Brescia, c. 1500; d. at Venice, 13 December, ...
Tartini, Giuseppe

Giuseppe Tartini

Violinist, composer, and theorist, b. at Pirano, Italy, 12 April, 1692; d. at Padua, 16 Feb., ...
Taschereau, Elzéar-Alexandre

Elzear-Alexandre Taschereau

Archbishop of Quebec and first Canadian cardinal, b. 17 February, 1820, at la Beauce, Province ...
Tassé, Joseph

Joseph Tasse

Writer and journalist, born at Montreal, 23 Oct., 1848; died 17 Jan., 1895; son of Joseph, and ...
Tassach, Saint

St. Tassach

Irish saint, born in the first decade of the fifth century; died about 497. He was one of St. ...
Tassin, René-Prosper

Rene-Prosper Tassin

French historian, belonging to the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Lonlay, in ...
Tasso, Torquato

Torquato Tasso

Italian poet, born at Sorrento near Naples in 1544; died at Rome, in 1595; son of Bernardo ...
Tassoni, Alessandro

Alessandro Tassoni

Italian poet, born at Modena in 1565; died there in 1635. He spent his life in the service of ...
Tatian

Tatian

A second-century apologist about whose antecedents and early history nothing can be affirmed ...
Tatwin, Saint

Saint Tatwin

(TATUINI) Archbishop of Canterbury ; died 30 July, 734. A Mercian by birth, he became a ...
Taubaté

Taubate

(DE TAUBATÉ) Diocese in Brazil, South America, established on 29 April, 1908, as a ...
Tauler, John

John Tauler

German Dominican, one of the greatest mystics and preachers of the Middle Ages, born at ...
Taunton, Ethelred

Ethelred Taunton

Writer, born at Rugeley, Staffordshire, England, 17 Oct., 1857; died in London, 9 May, 1907. He ...
Taverner, John

John Taverner

Composer, b. in the County of Norfolk, England, about 1475; d. at Boston, England, 1535 or 1536. ...
Tavistock Abbey

Tavistock Abbey

Tavistock Abbey, on the Tavy River in Devonshire, England, founded for Benedictine monks in ...
Tavium

Tavium

A titular see in Galatia Prima, suffragan of Ancyra. Tavium, or Tavia, was the chief city of ...
Taxa Innocentiana

Taxa Innocentiana

A Decree issued by Innocent XI, 1 Oct., 1678, regulating the fees that may be demanded or ...
Taxster, John de

John de Taxster

(TAYSTER) John de Taxster, sometimes erroneously called Taxter or Taxston, was a ...
Taylor, Frances Margaret

Frances Margaret Taylor

(MOTHER M. MAGDALEN TAYLOR) Superior General, and foundress of the Poor Servants of the Mother ...
Taylor, Ven. Hugh

Ven. Hugh Taylor

English martyr, born at Durham ; hanged, drawn, and quartered at York, 25 (not 26) November, ...
Te Deum, The

Te Deum

An abbreviated title commonly given both to the original Latin text and the translations of a ...
Te Lucis Ante Terminum

Te Lucis Ante Terminum

The hymn at Compline in the Roman Breviary. The authorship of St. Ambrose, for which Pimont ...
Tebaldeo, Antonio

Antonio Tebaldeo

Italian poet, born at Ferrara, in 1463; died in 1537. His family name (Tebaldi) he changed to ...
Tegernsee

Tegernsee

Called Tegrinseo in 817, Tegernsee in 754. A celebrated Benedictine abbey of Bavaria that ...
Tehuantepec

Tehuantepec

(Tehuantepecensis) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of Oaxaca. Its area covers ...
Teilo, Saint

St. Teilo

(Eliud.) "Archbishop" of Llandaff, born at Eccluis Gunniau, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died at ...
Tekakwitha, Blessed Kateri

Bl. Kateri Tekakwitha

(Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha/Takwita.) Known as the "Lily of the Mohawks", and the ...
Teleology

Teleology

(From Greek telos , end, and logos , science). Teleology is seldom used according to its ...
Telepathy

Telepathy

( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...
Telese

Telese

(TELESINENSIS) Telese, a small town in the Province of Benevento, Southern Italy, is situated ...
Telesio, Bernardino

Bernardino Telesio

Italian humanist and philosopher born of a noble family at Cosenza, near Naples, 1508; died ...
Telesphorus of Cosenza

Telesphorus of Cosenza

(THEOPHORUS, THEOLOPHORUS). A name assumed by one of the pseudo-prophets during the time of ...
Telesphorus, Pope Saint

Pope St. Telesphorus

(Lived about 125-136.) St. Telesphorus was the seventh Roman bishop in succession from the ...
Tell el-Amarna Tablets, The

The Tell El-Amarna Tablets

The Tell el-Amarna Tablets are a collection of some 350 clay tablets found in 1887 amid the ruins ...
Tellier, Michel Le

Michel Le Tellier

Born 19 April, 1603; died at Paris, 30 Oct., 1685. He was commissioned by Cardinal Mazarin to ...
Telmessus

Telmessus

Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Telmessus (or incorrectly Telmissis) was a flourishing ...
Temiskaming

Temiskaming

The Vicariate Apostolic of Temiskaming, suffragan of Ottawa, Canada, is bounded on the north by ...
Temnus

Temnus

A titular see in Asia, a suffragan of Ephesus. Temnus was a little town of Æolia, near ...
Tempel, Wilhelm

Wilhelm Tempel

(ERNEST LEBERECHT) German astronomer, b. 4 December, 1821, at (Nieder-) Cunnersdorf near ...
Temperance

Temperance

(Latin temperare , to mingle in due proportions; to qualify). Temperance is here considered ...
Temperance Movements

Temperance Movements

EUROPE Reasons for a temperance movement exist to a greater or less degree in all the countries ...
Templars, The Knights

The Knights Templar

The Knights Templars were the earliest founders of the military orders, and are the type on which ...
Temple

Temple

The Latin form, templum , from which the English temple is derived, originally signified an ...
Temple of Jerusalem

Temple of Jerusalem

The word "temple" is derived from the Latin templum , signifying an uncovered place affording a ...
Temple, Sisters of the

Sisters of the Temple

The Sisters of the Temple (whose full title is S ISTERS OF THE F INDING OF J ESUS IN THE T ...
Temptation

Temptation

( Latin tentare , to try or test). Temptation is here taken to be an incitement to sin ...
Temptation of Christ

Temptation of Christ

In the Catholic translation of the Bible , the word "temptation" is used in various senses, ...
Ten Commandments, The

The Ten Commandments

Called also simply THE COMMANDMENTS, COMMANDMENTS OF GOD, or THE DECALOGUE (Gr. deka , ten, ...
Ten Thousand Martyrs, The

The Ten Thousand Martyrs

On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. On 18 March: ...
Tencin, Pierre-Guérin de

Pierre-Guerin Tencin

French statesman and cardinal, b. at Grenoble, 22 August, 1680; d. at Lyons, 2 March, 1758. ...
Tenebræ

Tenebrae

Tenebræ is the name given to the service of Matins and Lauds belonging to the last three ...
Tenebrae Hearse

Tenebrae Hearse

The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...
Tenedos

Tenedos

A titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades. The island, called in Turkish ...
Teneriffe

Teneriffe

DIOCESE OF TENERIFFE (TENERIFENSIS). Suffragan of Seville, formerly called Nivariensis from ...
Teniers, David

David Teniers

The name of two eminent Flemish landscape painters ; the elder, born at Antwerp in 1582; ...
Tennessee

Tennessee

The State of Tennessee lies between 35° and 36°30' N. lat. and 81°37' and 90°38' ...
Tenney, William Jewett

William Jewett Tenney

An author, editor, born at Newport, Rhode Island, 1814; died at Newark, New Jersey, 20 Sept., ...
Tentyris

Tentyris

(TENTYRA) Seat of a titular suffragan see of Ptolemais in Thebaid Secunda. The city was ...
Tenure, Ecclesiastical

Ecclesiastical Tenure

I. In the feudal system an ecclesiastical fief followed all the laws laid down for temporal ...
Teos

Teos

Titular see ; suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. A city of Caria situated on a peninsula ...
Tepic

Tepic

DIOCESE OF TEPIC (TEPICENSIS) A diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the ...
Tepl

Tepl

A Premonstratensian abbey in the western part of Bohemia, included in the Archdiocese of Prague ...
Teramo

Teramo

Diocese in southern Italy. In the past the city was injured by earthquakes. It is situated at ...
Terce

Terce

The origin of Terce, like that of Sext and None, to which it bears a close relationship, dates ...
Terenuthis

Terenuthis

Titular see, suffragan of Antinoë in Thebais Prima. Le Quien (Oriens christ., II, 611) ...
Teresa of Avila, Saint

St. Teresa of Jesus (Teresa of Avila)

Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada Born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at ...
Teresa of Lisieux, Saint

Saint Therese of Lisieux

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...
Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed

The Martyrs of Compiegne

Guillotined at the Place du Trône Renversé (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 ...
Terill, Anthony

Anthony Terill (Bonville)

English theologian, b. at Canford, Dorsetshire, in 1623; d. at Liège, 11 Oct., 1676. His ...
Termessus

Termessus

A titular see, suffragan of Perge in Pamphylia Secunda. This is one of the most ancient cities ...
Termoli

Termoli

(THERMULARUM) Located on the Italian coast of the Adriatic, having a small harbour near the ...
Ternan, Saint

St. Ternan

Bishop of the Picts, flourished in the sixth century. Much obscurity attaches to his history, and ...
Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

(TERRACINENSIS, SETINENSIS ET PRIVERNENSIS) Located in the Province of Rome. The city of ...
Terrasson, André

Andre Terrason

A French preacher, born at Lyons in 1669; died at Paris, 25 April, 1723. He was the eldest son ...
Terrestrial Paradise

The Garden of Eden

( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...
Terrien, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Terrien

Dogmatic theologian, born at St-Laurent-des-Autels, Maine-et-Loire, 26 Aug., 1832; d. at ...
Tertiaries

Tertiaries

(From the Latin tertiarius , the relative adjective of tertius , third ). Tertiaries, or ...
Tertullian

Tertullian

(Q UINTUS S EPTIMIUS F LORENS T ERTULLIANUS ). Ecclesiastical writer in the second and ...
Teruel

Teruel

(TUROLENSIS) A suffragan of Saragossa, comprises the civil province of the same name, ...
Test-Oath, Missouri

Missouri Test-Oath

In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...
Testament, New

New Testament

I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...
Testament, Old

Old Testament

I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...
Testem Benevolentiae

Testem Benevolentiae

An Apostolic Letter of Leo XIII addressed to Cardinal Gibbons, 22 January, 1899. It opens by ...
Tetzel, Johann

Johann Tetzel

First public antagonist of Luther, b. at Pirna in Meissen, 1465; d. at Leipzig, 11 Aug., 1519. ...
Teuchira

Teuchira

A titular see in Libyan Pentapolis. Teuchira ( Teucheira ) neuter plural, was a city on the ...
Teutonic Order

Teutonic Order

A medieval military order modelled on the Hospitallers of St. John, which changed its residence ...
Tewdrig

Tewdrig

(THEODORIC) A Welsh saint, son of King Ceithfalt of Morganwg or Southern Wales, flourished ...
Texas

Texas

S TATE OF T EXAS . The name, Texas, is probably derived from Tejas, the name of a ...
Textual Criticism

Biblical Criticism

The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...
Thænæ

Thaenae

A titular see in Africa Byzacena. It is mentioned in numerous ancient geographical documents ...
Thébaud, Augustus

Augustus Thebaud

Jesuit educator and publicist, b. at Nantes, France, 20 Nov., 1807; d. at St. John's College, ...
Thénard, Louis-Jacques, Baron

Baron Louis-Jacques Thenard

Chemist, b. at Louptière, near Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube, France, on 4 May, 1777; d. at Paris, ...
Théophane Vénard

Bl. Theophane Venard

(JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...
Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint

Saint Therese of Lisieux

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...
Thabor, Mount

Mount Thabor

The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...
Thabraca

Thabraca

A titular see of Numidia near the sea, between the Armua and the Tusca. Thabraca was the last ...
Thacia Montana

Thacia Montana

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. An inscription discovered in the ...
Thagaste

Thagaste

(TAGASTE) Thagaste, a titular see in Numidia, was a rather important municipality. It is ...
Thagora

Thagora

(Tagora) Titular see in Numidia, mentioned by the "Rabula Peutingeriana", which calls it ...
Thais, Saint

Saint Thais

(THAISIS or THAISIA). A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century. In the Greek menology her ...
Thalberg, Sigismond

Sigismond Thalberg

Musical composer and pianist, b. at Geneva, 1812; d. at Posilipo, Italy, 27 April, 1871. The ...
Thalhofer, Valentin

Valentin Thalhofer

German theologian, b. at Unterroth, near Ulm, 21 January, 1825; d. at the same place, 17 ...
Thangmar

Thangmar

(THANKMAR) Historian, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. probably at Hildesheim ...
Thanksgiving before and after Meals

Grace Before Meals

The word grace , which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English ...
Thanksgiving Day

Thanksgiving Day

A civil holiday observed annually in the United States of America on the last Thursday in ...
Thapsus

Thapsus

A titular see in Byzacene Africa. It was a Phoenician market on the coast of Byzacium in ...
Thasos

Thasos

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. The island of Thasos was anciently ...
Thaumaci

Thaumaci

A titular see in Thessaly, suffragan of Larissa, commanding the defile of Coele at the ...
Thayer, John

John Thayer

Missionary, convert, first native of New England ordained to the priesthood, b. Boston, ...
Theatines

Theatines

(CLERICS REGULAR) A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo ...
Theatre, The

The Theatre

Considering the tone of what is preserved to us of the works of the Greek tragedians and even of ...
Thebaid

Thebaid

The valley of the Nile, under Roman domination, was divided into four provinces: Lower and Upper ...
Thebes

Thebes (Achaia Secunda)

(THEBAE) A metropolitan titular see of Achaia Secunda. The city was founded by the ...
Thebes

Thebes (Thebais Secunda)

(THEBAE) Titular see of Thebais Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais, and the seat of a Coptic ...
Thecla, Saint

St. Thecla

Benedictine Abbess of Kitzingen and Ochsenfurt; date of birth unknown; d. at Kitzingen about 790 ...
Thecla, Saints

Sts. Thecla

I. Thecla of Iconium The reputed pupil of the Apostle Paul , who is the heroine of the ...
Theft

Theft

Theft is the secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other. ...
Thegan (Degan) of Treves

Thegan

Chronicler, d. about 850. Very little is known of his life; all that is certain is that he was ...
Theiner, Augustin

Augustin Theiner

Theologian and historian, b. at Breslau, 11 April, 1804; d. at Civitavecchia, 8 Aug., 1874. He was ...
Thelepte

Thelepte

A titular see in Byzacene. From an inscription we learn that it was a colony. An important ...
Themiscyra

Themiscyra

A titular see, suffragan of Amasea in the Hellespont. There was a town of this name near the ...
Themisonium

Themisonium

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. Themisonium was a city of Phrygia, ...
Thennesus

Thennesus

A titular suffragan see of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima. Cassian (Collat., XI, 1-3) gives a ...
Theobald

Theobald

(T EDBALD .) Archbishop of Canterbury ; d. 18 April, 1161. He was a Norman by descent and ...
Theobald, Saint

Saint Theobald

Born at Provins in the Province of Champagne, France, in 1017; died at Salanigo in Italy 30 June, ...
Theocracy

Theocracy

A form of civil government in which God himself is recognized as the head. The laws of the ...
Theodard, Saint

Saint Theodard

Archbishop of Narbonne, b. at Montauban about 840; d. at the same place 1 May, 893. He seems to ...
Theodicy

Theodicy

Etymologically considered theodicy ( théos díe ) signifies the justification of ...
Theodore I, Pope

Pope Theodore I

Pope from 642 to 649; the date of his birth is unknown. He was a Greek of Jerusalem and the ...
Theodore II, Pope

Pope Theodore II

Son of Photius. His pontificate lasted only twenty days; neither the date of his birth nor of his ...
Theodore of Amasea, Saint

St. Theodore of Amasea

Surnamed Tyro (Tiro), not because he was a young recruit, but because for a time he belonged to ...
Theodore of Gaza

Theodore of Gaza

A fifteenth-century Greek Humanist and translator of Aristotle, b. at Thessalonica early in ...
Theodore of Studium, Saint

Theodore of Studium

A zealous champion of the veneration of images and the last geat representative of the unity ...
Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

Seventh Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Tarsus in Cilicia about 602; d. at Canterbury 19 ...
Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia

Theodore of Mopsuestia

Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer; b. at Antioch about 350 (thus also ...
Theodoret

Theodoret

Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457. He says ...
Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

A Platonist philosopher of the twelfth century, b. in France at the beginning of the twelfth ...
Theodoric the Great

Theodoric the Great

King of the Ostrogoths, born A.D. 454 (?); died 26 August, 526. He was an illegitimate son of ...
Theodorus and Theophanes, Saints

Sts. Theodorus and Theophanes

(Called Grapti , "written upon", graptoi ) Theodorus, b. about 775; d. about 842-43; ...
Theodorus Lector

Theodorus Lector

A lector attached to the Church of St. Sophia of Constantinople in the early part of the sixth ...
Theodosiopolis

Theodosiopolis

A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Prima. In the beginning the city was called Apros, or ...
Theodosius Florentini

Theodosius Florentini

Born at Münster, in the Grisons, Switzerland, 23 May, 1808; died at Heiden, in Appenzell, ...
Theodosius I

Theodosius I

Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 ...
Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint

St. Theodotus of Ancyra

Martyr. On 18 May the Roman Martyrology says: "At Ancyra, in Galatia, the martyr Saint Theodotus ...
Theodulf

Theodulf

(Theodulfus, Theodulfe), Bishop of Orléans, a writer skilled in poetic forms and a ...
Theology of Christ (Christology)

Christology

Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ. In its full extent ...
Theology, Ascetical

Ascetical Theology

Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of ...
Theology, Dogmatic

Dogmatic Theology

Dogmatic theology is that part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith ...
Theology, History of Dogmatic

History of Dogmatic Theology

The imposing edifice of Catholic theology has been reared not by individual nations and men, ...
Theology, Moral

Moral Theology

Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...
Theology, Mystical

Mystical Theology

Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...
Theology, Pastoral

Pastoral Theology

Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...
Theonas

Theonas

Bishop of Alexandria from about 283 to 301 ( Eusebius, "Chronicle", Ann. Abr. 2299, St. Jerome's ...
Theophanes Kerameus

Theophanes Kerameus

( Kerameus , potter). Archbishop of Rossano in Calabria (1129-52), a celebrated homiletic ...
Theophanes, Saint

St. Theophanes

Chronicler, born at Constantinople, about 758; died in Samothracia, probably 12 March, 817, on ...
Theophilanthropists

Theophilanthropists

("Friends of God and Man") A deistic sect formed in France during the latter part of the ...
Theophilus

Theophilus

Bishop of Antioch. Eusebius in his "Chronicle" places the name of Theophilus against that of ...
Theophilus

Theophilus

Patriarch of Alexandria (385-412). Concerning the extraction and early life of Theophilus we ...
Theosophy

Theosophy

( Theosophia = "wisdom concerning God ") Theosophy is a term used in general to designate ...
Theotocopuli, Domenico

El Greco

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...
Thera (Santorin)

Thera

DIOCESE OF THERA (SANTORINO) Diocese in the Cyclades. About the year 2000 B.C., the ...
Thermae Basilicae

Thermae Basilicae

A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. The Greek "Notitiae episcopatuum" ...
Thermopylae

Thermopylae

A titular see and suffragan of Athens in Achaia Prima. It is the name of a defile about 4 ...
Thessalonians, Epistles to the

Epistles to the Thessalonians

Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul. This article will treat the Church of ...
Thessalonica

Thessalonica

(SALONIKI) Titular metropolis in Macedonia. It was at first a village called Alia, situated ...
Theveste

Theveste

Titular see of Numidia. The city seems to have had some importance even prior to Christianity. ...
Thibaris

Thibaris

Titular see in Byzacena ( Africa ), not mentioned by any ancient author. The official list of ...
Thibaut de Champagne

Thibaut de Champagne

Thibaut IV, count of Champagne and King of Navarre, a French poet, b. 1201, at Troyes ; d. 8 ...
Thierry of Freburg

Thierry of Freiburg

( Or Thierry of Saxony). A philosopher and physician of the Middle Ages, and a member of ...
Thiers, Louis-Adolphe

Louis-Adolphe Thiers

French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic, b. at Marseilles, ...
Thignica

Thignica

A titular see in Numidia. The Roman Curia's official list of titular sees places Thignica in ...
Thijm, Joseph Albert Alberdingk

Joseph Albert Alberdingk Thijm

Born at Amsterdam, 8 July, 1820; d. there, 17 March, 1889. After finishing his studies in his ...
Thijm, Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk

Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk Thijm

Brother of Joseph Alberdingk Thijm , b. at Amsterdam, 21 Oct., 1827, d. at Louvain, 1 Feb., ...
Thimelby, Richard

Richard Thimelby

( Alias ASHBY) Missionary priest, b. in Lincolnshire, England, 1614; d. at St. Omer's, ...
Third Orders

Third Orders

I. GENERAL Third Orders signify in general lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women ...
Thirty Years War

The Thirty Years War

The Thirty Years War (1618-48), though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance ...
Thmuis

Thmuis

A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium ; a city of Lower Egypt, on the ...
Thomas á Jesu

Thomas a Jesu

(Diaz Sanchez de Avila). Discalced Carmelite, writer on mystical theology, born at Baeza, ...
Thomas à Kempis

Thomas a Kempis

Author of the "Imitation of Christ" , born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; ...
Thomas Abel, Blessed

Blessed Thomas Abel

(Also ABLE, or ABELL.) Priest and martyr, born about 1497; died 30 July, 1540. He was ...
Thomas Alfield, Venerable

Ven. Thomas Alfield

(AUFIELD, ALPHILDE, HAWFIELD, OFFELDUS; alias BADGER). Priest, born at Gloucestershire; ...
Thomas Aquinas, Saint

St. Thomas Aquinas

Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church ( Angelicus Doctor ), patron of Catholic ...
Thomas Atkinson, Venerable

Ven. Thomas Atkinson

Martyred at York, 11 March, l6l6. He was born in the East Riding of Yorkshire, was ordained ...
Thomas Becket, Saint

St. Thomas Becket

Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, born at London, 21 December, 1118 (?); died at Canterbury, 29 ...
Thomas Belchiam, Venerable

Venerable Thomas Belchiam

A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537. He ...
Thomas Christians, Saint

St. Thomas Christians

An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent ...
Thomas Cottam, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Cottam

Martyr, born 1549, in Lancashire; executed at Tyburn, 30 May, 1582. His parents, Laurence cottam ...
Thomas Ford, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Ford

Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...
Thomas Garnet, Saint

St. Thomas Garnet

Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...
Thomas Johnson, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Johnson

Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...
Thomas More, Saint

St. Thomas More

Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...
Thomas of Beckington

Thomas of Beckington

(BEKYNTON.) Bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Beckington, Somerset, about 1390; died at ...
Thomas of Bradwardine

Thomas of Bradwardine

(BRAGWARDIN, BRANDNARDINUS, BREDWARDYN, BRADWARDYN, DE BREDEWARDINA). Born about 1290; died in ...
Thomas of Cantimpré

Thomas of Cantimpre

Medieval writer, preacher, and theologian, born of noble parentage at Leuw St. Pierre near ...
Thomas of Celano

Thomas of Celano

Friar Minor, poet, andhagiographical writer, born at Celano in the Province of the Abruzzi, about ...
Thomas of Dover

Thomas of Dover

Martyr ; died 2 or 5 August, 1295. On the above date the French ravaged Dover with fire and ...
Thomas of Hereford

St. Thomas of Hereford

(THOMAS DE CANTELUPE). Born at Hambledon, Buckinghamshire, England, about 1218; died at ...
Thomas of Jesus

Thomas of Jesus

(THOMAS DE ANDRADA). Reformer and preacher, born at Lisbon, 1529; died at Sagena, Morocco, 17 ...
Thomas of Jorz

Thomas of Jorz

(Often but erroneously called JOYCE and frequently referred to as ANGLUS or ANGLICUS). ...
Thomas of Strasburg

Thomas of Strasburg

A fourteenth-century scholastic of the Augustinian Order, born, according to some writers, at ...
Thomas of Villanova, Saint

St. Thomas of Villanova

Educator, philanthropist, born at Fuentellana, Spain, 1488; died at Valencia, 8 September, 1555. ...
Thomas Percy, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Percy

Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...
Thomas Sherwood, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Sherwood

Martyr, born in London, 1551; died at Tyburn, London, 7 February, 1578. His parents also ...
Thomas the Apostle, Saint

St. Thomas the Apostle

Little is recorded of St. Thomas the Apostle, nevertheless thanks to the fourth Gospel his ...
Thomas Thwing, Venerable

Ven. Thomas Thwing

Martyr. Born at Heworth Hall, near York, in 1635; suffered at York, 23 Oct., 1680. His father was ...
Thomas Woodhouse, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Woodhouse

Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...
Thomas, Charles L.A.

Charles L.A. Thomas

French composer, born at Metz, 5 August, 1811; died at Paris, 12 February, 1896. He gained the ...
Thomassin, Louis

Louis Thomassin

Theologian and French Oratorian, b. at Aix-en-Provence 28 Aug., 1619; d. in Paris, 24 Dec., ...
Thomism

Thomism

In a broad sense, Thomism is the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. ...
Thompson River Indians

Thompson River Indians

(THOMPSON INDIANS). An important tribe of British Columbia of Salishan linguistic stock, also ...
Thompson, Blessed James

Bl. James Thompson

(Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...
Thompson, Edward Healy and Harriet Diana

Edward and Harriet Thompson

The name of two English converts : (1) Edward Healy and (2) Harriet Diana. Edward Healy ...
Thompson, Francis

Francis Thompson

Poet, b. at Preston, Lancashire, 18 Dec., 1859; d. in London, 13 Nov., 1907. He came from the ...
Thompson, Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David

Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David Thompson

Jurist and first Catholic Premier of Canada, b. at Halifax, Nova Scotia , 10 Nov., 1844; d. ...
Thonissen, Jean-Joseph

Jean-Joseph Thonissen

Professor of law at the University of Louvain, minister in the Belgian Government, b. at ...
Thorlaksson, Arni

Arni Thorlaksson

An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297. While a deacon, he visited ...
Thorney Abbey

Thorney Abbey

(i.e. "the isle of thorns", anciently called ANCARIG). Thorney Abbey, in Cambridgeshire, ...
Thorns, Crown of

Crown of Thorns

Although Our Saviour's Crown of Thorns is mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded ...
Thorns, Feast of the Crown of

Feast of the Crown of Thorns

The first feast in honour of the Crown of Thorns ( Festum susceptionis coronae Domini ) was ...
Thorpe, Venerable Robert

Venerable Robert Thorpe

Priest and martyr, b. in Yorkshire; suffered at York, 15 May, 1591. He reached the English ...
Thou, Jacques-Auguste de

Jacques-Auguste de Thou

French historian, b. at Paris, 8 October, 1553; d. there, 7 May, 1617. The son of Christophe de ...
Thou, Nicolas de

Nicolas de Thou

Bishop of Chartres, uncle of the historian Jacques-Auguste de Thou, b. at Paris, 1528; d. at ...
Three Chapters

Three Chapters

The Three chapters ( trîa kephálaia ) were propositions anathematizing : (1) the ...
Three Rivers

Three Rivers (Quebec)

DIOCESE OF THREE RIVERS (TRIFLUVIANENSIS) Formed from the Archdiocese of Quebec , to which it ...
Throne

Throne

(Latin thronus, cathedra, sedes episcopalis ), the seat the bishop uses when not engaged at ...
Thuburbo Minus

Thuburbo Minus

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Thuburbo Minus is mentioned in ...
Thugga

Thugga

Titular see of Numidia, perhaps the Numidian fortress of Tocai mentioned about 305 B.C. by ...
Thugut, Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula

Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula Thugut

Austrian statesman, born at Linz, 31 March, 1736; died at Vienna, 28 May, 1818. He was the son of ...
Thulis, Venerable John

Ven. John Thulis

English martyr, born at Up Holland, Lancashire, probably about 1568; suffered at Lancaster, 18 ...
Thun-Hohenstein, Count Leo

Count Leo Thun-Hohenstein

Austrian statesman, b. at the family castle of Tetschen in Bohemia, 7 April, 1811; d. at Vienna, ...
Thundering Legion

Thundering Legion

( Legio fulminata , or fulminea , not fulminatrix ). The story of the Thundering Legion ...
Thuringia

Thuringia

The name Thuringia is given to a large part of Central Germany, bounded on the west by the ...
Thurmayr, Johannes

Johannes Thurmayr

(Called AVENTINUS from the place of his birth) Born at Abensberg, Bavaria, 4 July, 1477; died ...
Thyatira

Thyatira

A titular suffragan see of Sardes in Lydia. According to Stephanus Byzantius, the name was ...
Thynias

Thynias

A titular see, suffragan of Nicomedia, in Bithynia Prima. It is an island situated in the Black ...
Thyräus, Hermann

Hermann Thryaus

German Jesuit, b. at Neuss on the Rhine, 1532; d. at Mainz, 26 October, 1591. He studied first ...
Tiara

Tiara

The papal crown, a costly covering for the head, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, ...
Tibaldi, Pellegrino

Pellegrino Tibaldi

Known also as Pellegrino da Bologna and as Pellegrino Pellegrini; decorator, mural painter, and ...
Tiberias

Tiberias

Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda. The town of Tiberias was founded on ...
Tiberias, Sea of

Sea of Galilee

So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1 ), otherwise known as "the sea of Galilee" ( Matthew 4:18 ; Mark ...
Tiberiopolis

Tiberiopolis

Titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana. Tiberiopolis is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, 2, 25); Socrates ...
Tiberius

Tiberius

The second Roman emperor ( A. D. 14-37), b. 16 November, 42 B. C. , d. 16 March, A. D. 37. ...
Tibet

Tibet

A vast plateau, about 463,320 square miles, about 1240 miles in its greatest length from east to ...
Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints

Sts. Tiburtius and Susanna

Roman martyrs, feast 11 August. The story is related in the legend of St. Sebastian that ...
Ticelia

Ticelia

Titular see, suffragan of Cyrene, in the Libya Pentapolis. Under this name it is not found in any ...
Tichborne, Ven. Nicholas

Ven. Nicholas Tichborne

Martyr, b. at Hartley Mauditt, Hampshire; suffered at Tyburn, London, 24 Aug., 1601. He was a ...
Tichborne, Ven. Thomas

Ven. Thomas Tichborne

Born at Hartley, Hampshire, 1567; martyred at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1602. He was educated ...
Ticonius

Ticonius

(Also TYCONIUS, TYCHONIUS, etc.) An African Donatist writer of the fourth century who ...
Ticuna Indians

Ticuna Indians

A tribe of Indians of some importance, constituting a distinct linguistic stock, inhabiting the ...
Tieffentaller, Joseph

Joseph Tieffentaller

Jesuit missionary and noted geographer in Hindustan, b. at Bozen in the Tyrol, 27 August, 1710; ...
Tiepolo

Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Tiepolo Born in Venice in 1696; died at Madrid, 27 March, 1770. ...
Tierney, Mark Aloysius

Mark Aloysius Tierney

Born at Brighton, Sept., 1795; died at Arundel, 19 Feb., 1862. After his early schooling with the ...
Tigris, Saint

St. Tigris

Irish saint, sister of St. Patrick. Much obscurity attaches to her life, and she has been ...
Tillemont, Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de

Louis-Sebastien Le Nain de Tillemont

French historian and priest, b. at Paris, 30 November, 1637; d. there, 10 January, 1698; he was ...
Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of

Count of Tilly

Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632. He was a member of a noble family of ...
Timbrias

Timbrias

A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. It is called Thymbrium in the official lists ...
Time

Time

The problem of time is one of the most difficult and most keenly debated in the field of natural ...
Timothy and Symphorian, Saints

Sts. Timotheus and Symphorian

Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August. During the pontificate of Melchiades (311-13), ...
Timothy and Titus, Epistles to

Epistles to Timothy and Titus

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...
Timucua Indians

Timucua Indians

A principal group or confederacy of Ancient Florida, notable for the successful missions ...
Tincker, Mary Agnes

Mary Agnes Tincker

Novelist, born at Ellsworth, Maine, 18 July, 1833; died at Boston, Massachusetts, 4 December, ...
Tingis

Tingis

A titular see of Mauretania Tingitana (the official list of the Roman Curia places it in ...
Tinin

See of Tinin (Dalmatia)

SEE OF TININ (KNIN). Located in Dalmatia ; suffragan to Kalocsa-Bacs. Knin is a town on ...
Tinos and Mykonos

Tinos and Mykonos

DIOCESE OF TINOS AND MYKONOS (TINENSIS ET MYCONENSIS) A Latin diocese of the Cyclades, ...
Tintern Abbey

Tintern Abbey

This abbey, in Monmouthshire, England [actually Wales -- Ed. ], was founded in 1131 by ...
Tintoretto, Il

Il Tintoretto

(J ACOPO R OBUSTI ) Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594. His father was a ...
Tipasa

Tipasa

A titular see of Numidia. The Phoenician word signifies passage. Early in its history we find ...
Tiraboschi, Girolamo

Girolamo Tiraboschi

Italian scholar, b. in the region of Bergamo, 1731; d. 3 June, 1794. At an early age he entered ...
Tiraspol

Tiraspol

DIOCESE OF TIRASPOL (or CHERSONESE) (TIRASPOLENSIS; CHERSONENSIS) Diocese in Southern Russia ...
Tisio da Garofalo, Benvenuto

Benvenuto Tisio da Garofalo

An Italian painter of the Ferrarese school ; b. in 1481 at Garofalo, whence, as was the ...
Tissot, James

James Tissot

(JOSEPH-JACQUES TISSOT) French draughtsman and painter, b. at Nantes, 15 Oct., 1836; d. at ...
Tithes

Tithes

(Anglo-Saxon teotha , a tenth). Generally defined as "the tenth part of the increase arising ...
Tithes, Lay

Lay Tithes

Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...
Titian

Titian

(T IZIANO V ECELLI , called T ITIAN ). The greatest of Venetian painters, born at Pieve ...
Titopolis

Titiopolis

(TITIOPOLIS) Titular see, suffragan of Seleucia Trachaea in Isauria. Le Quien (Oriens ...
Titulus

Titulus

In pagan times titulus signified an inscription on stone, and later the stone which marked ...
Titus

Titus

Roman Emperor 79-81, b. 30 Dec., 41; d. 13 Sept., 81; son of the Emperor Vespasian, and from the ...
Titus and Timothy, Epistles to

Epistles to Timothy and Titus

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...
Titus, Bishop of Bostra

Titus, Bishop of Bostra

Born about 362-371. Sozomen (Hist. eccl., III, xiv) names Titus among the great men of the time ...
Tius

Tius

(TIUM) Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in Honorias. According to Strabo (542, 545) the ...
Tivoli

Tivoli

DIOCESE OF TIVOLI (TIBURTINA) Diocese in the Province of Rome. The city in situated where the ...
Tlaxcala

Tlaxcala

(TLAXCALENSIS) A former diocese of the colony of New Spain. It was the fifth diocese ...
Tlos

Tlos

A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Tlos was one of the six cities forming the Lycian ...
Toaldo, Giuseppe

Giuseppe Toaldo

Priest and physicist, b. at Pianezze, 1719; d. at Padua, 1797. In his fourteenth year he entered ...
Toba Indians

Toba Indians

One of the few still unconquered savage tribes of the great Chaco wilderness of South America, and ...
Tobias

Book of Tobias

We shall first enumerate the various Biblical persons and then treat the book of this name. I. ...
Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de

Alexis de Tocqueville

(CHARLES-ALEXIS-HENRI-MAURICE-CLEREL DE TOCQUEVILLE) Writer and statesman, b. at Verneuil, ...
Todi

Todi

(T UDERTINA ). Diocese in Central Italy ; immediately dependent on the Holy See. The city ...
Tokio

Tokio (Tokyo)

(Tokiensis) Archdiocese comprising 21 provinces or 15 departments with a population of over ...
Toledo (Ohio)

Toledo (Ohio)

(Toletana in America) A diocese in Ohio, U.S.A. formed out of the Diocese of Cleveland and ...
Toledo (Spain)

Toledo (Spain)

ARCHDIOCESE OF TOLEDO (TOLETANENSIS) Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost ...
Toledo, Francisco

Francisco Toledo

Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, son of an actuary, b. at Córdova, 4 Oct., 1532; d. ...
Tolentino and Macerata

Macerata and Tolentino

Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...
Toleration, History of

History of Toleration

In any attempt to deal historically with the attitude of the Church towards religious toleration ...
Toleration, Religious

Religious Toleration

Toleration in general signifies patient forbearance in the presence of an evil which one is ...
Tolomei, John Baptist

John Baptist Tolomei

A distinguished Jesuit theologian and cardinal, born of noble parentage, at Camberaia, between ...
Tomb

Tomb

A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons, ...
Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...
Tomb, Altar

Altar Tomb

A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having ...
Tomi

Tomi

A titular metropolitan see in the Province of Scythia, on the Black Sea. It was a Greek colony ...
Tommasi, Blessed Giuseppe Maria

Bl. Giuseppe Maria Tommasi

A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...
Tongerloo, Abbey of

Abbey of Tongerloo

Located near Antwerp, Belgium, founded in 1128 in honour of the Blessed Virgin, by de ...
Tongiorgi, Salvator

Salvator Tongiorgi

Philosopher, born at Rome, Italy, 25 December, 1820; d. there, 12 November, 1865. At the age of ...
Tongues, Gift of

Gift of Tongues (Glossolalia)

(Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...
Tonica Indians

Tonica Indians

(Or TUNICA). A small tribe constituting a distinct linguistic stock living, when first known ...
Tonkawa Indians

Tonkawa Indians

A tribal group or confederacy, of low culture status and constituting a distinct linguistic stock, ...
Tonsure

Tonsure

( Latin tondere , "to shear") A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized ...
Tootell, Hugh

Hugh Tootell

Commonly known as Charles Dodd. Historian, b. in 1671 or 1672, at Durton-in-Broughton, ...
Torah

Torah

I. USE OF WORD Torah, (cf. Hiph. of ), signifies first "direction, instruction", as, for ...
Torbido, Francesco

Francesco Torbido

Often called IL MORO (The Moor). Veronese painter and engraver, b. at Verona about 1486; ...
Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint

St. Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo

Archbishop of Lima ; b. at Mayorga, León, Spain, 1538; d. near Lima Peru, 23 March ...
Tornielli, Girolamo Francesco

Girolamo Francesco Tornielli

Italian Jesuit, preacher and writer, b. at Cameri, 1 Febreuary, 1693, of a distinguished family ...
Torone

Torone

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. Torone was a colony of Chalcideans from ...
Toronto

Toronto

(TORONTINA). Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada. When constituted a diocese, it ...
Torquemada, Tomás de

Tomas de Torquemada

First Grand Inquisitor of Spain, born at Valladolid in 1420; died at Avila, 16 September, ...
Torres Naharro, Bartolemé de

Bartolome de Torres Naharro

Spanish poet and dramatist, b. at Torres, near Badajoz, towards the end of the fifteenth ...
Torres, Francisco

Francisco Torres

(TURRIANUS.) Hellenist and polemicist, born in Herrera, Palencia, about 1509; died at Rome, ...
Torricelli, Evangelista

Evangelista Torricelli

Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 ...
Torrubia, José

Jose Torrubia

Born towards the end of the seventeenth century at Granada, Spain ; died in 1768 in the ...
Tortona

Tortona

DIOCESE OF TORTONA (DERTONENSIS) Diocese in Piedmont, Italy. The city is situated on the ...
Tortosa

Tortosa

DIOCESE OF TORTOSA (DERTHUSENSIS, DERTUSA). Located in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; ...
Toscanella and Viterbo

Viterbo and Toscanella

(VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...
Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo

Paolo Dal Pozzo Toscanelli

Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer, b. at Florence in 1397; d. there, 10 May, 1482. ...
Tosephta

Tosephta

( Hebrew = addition, supplement ) Tosephta is the name of compilation of ...
Tostado, Alonso

Alonso Tostado

(ALONSO TOSTATUS) Exegete, b. at Madrigal, Castile, about 1400; d. at Bonilla de la Sierra, ...
Tosti, Luigi

Luigi Tosti

Benedictine historian, b. at Naples 13 Feb., 1811; d. at Monte Cassino, 24 Sept., 1897. His ...
Totemism

Totemism

Totemism from ote , root ot , possessive form otem , in the Ojibway dialect of the ...
Totonac Indians

Totonac Indians

One of the smaller cultured nations of ancient Mexico, occupying at the time of the Spanish ...
Touchet, George Anselm

George Anselm Touchet

Born at Stalbridge, Dorset; died about 1689. He was second son of Mervyn, twelfth Lord Audley, ...
Toulouse

Toulouse

A RCHDIOCESE OF T OULOUSE (T OLOSENSIS ) Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne. As ...
Tournély, Honoré

Honore Tournely

Theologian, b. Antibes, Provence, 28 August, 1658; d. at Paris, 26 December 1729. His parents ...
Tournai

Tournai

DIOCESE OF TOURNAI (Latin TURNACUM, TORNACUM; Flemish, DOORNIJK — TORNACENSIS) Diocese ...
Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de

Joseph Pitton de Tournefort

French botanist, b. at Aix in Provence, 5 June, 1656; d. at Paris, 28 Dec., 1708. After his ...
Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de

Charles-Thomas Maillard de Tournon

Papal legate to India and China, cardinal, born of a noble Savoyard family at Turin, 21 ...
Touron, Antoine

Antoine Touron

Dominican biographer and historian, born at Graulhet, Tarn, France, on 5 September, 1686; died ...
Tours

Tours

(TURONENSIS.) Comprises the Department of Indre-et-Loire, and was re-established by the ...
Toustain, Charles-François

Charles-Francois Toustain

French Benedictine, and member of the Congregation of St-Maur, born at Repas in the Diocese of ...
Touttée, Antoine-Augustin

Antoine-Augustin Touttee

A French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. at Riom, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, ...
Tower of Babel

Tower of Babel

The "Tower of Babel" is the name of the building mentioned in Genesis 11:19 . History of the ...
Tracy, Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de

Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de Tracy

Viceroy of New France, born in France, 1603, of noble parents ; died there in 1670. A soldier ...
Tradition and Living Magisterium

Tradition and Living Magisterium

The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...
Traditionalism

Traditionalism

A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude. ...
Traducianism

Traducianism

Traducianism ( tradux , a shoot or sprout, and more specifically a vine branch made to take root ...
Trajan

Trajan

Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117. He ...
Trajanopolis

Trajanopolis

Titular metropolitan see of Rhodope. The city owes its foundation or restoration to Trajan. Le ...
Trajanopolis

Trajanopolis

A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. The only geographer who speaks ...
Tralles

Tralles

A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. It was founded, it is said, by the Argians ...
Trani and Barletta

Trani and Barletta

(T RANEN , et Barolen.) Diocese in Italy. The city of Trani is situated on the Adriatic in ...
Transcendentalism

Transcendentalism

The terms transcendent and transcendental are used in various senses, all of which, as a ...
Transept

Transept

A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica. It ...
Transfiguration

Transfiguration

The Transfiguration of Christ is the culminating point of His public life, as His Baptism is ...
Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the

Feast of the Transfiguration of Christ

Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. ...
Transubstantiation

The Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...
Transvaal

Transvaal

Vicariate apostolic ; lies between 23° 3' and 27° 30' S. lat., and 25° and 32° ...
Transylvania

Transylvania

(Also TRANSYLVANIENSIS or ERDELY). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Kalocsa Bács. The ...
Trapani

Trapani

(TREPANENSIS). Diocese in Sicily, suffragan of Palermo. The city is the capital of a ...
Trapezopolis

Trapezopolis

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan to Laodicea. Trapezopolis was a town of Caria ...
Trappists

Trappists

The common name by which the Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de ...
Trasilla and Emiliana, Saints

Sts. Trasilla and Emiliana

Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...
Treason, Accusations of

Accusations of Treason

A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics ...
Trebizond

Trebizond

(TRAPEZUNTINA). An Armenian Catholic diocese. The city owes its ancient name to the fact that ...
Trebnitz

Trebnitz

A former abbey of Cistercian nuns, situated north of Breslau in Silesia. It was founded in ...
Tredway, Lettice Mary

Lettice Mary Tredway

(Called "Lady" Tredway) Born 1595; died Oct., 1677; daughter of Sir Walter Tredway, of Buckley ...
Tregian, Francis

Francis Tregian

Confessor, b. in Cornwall, 1548; d. at Lisbon, 25 Sept., 1608. He was son of Thomas Tregian of ...
Tremithus

Tremithus

Titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. The city is mentioned by Ptolemy (Geog., V, xiii, ...
Trent

Trent

(TRIDENTUM; TRIDENTINA). Diocese ; suffragan of Salzburg. Trent became universally known ...
Trent, Council of

Council of Trent

The nineteenth ecumenical council opened at Trent on 13 December, 1545, and closed there on 4 ...
Trenton

Trenton

(T RENTONENSIS ). Diocese created 15 July, 1881, suffragan of New York, comprises Atlantic, ...
Tresham, Sir Thomas

Sir Thomas Tresham

Knight Bachelor (in or before 1524), Grand Prior of England in the Order of Knights ...
Treviso

Treviso

(TARVISINA). Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The capital is surrounded by the River ...
Tribe, Jewish

Jewish Tribe

( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...
Tricarico, Diocese of

Tricarico

(TRICARICENSIS.) Located in the Province of Potenza in the Basilicata (Southern Italy ), near ...
Tricassin, Charles Joseph

Charles Joseph Tricassin

One of the greatest theologians of the Capuchin Order, b. at Troyes ; d. in 1681. There is but ...
Tricca

Tricca

Titular see, suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. It was an ancient city of Thessaly, near the River ...
Trichinopoly, Diocese of

Trichinopoly

(TRICHINOPOLITAN.) Located in India, suffragan of Bombay, comprises the south east portion of ...
Trichur

Trichur

(TRICHURENSIS.) Vicariate Apostolic in India, one of the three vicariates of the Syro-Malabar ...
Tricomia

Tricomia

Titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palaestina Prima. It is mentioned in George of Cyprus ...
Triduum

Triduum

(Three days). A time frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices, whether ...
Trier

Trier

(TREVIRENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Cologne; includes in the Prussian province of the ...
Triesnecker, Francis a Paula

Francis a Paula Triesnecker

Astronomer, b. at Kirchberg on the Wagram, in Lower Austria, 2 April, 1745; d. at Vienna 29 ...
Triest-Capo d'Istria

Triest-Capo d'Istria

(TERGESTINA ET JUSTINOPOLITANA.) Suffragan diocese of Görz-Gradiska ; exists as a ...
Trincomalee

Trincomalee

(TRINCOMALIENSIS.) Located in Ceylon, suffragan of Colombo, was created in 1893 by a division ...
Trinità di Cava dei Tirrenti, Abbey of

Abbey of Trinita di Cava Dei Tirreni

Located in the Province of Salerno. It stands in a gorge of the Finestre Hills near Cava dei ...
Trinitarians, Order of

Order of Trinitarians

The redemption of captives has always been regarded in the Church as a work of mercy, as is ...
Trinity College

Trinity College

An institution for the higher education of Catholic women, located at Washington, D.C., and ...
Trinity Sunday

Trinity Sunday

The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity. In the early ...
Trinity, The Blessed

The Blessed Trinity

This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...
Triple-Candlestick

Triple-Candlestick

A name given along with several others (e.g. reed, tricereo, arundo, triangulum, lumen Christi ...
Trissino, Giangiorgio

Giangiorgio Trissino

Italian poet and scholar, b. of a patrician family at Vicenza in 1478; d. at Rome, 8 ...
Tritheists

Tritheists

(TRITHEITES). Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity. (1) Those who are ...
Trithemius, John

John Trithemius

A famous scholar and Benedictine abbot, b. at Trittenheim on the Moselle, 1 February, 1462; d. at ...
Trivento

Trivento

(Triventensis) Diocese in southern Italy. The earliest bishop was St. Castus of an uncertain ...
Trivet, Nicholas

Nicholas Trivet

(Or "Trevet" as he himself wrote it) B. about 1258; d. 1328. He was the son of Thomas Trevet, a ...
Troas

Troas

A suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespont. The city was first called Sigia; it was enlarged and ...
Trocmades

Trocmades

(Trocmada) Titular see of Galatia Secunda, suffragan of Pessinus. No geographer or historian ...
Trokelowe, John de

John de Trokelowe

(THROWLOW, or THORLOW) A monastic chronicler still living in 1330, but the dates of whose birth ...
Trondhjem, Ancient See of

Ancient See of Trondhjem

(NIDAROS). In Norway it was the kings who introduced Christianity, which first became ...
Trope

Trope

Definition and Description Trope, in the liturgico-hymnological sense, is a collective name ...
Tropology, Scriptural

Scriptural Tropology

The theory and practice of interpreting the figurative meaning of Holy Writ. The literal meaning, ...
Troy, John Thomas

John Thomas Troy

Archbishop of Dublin ; b. in the parish of Blanchardstown, near Dublin, 10 May, 1739; d. at ...
Troyes

Troyes

(TRECENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Aube. Re-established in 1802 as a suffragan ...
Truce of God

Truce of God

The Truce of God is a temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God ...
Truchsess von Waldburg, Otto

Otto Truchsess von Waldburg

Cardinal-Bishop of Augsburg (1543-73), b. at Castle Scheer in Swabia, 26 Feb., 1514; d. at ...
Trudo, Saint

St. Trudo

(TRON, TROND, TRUDON, TRUTJEN, TRUYEN). Apostle of Hasbein in Brabant; d. 698 (693). Feast 23 ...
Trudpert, Saint

St. Trudpert

Missionary in Germany in the seventh century. He is generally called a Celtic monk from ...
True Cross, The

The True Cross

(AND REPRESENTATIONS OF IT AS OBJECTS OF DEVOTION). (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult ; (2) ...
Trueba, Antonio de

Antonio de Trueba

Spanish poet and folklorist, b. at Montellana, Biscay, in 1821; d. at Bilbao, 10 March, 1889. In ...
Trujillo

Trujillo

Diocese comprising the Departments of Lambayeque, Libertad, Pinra, and the Province of Tumbes, ...
Trullo, Council in

Council in Trullo

This particular council of Constantinople, held in 692 under Justinian II, is generally known as ...
Trumpets, Feast of

Feast of Trumpets

The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...
Trumwin, Saint

Saint Trumwin

(TRIUMWINI, TRUMUINI). Died at Whitby, Yorkshire, England, after 686. He was consecrated by ...
Trustee System

Trustee System

I In the exercise of her inherent right of administering property, the Church often appoints ...
Trusts and Bequests

Trusts and Bequests

A trust has been defined, in its technical sense, as the right enforceable solely in equity to ...
Truth

Truth

Truth (Anglo-Saxon tréow, tryw, truth, preservation of a compact, from a Teutonic base ...
Truth Societies, Catholic

Catholic Truth Societies

This article will treat of Catholic Truth Societies in the chronological order of their ...
Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...
Tschiderer zu Gleifheim, Johann Nepomuk von

Tschiderer Zu Gleifheim

Bishop of Trent, b. at Bozen, 15 Feb., 1777; d. at Trent, 3 Dec., 1860. He sprang from a family ...
Tschupick, John Nepomuk

John Nepomuk Tschupick

A celebrated preacher, b. at Vienna, 7 or 12 April, 1729; d. there, 20 July, 1784. He entered the ...
Tuam

Tuam

(TUAMENSIS). The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly ...
Tuam, School of

School of Tuam

(Irish, Tuaim da Ghualann , or the "Mound of the two Shoulders"). The School of Tuam was ...
Tubunae

Tubunae

A titular see in Mauretania Caesariensis, according to the "Gerachia cattolica", or in Numidia ...
Tucson

Tucson

(T UCSONENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe. It comprises the State of ...
Tucumán

Tucuman

(T UCUMANENSIS ). Suffragan to Buenos Aires, erected from the Diocese of Salta on 15 ...
Tudela

Tudela

(TUTELÆ, TUTELENSIS). Diocese in Spain. The episcopal city has a population of 9213. ...
Tuguegarao

Tuguegarao

(TUGUEGARAONENSIS). Diocese in the Philippines ; situated in the north-eastern section of ...
Tulancingo

Tulancingo

(D E T ULANCINGO ). Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of Mexico. Its area is ...
Tulasne, Louis-René

Louis-Rene Tulasne

A noted botanist, b. at Azay-le-Rideau, Dept of Indre-et-Loire, France, 12 Sept., 1815; d. at ...
Tulle

Tulle

(TUTELENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Corrèze. It was suppressed by the ...
Tunic

Tunic

By tunic is understood in general a vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper ...
Tunis

Tunis

French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa. About the twelfth century before Christ ...
Tunja

Tunja

(T UNQUENENSIS ). Diocese established in 1880 as a suffragan of Bogotá, in the ...
Tunkers

Tunkers

( German tunken , to dip) A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite. ...
Tunstall, Cuthbert

Cuthbert Tunstall

Bishop of London, later of Durham, b. at Hackforth, Yorkshire, in 1474; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...
Tunstall, Venerable Thomas

Ven. Thomas Tunstall

Martyred at Norwich, 13 July, 1616. He was descended from the Tunstalls of Thurland, an ancient ...
Tunsted, Simon

Simon Tunsted

English Minorite, b. at Norwich, year unknown; d. at Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369. Having joined the ...
Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques

Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot

Baron de L' Aulne, French minister, born at Parish, 10 May, 1727; died there, 20 March, 1781. ...
Turin

Turin

(Turino; Taurinensis) The City of Turin is the chief town of a civil province in Piedmont and ...
Turin, Shroud of

The Shroud of Turin

This name is primarily given to a relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that ...
Turin, University of

The University of Turin

The University of Turin was founded in 1404, when the lectures at Piacenza and Pavia were ...
Turkestan

Turkestan

I. CHINESE TURKESTAN When Jenghiz Khan died (1227) his second son, Djagatai, had the greater part ...
Turkish Empire

Turkish Empire

Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the ...
Turnebus, Adrian

Adrian Turnebus

Philologist, b. at Andely in Normandy in 1512; d. in Paris, 12 June, 1565. The accounts of the ...
Turpin

Turpin

Archbishop of Reims, date of birth uncertain; d. 2 Sept., 800. He was a monk of St. Denis ...
Tuscany

Tuscany

Tuscany, a division of central Italy, includes the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, ...
Tuy

Tuy

(Tudensis.) Suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Santiago, comprises the civil provinces ...
Twenge, Saint John

St. John Twenge

Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...
Twiketal of Croyland

Twiketal of Croyland

(THURCYTEL, TURKETUL). Died July, 975. He was a cleric of royal descent, who is said to have ...
Tyana

Tyana

A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Prima. The city must first have been called Thoana, ...
Tychicus

St. Tychicus

A disciple of St. Paul and his constant companion. He was a native of the Roman province of ...
Tynemouth Priory

Tynemouth Priory

Tynemouth Priory, on the east coast of Northumberland, England, occupied the site of an earlier ...
Types in Scripture

Types in Scripture

Types, though denoted by the Greek word typoi , are not coextensive with the meaning of this ...
Tyrannicide

Tyrannicide

Tyrannicide literally is the killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a ...
Tyre

Tyre

(TYRUS.) Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese. The city is called in Hebrew, Zor , ...
Tyrie, James

James Tyrie

Theologian, b. at Drumkilbo, Perthshire, Scotland, 1543; d. at Rome, 27 May, 1597. Educated ...

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