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New Zealand

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New Zealand—formerly described as a colony—has, since September, 1907, by royal proclamation, been granted the style and designation of "Dominion," the territory remaining, of course, as before under British sovereignty. It consists of three main islands (North Island, South Island, sometimes also called Middle island, and Stewart island) and several groups of smaller islands lying at some distance from the principal group. The smaller groups included within the dominion are the Chatham, Aukland, Campbell, Antipodes, Bounty, Kermadec, and Cook Islands, along with half a dozen atolls situated outside the Cook Group. The total area of the dominion—104,751 square miles—is about one-seventh less than the area of great Britain and Ireland. The quantity and quality of the grazing land available has made New Zealand a great wool, meat, and dairy-produce country. Its agricultural capabilities are very considerable; its forests yield excellent timber; and its mineral resources, though as yet but little developed and not very varied in character, form one of the country's most valuable assets. Volcanoes, one of which, Ngauruhoe, the highest cone of Mount Tongariro, was in active eruption in 1909, and a volcanic belt marks the centre of the North Island. In the North island also is the wonderland of the boiling geysers—said by geologists to be the oldest in the world, with the exception of those in Wyoming and Idaho &151; and the famous "Hot Lakes" and pools, which possess great curative virtue for all rheumatic and skin diseases. An Alpine chain, studded with snow-clad peaks and mantled with glaciers of greater magnitude than any in the Alps of Europe, descends along the west coast of the South Island. In the South Island also are the famous Otago lakes (Wanaka, Wakatipu, Te Anau, and Manapouri) of which the late Anthony Trollope wrote, "I do not know that lake scenery could be finer." The south-west coast of the island is pierced by a series of sounds or fiords, rivalling in their exquisite beauty the Norwegian and Alaskan fiords; in the neighbourhood is a waterfall (the Sutherland Falls) over 1900 feet in height, Judged by mortality statistics the climate of new Zealand is one of the best and healthiest in the world. The total population of the dominion on 31 December, 1908, was 1,020,713. This included the Maori population of 47,731, and the population of Cook and other Pacific islands, aggregating 12,340.

I. CIVIL HISTORY

Tasman discovered the islands in 1642 and called them "Nova Zeelanda," but Captain Cook, who surveyed the coasts in 1769 and following years, first made them known. The colony was planted in 1840 by a company, formed in England and known first as the New Zealand Company, afterwards as the New Zealand Land Company, which with auxiliary associations founded successively the settlements of Wellington, Nelson, Taranaki, Otago, and Canterbury. New Zealand was then constituted a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales (Australia), but on 3 May, 1841, was proclaimed a separate colony. A series of native wars, arising chiefly from endless disputes about land, began in 1843 and ended in 1869, since which time unbroken peace has prevailed. A measure of self-government was granted in 1852, and full responsible government in 1856. The provincial governments created by the Constitution Act were abolished in 1876, and one supreme central government established. The Government consists of a governor, appointed by the crown, and two houses of Parliament—the legislative council, or upper chamber, with members nominated by the governor for life (except those nominated subsequently to September 17, 1891, after which date all appointments are for seven years only), and the house of representatives with members elected triennially on an adult suffrage. The first Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives (1853-60), the late Sire Charles Clifford, was a Catholic, and his son, Sir George Clifford, one of New Zealand's prominent public men, though born in the dominion was educated at Stonyhurst College, and has shown his fidelity to old ties by naming his principal New Zealand residence "Stonyhurst." There are a number of Catholic names in the list of past premiers, cabinet ministers, and members of parliament who have helped to mould the laws and shape the history of the dominion. The present premier (1910), the Right Hon. Sir Joseph Ward, P.C., K.C.M.G., is a Catholic, and out of a legislative council of forty-five members five are Catholic.

The prominent feature of the political history of the past twenty years has been the introduction and development of that body of "advanced" legislation for which the name of New Zealand has become more or less famous. The mere enumeration of the enactments would occupy considerable space. It must suffice to say that, broadly speaking, their purpose is to fling the shield of the State over every man who works for his livelihood; and, in addition to regulating wages, they cover practically every risk to life, limb, health, and interest of the industrial classes. It should be mentioned that there is no strong party of professed State-Socialists in the dominion, and the reforms and experiments which have been made have in all cases been examined and taken on their merits, and not otherwise. Employers have occasionally protested against some of the restrictions imposed, as being harassing and vexations; but there is no political party in the country which proposes to repeal these measures, and there is a general consensus of opinion that, in its main features, the "advanced legislation" has come to stay. In 1893 an Act came into force which granted the franchise to women. The women's vote has had no perceptible effect on the relative position of political parties; but it is generally agreed that the women voters have been mainly responsible for the marked increase in recent years of the no-licence vote at the local option polls. Elections are quieter and more orderly than formerly.

II. THE MAORIS

The New Zealand natives, or Maoris, as they call themselves, are generally acknowledged to be intellectually and physically the finest aboriginal race in the South Sea Islands. Their magnificent courage, their high intelligence, their splendid physique and manly bearing, the stirring part they have played in the history of the country, the very ferocity of their long-relinquished habits, have all combined to invest them with a more than ordinary degree of interest and curiosity. Of their origin it can only be said, broadly, that they belong to the Polynesian race—ethnologists have tried to trace a likeness to the Red Indians of North America—and according to tradition they came to New Zealand about twenty-one generations ago (i.e., about five hundred and twenty-five years) from Hawaiki, an island of the Pacific not identified with any certainty. After being robbed and despoiled by the early white civilization and by trader-missionaries, tardy justice has at length been done to the native race. To-day the Maoris have four members in the house of representatives and two in the legislative council, all men of high lineage and natural orators. Until recent years it was supposed that the Maoris were dying out, but later statistics show the contrary. The official figures show that the Maori population fell from 41,93 in 1891 to 39,854 in 1896, increased to 43,143 in 1901, and further to 47,731 in 1906 (last census year).

III. THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN NEW ZEALAND

The first Catholic settler in New Zealand was an Irishman named Thomas Poynton, who landed at Hokianga in 1828. Until ten years later the footsteps of a Catholic priest never pressed New Zealand soil. Poynton's brave and pious wife, a native of Wexford County, took her first two children on a journey of over two thousand weary miles of ocean to be baptized at Sydney. Through Poynton's entreaties for a missionary the needs of the country became known, first at Sydney and next at Rome. In 1835 New Zealand was included in the newly created Vicariate Apostolic of Western Oceanica. In the following year its first vicar Apostolic, Mgr. Jean Baptiste François Pompallier, set out for his new field of labour with seven members of the Society of the Marist Brothers, which only a few months before had received the approval of Pope Gregory XVI. On 10 January, 1838, he, with three Marist companions, sailed up the Hokianga River, situated in the far north-west of the Auckland Province. The cross was planted in the house of the first Catholic settler of the colony. Irish peasant emigrants were the pioneers of Catholic colonization in New Zealand; the French missionaries were its pioneer apostles. Four years later (in 1842) New Zealand was formed into a separate vicariate, Mgr. Pompallier being named its first vicar Apostolic. From this time forward events moved at a rapid pace. In 1848 the colony was divided into two dioceses, Auckland with its territory extending to 39x of south latitude forming one diocese, Wellington with the remaining territory and the adjoining islands forming the second. (See AUCKLAND, DIOCESE OF.) Bishop Pompallier remained in charge of Auckland, and Bishop Viard, who had been constituted the first Bishop of Wellington. In 1869 the Diocese of Dunedin, comprising Otago, Southland, and Stewart's Island, was carved out of the Diocese of Wellington, and the Right Rev. Patrick Moran who died in 1895 was appointed its first bishop. His successor (the present occupant of the see ), the Right rev. Dr. Verdon, was consecrated in 1896. In 1887, at the petition of the Plenary Synod of Australasia, held in Sydney in 1885, the hierarchy was established in New Zealand, and Wellington became the archiepiscopal see. The Most Rev. Dr. Redwood, S.M., who had been consecrated Bishop of Wellington in 1874, was created archbishop and metropolitan by papal brief, receiving the pallium from the hands of the Right Rev. Dr. Luck, Bishop of Auckland. The same year (1887) witnessed the erection of the Diocese of Christchurch. The first and present bishop is the Right Rev. Dr. Grimes, S.M., consecrated in the same year. Ten years later New Zealand, hitherto dependent on Australia, was made a separate ecclesiastical province.

Some idea of the rapid growth of the Catholic population, both in numbers and in activity, may be gathered from the following figures. In 1840, when New Zealand was declared a colony, the number of Catholic colonists was not above 500 in a total population of some 5000. Eleven years later they numbered 3472 in a total population of 26,707. At the last Government census (1906) the Catholic total had amounted to 126,995. The total population of the dominion (exclusive of Maoris), according to the same census, was 888,578 so that the Catholic population is slightly over one-seventh of the whole. To-day (1910) the estimated Catholic population of New Zealand is over 130,000 with 4 dioceses, 1 archbishop, 3 suffragan bishops, 212 priests, 62 religious brothers, 855 nuns, 333 churches, 2 ecclesiastical seminaries (comprising 1 provincial ecclesiastical seminary and 1 ecclesiastical seminary for the Marist Order), 2 colleges for boys, 32 boarding and high schools, 18 superior day schools, 15 charitable institutions, and 112 Catholic primary schools. According to the "New Zealand Official Year-Book" for 1909 (a Government publication) the total number of Catholic schools in the dominion is 152 and the number of Catholic pupils attending is 12,650. New Zealand has added one new religious congregation (the Sisters of Our Lady of Compassion), founded in 1884 by Mother Mary Aubert, to " Heaven's Army of Charity" in the Catholic Church. Under the direction of their venerable foundress the members of the order conduct schools for the Maoris at Hiruharama (Jerusalem) on the Wanganui River, a home for incurables, Wellington, and a home for incurable children, Island Bay, Wellington. The order has quite recently extended its operations to Auckland.

The ordinary organization of the laity, as usually found in English-speaking countries, are well and solidly established throughout the dominion. For benefit purposes New Zealand formed a separate district of the Hibernian Australasian Catholic benefit Society. Thanks to capable management, due to the fact that the society has drawn to its ranks the ablest and most representative of the laity, the organization is making remarkable progress. On 30 January, 1910, the membership was reported at 2632; the funeral fund stood at £7795:2:2 (nearly $40,000) and the sick fund amounted to £12,558:5:0 (over $62,000). The Society of St. Vincent de Paul was probably the earliest lay orgainzation established in new Zealand, a conferrence formed at Christchurch in July, 1867, by the Rev. Fr. Chasteagner, S.M., being the first founded in Australasia. In almost every parish there are young men's clubs, social, literary, and athletic; in connection with these a federation has been formed under the name of the Federated Catholic Clubs of New Zealand. In 1909 a Newman Society, on the lines of the Oxford University Newman Society, but with wider and more directly practical objects, was inaugurated by the Catholic graduates and undergraduates of New Zealand University. As the number of university men amongst New Zealand Catholics is now very considerable, the new society promises to prove an important factor in the defence and propagation of the faith.

IV. MISSIONS TO THE MAORIS

From the outset, the conversion of the native race was set in the forefront of the Church's work in this new land. When the Marist Fathers , having been withdrawn to the Diocese of Wellington, left the Diocese of Auckland in 1850, they had in that part of the North Island 5044 neophytes. In 1853 there were about a thousand native Christians in the Diocese of Wellington. Homes and schools for native children were founded by the Sisters of Mercy at Auckland and Wellington ; and in 1857 the governor, Sir George Grey, in his official report to Parliament, gave high praise to the Catholic schools among the Maoris. Up until 1860 the Maori mission was most flourishing. Then came the long-drawn years of fierce racial warfare, during which the natives kept their territory closed against all white men; and the Catholic missions were almost completely ruined. They are being steadily built up once more by two bodies of earnest and devoted men, the Marist Fathers in the Archdiocese of Wellington and the Diocese of Christchurch , and the Mill Hill Fathers in the Diocese of Auckland. The progress made during the last twenty-five years may be gathered from the following summaries. (a) The Archdiocese of Wellington and Diocese of Christchurch (districts: Otaki, Hiruharama, Raetihi, Wairoa, and Okato) have about 40 stations and 19 churches, served by 7 priests. There are also 4 native schools ; 1 highly efficient native high school, maintained by the Sisters of Our Lady of the Missions; and 1 orphanage, conducted by the Sisters of Our Lady of Compassion. The total number of Catholic Maoris is about 2000. Several very successful conventions of Maori tribes have been held in Otaki since 1903. At the last (held in June, 1909), which was attended by His Grace Archbishop Redwood, the institution of a Maori Catholic magazine was decided upon and has since been carried out. (b) The Diocese of Auckland (districts: Rotorua, headquarters of the provincial of the mission, Matata, Tauranga, Hokianga, Okaihau, Whangaroa, Wangarei, Dargaville, and Coromandel) has 57 stations and 22 churches, served by 16 priests, of whom 9 are wholly and 7 are partly engaged on the Maori mission. There are 4 native schools conducted by the Sisters of St. Joseph. The total number of catholic Maoris is about 4000. Throughout the three dioceses the Maori population is extremely scattered, and the missionaries have frequently to travel great distances. As the deleterious influence of Maori tohungaism ( belief in wizards and "medicine-men") is on the wane, and the rancorous feelings engendered by the war are now subsiding, the prospect in this distant outpost of the mission field is most hopeful and promising.

V. EDUCATION

Primary education is compulsory in New Zealand; and of every 100 persons in the dominion at the time of the census of 1906, 83.5 could read and write, 1.6 could read only, and 14.9 could neither read nor write. As mentioned above, New Zealand became a self-governing colony in 1852. Each province had its separate legislature and the control of education within its borders, and most of the provinces subsidized denominational schools. The provincial legislatures were abolished by the Acts of 1875-6, and one of the early measures (1877) of the centralized New Zealand Government was to abolish aid to denominational schools and to introduce the (so-called) national system known as "free, secular, and compulsory." From that day to this the entire public school system of New Zealand has remained, legally, purely secular.

From the first Catholics have protested against the exclusion of Christian teaching from the schools ; and they have refused, and continue to refuse (unless where forced by circumstances) to send their children to schools from which their religion is excluded. As in other countries, so here, Catholics have shown the sincerity of their protest by creating, at enormous and continual sacrifices, a great rival system of education under which some 13,000 Catholic children are nurtured into a full and wholesome development of the faculties that God has bestowed upon them. With scarcely an exception, Catholic primary schools follow precisely the same secular curriculum as that prescribed under the Education Act for the public schools ; and they are every year inspected and examined, under precisely the same conditions as are the public schools, by the State inspectors. The cost of carrying on the public school system is not derived from any special rate or tax, but the amount is paid out of the Consolidated Fund, to which Catholics, as taxpayers, contribute their share. Catholics are thus subjected to a double impost: they have to bear the cost of building, equipping, and maintaining their own schools, and they are compelled also to contribute their quota of taxation for the maintenance of the public school system, of which, from conscientious motives, they cannot avail themselves. New Zealand Catholics have never asked or desired a grant for the religious education which is imparted in their schools. But hey have urged, and they continue to urge, their claim to a fair share of that taxation to which they themselves contribute, in return for the purely secular instruction which, in accordance with the Government programme, is given in the Catholic schools. Their standing protest against the injustice so long inflicted on them by the various governments of the country and their unyielding demand for a recognition of the right of Christian taxpayers to have their children educated in accordance with Christian principles, constitute what is known, par excellence , as "the education question" in New Zealand. It is unhappily necessary to add that of late years, for no very obvious or adequate reason, Catholic agitation on the subject has not been so active as it once was; and unless a forward movement is made, the prospects of success for the cause, on behalf of which such splendid battles have been fought and such heroic sacrifices have been endured, are exceedingly remote.

Deacon Keith Fournier Hi readers, it seems you use Catholic Online a lot; that's great! It's a little awkward to ask, but we need your help. If you have already donated, we sincerely thank you. We're not salespeople, but we depend on donations averaging $14.76 and fewer than 1% of readers give. If you donate just $5.00, the price of your coffee, Catholic Online School could keep thriving. Thank you. Help Now >

VI. LITERATURE AND CATHOLIC JOURNALISM

There is no New Zealand literature in the broad and general acceptation of the term. The usual reason assigned is that so young a country has not yet had time to evolve a literature of its own; but perhaps an equally important factor in producing and maintaining the existing condition of things is the smallness of the market for literary wares, in consequence of which New Zealand writers possessing exceptional talent inevitably gravitate towards Sydney or London. In general literature the one conspicuous name is that of Thomas Bracken , Irishman and Catholic, author of several volumes of poems, which have attained great popularity both in Australia and in New Zealand. Amongst scientific writers, notable catholic names are those of the late W. M. Maskell, formerly Registrar of New Zealand University, and the Very Rev. Dr. Kennedy, S.M., B.A., D.D., F.R.A.S., present Rector of St. Patrick's College, both of whom have made many valuable contributions to the pages of scientific journals and the proceedings of learned societies.

As usually happens in countries that are overwhelmingly Protestant, by far the greater portion of the purely Catholic literature that has been published in New Zealand is apologetic in character. "What True Free-masonry Is: Why it is condemned," published in 1885 by the Rev. Thomas Keane, is a detailed and extremely effective treatment of the subject. "Disunion and Reunion," by the Re. W. J. Madden, is a popular and ably written review of the course and causes of the Protestant Reformation. One of the most learned and certainly the most prolific of the contributors to Catholic literature in New Zealand was the Very Rev. T. LeMenant des Chesnais, S.M., recently deceased. His works include "Nonconformists and the Church "; "Out of the Maze"; "The Temuka Tournament" (a controversy); a volume on "Spiritism"; "The Church and the World"; etc. The last-named work, published only a few years before the venerable author's death, was very favourably reviewed by English and American papers. A notable addition to the Catholic literature of the dominion has been the recent publication of three volumes from the pen of the editor of the "New Zealand Tablet," the Rev. H. W. Cleary, D.D. These works, "Catholic Marriages," an exposition and defence of the decree "Ne Temere," "An Impeached Nation; Being a Study of Irish Outrages:" and "Secular versus Religious Education : A Discussion," are thorough in the treatment of their respective subjects and possess value of a permanent character. A modest beginning has been made towards the compilation of a detailed history of the Catholic Church in the dominion by the publications, a few months ago, of "The Church in New Zealand: Memoirs of the early Days," by J. J. Wilson.

The history of Catholic journalism in New Zealand is in effect the history of the "New Zealand Tablet," founded by the late Bishop Moran in 1873, the Catholics of this country having followed the principle that it is better to be represented by one strong paper than to have a multiplicity of publications. From the first the paper has been fortunate in its editors. In the early days the work done by its revered founder, in his battle for Catholic rights, and by his valued lay assistant, Mr. J. F. Perrin, was of a solid character. The prestige and influence of the paper was still further enhanced by the Rev. Henry W. Cleary, D. D., who made the "New Zealand Tablet" a power in the land, and won the respect of all sections of the community not only for the Catholic paper but for the Catholic body which it represents. In February, 1910, Dr. Cleary was appointed Bishop of Auckland, and was consecrated on 21 August in Enniscorthy cathedral, Co. Wexford, Ireland. It is safe to say that there are few countries in the world in which, in proportion to size and population, the Catholic press has a higher status than in New Zealand.

More Volume: N 287

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Article
Nélaton, Auguste

Auguste Nelaton

Famous French surgeon; born in Paris, 17 June, 1807, d. there 21 Sept., 1873. He made his ...
Nève, Felix-Jean-Baptiste-Joseph

Felix-Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Neve

Orientalist and philologist, born at Ath, Belgium, 13 June, 1816; died at Louvain, 23 May, ...
Nîmes

Nimes

(NEMAUSENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Avignon, comprises the civil Department of Gard. By the ...
Nabo

Nabo (Nebo)

( Septuagint, Nabau ). A town mentioned in several passages of the Old Testament, v.g., ...
Nabor and Felix, Saints

Sts. Nabor and Felix

Martyrs during the persecution of Diocletian (303). The relics of these holy witnesses to the ...
Nabuchodonosor

Nabuchodonosor

The Babylonian form of the name is Nabu-kudurri-usur, the second part of which is variously ...
Nacchiante, Giacomo

Giacomo Nacchiante

(Naclantus). Dominican theologian, born at Florence ; died at Chioggia, 6 May, 1569; he ...
Nacolia

Nacolia

(Nacoleia). A titular metropolitan see in Phrygia Salutaris. This town, which took its name ...
Nagasaki

Nagasaki

(Nagasakiensis). Nagasaki, capital of the prefecture ( ken ) of the same name, is situated ...
Nagpur

Nagpur

(Nagpurensis) Diocese in India, suffragan to Madras. Formerly the north-western portion of ...
Nahanes

Nahanes

"People of the Setting Sun", a tribe of the great Dene family of American Indians, whose habitat ...
Nahum

Nahum

One of the Prophets of the Old Testament, the seventh in the traditional list of the twelve ...
Nails, Holy

Holy Nails

The question has long been debated whether Christ was crucified with three or with four nails. ...
Naim

Naim

(NAIN). The city where Christ raised to life the widow's son ( Luke 7:11-17 ). The Midrash ...
Name of Jesus, Religious Communities of the

Religious Communities of the Name of Jesus

(1) Knights of the Name of Jesus, also known as Seraphim, founded in 1334 by the Queens of Norway ...
Name of Mary, Feast of the Holy

Feast of the Holy Name of Mary

We venerate the name of Mary because it belongs to her who is the Mother of God, the holiest of ...
Names of Jesus and Mary, Sisters of the Holy

Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary

A religious congregation founded at Longueuil, Quebec, 8 December, 1844, under the patronage of ...
Names, Christian

Christian Names

" Christian names", says the Elizabethan antiquary, Camden, "were imposed for the distinction of ...
Names, Hebrew

Hebrew Names

To the philosopher a name is an artificial sign consisting in a certain combination of ...
Namur

Namur

Diocese of Namur (Namurcensis), constituted by the Bull of 12 May, 1559, from territory ...
Nancy

Nancy

DIOCESE OF NANCY (NANCEIENISIS ET TULLENSIS). Comprises the Departments of Meurthe and Moselle, ...
Nantes

Nantes

Diocese of Nantes (Nanceiensis). This diocese, which comprises the entire department of Loire ...
Nanteuil, Robert

Robert Nanteuil

French engraver and crayonist, b. Reims, 1623 (1626, or 1630) d. at Paris, 1678. Little is ...
Naples

Naples

The capital of a province in Campania, southern Italy, and formerly capital of the Kingdom of the ...
Napoleon I (Bonaparte)

Napoleon Bonaparte

Emperor of the French, second son of Charles Marie Bonaparte and Maria Lætitia Ramolino, b. ...
Napoleon III

Napoleon III

(Charles-Louis-Napoléon). Originally known as Louis-Napoléon-Bonaparte, Emperor ...
Napper, Venerable George

Ven. George Napper

(Or Napier). English martyr, born at Holywell manor, Oxford, 1550; executed at Oxford 9 ...
Nardò

Nardo

(NERITONENSIS) Diocese in southern Italy. Nardò was already an episcopal see, when, ...
Nardi, Jacopo

Jacopo Nardi

Italian historian; born at Florence, 1476; died at Venice, 11 March, 1563. His father, Salvestro ...
Narni and Terni

Narni and Terni

UNITED DIOCESES OF NARNI AND TERNI (NARNIENSIS ET INTERAMNENSIS) Located in Central Italy. ...
Narthex

Narthex

In early Christian architecture a portion of the church at the west end, separated from the nave ...
Nashville

Nashville

The Diocese of Nashville comprises the entire territory of the State of Tennessee. From its inland ...
Nasoræans

Nasoraeans

Sometimes called M ANDÆANS, S ABIANS, or C HRISTIANS OF S T. J OHN. ...
Natal

Natal

(Vicariate Apostolic of Natal) The history of the Catholic Church in South Africa goes back ...
Natal Day

Natal Day

Both the form natalis (sc. Dies ) and natalicium were used by the Romans to denote what we ...
Natalis, Alexander

Alexander Natalis

(Or NOEL ALEXANDRE). A French historian and theologian, of the Order of St. Dominic, b. at ...
Natchez

Natchez

DIOCESE OF NATCHEZ (NATCHESIENSIS) Established 28 July, 1837; comprises the State of ...
Natchitoches

Natchitoches

Diocese of Natchitoches Former title of the present Diocese of Alexandria (Alexandrinensis), ...
Nathan

Nathan

Nathan (God-given), the name of several Israelites mentioned in the Old Testament. (1) Nathan, ...
Nathanael

Nathanael

One of the first disciples of Jesus, to Whom he was brought by his friend Philip ( John ...
Nathinites

Nathinites

Or N ATHINEANS ( hnthynym , the given ones; Septuagint generally o‘i dedoménoi ...
National Union, Catholic Young Men's

Catholic Young Men's National Union

This association was organized on 22 February, 1875, at a meeting held in Newark, New Jersey, at ...
Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the

Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The earliest document commemorating this feast comes from the sixth century. St.Romanus, the ...
Natural Law

Natural Law

I. ITS ESSENCE In English this term is frequently employed as equivalent to the laws of nature, ...
Naturalism

Naturalism

Naturalism is not so much a special system as a point of view or tendency common to a number of ...
Nature

Nature

Etymologically (Latin natura from nasci , to be born, like the corresponding Greek physis ...
Naturism

Naturism

Naturism is the term proposed by Réville to designate the worship of nature. It differs ...
Nausea, Frederic

Frederic Nausea

(Latinized from the German Grau .) Bishop of Vienna, born c. 1480 at Waischenfeld ( ...
Navajo Indians

Navajo Indians

Navajo Indians, numbering about 20,000, constitute the largest group of Indians belonging to the ...
Navarre

Navarre

The territory formerly known as Navarre now belongs to two nations, Spain and France, according ...
Navarrete, Domingo Fernández

Domingo Fernandez Navarrete

Dominican missionary and archbishop, born c. 1610 at Peñafiel in Old Castile ; died ...
Navarrete, Juan Fernández

Juan Fernandez Navarrete

Spanish painter, b. at Logrono, 1526 and died at Segovia, 1579 (at Toledo, February, 1579 or 28 ...
Navarrete, Martín Fernández

Martin Fernandez Navarrete

Spanish navigator and writer, b. at Avalos (Logrono), 8 November, 1765; d. at Madrid, 8 October, ...
Nave

Nave

Architecturally the central, open space of a church, west of the choir or chancel, and separated ...
Nazarene

Nazarene

( Nazarenos, Nazarenus ). As a name applied to Christ, the word Nazarene occurs only ...
Nazareth

Nazareth

The town of Galilee where the Blessed Virgin dwelt when the Archangel announced to her the ...
Nazareth, Sisters of Charity of

Sisters of Charity of Nazareth

Founded Dec., 1812, by the Rev. B.J.M. David (see D IOCESE OF L OUISVILLE ). Father David, ...
Nazarite

Nazarite

(Hebrew, " consecrated to God "). The name given by the Hebrews to a person set apart and ...
Nazarius and Celsus, Saints

Sts. Nazarius and Celsus

The only historical information which we possess regarding these two martyrs is the discovery of ...
Nazarius and Companions, Saint

St. Nazarius and Companions

In the Roman Martyrology and that of Bede for 12 June mention is made of four Roman martyrs, ...
Nazarius, John Paul

John Paul Nazarius

Dominican theologian, b. in 1556 at Cremonia; d. in 1645 at Bologna. He entered the order at an ...
Nazarius, Saint

St. Nazarius

Fourteenth abbot of the monastery of Lérins, probably sometime during the reign of the ...
Nazianzus

Nazianzus

A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Tertia. Nazianzus was a small town the history which is ...
Neale, Leonard

Leonard Neale

Second Archbishop of Baltimore, b. near Port Tobacco, Charles County, Maryland, 15 Oct., 1746; ...
Nebo

Nabo (Nebo)

( Septuagint, Nabau ). A town mentioned in several passages of the Old Testament, v.g., ...
Nebo, Mount

Mount Nebo

( Septuagint : Nabau ). A mountain of the Abarim range east of Jordan and the Dead Sea, ...
Nebraska

Nebraska

Nebraska, meaning in English, "shallow water", occupies geographically a central location among ...
Necessity

Necessity

Necessity, in a general way, denotes a strict connection between different beings, or the ...
Neckam, Alexander of

Alexander of Neckam

( Or Necham.) English scholar, born in Hertfordshire, 1157; died at Kempsey, Worcestershire, ...
Necrologies

Necrologies

Necrologies, or, as they are more frequently called in France, obituaires , are the registers ...
Necromancy

Necromancy

( nekros , "dead", and manteia , "divination") Necromancy is a special mode of divination ...
Nectarius

Nectarius

( Nechtarios ), Patriarch of Constantinople, (381-397), died 27 Sept, 397, eleventh bishop of ...
Negligence

Negligence

( Latin nec , not, and legere , to pick out). The condition of not heeding. More ...
Nehemiah, Book of

Book of Nehemiah

Also called the second Book of Esdras (Ezra), is reckoned both in the Talmud and in the early ...
Neher, Stephan Jakob

Stephan Jakob Neher

Church historian ; b. at Ebnat, 24 July, 1829; d. at Nordhausen, 7 Oct., 1902. His family were ...
Nemore, Jordanus (Jordanis) de

Jordanus de Nemore

The name given in manuscripts of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries to a mathematician who ...
Nemrod

Nemrod

Also N IMROD ( nmrd of uncertain signification, Septuagint Nebród ). The name of ...
Neo-Platonism

Neo-Platonism

General survey A system of idealistic, spiritualistic philosophy, tending towards mysticism, ...
Neo-Pythagorean Philosophy

Neo-Pythagorean Philosophy

The ethico-religious society founded by Pythagoras, which flourished especially in Magna ...
Neo-Scholasticism

Neo-Scholasticism

Neo-Scholasticism is the development of the Scholasticism of the Middle Ages during the latter ...
Neocæsarea

Neocaesarea (Hierapolis)

A titular see, suffragan of Hierapolis in the Patriarchate of Antioch sometimes called ...
Neocæsarea

Neocaesarea

A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus, at first called Cabira, one of the favourite residences ...
Neophyte

Neophyte

Neophyte ( neophytoi , the newly planted, i.e. incorporated with the mystic Body of Christ), a ...
Nephtali

Nephtali

(A.V., N APHTALI ) Sixth son of Jacob and Bala ( Genesis 30:8 ). The name is explained ...
Nepi and Sutri

Nepi and Sutri

Nepi and Sutri (Nepsin et Sutrin), united sees of the province of Rome, central Italy, in the ...
Nepveu, Francis

Francis Nepveu

Writer on ascetical subjects, b. at St. Malo, 29 April, 1639; entered the novitiate of the ...
Nereus and Achilleus, Domitilla and Pancratius, Saints

Sts. Nereus and Achilleus, Domitilla and Pancratius

The commemoration of these four Roman saints is made by the Church on 12 May, in common, and ...
Neri, Antonio

Antonio Neri

Florentine chemist, born in Florence ln the sixteenth century; died 1614, place unknown. We have ...
Neri, Saint Philip Romolo

St. Philip Romolo Neri

THE APOSTLE OF ROME. Born at Florence, Italy, 22 July, 1515; died 27 May, 1595. Philip's ...
Nerinckx, Charles

Charles Nerinckx

Missionary priest in Kentucky, founder of the Sisters of Loretto at the Foot of the Cross, born ...
Nero

Nero

Nero, the last Roman emperor (reigned 54-68) of the Julian-Claudian line, was the son of Domitius ...
Nerses I-IV

Nerses I-IV

Armenian patriarchs. Nerses I Surnamed "the Great". Died 373. Born of the royal stock, he ...
Nerses of Lambron

Nerses of Lambron

Born 1153 at Lambron, Cilicia; died 1198; son of Oschin II, prince of Lambron and nephew of the ...
Nestorius and Nestorianism

Nestorius and Nestorianism

I. THE HERESIARCH Nestorius, who gave his name to the Nestorian heresy, was born at Germanicia, ...
Netherlands, The

The Netherlands

( German Niederlande ; French Pays Bas ). The Netherlands, or Low Countries, as organized by ...
Netter, Thomas

Thomas Netter

Theologian and controversialist, b. at Saffron Waldon, Essex, England, about 1375; d. at Rouen, ...
Neugart, Trudpert

Trudpert Neugart

Benedictine historian, born at Villingen, Baden, 23 February, 1742; died at St Paul's ...
Neum

Neum

(Latin, neuma, pneuma, or neupma, from Greek pneûma, a nod). A term in medieval ...
Neumann, Johann Balthasar

Johann Balthasar Neumann

Born 1687 at Eger; died 1753 at Würzburg, master of the rococo style and one of the ...
Neumayr, Franz

Franz Neumayr

Preacher, writer on theological, controversial and ascetical subjects, and author of many ...
Neusohl

Neusohl

Diocese of Neusohl (Hung. Beszterczebànya; Lat. Neosoliensis), founded in 1776 by Maria ...
Neutra

Neutra

(Nitria; Nyitha) -- Diocese of Neutra (Nitriensis). Diocese in Western Hungary, a suffragan of ...
Nevada

Nevada

A Western state of the United States , bounded on the North by Oregon and Idaho, on the East ...
Neve

Neve

Titular see of Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. Two of its bishops are known: Petronius, who ...
Nevers

Nevers

(Nivernum) Diocese ; includes the Department of Nièvre, in France. Suppressed by the ...
Neville

Neville

(1) Edmund Neville ( alias Sales), a Jesuit, born at Hopcut, Lancashire, 1605; died in ...
New Abbey

New Abbey

The Abbey of Sweetheart, named New Abbey Pow, or New Abbey, in order to distinguish it, from ...
New Caledonia

New Caledonia

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC New Caledonia, one of the largest islands of Oceania, lies about 900 miles ...
New Guinea

New Guinea

The second largest island and one of the least known countries of the world, lies immediately ...
New Hampshire

New Hampshire

The most northerly of the thirteen original states of the United States, lying between 70°37' ...
New Jersey

New Jersey

One of the original thirteen states of the American Union. It ratified the Federal Constitution ...
New Mexico

New Mexico

A territory of the United States now (Jan., 1911) awaiting only the completion of its ...
New Norcia

New Norcia

A Benedictine abbey in Western Australia, founded on 1 March, 1846, by a Spanish Benedictine, ...
New Orleans

New Orleans

ARCHDIOCESE OF NEW ORLEANS (NOVÆ AURELIÆ). Erected 25 April, 1793, as the Diocese of ...
New Pomerania

New Pomerania

New Pomerania, the largest island of the Bismarck Archipelago, is separated from New Guinea by ...
New Testament

New Testament

I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...
New Testament, Canon of the

Canon of the New Testament

The Catholic New Testament, as defined by the Council of Trent, does not differ, as regards the ...
New Year's Day

New Year's Day

The word year is etymologically the same as hour (Skeat), and signifies a going, movement ...
New York (Archdiocese)

New York

ARCHDIOCESE OF NEW YORK (NEO-EBORACENSIS). See erected 8 April, 1808; made archiepiscopal 19 ...
New York (State)

State of New York

One of the thirteen colonies of Great Britain, which on 4 July, 1776, adopted the Declaration of ...
New Zealand

New Zealand

New Zealand—formerly described as a colony—has, since September, 1907, by royal ...
Newark

Newark

(NOVARCENSIS) Diocese created in 1853, suffragan of New York and comprising Hudson, Passaic, ...
Newbattle

Newbattle

( Neubotle , i.e. new dwelling). Newbattle, in the ancient Diocese of St. Andrews, about ...
Newdigate, Blessed Sebastian

Blessed Sebastian Newdigate

Executed at Tyburn, 19 June, 1535. A younger son of John Newdigate of Harefield Place, Middlesex, ...
Newfoundland

Newfoundland

A British colony of North America (area 42,734 square miles), bounded on the north by the Strait ...
Newhouse, Abbey of

Abbey of Newhouse

The Abbey of Newhouse, near Brockelsby, Lincoln, the first Premonstratensian abbey in England, ...
Newman, John Henry

John Henry Newman

(1801-1890) Cardinal-Deacon of St. George in Velabro, divine, philosopher, man of letters, ...
Newport (England)

Newport (England)

(NEOPORTENSIS) This diocese takes its name from Newport, a town of about 70,000 inhabitants, ...
Newton, John

John Newton

A soldier and engineer, born at Norfolk, Virginia, 24 August, 1823; died in New York City, 1 May, ...
Niagara University

Niagara University

Niagara University, situated near Niagara Falls, New York, is conducted by the Vincentians. It ...
Nicéron, Jean-Pierre

Jean-Pierre Niceron

A French lexicographer, born in Paris, 11 March, 1685, died there, 8 July, 1738. After his ...
Nicaea

Nicaea

Titular see of Bithynia Secunda, situated on Lake Ascanius, in a fertile plain, but very ...
Nicaea, First Council of

First Council of Nicaea

First Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church, held in 325 on the occasion of the heresy of ...
Nicaea, Second Council of

Second Council of Nicaea

Seventh Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church, held in 787. (For an account of the ...
Nicaragua

Nicaragua

(REPUBLIC AND DIOCESE OF NICARAGUA; DE NICARAGUA) The diocese, suffragan of Guatemala, is ...
Nicastro

Nicastro

(NEOCASTRENSIS). A city of the Province of Catanzaro, in Calabria, southern Italy, situated ...
Niccola Pisano

Niccola Pisano

Architect and sculptor, b. at Pisa about 1205-07; d. there, 1278. He was the father of modern ...
Nice

Nice

(NICIENSIS) Nice comprises the Department of Alpes-Maritimes. It was re-established by the ...
Nicene Creed

Nicene Creed

As approved in amplified form at the Council of Constantinople (381), it is the profession of the ...
Nicephorus, Saint

St. Nicephorus

Patriarch of Constantinople, 806-815, b. about 758; d. 2 June, 829. This champion of the orthodox ...
Nicetas

Nicetas

(NICETA) A Bishop of Remesiana (Romatiana) in what is now Servia, born about 335; died ...
Nicetius, Saint

St. Nicetius

A Bishop of Trier, born in the latter part of the fifth century, exact date unknown; died in ...
Niche

Niche

A recess for the reception of a statue, so designed as to give it emphasis, frame it effectively, ...
Nicholas Garlick, Venerable

Ven. Nicholas Garlick

Priest and martyr, born at Dinting, Derbyshire, c. 1555; died at Derby, 24 July, 1588. He ...
Nicholas I, Saint, Pope

Pope Saint Nicholas I

Born at Rome, date unknown; died 13 November, 867. One of the great popes of the Middle ...
Nicholas II, Pope

Pope Nicholas II

(GERHARD OF BURGUNDY) Nicholas was born at Chevron, in what is now Savoy ; elected at Siena, ...
Nicholas III, Pope

Pope Nicholas III

(GIOVANNI GAETANI ORSINI) Born at Rome, c. 1216; elected at Viterbo, 25 November, 1277; died ...
Nicholas IV, Pope

Pope Nicholas IV

(GIROLAMO MASCI) Born at Ascoli in the Rome, 4 April, 1292. He was of humble extraction, ...
Nicholas Justiniani

Nicholas Justiniani

Date of birth unknown, became monk in the Benedictine monastery of San Niccoló del Lido ...
Nicholas of Cusa

Nicholas of Cusa

German cardinal, philosopher, and administrator, b. at Cues on the Moselle, in the Archdiocese ...
Nicholas of Flüe, Blessed

Blessed Nicholas of Flue

(D E R UPE ). Born 21 March, 1417, on the Flüeli, a fertile plateau near Sachseln, ...
Nicholas of Gorran

Nicholas of Gorran

(Or GORRAIN) Medieval preacher, and scriptural commentator; b. in 1232 at Gorron, France ; ...
Nicholas of Lyra

Nicholas of Lyra

( Doctor planus et utilis ) Exegete, b. at Lyra in Normandy, 1270; d. at Paris, 1340. The ...
Nicholas of Myra, Saint

St. Nicholas of Myra

( Also called NICHOLAS OF BARI). Bishop of Myra in Lycia; died 6 December, 345 or 352. ...
Nicholas of Osimo

Nicholas of Osimo

(AUXIMANUS). A celebrated preacher and author, b. at Osimo, Italy, in the second half of the ...
Nicholas of Strasburg

Nicholas of Strasburg

Mystic ; flourished early in the fourteenth century. Educated at Paris, he was later on lector ...
Nicholas of Tolentino, Saint

St. Nicholas of Tolentino

Born at Sant' Angelo, near Fermo, in the Hermits of St. Augustine -- a star above him or on his ...
Nicholas Owen, Saint

St. Nicholas Owen

A Jesuit lay-brother, martyred in 1606. There is no record of his parentage, birthplace, date ...
Nicholas Pieck, Saint

St. Nicholas Pieck

(Also spelled PICK). Friar Minor and martyr, b. at Gorkum, Holland, 29 August, 1534; d. at ...
Nicholas V, Pope

Pope Nicholas V

(TOMMASO PARENTUCELLI) A name never to be mentioned without reverence by every lover of ...
Nichols, Venerable George

Ven. George Nichols

(Or NICOLLS). English martyr, born at Oxford about 1550; executed at Oxford, 19 October, ...
Nicholson, Francis

Francis Nicholson

A controversial writer; b. at Manchester, 1650 ( baptized 27 Oct.); d. at Lisbon, 13 Aug., 1731. ...
Nicodemus

Nicodemus

A prominent Jew of the time of Christ, mentioned only in the Fourth Gospel . The name is of ...
Nicodemus, Gospel of

Acta Pilati

(Or the Gospel of Nicodemus.) This work does not assume to have written by Pilate, but to have ...
Nicolò de' Tudeschi

Nicolo De' Tudeschi

("abbas modernus" or "recentior", "abbas Panormitanus" or "Siculus") A Benedictine canonist, ...
Nicolaï, Jean

Jean Nicolai

Celebrated Dominican theologian and controversialist, b. in 1594 at Mouzay in the Diocese of ...
Nicolaites

Nicolaites Or Nicolaitans

(Also called Nicolaitans), a sect mentioned in the Apocalypse (ii,6,15) as existing in ...
Nicolas, Armella

Armella Nicolas

Popularly known as "La bonne Armelle", a saintly French serving-maid held in high veneration among ...
Nicolas, Auguste

Auguste Nicolas

French apologist, b. at Bordeaux, 6 Jan., 1807; d. at Versailles 18 Jan., 1888. He first studied ...
Nicolaus Germanus

Nicolaus Germanus

(Often called "Donis" from a misapprehension of the title "Donnus" or "Donus" an abbreviated form ...
Nicole, Pierre

Pierre Nicole

Theologian and controversialist, b. 19 October, 1625, at Chartres, d. 16 November, 1695, at ...
Nicolet

Nicolet

(NICOLETANA) Diocese in the Province of Quebec, Canada, suffragan of Quebec. It comprises the ...
Nicomedes, Saint

Saint Nicomedes

Martyr of unknown era, whose feast is observed 15 September. The Roman Martyrologium and the ...
Nicomedia

Nicomedia

Titular see of Bithynia Prima, founded by King Zipoetes. About 264 B.C. his son Nicodemes I ...
Nicopolis

Nicopolis (Armenia Prima)

A titular see, suffragan of Sebasteia, in Armenia Prima. Founded by Pompey after his decisive ...
Nicopolis

Nicopolis

(NICOPOLITANA) Diocese in Bulgaria. The city of Nicopolis (Thrace or Moesia), situated at the ...
Nicopolis

Nicopolis

A titular see and metropolis in ancient Epirus. Augustus founded the city (B.C. 31) on a ...
Nicosia

Nicosia (Sicily)

A city of the Province of Catania, in Sicily situated at a height of about 2800 feet above the ...
Nicosia

Nicosia (Cyprus)

Titular archdiocese in the Province of Cyprus. It is now agreed (Oberhummer' "Aus Cypern" in ...
Nicotera and Tropea

Nicotera and Tropea

(NICOTERENSIS ET TROPEIENSIS) Suffragan diocese of Reggio di Calabria. Nicotera, the ancient ...
Nider, John

John Nider

Theologian, b. 1380 in Swabia; d. 13 August, 1438, at Colmar. He entered the Order of Preachers ...
Nieremberg y Otin, Juan Eusebio

Juan Eusebio Nieremberg y Otin

Noted theologian and polygraphist, b. of German parents at Madrid, 1595; d. there, 1658. ...
Niessenberger, Hans

Hans Niessenberger

An architect of the latter part of the Middle Ages, whose name is mentioned with comparative ...
Niger, Peter George

Peter George Niger

(NIGRI, German SCHWARTZ) Dominican theologian, preacher and controversialist, b. 1434 at ...
Nigeria

Upper and Lower Nigeria

A colony of British East Africa extending from the Gulf of Guinea to Lake Chad (from 4° 30' ...
Nihilism

Nihilism

The term was first used by Turgeniev in his novel, "Fathers and Sons" (in "Russkij Vestnik", Feb., ...
Nihus, Barthold

Barthold Nihus

Convert and controversialist, b. at Holtorf in Hanover, 7 February, 1590 (according to other ...
Nikolaus von Dinkelsbühl

Nikolaus von Dinkelsbuhl

Theologian, b. c. 1360, at Dinkelsbühl; d. 17 March, 1433, at Mariazell in Styria. He ...
Nikon

Nikon

Patriarch of Moscow (1652-1658; d. 1681). He was of peasant origin, born in the district of ...
Nilles, Nikolaus

Nikolaus Nilles

Born 21 June, 1828, of a wealthy peasant family of Rippweiler, Luxemburg ; died 31 January, ...
Nilopolis

Nilopolis

A titular see and a suffragan of Oxyrynchos, in Egypt. According to Ptolemy (IV, v, 26) the ...
Nilus the Younger

Nilus the Younger

Of Rossano, in Calabria; born in 910, died 27 December, 1005. For a time he was married (or ...
Nilus, Saint

St. Nilus

( Neilos ) Nilus the elder, of Sinai (died c. 430), was one of the many disciples and ...
Nimbus

Nimbus

(Latin, related to Nebula, nephele , properly vapour, cloud), in art and archaeology signifies ...
Nimrod

Nemrod

Also N IMROD ( nmrd of uncertain signification, Septuagint Nebród ). The name of ...
Ninian, Saint

Saint Ninian

(NINIAS, NINUS, DINAN, RINGAN, RINGEN) Bishop and confessor ; date of birth unknown; died ...
Nirschl, Joseph

Joseph Nirschl

Theologian and writer, b. at Durchfurth, Lower Bavaria, 24 February, 1823; d. at ...
Nisibis

Nisibis

A titular Archdiocese of Mesopotamia, situated on the Mygdonius at the foot of Mt. Masius. It is ...
Nithard

Nithard

Frankish historian, son of Angilbert and Bertha, daughter of Charlemagne ; died about 843 or ...
Noah

Noah

[Hebrew Nôah , "rest"; Greek Noah ; Latin Noah ]. The ninth patriarch of the ...
Noah's Ark

Noah's Ark

The Hebrew name to designate Noah's Ark, the one which occurs again in the history of Moses' ...
Noailles, Louis-Antoine de

Louis-Antoine de Noailles

Cardinal and bishop, b. at the Château of Teyssiére in Auvergne, France, 27 May, ...
Nobili, Robert de'

Robert De' Nobili

Born at Montepulciano, Tuscany, September, 1577; died at Mylapore, India, in 1656. He entered the ...
Noble, Daniel

Daniel Noble

Physician, b. 14 Jan., 1810; d. at Manchester, 12 Jan, 1885. He was the son of Mary Dewhurst and ...
Nocera

Nocera

DIOCESE OF NOCERA (NUCERINENSIS) Diocese in Perugia, Umbria, Italy, near the sources of the ...
Nocera dei Pagani

Nocera Dei Pagani

(NUCERIN PAGANORUM; dei Pagani ="of the Pagans") Diocese in Salermo, Italy, at the foot of ...
Nocturns

Nocturns

( Nocturni or Nocturna ). A very old term applied to night Offices. Tertullian speaks of ...
Nogaret, Guillaume de

Guillaume de Nogaret

Born about the middle of the thirteenth century at St. Felix-en-Lauragais; died 1314; he was one ...
Nola

Nola

(NOLANA) Diocese ; suffragan of Naples. The city of Nola in the Italian Province of Caserta, ...
Nola, Giovanni Marliano da

Giovanni Marliano da Nola

Sculptor and architect, b., it is said, of a leather merchant named Giuseppe, at Nola, near ...
Nolasco, Saint Peter

St. Peter Nolasco

Born at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, near Castelnaudary, France, in 1189 (or 1182); died at ...
Nollet, Jean-Antoine

Jean-Antoine Nollet

Physicist, b. at Pimpré, Oise, France, 19 November, 1700; d. at Paris, 25 April, 1770. His ...
Nominalism, Realism, Conceptualism

Nominalism, Realism, Conceptualism

These terms are used to designate the theories that have been proposed as solutions of one of the ...
Nomination

Nomination

The various methods of designating persons for ecclesiastical benefices or offices have been ...
Nomocanon

Nomocanon

(From the Greek nomos , law, and kanon , a rule) A collection of ecclesiastical law, the ...
Non Expedit

Non Expedit

("It is not expedient"). Words with which the Holy See enjoined upon Italian Catholics the ...
Non-Jurors

Non-Jurors

The name given to the Anglican Churchmen who in 1689 refused to take the oath of allegiance to ...
Nonantola

Nonantola

A former Benedictine monastery and prelature nullius , six miles north-east of Modena ...
Nonconformists

Nonconformists

A name which, in its most general acceptation, denotes those refusing to conform with the ...
None

None

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Origin of None; II. None from the ...
Nonnotte, Claude-Adrien

Claude-Adrien Nonnotte

Controversialist; b. in Besançon, 29 July, 1711; d. there, 3 September, 1793. At nineteen ...
Nonnus

Nonnus

Nonnus, of Panopolis in Upper Egypt (c. 400), the reputed author of two poems in hexameters; ...
Norbert, Saint

St. Norbert

Born at Kanten on the left bank of the Rhine, near Wesel, c. 1080; died at Magdeburg, 6 June, ...
Norbertines

Premonstratensian Canons

(C ANONICI R EGULARES P RÆMONSTRATENSES ). Founded in 1120 by St. Norbert at ...
Norcia

Norcia

(NORSIN). A diocese and city in Perugia, Italy, often mentioned in Roman history. In the ...
Norfolk, Catholic Dukes of

Post-Reformation Catholic Dukes of Norfolk

(Since the Reformation) Under this title are accounts only of the prominent Catholic Dukes of ...
Noris, Henry

Henry Noris

Cardinal, b. at Verona, 29 August, 1631, of English ancestry; d. at Rome, 23 Feb., 1704. He ...
Normandy

Normandy

An ancient French province, from which five "departments" were formed in 1790: ...
Norris, Sylvester

Sylvester Norris

( Alias SMITH, NEWTON). Controversial writer and English missionary priest ; b. 1570 or ...
Norsemen

Northmen (Vikings)

The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western ...
North Carolina

North Carolina

One of the original thirteen States of the United States, is situated between 33° 53' and ...
North Dakota

North Dakota

One of the United States of America , originally included in the Louisiana Purchase. Little was ...
Northampton

Northampton

(NORTANTONIENSIS) Diocese in England, comprises the Counties of Northampton, Bedford, ...
Northcote, James Spencer

James Spencer Northcote

Born at Feniton Court, Devonshire, 26 May, 1821; d. at Stoke-upon-Trent, Staffordshire, 3 March, ...
Northern Territory

Northern Territory

(Prefecture Apostolic) The Northern Territory, formerly Alexander Land, is that part of ...
Northmen

Northmen (Vikings)

The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western ...
Norton, Christopher

Christopher Norton

Martyr ; executed at Tyburn, 27 May, 1570. His father was Richard Norton of Norton Conyers, ...
Norway

Norway

Norway, comprising the smaller division of the Scandinavian peninsula, is bounded on the east by ...
Norwich, Ancient Diocese of

Ancient Diocese of Norwich

(NORDOVICUM; NORVICUM). Though this see took its present name only in the eleventh century, ...
Notaries

Notaries

( Latin notarius ). Persons appointed by competent authority to draw up official or authentic ...
Notburga

Jean-Baptiste Nothomb

Jean-Baptiste Belgian statesman, b. 3 July, 1805, at Messancy, Luxemburg ; d. at Berlin, 16 ...
Notburga, Saint

St. Notburga

Patroness of servants and peasants, b. c. 1265 at Rattenberg on the Inn; d. c. 16 September, 1313. ...
Nothomb, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Nothomb

Jean-Baptiste Belgian statesman, b. 3 July, 1805, at Messancy, Luxemburg ; d. at Berlin, 16 ...
Notitia Dignitatum

Notitia Dignitatum

(Register of Offices). The official handbook of the civil and military officials in the later ...
Notitia Provinciarum et Civitatum Africae

Notitia Provinciarum Et Civitatum Africae

(List of the Provinces and Cities of Africa). A list of the bishops and their sees in the ...
Notitiae Episcopatuum

Notitiae Episcopatuum

The name given to official documents that furnish for Eastern countries the list and hierarchical ...
Notker

Notker

Among the various monks of St. Gall who bore this name, the following are the most important: ...
Noto

Noto

(NETEN). Noto, the ancient Netum and after the Saracen conquest the capital of one of the ...
Notoriety, Notorious

Notoriety

( Latin Notorietas, notorium , from notus , known). Notoriety is the quality or the ...
Notre Dame de Montreal, Congregation of

Congregation of Notre Dame de Montreal

Marguerite Bourgeoys, the foundress, was born at Troyes, France, 17 April, 1620. She was the ...
Notre Dame, School Sisters of

School Sisters of Notre Dame

A religious community devoted to education. In the United Sates they have conducted parish ...
Notre Dame, Sisters of (of Cleveland, Ohio)

Sisters of Notre Dame (Cleveland, Ohio)

A branch of the congregation founded by Blessed Julie Billiart. In 1850, Father Elting of ...
Notre Dame, University of

University of Notre Dame

(Full name is the University of Notre Dame du Lac ). Notre Dame is located in Northern ...
Notre-Dame de Namur, Institute of

Institute of Notre-Dame de Namur

Founded in 1803 at Amiens, France, by Bl. Julie Billiart (b. 1751 d. 1816) and ...
Notre-Dame de Sion, Congregation of

Congregation of Notre-Dame de Sion

Religious institute of women, founded at Paris in May 1843, by Marie-Théodore and ...
Nottingham

Nottingham

(NOTTINGHAMIEN) One of the original twelve English dioceses created at the time of the ...
Nourrisson, Jean-Felix

Jean-Felix Nourrisson

Philosopher, b. at Thiers, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, 18 July, 1825; d. at Paris, 13 June, ...
Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia

I. GEOGRAPHY Nova Scotia is one of the maritime provinces of Canada. It forms part of what was ...
Novara

Novara

(NOVARIENSIS). A diocese and the capital of the province of Novara, Piedmont, Italy, noted ...
Novatianism

Novatian and Novatianism

Novatian was a schismatic of the third century, and founder of the sect of the Novatians; he ...
Novatus, Saint

St. Novatus

St. Novatus, who is mentioned on 20 June with his brother, the martyr Timotheus, was the son of ...
Novello, Blessed Agostino

Bl. Agostino Novello

(Matteo Di Termini), born in the first half of the thirteenth century, at Termini, a village of ...
Novena

Novena

(From novem , nine.) A nine days' private or public devotion in the Catholic Church to ...
Novice

Novice

I. DEFINITION AND REQUIREMENTS The word novice , which among the Romans meant a newly acquired ...
Nubia

Nubia

Located in North-eastern Africa, extending from Sennar south to beyond Khartoum and including the ...
Nueva Cáceres

Nueva Caceres

(NOVA CACERES) Diocese created in 1595 by Clement VIII ; it is one of the four suffragan ...
Nueva Pamplona

Nueva Pamplona

(NEO-PAMPILONENSIS). Diocese in Colombia, South America, founded in 1549 and a see erected by ...
Nueva Segovia

Nueva Segovia

(NOVAE SEGOBIAE) Diocese in the Philippines, so called from Segovia, a town in Spain. The town ...
Nugent, Francis

Francis Nugent

Priest of the Franciscan Capuchin Order, founder of the Irish and the Rhenish Provinces of said ...
Nugent, James

James Nugent

Philanthropist, temperance advocate and social reformer b. 3 March, 1822 at Liverpool ; d. 27 ...
Numbers, Use of, in the Church

Use of Numbers in the Church

No attentive reader of the Old Testament can fail to notice that a certain sacredness seems to ...
Numismatics

Numismatics

(From the Greek nomisma , "legal currency") Numismatics is the science of coins and of ...
Nun of Kent

Elizabeth Barton

Born probably in 1506; executed at Tyburn, 20 April, 1534; called the "Nun of Kent." The career of ...
Nunc Dimittis

Nunc Dimittis

(The Canticle of Simeon). Found in St. Luke's Gospel (2:29-32) , is the last in historical ...
Nuncio

Nuncio

An ordinary and permanent representative of the pope, vested with both political and ...
Nunez, Pedro

Pedro Nunez (Nonius)

(Pedro Nonius). Mathematician and astronomer, b. at Alcacer-do-Sol, 1492; d. at Coimbra, ...
Nuns

Nuns

I. ORIGIN AND HISTORY The institution of nuns and sisters, who devote themselves in various ...
Nuptial Mass

Nuptial Mass

"Missa pro sponso et sponsa", the last among the votive Masses in the Missal. It is composed of ...
Nuremberg

Nuremberg

(NÜRNBERG) The second largest city in Bavaria, situated in a plain on both sides of the ...
Nusco

Nusco

(N USCANA ) Diocese in the province of Avellino, Italy, suffragan of Salerno ; dates from ...
Nussbaum, Johannn Nepomuk von

Johann Nepomuk von Nussbaum

German surgeon, b. at Munich 2 Sept., 1829; d. there 31 Oct., 1890. He made his studies in the ...
Nutter, Robert, Ven.

Ven. Robert Nutter

English martyr ; b. at Burnley, Lancashire, c. 1550; executed at Lancaster, 26 July, 1600. He ...
Nuyens, Wilhelmus

Wilhelmus Nuyens

Historian, b. 18 August, 1823, at Avenhorn in Holland ; d. 10 December, 1894, at Westwoud near ...
Nyassa

Nyassa

Vicariate Apostolic in Central Africa, bounded north by the Anglo-German frontier, east by Lake ...
Nympha, Tryphon, and Respicius

Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...
Nyssa

Nyassa

Vicariate Apostolic in Central Africa, bounded north by the Anglo-German frontier, east by Lake ...
Nyssa

Nyssa (Cappadocia Prima)

A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. It is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, vii, ...

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