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The Franks

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The Franks were a confederation formed in Western Germany of a certain number of ancient barbarian tribes who occupied the right shore of the Rhine from Mainz to the sea. Their name is first mentioned by Roman historians in connection with a battle fought against this people about the year 241. In the third century some of them crossed the Rhine and settled in Belgic Gaul on the banks of the Meuse and the Scheldt, and the Romans had endeavoured to expel them from the territory. Constantius Chlorus and his descendants continued the struggle, and, although Julian the Apostate inflicted a serious defeat on them in 359, he did not succeed in exterminating them, and eventually Rome was satisfied to make them her more or less faithful allies. After their overthrow by Julian the Apostate, the Franks of Belgium, becoming peaceful settlers, appear to have given the empire no further trouble, satisfied with having found shelter and sustenance on Roman soil. They even espoused Rome's cause during the great invasion of 406, but were overpowered by the ruthless hordes who devastated Belgium and overran Gaul and a part of Italy and Spain. Thenceforth the Belgian provinces ceased to be under the control of Rome and passed under the rule of the Franks.

When they first attracted attention in history the Franks were established in the northern part of Belgic Gaul, in the districts where their Germanic dialect is still spoken. Gregory of Tours tells us that their chief town was Dispargum, which is perhaps Tongres and that they were under a family of kings distinguished by their long hair, which they allowed to flow over their shoulders, while the other Frankish warriors had the back of the head shaved. This family was known as the Merovingians, from the name of one of its members, to whom national tradition had ascribed a sea-god as ancestor. Clodion, the first king of this dynasty known to history, began his series of conquests in Northern Gaul about the year 430. He penetrated as far as Artois, but was driven back by Aëtius, who seems to have succeeded in keeping him on friendly terms with Rome. In fact, it seems that his son Merovaeus fought with the Romans against Attila on the Mauriac plains. Childeric, son of Merovaeus, also served the empire under Count Aegidius and subsequently under Count Paul, whom he assisted in repelling the Saxons from Angers. Childeric died at Tournai, his capital, where his tomb was found in 1653 (Cochet, Le tombeau de Childéric, Paris, 1859). But Childeric did not transmit to his son Clovis, who succeeded him in 481, the entire inheritance left by Clodion. The latter seems to have reigned over all the Cis-Rhenish Franks, and the monarchy was divided among his descendants, although the exact time of the division is not known. There were now two Frankish groups: the Ripuarians, who occupied the banks of the Rhine and whose kings resided in Cologne, and the Salians who had established themselves in the Low Countries. The Salians did not form a single kingdom; besides the Kingdom of Tournai there were kingdoms with centres at Cambrai and Tongres. Their sovereigns, both Salian and Ripuarian, belonged to the Merovingian family and seem to have been descended from Clodion.

When Clovis began to reign in 481, he was, like his father, King of Tournai only, but at an early date he began his career of conquest. In 486 he over threw the monarchy that Syagrius, son of Aegidius, had carved out for himself in Northern Gaul, and set up his court at Soissons ; in 490 and 491 he took possession of the Salian Kingdoms of Cambrai and Tongres; in 496 he triumphantly repelled an invasion of the Alamanni; in 500 he interposed in the war of the Burgundian kings; in 506 he conquered Aquitaine; and at length he annexed the Ripuarian Kingdom of Cologne. Henceforth Gaul, from the Pyrenees to the Rhine, was subject to Clovis, with the exception of the territory in the southeast, i.e. the kingdom of the Burgundians and Provence. Established at Paris, Clovis governed this kingdom by virtue of an agreement concluded with the bishops of Gaul, according to which natives and barbarians were to be on terms of equality, and all cause of friction between the two races was removed when, in 496, the king was converted to Catholicism. The Frankish kingdom thereupon took its place in history under more promising conditions than were to be found in any other state founded upon the ruins of the Roman Empire. All free men bore the title of Frank, had the same political status, and were eligible to the same offices. Besides, each individual observed the law of the people among whom he belonged; the Gallo-Roman lived according to the code, the barbarian according to the Salian or Ripuarian law ; in other words, the law was personal, not territorial. If there were any privileges they belonged to the Gallo-Romans, who, in the beginning were the only ones on whom the episcopal dignity was conferred. The king governed the provinces through his counts, and had a considerable voice in the selection of the clergy. The drawing up of the Salian Law ( Lex Salica ), which seems to date from the early part of the reign of Clovis, and the Council of Orléans, convoked by him and held in the last year of his reign, prove that the legislative activity of this king was not eclipsed by his military energy (see CLOVIS). Although founder of a kingdom destined to such a brilliant future, Clovis did not know how to shield it against a custom in vogue among the barbarians, i.e. the division of power among the sons of the king. This custom originated in the pagan idea that all kings were intended to reign because they were descended from the gods. Divine blood flowed in the veins of all the king's sons, each of whom, therefore, being a king by birth, must have his share of the kingdom. This view, incompatible with the formation of a powerful, durable monarchy, had been vigorously rejected by Genseric the Vandal, who, to secure the indivisibility of his kingdom, had established in his family a certain order of succession. Either because he died suddenly or for some other reason, Clovis took no measures to abolish this custom, which continued among the Franks until the middle of the ninth century and, more than once, endangered their nationality.

After the death of Clovis, therefore, his four sons divided his kingdom, each reigning from a different centre: Thierry at Metz, Clodomir at Orléans, Childebert at Paris, and Clotaire at Soissons. They continued the career of conquest inaugurated by their father, and, in spite of the frequent discords that divided them, augmented the estates he had left them. The principal events of their reign were:

  • The destruction of the Kingdom of Thuringia by Thierry in 531, which extended Frankish power into the heart of what is now Germany ;
  • the conquest of the Kingdom of the Burgundians by Childebert and Clotaire in 532, after their brother Clodomir had perished in a previous attempt to overthrow it in 524;
  • the cession of Provence to the Franks by the Ostrogoths in 536, on condition that the former would assist them in the war just declared against them by Emperor Justinian. But instead of helping the Ostrogoths, the Franks under Theudebert, son of Thierry, taking shameful advantage of this oppressed people, cruelly pillaged Italy until the bands under the command of Leuthar and Butilin were exterminated by Narses in 553.
The death of Theudebert, in 548, was soon followed by that of his son Theobald, in 555, and by the death of Childebert in 558, Clotaire I, the last of the four brothers, becoming sole heir to the estate of his father, Clovis. Clotaire reduced the Saxons and Bavarians to a state of vassalage, and died in 561 leaving four sons; once more the monarchy was divided, being partitioned in about the same way as on the death of Clovis in 511: Gontran reigned at Orléans, Charibert at Paris, Sigebert at Reims, and Chilperic at Soissons. Charibert's death in 567 and the division of his estate occasioned quarrels between Chilperic and Sigebert, already at odds on account of their wives. Unlike his brothers, who had been satisfied to marry serving-women, Sigebert had won the hand of the beautiful Brunehilde, daughter of Athanagild, King of the Visigoths. Chilperic had followed Sigebert's example by marrying Galeswintha, Brunehilde's sister, but at the instigation of his mistress, Fredegonda, he soon had Galeswintha assassinated and placed Fredegonda upon the throne. Brunehilde's determination to avenge the death of her sister involved in bitter strife not only the two women but their husbands. In 575 Sigebert, who was repeatedly provoked by Chilperic, took the field, resolved to bring the quarrel to a conclusion. Chilperic, already banished from his kingdom, had taken refuge behind the walls of Tournai, whence he had no hope of escape, when, just as Sigebert's soldiers were about to raise him to the throne, he was felled by assassins sent by Fredegonda. Immediately the aspect of affairs changed: Brunehilde, humiliated and taken prisoner, escaped only with the greatest difficulty and after the most thrilling adventures, while Fredegonda and Chilperic exulted in their triumph. The rivalry between the two kingdoms, henceforth known respectively as Austrasia (Kingdom of the East) and Neustria (Kingdom of the West), only grew fiercer. Gontran's kingdom continued to be called Burgundy. First the nobles of Austrasia and then Brunehilde who had become regent, led the campaign against Chilperic, who perished in 584 at the hand of an assassin. The murderer could not be ascertained. During this period of intestine strife, King Gontran was vainly endeavouring to wrest Septimania from the Visigoths, as well as defend himself against the pretender Gondowald, the natural son of Clotaire I, who, aided by the nobles, tried to seize part of the kingdom, but fell in the attempt. When Gontran died in 592, his inheritance passed to Childebert II, son of Sigebert and Brunehilde, and after this king's death in 595 his states were divided between his two sons, Theudebert II taking and Thierry II Burgundy. In 600 and 604 the two brothers united their forces against Clotaire II, son of Chilperic and Fredegonda, and reduced him to the condition of a petty king. Soon, however, jealousy sprang up between the two brothers, they waged war on each other, and Theudebert, twice defeated, was killed. The victorious Thierry was about inflict a like fate on Clotaire II, but died in 613, being still young and undoubtedly the victim of the excesses that had shortened the careers of most of the Merovingian princes. Brunehilde, who, throughout the reigns of her son and grandsons, had been very influential, now assumed the guardianship of her great-grandson, Sigebert II, and the government of the two kingdoms. But the earlier struggle between monarchical absolutism and the independence of the Frankish nobility now broke out with tragic violence. It had long been latent, but the sight of a woman exercising absolute power caused it to break forth with boundless fury. The Austrasian nobles, eager to avenge the sad fate of Thierry, joined with Clotaire II, King of Neustria, who took possession of the Kingdoms of Burgundy and Austrasia. The children of Thierry II were slain. Brunehilde, who fell into the hands of the victor, was tied to the tail of a wild horse and perished (613). She had erred in imposing a despotic government on a people who chafed under government of any kind. Her punishment was a frightful death and the cruel calumnies with which her conquerors blackened her memory.

The nobles had triumphed. They dictated to Clotaire II the terms of victory and he accepted them in the celebrated edict of 614, at least a partial capitulation of Frankish royalty to the nobility. The king promised to withdraw his counts from the provinces under his rule, i.e. he was virtually to abandon these parts to the nobles, who were also to have a voice in the selection of the prime minister or "mayor of the palace", as he was then called. He likewise promised to abolish the new taxes and to respect the immunity of the clergy, and not to interfere in the elections of bishops. He had also to continue Austrasia and Neustria as separate governments. Thus ended the conflict between the Frankish aristocracy and the monarchical power; with its close began a new period in the history of the Merovingian monarchy. As time went on royalty had to reckon more and more with the aristocracy. The Merovingian dynasty, traditionally accustomed to absolutism, and incapable of altering its point of view, was gradually deprived of all exercise of authority. In the shadow of the throne the new power continued to grow rapidly, become the successful rival of the royal house, and finally supplanted it. The great power of the aristocracy was vested in the mayor of the palace ( major domus ), originally the chief of the royal household. During the minority of the Frankish kings he acquired steadily greater importance until he came to share the royal prerogative, and eventually reached the exalted position of prime minister to the sovereign. The indifference of the latter, usually more absorbed in his pleasures than in public affairs, favoured the encroachments of the mayor of the palace", and this office finally became the hereditary right of one family, which was destined to replace the Merovingians and become the national dynasty of the Franks. Such then were the transformations which occurred in the political life of the Franks after the downfall of Brunehilde and during the reign of Clotaire II (614-29). While this king governed Neustria he was obliged, as has been said, to give Austrasia a separate government, his son Dagobert becoming its king, with Arnulf of Metz as councillor and Pepin of Landen as mayor of the palace (623). These two men were the ancestors of the Carolingian family. Arnulf was Bishop of Metz, though resident at court, but in 627 he resigned his episcopal see and retired into monastic solitude at Remiremont, where he died in the odour of sanctity. Pepin, incorrectly called of Landen (since it was only in the twelfth century that the chroniclers of Brabant began to associate him with that locality), was a great lord from Eastern Belgium. With Arnulf he had been at the head of the Austrasian opposition to Brunehilde.

On the death of Clotaire II, Dagobert I, his only heir, reestablished the unity of the Frankish monarchy and took up his residence in Paris, as Clovis had done in the past. He too was soon forced to give Austrasia a separate government, which he confided to his son Sigebert III, with Cunibert of Cologne as his Councillor and Adalgisil, son of Arnulf of Metz and son-in-law of Pepin, as mayor of the palace. Pepin, who had lost royal favour, was temporarily deprived of any voice in the government. The reign of Dagobert I was one of such great pomp and outward show, that contemporaries compared it to that of Solomon ; however, it marked a decline in the military prowess of the Franks. They subdued, it is true, the small nations of the Bretons and Basques, but were themselves beaten by the Frankish merchant Samo, who had created a Slavonic kingdom on their eastern confines. Dagobert relieved the situation only by exterminating the Bulgars who had taken refuge in Bavaria. Like most of his race, Dagobert was subject to the females of his family. He died young and was buried in the celebrated Abbey of Saint-Denis which he had founded and which subsequently became the burial-place of the kings of France. After his death Austrasia and Neustria (the latter united with Burgundy ) had the same destiny under their respective kings and mayors of the palace. In Neustria the young king, Clovis II, reigned under the guardianship of his mother, Nanthilde, with Aega, and later Erkinoald, as mayor of the palace. Sigebert III reigned in Austrasia with Pepin of Landen, who had returned and was installed as mayor of the palace after the death of Dagobert. The history of Austrasia is better known to us as far as 657 because, at that time, it had a chronicler. On the death of Pepin of Landen in 639, Otto, mayor of the palace, took the reins of power, but was overthrown and replaced by Grimoald, son of Pepin. Grimoald went even further; when, in 656, Sigebert III died, he conceived the bold plan of seizing the crown for the benefit of his family : He banished young Dagobert II, son of Sigebert, to an Irish monastery. Not daring to ascend the throne himself, he followed the example of Odoacer and gave it to his son Childebert. But this attempt, as bold as it was premature, caused his downfall. He was delivered up to Clovis II by the Austrasian nobles and, so far as can be ascertained, seems to have perished in prison. Clovis II remained sole master of the entire Frankish monarchy, but died the following year, 657.

Clotaire III (657-70), son of Clovis, succeeded his father as head of the entire monarchy under the guardianship of his mother, Bathilde, with Erkinoald as mayor of the palace. But like Clotaire II, in 614, Clovis was constrained in 660 to grant Austrasia a separate rule, and appointed his brother Childeric II its king, with Wulfoald as mayor of the palace. Austrasia was now overshadowed by Neustria owing to the strong personality of Ebroin, Erkinoald's successor as mayor of the palace. Like Brunehilde, Ebroin sought to establish a strong government and, like her, drew upon himself the passionate opposition of the aristocracy. The latter, under the leadership of St. Léger (Leodegarius), Bishop of Autun, succeeded in overthrowing Ebroin. He and King Thierry III who, in 670, had succeeded his brother Clotaire III, were consigned to a convent, Childeric II, King of Austrasia, being, summoned to replace him. Once again monarchical unity was re-established, but it was not destined to last long. Wulfoald, mayor of Austrasia, was banished, also St. Léger. Childeric II was assassinated and for a short time general anarchy reigned. However, Wulfoald, who managed to return, proclaimed King of Austrasia young Dagobert II, who had come back from exile in Ireland, while St. Léger, reinstated in Neustria, upheld King Thierry III. But Ebroin, who meanwhile had been forgotten, escaped from prison. He invaded Neustria, defeated the mayor Leudesius, Erkinoald's son, who, with the approval of St. Léger was governing this kingdom, reassumed the power, and maltreated the Bishop of Autun, whom he caused to be slain by hired assassins (678). He afterwards attacked Austrasia, banished Wulfoald, and had King Thierry III acknowledged. The opposition shown Ebroin by the Austrasian nobles under the leadership of Pippin II and Martin was broken at Laffaux (Latofao), where Martin perished, and Pepin disappeared for a while. Ebroin was then for some years real sovereign of the Frankish monarchy and exercised a degree of power that none save Clovis I and Clotaire I had possessed. There are few characters of whom it is as difficult to form a just estimate as of this powerful political genius who, without any legal authority, and solely by dint of his indomitable will, acquired supreme control of the Frankish monarchy and warded off for a time the reforms of the aristocracy. The friendship professed for Ebroin by Saint Ouen, the great Bishop of Rouen, seems to indicate that he was better than his reputation, which, like that of Brunehilde, was intentionally blackened by chroniclers who sympathized with the Frankish nobles.

Ebroin's disappearance afforded full scope to the power of the family which was now called on to give a new dynasty to the Franks. Forced to remain in obscurity for over twenty years. consequence of Grimoald's crime and downfall, this family finally reappeared at the head of Austrasia under Pepin II, inappropriately called Pepin of Heristal. There flowed in the veins of Pepin II, son of Adalgisil and of St. Begga daughter of Pepin I, the blood of the two illustrious men who, by the overthrow of Brunehilde, had established a moderate monarchy in Austrasia. Despite the defeat inflicted on him by Ebroin, Pepin remained the leader and the hope of the Austrasians, and, after the death of his adversary, vigorously resumed the kingdom which was then disturbed by the rivalry between Waratton, mayor of the palace, and his son Gislemar. From 681 to 686 the functions of mayor of the palace were alternately discharged by Waratton and Gislemar, again by Waratton, and finally, at his death, by his son-in-law Berthar. Pepin, who seems to have had amicable relations with Waratton, would not acknowledge Berthar, whom he overthrew in the battle of Testri near Soissons (687); in this way Austrasia avenged the above-mentioned defeat at Laffaux. The death of Berthar, assassinated in 688, removed the last obstacle to the authority of Pepin in Neustria, who was thenceforth simultaneously mayor of the palace for all three kingdoms. So vast was his power that from that date history merely mentions the names of the Merovingian kings whom he kept on the throne: Thierry III (d. 691), Clovis III (d. 695), Childebert III (d. 711), and Dagobert III (d. 715). Indeed, it is only for a traditional fiction of history that Pepin II is not put down as the first sovereign of the Carolingian dynasty. The direction of the destinies of the Frankish monarchy now passed from the hands of the Salian into those of the Ripuarian Franks. These constituted the Germanic element of the nation which took the place of the Roman party in the government. Their policy was better adapted to the spirit of the times inasmuch as it abolished the traditional absolutism of the Merovingians. Finally the Carolingians had the merit and the satisfaction (for it was both) of re- establishing unity in the Frankish monarchy which had been so frequently divided; from 687 to 843, that is, for over a century and a half, all the Franks were united under the same government. But Pepin II did not confine himself to restoring Frankish unity; he extended the frontiers of the monarchy by subduing the Frisians, his neighbours on the north. These restless barbarians, who occupied a large portion of the present Kingdom of the Netherlands, were fanatical pagans ; Ratbod, their duke, was a bitter enemy of Christianity. Pepin forced him to surrender Western Frisia, which nearly corresponded to the present provinces of South and North Holland, and obliged him to keep the peace for the rest of his life.

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Pepin could now consider the Kingdom of the Franks as an hereditary patrimony, and he conferred the mayoralty of Neustria on his son Grimoald. At his death in 714, which was subsequent to that of his two sons Grimoald and Drogon, he bequeathed the entire monarchy, as a family heritage, to his grandson Theodoald, Grimoald's son, still a minor. This act was a political blunder suggested to the clear- minded Pepin on his death-bed by his wife Plectrude. Pepin had a son Charles by a mistress named Alpaïde, who at his father's death was twenty-six years of age and quite capable, as events showed, of vigorously defending the paternal inheritance. It cannot be said that the stigma of illegitimacy caused him to be put aside, for Thedoald was also a natural son, but the blood of the ambitious Plectrude coursed through the latter's veins, and she reigned in his name. The people, however, would not now submit to the regency of a woman any more than in the time of Brunehilde. There was a universal uprising among the Neustrians, Aquitainians, and Frisians. Elsewhere may be found an account of these struggles. (See CHARLES MARTEL.) Here it suffices to say that Plectrude was soon cast aside and Charles Martel, whom she had thrown into prison, escaped and placed himself at the head of the national Austrasian party. Defeated at first, but soon victorious over all his enemies, Charles reduced nearly all the rebellious tribes to obedience, not only those just named, but also the Bavarians and Alamanni. His greatest service to civilization was the glorious victory over the Arabs between Tours and Poitiers (732), which earned him the name of Martel , the hammer. This conquest saved Christianity and preserved Europe from the power of the Mussulmans. It was not, however, Charles's last encounter with the Arabs ; he banished them from Provence and in 739 defeated them again on the banks of the Berre near Narbonne. This sovereign, whose exclusively military career consisted in restoring, by dint of force, an empire that was crumbling away, could not escape the accusation of having abetted violence in others and resorted to it himself. He has especially been charged with secularizing many ecclesiastical estates, which he took from churches and abbeys and gave in fief to his warriors as a recompense for their services. This land actually remained the property of the ecclesiastical establishments in questions but its hereditary usufruct was assured to the new occupants. This expedient enabled Charles Martel to collect an army and secure faithful followers. Another no less censurable practice was that of conferring the highest ecclesiastical dignities whose only right was that they were loyal soldiers of Charles Martel. However, it must be remembered that those measures enabled him to muster the forces with which he saved Christian civilization at Tours. He also aided efficaciously St. Boniface in his project of spreading the Christian Faith throughout Germany. Such were the popularity and prestige of Charles that when, in 737, King Thierry IV died, he saw no necessity of providing a successor for him, and reigned alone. He died at Quierzy-sur-Oise 21 October, 741, after having divided the provinces between his two sons: Carloman received Austrasia with its Germanic dependencies, and Pepin, Neustria, Burgundy, and Provence, while Grifon, a natural son, was excluded from the succession as Charles himself had been.

Pepin and Carloman reigned together until 747, supporting each other in their various enterprises and combating the same enemies. During the first years of their administrations they had to subdue the revolts of the Alamanni, as well as those of their brother Grifon, and of Odilo, Duke of Bavaria. They conquered all the rebels, but left to Aquitaine and Bavaria their national dukes while they abolished the Duchy of Alamannia. They also undertook the great work of reforming the Frankish Church, into which several generations of civil wars had introduced great disorders. National councils convoked, by their efforts, in Austrasia (at Estinnes, or Lestinnes) and Neustria (at Soissons ) the work of which was completed by a large council attended by the bishops of both countries, were largely instrumental in restoring order and discipline in the Church, in eliminating abuses and in rooting out superstition. St. Boniface, the soul of this great work, after having, to some extent, created the Church of Germany, had also the glory of regenerating the Frankish Church. While in this twofold task of defending the kingdom and reforming the Church, the two brothers thought of reinstating a Merovingian king (743), although for six years the nation had existed without one. It would seem that they were led to do this by the necessity of removing one of the objections that could be made to their authority, at a time when it was assailed on all sides and when they were treated as usurpers. Under these circumstances they placed upon the throne Childeric III, the last Merovingian king.

When the task common to both brothers was nearly accomplished, Carloman, yielding to the inclination he had always felt for the religious life, relinquished all his states in favour of Pepin and retired to a cloister on Mt. Soracte near Rome (747). Pepin, who thus remained alone at the head of the vast Frankish monarchy, reaped all the fruit of their combined labours. It was easy for him to subdue a last revolt by Grifon, who perished in Italy. Afterwards he enjoyed a few years of peace, a rare privilege in those stormy times. Having now become the undisputed master of the greatest nation of Europe, and confident of being able to transmit intact to his sons the power he had received from his father, Pepin considered the question whether the time had not come to assume the name to which his sovereign authority entitled him. Such a step could hardly be objected to when he was virtually king. Since the Merovingian who occupied the throne was there only at Pepin's will, it was surely Pepin's privilege to remove him. Einhard describes the character of the royalty of the last Merovingians whom the princes of Pepin's family tolerated or replaced upon the throne.

This king to whom nothing royal had been left save the title of king, sat on the throne and, with long hair and unkempt beard, played the part of master. He gave audience the ambassadors who came from various countries and issued replies that had been dictated to him, as if coming from himself. In reality outside of a hollow name and a doubtful pension paid him at the will of the mayor of the palace, he had nothing for his own save a small farm where he lived with a small number of serfs. When he went out, he rode in an ox-cart driven by a rustic driver. In this vehicle he annually attended the Champs de Mai. The mayor of the palace alone controlled public affairs.

This description, it is true, is somewhat of a caricature, and there is evidence in public charters that the position of the Merovingian kings was not as insecure as Einhard says. Nevertheless, it expresses well the marked contrast between the humiliating position of the king and the exalted, powerful standing of the mayor of the palace. It can be understood, therefore, that in 751, Pepin and the Frankish nobles might well discuss the question as to whether he should assume the kingly crown. The question had a moral side, namely, whether it was lawful to assume a title which seemed to belong to another. It was decided to appeal for a solution to the sovereign pontiff, recognized by all as the custodian and interpreter of the moral law. A Frankish embassy left for Rome and submitted the question to Pope Zachary. The latter's reply was given in the form of a declaration of principles admirably embodying Catholic doctrine on this important point: "ut melius esset", said the pope, "illum regem vocari, qui potestatem haberes, quam illum qui sine regali potestate maneret" [it were better for him to be called the king who holds the power than the one who remains (king in name) without the regal power]. Reassured by this decision, Pepin hesitated no longer, and had himself proclaimed king at Soissons in 751. Childeric III was sent to end his days in a cloister. The nature of the authority with which Pepin was invested was emphasized for the first time among the Franks, by the coronation ceremony, which imparted a religious nature to his power and imprinted upon him a sacred character. It has been said, but without proof, that St. Boniface attended the coronation. In this way, after having exercised the royal power almost uninterruptedly for over a century, the descendants of Arnulf and Pepin finally assumed the title of sovereign and the Carolingian dynasty replaced that of the Merovingians on the Frankish throne.

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Tacana Indians

Tacana Indians

The collective designation for a group of tribes constituting the Tacanan linguistic stock in ...
Tacapæ

Tacapae

Titular see of Tripolitana in northern Africa. The official list of titular sees of the ...
Taché, Alexandre-Antonin

Alexandre-Antonin Tache

First Archbishop of St. Boniface, Manitoba, missionary, prelate, statesman, and writer of ...
Taché, Etienne-Pascal

Etienne-Pascal Tache

Statesman, b. at St. Thomas (Montmagny, Province of Quebec ), 5 Sept., 1795, son of Charles, and ...
Tadama

Tadama

A titular see in Mauretania Cæsariensis, of which nothing, is known. Its bishop David is ...
Taensa Indians

Taensa Indians

A tribe of Muskhogean stock and somewhat superior culture, living when first known on the west ...
Tahiti

Tahiti

Tahiti, the most important of the Society Islands, has an area of 600 square miles and a ...
Taigi, Ven. Anna Maria

Ven. Anna Maria Taigi

( Maiden name Giannetti.) Venerable Servant of God, born at Siena, Italy, 29 May, 1769; ...
Tait Indians

Tait Indians

( Te-it , "Those up river"). A collective term for those members of the Cowichan tribe, of ...
Takkali

Takkali

(More proper Takhehi, plural Takhehlne). The hybrid name by which the Carrier Indians of the ...
Talbot, James

James Talbot

Fourth son of George Talbot and brother of the fourteenth Earl of Shrewsbury (b. 1726; d. ...
Talbot, John

John Talbot

English Catholic layman, b. 1535(?); d. 1607(?). Only son and heir of Sir John Talbot, of ...
Talbot, Peter

Peter Talbot

Archbishop of Dublin, 1669-1680; b. at Malahide, Dublin, in 1620. At an early age he entered ...
Talbot, Thomas Joseph

Thomas Talbot

Born 14 February, 1727; died at Hotwells, near Bristol, 24 April, 1795. Brother of the fourteenth ...
Tallagaht, Monastery of

Monastery of Tallagaht

The name Tallaght (Irish Tamlachta ), derived from tam , plague, and lecht , stone ...
Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles-Maurice de

Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord

Prince of Benevento, Bishop of Autun, French minister and ambassador, born in Paris, 13 ...
Tallis, Thomas

Thomas Tallis

English composer, born about 1514; died 23 November, 1585. He was a chorister at Saint ...
Talmud

Talmud

1. DEFINITION Talmud was a post-Biblical substantive formation of Pi'el ("to teach"), and ...
Talon, Jean

Jean Talon

First intendant in exercise of New France , b. at Châlons-sur-Marne, 1625, of Philippe ...
Talon, Nicolas

Nicolas Talon

French Jesuit, historian, and ascetical writer, b. at Moulins, 31 August, 1605; d. at Paris, 29 ...
Talon, Pierre

Pierre Talon

A French-Canadian explorer, b. at Quebec, 1676, of Lucien and Isabelle Planteau; d. in France ...
Tamanac Indians

Tamanac Indians

A formerly important tribe of Cariban linguistic stock occupying the territory about the Cuchivero ...
Tamassus

Tamassus (Cyprus)

A titular see in Cyprus, suffragan of Salamis, was situated in the great central plain of the ...
Tamaulipas

Tamaulipas

(CIVTTATIS VICTORIÆ SIVE TAMAULIPENSIS) Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of ...
Tamburini, Michelangelo

Michelangelo Tamburini

Fourteenth General of the Society of Jesus , born at Modena, 27 Sept., 1648; died 28 Feb., ...
Tamburini, Thomas

Thomas Tamburini

Moral theologian, born at Caltanisetta in Sicily, 6 March, 1591; died at Palermo 10 October, ...
Tametsi

Tametsi

("ALTHOUGH") The first word of Chapter 1, Session 24 ( De Ref. Matr. ), of the Council of ...
Tamisier, Marie-Marthe-Baptistine

Marie-Marthe-Baptistine Tamisier

(Called by her intimates EMILIA) Initiator of international Eucharistic congresses, born at ...
Tanagra

Tanagra (Hellas)

A titular see in Hellas, suffragan of Corinth ; it was a town of Bœotia, in a fertile ...
Tancred

Tancred, Prince of Antioch

Prince of Antioch, born about 1072; died at Antioch, 12 Dec., 1112. He was the son of Marquess ...
Taney, Roger Brooke

Roger Brooke Taney

(Pronounced Tawney ) Fifth chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, ...
Tanguay, Cyprien

Cyprien Tanguay

Genealogist, born at Quebec, 1819; died 1902. After a course of classics and theology at Quebec ...
Tanis

Tanis

A titular see, suffragan of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima, capital of the fourteenth district ...
Tanner, Adam

Adam Tanner

Controversialist, born at Innsbruck in 1571; died at Unken, 25 May, 1632. He entered the Society ...
Tanner, Conrad

Conrad Tanner

Abbot of Einsiedeln, born at Arth in the Canton of Schwyz, 28 Dec., 1752; died 7 April, 1825. He ...
Tanner, Edmund

Edmund Tanner

Bishop of Cork and Cloyne, Ireland, 1574-1579; born about 1526; died 1579. The statement in ...
Tanner, Matthias

Matthias Tanner

Born at Pilsen in Bohemia, 28 Feb., 1630; died at Prague, 8 Feb., 1692. He entered the Society ...
Tantum Ergo

Tantum Ergo

The opening words of the penultimate stanza of the Vesper hymn (see PANGE LINGUA GLORIOSI, II) ...
Tanucci, Bernardo

Bernardo Tanucci

Marchese, Italian statesman, born at Stia in Tuscany, of poor family, in 1698 died at Naples, 29 ...
Taoism

Taoism

(TAO-KIAO.) Taoism is the second of the three state religions ( San-kiao ) of China. ...
Taos Pueblo

Taos Pueblo

An important town of the Pueblo group, inhabited by Indians speaking the Tigua language of ...
Taparelli, Aloysius

Aloysius Taparelli

(D'AZEGLIO, christened PROSPERO) Philosopher and writer on sociological subjects, born at ...
Tapestry

Tapestry

A word of French origin naming a fabric in which the two processes of weaving and embroidering ...
Tapis, Esteban

Esteban Tapis

Born at Santa Coloma de Farnes, Catalonia, Spain, 25 Aug., 1754; died 3 Nov., 1825. He entered ...
Tarabotti, Helena

Helena Tarabotti

Nun and authoress, b. at Venice, 1605; d. there 1652. Obliged by her father, who was descended ...
Tarachus, Probus, and Andronicus, Saints

Sts. Tarachus, Probus, and Andronicus

Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...
Taranto

Taranto

DIOCESE OF TARANTO (TARENTINA) Diocese in southern Italy, on a bay in the Gulf of Taranto. The ...
Tarapacá

Tarapaca

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF TARAPACA (DE TARAPACA). Situated in Chile, bounded on the north by the ...
Tarasius, Saint

St. Tarasius

Patriarch of Constantinople, date of birth unknown; died 25 February, 806. He was the son of the ...
Tarazona

Tarazona

DIOCESE OF TARAZONA (TURIASONENSIS) The Diocese of Tarazona comprises the Spanish provinces of ...
Tarbes

Tarbes

DIOCESE OF TARBES (TARBIA) The Diocese of Tarbes comprises the Department of the ...
Tarentaise

Tarentaise

(TARANTASIENSIS) Tarentaise comprises the arrondissement of Moutiers in the Department of ...
Targum

Targum

Targum is the distinctive designation of the Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the Old ...
Tarisel, Pierre

Pierre Tarisel

Master-mason to the king, b. about 1442; d. in August, 1510. (In 1555 the title of architect was ...
Tarkin, Saint

St. Tarkin

(Talarican.) Bishop of Sodor (including the western islands of Scotland ), was probably of ...
Tarnow

Tarnow

DIOCESE OF TARNOW (TARNOVIENSIS). Diocese in western Galicia, Austria. The See of Posen, ...
Tarquini, Camillus

Camillus Tarquini

Cardinal, Jesuit canonist and archaeologist, b. at Marta in the diocese of Montefiascone, ...
Tarragona

Tarragona

ARCHDIOCESE OF TARRAGONA (TARRACONENSIS) Bounded on the north by Barcelona and Lérida, ...
Tarsicius, Saint

St. Tarsicius

Martyr. The only positive information concerning this Roman martyr is found in the poem composed ...
Tarsus

Tarsus

A metropolitan see of Cilicia Prima. It appears to have been of Semitic origin and is ...
Tartaglia, Nicolò

Nicolo Tartaglia

(T ARTALEA ). Italian mathematician, b. at Brescia, c. 1500; d. at Venice, 13 December, ...
Tartini, Giuseppe

Giuseppe Tartini

Violinist, composer, and theorist, b. at Pirano, Italy, 12 April, 1692; d. at Padua, 16 Feb., ...
Taschereau, Elzéar-Alexandre

Elzear-Alexandre Taschereau

Archbishop of Quebec and first Canadian cardinal, b. 17 February, 1820, at la Beauce, Province ...
Tassé, Joseph

Joseph Tasse

Writer and journalist, born at Montreal, 23 Oct., 1848; died 17 Jan., 1895; son of Joseph, and ...
Tassach, Saint

St. Tassach

Irish saint, born in the first decade of the fifth century; died about 497. He was one of St. ...
Tassin, René-Prosper

Rene-Prosper Tassin

French historian, belonging to the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Lonlay, in ...
Tasso, Torquato

Torquato Tasso

Italian poet, born at Sorrento near Naples in 1544; died at Rome, in 1595; son of Bernardo ...
Tassoni, Alessandro

Alessandro Tassoni

Italian poet, born at Modena in 1565; died there in 1635. He spent his life in the service of ...
Tatian

Tatian

A second-century apologist about whose antecedents and early history nothing can be affirmed ...
Tatwin, Saint

Saint Tatwin

(TATUINI) Archbishop of Canterbury ; died 30 July, 734. A Mercian by birth, he became a ...
Taubaté

Taubate

(DE TAUBATÉ) Diocese in Brazil, South America, established on 29 April, 1908, as a ...
Tauler, John

John Tauler

German Dominican, one of the greatest mystics and preachers of the Middle Ages, born at ...
Taunton, Ethelred

Ethelred Taunton

Writer, born at Rugeley, Staffordshire, England, 17 Oct., 1857; died in London, 9 May, 1907. He ...
Taverner, John

John Taverner

Composer, b. in the County of Norfolk, England, about 1475; d. at Boston, England, 1535 or 1536. ...
Tavistock Abbey

Tavistock Abbey

Tavistock Abbey, on the Tavy River in Devonshire, England, founded for Benedictine monks in ...
Tavium

Tavium

A titular see in Galatia Prima, suffragan of Ancyra. Tavium, or Tavia, was the chief city of ...
Taxa Innocentiana

Taxa Innocentiana

A Decree issued by Innocent XI, 1 Oct., 1678, regulating the fees that may be demanded or ...
Taxster, John de

John de Taxster

(TAYSTER) John de Taxster, sometimes erroneously called Taxter or Taxston, was a ...
Taylor, Frances Margaret

Frances Margaret Taylor

(MOTHER M. MAGDALEN TAYLOR) Superior General, and foundress of the Poor Servants of the Mother ...
Taylor, Ven. Hugh

Ven. Hugh Taylor

English martyr, born at Durham ; hanged, drawn, and quartered at York, 25 (not 26) November, ...
Te Deum, The

Te Deum

An abbreviated title commonly given both to the original Latin text and the translations of a ...
Te Lucis Ante Terminum

Te Lucis Ante Terminum

The hymn at Compline in the Roman Breviary. The authorship of St. Ambrose, for which Pimont ...
Tebaldeo, Antonio

Antonio Tebaldeo

Italian poet, born at Ferrara, in 1463; died in 1537. His family name (Tebaldi) he changed to ...
Tegernsee

Tegernsee

Called Tegrinseo in 817, Tegernsee in 754. A celebrated Benedictine abbey of Bavaria that ...
Tehuantepec

Tehuantepec

(Tehuantepecensis) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of Oaxaca. Its area covers ...
Teilo, Saint

St. Teilo

(Eliud.) "Archbishop" of Llandaff, born at Eccluis Gunniau, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died at ...
Tekakwitha, Blessed Kateri

Bl. Kateri Tekakwitha

(Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha/Takwita.) Known as the "Lily of the Mohawks", and the ...
Teleology

Teleology

(From Greek telos , end, and logos , science). Teleology is seldom used according to its ...
Telepathy

Telepathy

( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...
Telese

Telese

(TELESINENSIS) Telese, a small town in the Province of Benevento, Southern Italy, is situated ...
Telesio, Bernardino

Bernardino Telesio

Italian humanist and philosopher born of a noble family at Cosenza, near Naples, 1508; died ...
Telesphorus of Cosenza

Telesphorus of Cosenza

(THEOPHORUS, THEOLOPHORUS). A name assumed by one of the pseudo-prophets during the time of ...
Telesphorus, Pope Saint

Pope St. Telesphorus

(Lived about 125-136.) St. Telesphorus was the seventh Roman bishop in succession from the ...
Tell el-Amarna Tablets, The

The Tell El-Amarna Tablets

The Tell el-Amarna Tablets are a collection of some 350 clay tablets found in 1887 amid the ruins ...
Tellier, Michel Le

Michel Le Tellier

Born 19 April, 1603; died at Paris, 30 Oct., 1685. He was commissioned by Cardinal Mazarin to ...
Telmessus

Telmessus

Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Telmessus (or incorrectly Telmissis) was a flourishing ...
Temiskaming

Temiskaming

The Vicariate Apostolic of Temiskaming, suffragan of Ottawa, Canada, is bounded on the north by ...
Temnus

Temnus

A titular see in Asia, a suffragan of Ephesus. Temnus was a little town of Æolia, near ...
Tempel, Wilhelm

Wilhelm Tempel

(ERNEST LEBERECHT) German astronomer, b. 4 December, 1821, at (Nieder-) Cunnersdorf near ...
Temperance

Temperance

(Latin temperare , to mingle in due proportions; to qualify). Temperance is here considered ...
Temperance Movements

Temperance Movements

EUROPE Reasons for a temperance movement exist to a greater or less degree in all the countries ...
Templars, The Knights

The Knights Templar

The Knights Templars were the earliest founders of the military orders, and are the type on which ...
Temple

Temple

The Latin form, templum , from which the English temple is derived, originally signified an ...
Temple of Jerusalem

Temple of Jerusalem

The word "temple" is derived from the Latin templum , signifying an uncovered place affording a ...
Temple, Sisters of the

Sisters of the Temple

The Sisters of the Temple (whose full title is S ISTERS OF THE F INDING OF J ESUS IN THE T ...
Temptation

Temptation

( Latin tentare , to try or test). Temptation is here taken to be an incitement to sin ...
Temptation of Christ

Temptation of Christ

In the Catholic translation of the Bible , the word "temptation" is used in various senses, ...
Ten Commandments, The

The Ten Commandments

Called also simply THE COMMANDMENTS, COMMANDMENTS OF GOD, or THE DECALOGUE (Gr. deka , ten, ...
Ten Thousand Martyrs, The

The Ten Thousand Martyrs

On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. On 18 March: ...
Tencin, Pierre-Guérin de

Pierre-Guerin Tencin

French statesman and cardinal, b. at Grenoble, 22 August, 1680; d. at Lyons, 2 March, 1758. ...
Tenebræ

Tenebrae

Tenebræ is the name given to the service of Matins and Lauds belonging to the last three ...
Tenebrae Hearse

Tenebrae Hearse

The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...
Tenedos

Tenedos

A titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades. The island, called in Turkish ...
Teneriffe

Teneriffe

DIOCESE OF TENERIFFE (TENERIFENSIS). Suffragan of Seville, formerly called Nivariensis from ...
Teniers, David

David Teniers

The name of two eminent Flemish landscape painters ; the elder, born at Antwerp in 1582; ...
Tennessee

Tennessee

The State of Tennessee lies between 35° and 36°30' N. lat. and 81°37' and 90°38' ...
Tenney, William Jewett

William Jewett Tenney

An author, editor, born at Newport, Rhode Island, 1814; died at Newark, New Jersey, 20 Sept., ...
Tentyris

Tentyris

(TENTYRA) Seat of a titular suffragan see of Ptolemais in Thebaid Secunda. The city was ...
Tenure, Ecclesiastical

Ecclesiastical Tenure

I. In the feudal system an ecclesiastical fief followed all the laws laid down for temporal ...
Teos

Teos

Titular see ; suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. A city of Caria situated on a peninsula ...
Tepic

Tepic

DIOCESE OF TEPIC (TEPICENSIS) A diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the ...
Tepl

Tepl

A Premonstratensian abbey in the western part of Bohemia, included in the Archdiocese of Prague ...
Teramo

Teramo

Diocese in southern Italy. In the past the city was injured by earthquakes. It is situated at ...
Terce

Terce

The origin of Terce, like that of Sext and None, to which it bears a close relationship, dates ...
Terenuthis

Terenuthis

Titular see, suffragan of Antinoë in Thebais Prima. Le Quien (Oriens christ., II, 611) ...
Teresa of Avila, Saint

St. Teresa of Jesus (Teresa of Avila)

Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada Born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at ...
Teresa of Lisieux, Saint

Saint Therese of Lisieux

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...
Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed

The Martyrs of Compiegne

Guillotined at the Place du Trône Renversé (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 ...
Terill, Anthony

Anthony Terill (Bonville)

English theologian, b. at Canford, Dorsetshire, in 1623; d. at Liège, 11 Oct., 1676. His ...
Termessus

Termessus

A titular see, suffragan of Perge in Pamphylia Secunda. This is one of the most ancient cities ...
Termoli

Termoli

(THERMULARUM) Located on the Italian coast of the Adriatic, having a small harbour near the ...
Ternan, Saint

St. Ternan

Bishop of the Picts, flourished in the sixth century. Much obscurity attaches to his history, and ...
Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

(TERRACINENSIS, SETINENSIS ET PRIVERNENSIS) Located in the Province of Rome. The city of ...
Terrasson, André

Andre Terrason

A French preacher, born at Lyons in 1669; died at Paris, 25 April, 1723. He was the eldest son ...
Terrestrial Paradise

The Garden of Eden

( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...
Terrien, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Terrien

Dogmatic theologian, born at St-Laurent-des-Autels, Maine-et-Loire, 26 Aug., 1832; d. at ...
Tertiaries

Tertiaries

(From the Latin tertiarius , the relative adjective of tertius , third ). Tertiaries, or ...
Tertullian

Tertullian

(Q UINTUS S EPTIMIUS F LORENS T ERTULLIANUS ). Ecclesiastical writer in the second and ...
Teruel

Teruel

(TUROLENSIS) A suffragan of Saragossa, comprises the civil province of the same name, ...
Test-Oath, Missouri

Missouri Test-Oath

In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...
Testament, New

New Testament

I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...
Testament, Old

Old Testament

I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...
Testem Benevolentiae

Testem Benevolentiae

An Apostolic Letter of Leo XIII addressed to Cardinal Gibbons, 22 January, 1899. It opens by ...
Tetzel, Johann

Johann Tetzel

First public antagonist of Luther, b. at Pirna in Meissen, 1465; d. at Leipzig, 11 Aug., 1519. ...
Teuchira

Teuchira

A titular see in Libyan Pentapolis. Teuchira ( Teucheira ) neuter plural, was a city on the ...
Teutonic Order

Teutonic Order

A medieval military order modelled on the Hospitallers of St. John, which changed its residence ...
Tewdrig

Tewdrig

(THEODORIC) A Welsh saint, son of King Ceithfalt of Morganwg or Southern Wales, flourished ...
Texas

Texas

S TATE OF T EXAS . The name, Texas, is probably derived from Tejas, the name of a ...
Textual Criticism

Biblical Criticism

The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...
Thænæ

Thaenae

A titular see in Africa Byzacena. It is mentioned in numerous ancient geographical documents ...
Thébaud, Augustus

Augustus Thebaud

Jesuit educator and publicist, b. at Nantes, France, 20 Nov., 1807; d. at St. John's College, ...
Thénard, Louis-Jacques, Baron

Baron Louis-Jacques Thenard

Chemist, b. at Louptière, near Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube, France, on 4 May, 1777; d. at Paris, ...
Théophane Vénard

Bl. Theophane Venard

(JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...
Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint

Saint Therese of Lisieux

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...
Thabor, Mount

Mount Thabor

The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...
Thabraca

Thabraca

A titular see of Numidia near the sea, between the Armua and the Tusca. Thabraca was the last ...
Thacia Montana

Thacia Montana

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. An inscription discovered in the ...
Thagaste

Thagaste

(TAGASTE) Thagaste, a titular see in Numidia, was a rather important municipality. It is ...
Thagora

Thagora

(Tagora) Titular see in Numidia, mentioned by the "Rabula Peutingeriana", which calls it ...
Thais, Saint

Saint Thais

(THAISIS or THAISIA). A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century. In the Greek menology her ...
Thalberg, Sigismond

Sigismond Thalberg

Musical composer and pianist, b. at Geneva, 1812; d. at Posilipo, Italy, 27 April, 1871. The ...
Thalhofer, Valentin

Valentin Thalhofer

German theologian, b. at Unterroth, near Ulm, 21 January, 1825; d. at the same place, 17 ...
Thangmar

Thangmar

(THANKMAR) Historian, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. probably at Hildesheim ...
Thanksgiving before and after Meals

Grace Before Meals

The word grace , which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English ...
Thanksgiving Day

Thanksgiving Day

A civil holiday observed annually in the United States of America on the last Thursday in ...
Thapsus

Thapsus

A titular see in Byzacene Africa. It was a Phoenician market on the coast of Byzacium in ...
Thasos

Thasos

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. The island of Thasos was anciently ...
Thaumaci

Thaumaci

A titular see in Thessaly, suffragan of Larissa, commanding the defile of Coele at the ...
Thayer, John

John Thayer

Missionary, convert, first native of New England ordained to the priesthood, b. Boston, ...
Theatines

Theatines

(CLERICS REGULAR) A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo ...
Theatre, The

The Theatre

Considering the tone of what is preserved to us of the works of the Greek tragedians and even of ...
Thebaid

Thebaid

The valley of the Nile, under Roman domination, was divided into four provinces: Lower and Upper ...
Thebes

Thebes (Achaia Secunda)

(THEBAE) A metropolitan titular see of Achaia Secunda. The city was founded by the ...
Thebes

Thebes (Thebais Secunda)

(THEBAE) Titular see of Thebais Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais, and the seat of a Coptic ...
Thecla, Saint

St. Thecla

Benedictine Abbess of Kitzingen and Ochsenfurt; date of birth unknown; d. at Kitzingen about 790 ...
Thecla, Saints

Sts. Thecla

I. Thecla of Iconium The reputed pupil of the Apostle Paul , who is the heroine of the ...
Theft

Theft

Theft is the secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other. ...
Thegan (Degan) of Treves

Thegan

Chronicler, d. about 850. Very little is known of his life; all that is certain is that he was ...
Theiner, Augustin

Augustin Theiner

Theologian and historian, b. at Breslau, 11 April, 1804; d. at Civitavecchia, 8 Aug., 1874. He was ...
Thelepte

Thelepte

A titular see in Byzacene. From an inscription we learn that it was a colony. An important ...
Themiscyra

Themiscyra

A titular see, suffragan of Amasea in the Hellespont. There was a town of this name near the ...
Themisonium

Themisonium

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. Themisonium was a city of Phrygia, ...
Thennesus

Thennesus

A titular suffragan see of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima. Cassian (Collat., XI, 1-3) gives a ...
Theobald

Theobald

(T EDBALD .) Archbishop of Canterbury ; d. 18 April, 1161. He was a Norman by descent and ...
Theobald, Saint

Saint Theobald

Born at Provins in the Province of Champagne, France, in 1017; died at Salanigo in Italy 30 June, ...
Theocracy

Theocracy

A form of civil government in which God himself is recognized as the head. The laws of the ...
Theodard, Saint

Saint Theodard

Archbishop of Narbonne, b. at Montauban about 840; d. at the same place 1 May, 893. He seems to ...
Theodicy

Theodicy

Etymologically considered theodicy ( théos díe ) signifies the justification of ...
Theodore I, Pope

Pope Theodore I

Pope from 642 to 649; the date of his birth is unknown. He was a Greek of Jerusalem and the ...
Theodore II, Pope

Pope Theodore II

Son of Photius. His pontificate lasted only twenty days; neither the date of his birth nor of his ...
Theodore of Amasea, Saint

St. Theodore of Amasea

Surnamed Tyro (Tiro), not because he was a young recruit, but because for a time he belonged to ...
Theodore of Gaza

Theodore of Gaza

A fifteenth-century Greek Humanist and translator of Aristotle, b. at Thessalonica early in ...
Theodore of Studium, Saint

Theodore of Studium

A zealous champion of the veneration of images and the last geat representative of the unity ...
Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

Seventh Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Tarsus in Cilicia about 602; d. at Canterbury 19 ...
Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia

Theodore of Mopsuestia

Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer; b. at Antioch about 350 (thus also ...
Theodoret

Theodoret

Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457. He says ...
Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

A Platonist philosopher of the twelfth century, b. in France at the beginning of the twelfth ...
Theodoric the Great

Theodoric the Great

King of the Ostrogoths, born A.D. 454 (?); died 26 August, 526. He was an illegitimate son of ...
Theodorus and Theophanes, Saints

Sts. Theodorus and Theophanes

(Called Grapti , "written upon", graptoi ) Theodorus, b. about 775; d. about 842-43; ...
Theodorus Lector

Theodorus Lector

A lector attached to the Church of St. Sophia of Constantinople in the early part of the sixth ...
Theodosiopolis

Theodosiopolis

A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Prima. In the beginning the city was called Apros, or ...
Theodosius Florentini

Theodosius Florentini

Born at Münster, in the Grisons, Switzerland, 23 May, 1808; died at Heiden, in Appenzell, ...
Theodosius I

Theodosius I

Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 ...
Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint

St. Theodotus of Ancyra

Martyr. On 18 May the Roman Martyrology says: "At Ancyra, in Galatia, the martyr Saint Theodotus ...
Theodulf

Theodulf

(Theodulfus, Theodulfe), Bishop of Orléans, a writer skilled in poetic forms and a ...
Theology of Christ (Christology)

Christology

Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ. In its full extent ...
Theology, Ascetical

Ascetical Theology

Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of ...
Theology, Dogmatic

Dogmatic Theology

Dogmatic theology is that part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith ...
Theology, History of Dogmatic

History of Dogmatic Theology

The imposing edifice of Catholic theology has been reared not by individual nations and men, ...
Theology, Moral

Moral Theology

Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...
Theology, Mystical

Mystical Theology

Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...
Theology, Pastoral

Pastoral Theology

Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...
Theonas

Theonas

Bishop of Alexandria from about 283 to 301 ( Eusebius, "Chronicle", Ann. Abr. 2299, St. Jerome's ...
Theophanes Kerameus

Theophanes Kerameus

( Kerameus , potter). Archbishop of Rossano in Calabria (1129-52), a celebrated homiletic ...
Theophanes, Saint

St. Theophanes

Chronicler, born at Constantinople, about 758; died in Samothracia, probably 12 March, 817, on ...
Theophilanthropists

Theophilanthropists

("Friends of God and Man") A deistic sect formed in France during the latter part of the ...
Theophilus

Theophilus

Bishop of Antioch. Eusebius in his "Chronicle" places the name of Theophilus against that of ...
Theophilus

Theophilus

Patriarch of Alexandria (385-412). Concerning the extraction and early life of Theophilus we ...
Theosophy

Theosophy

( Theosophia = "wisdom concerning God ") Theosophy is a term used in general to designate ...
Theotocopuli, Domenico

El Greco

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...
Thera (Santorin)

Thera

DIOCESE OF THERA (SANTORINO) Diocese in the Cyclades. About the year 2000 B.C., the ...
Thermae Basilicae

Thermae Basilicae

A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. The Greek "Notitiae episcopatuum" ...
Thermopylae

Thermopylae

A titular see and suffragan of Athens in Achaia Prima. It is the name of a defile about 4 ...
Thessalonians, Epistles to the

Epistles to the Thessalonians

Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul. This article will treat the Church of ...
Thessalonica

Thessalonica

(SALONIKI) Titular metropolis in Macedonia. It was at first a village called Alia, situated ...
Theveste

Theveste

Titular see of Numidia. The city seems to have had some importance even prior to Christianity. ...
Thibaris

Thibaris

Titular see in Byzacena ( Africa ), not mentioned by any ancient author. The official list of ...
Thibaut de Champagne

Thibaut de Champagne

Thibaut IV, count of Champagne and King of Navarre, a French poet, b. 1201, at Troyes ; d. 8 ...
Thierry of Freburg

Thierry of Freiburg

( Or Thierry of Saxony). A philosopher and physician of the Middle Ages, and a member of ...
Thiers, Louis-Adolphe

Louis-Adolphe Thiers

French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic, b. at Marseilles, ...
Thignica

Thignica

A titular see in Numidia. The Roman Curia's official list of titular sees places Thignica in ...
Thijm, Joseph Albert Alberdingk

Joseph Albert Alberdingk Thijm

Born at Amsterdam, 8 July, 1820; d. there, 17 March, 1889. After finishing his studies in his ...
Thijm, Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk

Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk Thijm

Brother of Joseph Alberdingk Thijm , b. at Amsterdam, 21 Oct., 1827, d. at Louvain, 1 Feb., ...
Thimelby, Richard

Richard Thimelby

( Alias ASHBY) Missionary priest, b. in Lincolnshire, England, 1614; d. at St. Omer's, ...
Third Orders

Third Orders

I. GENERAL Third Orders signify in general lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women ...
Thirty Years War

The Thirty Years War

The Thirty Years War (1618-48), though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance ...
Thmuis

Thmuis

A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium ; a city of Lower Egypt, on the ...
Thomas á Jesu

Thomas a Jesu

(Diaz Sanchez de Avila). Discalced Carmelite, writer on mystical theology, born at Baeza, ...
Thomas à Kempis

Thomas a Kempis

Author of the "Imitation of Christ" , born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; ...
Thomas Abel, Blessed

Blessed Thomas Abel

(Also ABLE, or ABELL.) Priest and martyr, born about 1497; died 30 July, 1540. He was ...
Thomas Alfield, Venerable

Ven. Thomas Alfield

(AUFIELD, ALPHILDE, HAWFIELD, OFFELDUS; alias BADGER). Priest, born at Gloucestershire; ...
Thomas Aquinas, Saint

St. Thomas Aquinas

Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church ( Angelicus Doctor ), patron of Catholic ...
Thomas Atkinson, Venerable

Ven. Thomas Atkinson

Martyred at York, 11 March, l6l6. He was born in the East Riding of Yorkshire, was ordained ...
Thomas Becket, Saint

St. Thomas Becket

Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, born at London, 21 December, 1118 (?); died at Canterbury, 29 ...
Thomas Belchiam, Venerable

Venerable Thomas Belchiam

A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537. He ...
Thomas Christians, Saint

St. Thomas Christians

An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent ...
Thomas Cottam, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Cottam

Martyr, born 1549, in Lancashire; executed at Tyburn, 30 May, 1582. His parents, Laurence cottam ...
Thomas Ford, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Ford

Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...
Thomas Garnet, Saint

St. Thomas Garnet

Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...
Thomas Johnson, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Johnson

Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...
Thomas More, Saint

St. Thomas More

Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...
Thomas of Beckington

Thomas of Beckington

(BEKYNTON.) Bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Beckington, Somerset, about 1390; died at ...
Thomas of Bradwardine

Thomas of Bradwardine

(BRAGWARDIN, BRANDNARDINUS, BREDWARDYN, BRADWARDYN, DE BREDEWARDINA). Born about 1290; died in ...
Thomas of Cantimpré

Thomas of Cantimpre

Medieval writer, preacher, and theologian, born of noble parentage at Leuw St. Pierre near ...
Thomas of Celano

Thomas of Celano

Friar Minor, poet, andhagiographical writer, born at Celano in the Province of the Abruzzi, about ...
Thomas of Dover

Thomas of Dover

Martyr ; died 2 or 5 August, 1295. On the above date the French ravaged Dover with fire and ...
Thomas of Hereford

St. Thomas of Hereford

(THOMAS DE CANTELUPE). Born at Hambledon, Buckinghamshire, England, about 1218; died at ...
Thomas of Jesus

Thomas of Jesus

(THOMAS DE ANDRADA). Reformer and preacher, born at Lisbon, 1529; died at Sagena, Morocco, 17 ...
Thomas of Jorz

Thomas of Jorz

(Often but erroneously called JOYCE and frequently referred to as ANGLUS or ANGLICUS). ...
Thomas of Strasburg

Thomas of Strasburg

A fourteenth-century scholastic of the Augustinian Order, born, according to some writers, at ...
Thomas of Villanova, Saint

St. Thomas of Villanova

Educator, philanthropist, born at Fuentellana, Spain, 1488; died at Valencia, 8 September, 1555. ...
Thomas Percy, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Percy

Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...
Thomas Sherwood, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Sherwood

Martyr, born in London, 1551; died at Tyburn, London, 7 February, 1578. His parents also ...
Thomas the Apostle, Saint

St. Thomas the Apostle

Little is recorded of St. Thomas the Apostle, nevertheless thanks to the fourth Gospel his ...
Thomas Thwing, Venerable

Ven. Thomas Thwing

Martyr. Born at Heworth Hall, near York, in 1635; suffered at York, 23 Oct., 1680. His father was ...
Thomas Woodhouse, Blessed

Bl. Thomas Woodhouse

Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...
Thomas, Charles L.A.

Charles L.A. Thomas

French composer, born at Metz, 5 August, 1811; died at Paris, 12 February, 1896. He gained the ...
Thomassin, Louis

Louis Thomassin

Theologian and French Oratorian, b. at Aix-en-Provence 28 Aug., 1619; d. in Paris, 24 Dec., ...
Thomism

Thomism

In a broad sense, Thomism is the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. ...
Thompson River Indians

Thompson River Indians

(THOMPSON INDIANS). An important tribe of British Columbia of Salishan linguistic stock, also ...
Thompson, Blessed James

Bl. James Thompson

(Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...
Thompson, Edward Healy and Harriet Diana

Edward and Harriet Thompson

The name of two English converts : (1) Edward Healy and (2) Harriet Diana. Edward Healy ...
Thompson, Francis

Francis Thompson

Poet, b. at Preston, Lancashire, 18 Dec., 1859; d. in London, 13 Nov., 1907. He came from the ...
Thompson, Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David

Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David Thompson

Jurist and first Catholic Premier of Canada, b. at Halifax, Nova Scotia , 10 Nov., 1844; d. ...
Thonissen, Jean-Joseph

Jean-Joseph Thonissen

Professor of law at the University of Louvain, minister in the Belgian Government, b. at ...
Thorlaksson, Arni

Arni Thorlaksson

An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297. While a deacon, he visited ...
Thorney Abbey

Thorney Abbey

(i.e. "the isle of thorns", anciently called ANCARIG). Thorney Abbey, in Cambridgeshire, ...
Thorns, Crown of

Crown of Thorns

Although Our Saviour's Crown of Thorns is mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded ...
Thorns, Feast of the Crown of

Feast of the Crown of Thorns

The first feast in honour of the Crown of Thorns ( Festum susceptionis coronae Domini ) was ...
Thorpe, Venerable Robert

Venerable Robert Thorpe

Priest and martyr, b. in Yorkshire; suffered at York, 15 May, 1591. He reached the English ...
Thou, Jacques-Auguste de

Jacques-Auguste de Thou

French historian, b. at Paris, 8 October, 1553; d. there, 7 May, 1617. The son of Christophe de ...
Thou, Nicolas de

Nicolas de Thou

Bishop of Chartres, uncle of the historian Jacques-Auguste de Thou, b. at Paris, 1528; d. at ...
Three Chapters

Three Chapters

The Three chapters ( trîa kephálaia ) were propositions anathematizing : (1) the ...
Three Rivers

Three Rivers (Quebec)

DIOCESE OF THREE RIVERS (TRIFLUVIANENSIS) Formed from the Archdiocese of Quebec , to which it ...
Throne

Throne

(Latin thronus, cathedra, sedes episcopalis ), the seat the bishop uses when not engaged at ...
Thuburbo Minus

Thuburbo Minus

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Thuburbo Minus is mentioned in ...
Thugga

Thugga

Titular see of Numidia, perhaps the Numidian fortress of Tocai mentioned about 305 B.C. by ...
Thugut, Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula

Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula Thugut

Austrian statesman, born at Linz, 31 March, 1736; died at Vienna, 28 May, 1818. He was the son of ...
Thulis, Venerable John

Ven. John Thulis

English martyr, born at Up Holland, Lancashire, probably about 1568; suffered at Lancaster, 18 ...
Thun-Hohenstein, Count Leo

Count Leo Thun-Hohenstein

Austrian statesman, b. at the family castle of Tetschen in Bohemia, 7 April, 1811; d. at Vienna, ...
Thundering Legion

Thundering Legion

( Legio fulminata , or fulminea , not fulminatrix ). The story of the Thundering Legion ...
Thuringia

Thuringia

The name Thuringia is given to a large part of Central Germany, bounded on the west by the ...
Thurmayr, Johannes

Johannes Thurmayr

(Called AVENTINUS from the place of his birth) Born at Abensberg, Bavaria, 4 July, 1477; died ...
Thyatira

Thyatira

A titular suffragan see of Sardes in Lydia. According to Stephanus Byzantius, the name was ...
Thynias

Thynias

A titular see, suffragan of Nicomedia, in Bithynia Prima. It is an island situated in the Black ...
Thyräus, Hermann

Hermann Thryaus

German Jesuit, b. at Neuss on the Rhine, 1532; d. at Mainz, 26 October, 1591. He studied first ...
Tiara

Tiara

The papal crown, a costly covering for the head, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, ...
Tibaldi, Pellegrino

Pellegrino Tibaldi

Known also as Pellegrino da Bologna and as Pellegrino Pellegrini; decorator, mural painter, and ...
Tiberias

Tiberias

Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda. The town of Tiberias was founded on ...
Tiberias, Sea of

Sea of Galilee

So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1 ), otherwise known as "the sea of Galilee" ( Matthew 4:18 ; Mark ...
Tiberiopolis

Tiberiopolis

Titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana. Tiberiopolis is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, 2, 25); Socrates ...
Tiberius

Tiberius

The second Roman emperor ( A. D. 14-37), b. 16 November, 42 B. C. , d. 16 March, A. D. 37. ...
Tibet

Tibet

A vast plateau, about 463,320 square miles, about 1240 miles in its greatest length from east to ...
Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints

Sts. Tiburtius and Susanna

Roman martyrs, feast 11 August. The story is related in the legend of St. Sebastian that ...
Ticelia

Ticelia

Titular see, suffragan of Cyrene, in the Libya Pentapolis. Under this name it is not found in any ...
Tichborne, Ven. Nicholas

Ven. Nicholas Tichborne

Martyr, b. at Hartley Mauditt, Hampshire; suffered at Tyburn, London, 24 Aug., 1601. He was a ...
Tichborne, Ven. Thomas

Ven. Thomas Tichborne

Born at Hartley, Hampshire, 1567; martyred at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1602. He was educated ...
Ticonius

Ticonius

(Also TYCONIUS, TYCHONIUS, etc.) An African Donatist writer of the fourth century who ...
Ticuna Indians

Ticuna Indians

A tribe of Indians of some importance, constituting a distinct linguistic stock, inhabiting the ...
Tieffentaller, Joseph

Joseph Tieffentaller

Jesuit missionary and noted geographer in Hindustan, b. at Bozen in the Tyrol, 27 August, 1710; ...
Tiepolo

Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Tiepolo Born in Venice in 1696; died at Madrid, 27 March, 1770. ...
Tierney, Mark Aloysius

Mark Aloysius Tierney

Born at Brighton, Sept., 1795; died at Arundel, 19 Feb., 1862. After his early schooling with the ...
Tigris, Saint

St. Tigris

Irish saint, sister of St. Patrick. Much obscurity attaches to her life, and she has been ...
Tillemont, Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de

Louis-Sebastien Le Nain de Tillemont

French historian and priest, b. at Paris, 30 November, 1637; d. there, 10 January, 1698; he was ...
Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of

Count of Tilly

Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632. He was a member of a noble family of ...
Timbrias

Timbrias

A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. It is called Thymbrium in the official lists ...
Time

Time

The problem of time is one of the most difficult and most keenly debated in the field of natural ...
Timothy and Symphorian, Saints

Sts. Timotheus and Symphorian

Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August. During the pontificate of Melchiades (311-13), ...
Timothy and Titus, Epistles to

Epistles to Timothy and Titus

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...
Timucua Indians

Timucua Indians

A principal group or confederacy of Ancient Florida, notable for the successful missions ...
Tincker, Mary Agnes

Mary Agnes Tincker

Novelist, born at Ellsworth, Maine, 18 July, 1833; died at Boston, Massachusetts, 4 December, ...
Tingis

Tingis

A titular see of Mauretania Tingitana (the official list of the Roman Curia places it in ...
Tinin

See of Tinin (Dalmatia)

SEE OF TININ (KNIN). Located in Dalmatia ; suffragan to Kalocsa-Bacs. Knin is a town on ...
Tinos and Mykonos

Tinos and Mykonos

DIOCESE OF TINOS AND MYKONOS (TINENSIS ET MYCONENSIS) A Latin diocese of the Cyclades, ...
Tintern Abbey

Tintern Abbey

This abbey, in Monmouthshire, England [actually Wales -- Ed. ], was founded in 1131 by ...
Tintoretto, Il

Il Tintoretto

(J ACOPO R OBUSTI ) Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594. His father was a ...
Tipasa

Tipasa

A titular see of Numidia. The Phoenician word signifies passage. Early in its history we find ...
Tiraboschi, Girolamo

Girolamo Tiraboschi

Italian scholar, b. in the region of Bergamo, 1731; d. 3 June, 1794. At an early age he entered ...
Tiraspol

Tiraspol

DIOCESE OF TIRASPOL (or CHERSONESE) (TIRASPOLENSIS; CHERSONENSIS) Diocese in Southern Russia ...
Tisio da Garofalo, Benvenuto

Benvenuto Tisio da Garofalo

An Italian painter of the Ferrarese school ; b. in 1481 at Garofalo, whence, as was the ...
Tissot, James

James Tissot

(JOSEPH-JACQUES TISSOT) French draughtsman and painter, b. at Nantes, 15 Oct., 1836; d. at ...
Tithes

Tithes

(Anglo-Saxon teotha , a tenth). Generally defined as "the tenth part of the increase arising ...
Tithes, Lay

Lay Tithes

Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...
Titian

Titian

(T IZIANO V ECELLI , called T ITIAN ). The greatest of Venetian painters, born at Pieve ...
Titopolis

Titiopolis

(TITIOPOLIS) Titular see, suffragan of Seleucia Trachaea in Isauria. Le Quien (Oriens ...
Titulus

Titulus

In pagan times titulus signified an inscription on stone, and later the stone which marked ...
Titus

Titus

Roman Emperor 79-81, b. 30 Dec., 41; d. 13 Sept., 81; son of the Emperor Vespasian, and from the ...
Titus and Timothy, Epistles to

Epistles to Timothy and Titus

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...
Titus, Bishop of Bostra

Titus, Bishop of Bostra

Born about 362-371. Sozomen (Hist. eccl., III, xiv) names Titus among the great men of the time ...
Tius

Tius

(TIUM) Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in Honorias. According to Strabo (542, 545) the ...
Tivoli

Tivoli

DIOCESE OF TIVOLI (TIBURTINA) Diocese in the Province of Rome. The city in situated where the ...
Tlaxcala

Tlaxcala

(TLAXCALENSIS) A former diocese of the colony of New Spain. It was the fifth diocese ...
Tlos

Tlos

A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Tlos was one of the six cities forming the Lycian ...
Toaldo, Giuseppe

Giuseppe Toaldo

Priest and physicist, b. at Pianezze, 1719; d. at Padua, 1797. In his fourteenth year he entered ...
Toba Indians

Toba Indians

One of the few still unconquered savage tribes of the great Chaco wilderness of South America, and ...
Tobias

Book of Tobias

We shall first enumerate the various Biblical persons and then treat the book of this name. I. ...
Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de

Alexis de Tocqueville

(CHARLES-ALEXIS-HENRI-MAURICE-CLEREL DE TOCQUEVILLE) Writer and statesman, b. at Verneuil, ...
Todi

Todi

(T UDERTINA ). Diocese in Central Italy ; immediately dependent on the Holy See. The city ...
Tokio

Tokio (Tokyo)

(Tokiensis) Archdiocese comprising 21 provinces or 15 departments with a population of over ...
Toledo (Ohio)

Toledo (Ohio)

(Toletana in America) A diocese in Ohio, U.S.A. formed out of the Diocese of Cleveland and ...
Toledo (Spain)

Toledo (Spain)

ARCHDIOCESE OF TOLEDO (TOLETANENSIS) Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost ...
Toledo, Francisco

Francisco Toledo

Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, son of an actuary, b. at Córdova, 4 Oct., 1532; d. ...
Tolentino and Macerata

Macerata and Tolentino

Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...
Toleration, History of

History of Toleration

In any attempt to deal historically with the attitude of the Church towards religious toleration ...
Toleration, Religious

Religious Toleration

Toleration in general signifies patient forbearance in the presence of an evil which one is ...
Tolomei, John Baptist

John Baptist Tolomei

A distinguished Jesuit theologian and cardinal, born of noble parentage, at Camberaia, between ...
Tomb

Tomb

A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons, ...
Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...
Tomb, Altar

Altar Tomb

A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having ...
Tomi

Tomi

A titular metropolitan see in the Province of Scythia, on the Black Sea. It was a Greek colony ...
Tommasi, Blessed Giuseppe Maria

Bl. Giuseppe Maria Tommasi

A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...
Tongerloo, Abbey of

Abbey of Tongerloo

Located near Antwerp, Belgium, founded in 1128 in honour of the Blessed Virgin, by de ...
Tongiorgi, Salvator

Salvator Tongiorgi

Philosopher, born at Rome, Italy, 25 December, 1820; d. there, 12 November, 1865. At the age of ...
Tongues, Gift of

Gift of Tongues (Glossolalia)

(Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...
Tonica Indians

Tonica Indians

(Or TUNICA). A small tribe constituting a distinct linguistic stock living, when first known ...
Tonkawa Indians

Tonkawa Indians

A tribal group or confederacy, of low culture status and constituting a distinct linguistic stock, ...
Tonsure

Tonsure

( Latin tondere , "to shear") A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized ...
Tootell, Hugh

Hugh Tootell

Commonly known as Charles Dodd. Historian, b. in 1671 or 1672, at Durton-in-Broughton, ...
Torah

Torah

I. USE OF WORD Torah, (cf. Hiph. of ), signifies first "direction, instruction", as, for ...
Torbido, Francesco

Francesco Torbido

Often called IL MORO (The Moor). Veronese painter and engraver, b. at Verona about 1486; ...
Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint

St. Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo

Archbishop of Lima ; b. at Mayorga, León, Spain, 1538; d. near Lima Peru, 23 March ...
Tornielli, Girolamo Francesco

Girolamo Francesco Tornielli

Italian Jesuit, preacher and writer, b. at Cameri, 1 Febreuary, 1693, of a distinguished family ...
Torone

Torone

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. Torone was a colony of Chalcideans from ...
Toronto

Toronto

(TORONTINA). Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada. When constituted a diocese, it ...
Torquemada, Tomás de

Tomas de Torquemada

First Grand Inquisitor of Spain, born at Valladolid in 1420; died at Avila, 16 September, ...
Torres Naharro, Bartolemé de

Bartolome de Torres Naharro

Spanish poet and dramatist, b. at Torres, near Badajoz, towards the end of the fifteenth ...
Torres, Francisco

Francisco Torres

(TURRIANUS.) Hellenist and polemicist, born in Herrera, Palencia, about 1509; died at Rome, ...
Torricelli, Evangelista

Evangelista Torricelli

Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 ...
Torrubia, José

Jose Torrubia

Born towards the end of the seventeenth century at Granada, Spain ; died in 1768 in the ...
Tortona

Tortona

DIOCESE OF TORTONA (DERTONENSIS) Diocese in Piedmont, Italy. The city is situated on the ...
Tortosa

Tortosa

DIOCESE OF TORTOSA (DERTHUSENSIS, DERTUSA). Located in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; ...
Toscanella and Viterbo

Viterbo and Toscanella

(VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...
Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo

Paolo Dal Pozzo Toscanelli

Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer, b. at Florence in 1397; d. there, 10 May, 1482. ...
Tosephta

Tosephta

( Hebrew = addition, supplement ) Tosephta is the name of compilation of ...
Tostado, Alonso

Alonso Tostado

(ALONSO TOSTATUS) Exegete, b. at Madrigal, Castile, about 1400; d. at Bonilla de la Sierra, ...
Tosti, Luigi

Luigi Tosti

Benedictine historian, b. at Naples 13 Feb., 1811; d. at Monte Cassino, 24 Sept., 1897. His ...
Totemism

Totemism

Totemism from ote , root ot , possessive form otem , in the Ojibway dialect of the ...
Totonac Indians

Totonac Indians

One of the smaller cultured nations of ancient Mexico, occupying at the time of the Spanish ...
Touchet, George Anselm

George Anselm Touchet

Born at Stalbridge, Dorset; died about 1689. He was second son of Mervyn, twelfth Lord Audley, ...
Toulouse

Toulouse

A RCHDIOCESE OF T OULOUSE (T OLOSENSIS ) Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne. As ...
Tournély, Honoré

Honore Tournely

Theologian, b. Antibes, Provence, 28 August, 1658; d. at Paris, 26 December 1729. His parents ...
Tournai

Tournai

DIOCESE OF TOURNAI (Latin TURNACUM, TORNACUM; Flemish, DOORNIJK — TORNACENSIS) Diocese ...
Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de

Joseph Pitton de Tournefort

French botanist, b. at Aix in Provence, 5 June, 1656; d. at Paris, 28 Dec., 1708. After his ...
Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de

Charles-Thomas Maillard de Tournon

Papal legate to India and China, cardinal, born of a noble Savoyard family at Turin, 21 ...
Touron, Antoine

Antoine Touron

Dominican biographer and historian, born at Graulhet, Tarn, France, on 5 September, 1686; died ...
Tours

Tours

(TURONENSIS.) Comprises the Department of Indre-et-Loire, and was re-established by the ...
Toustain, Charles-François

Charles-Francois Toustain

French Benedictine, and member of the Congregation of St-Maur, born at Repas in the Diocese of ...
Touttée, Antoine-Augustin

Antoine-Augustin Touttee

A French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. at Riom, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, ...
Tower of Babel

Tower of Babel

The "Tower of Babel" is the name of the building mentioned in Genesis 11:19 . History of the ...
Tracy, Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de

Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de Tracy

Viceroy of New France, born in France, 1603, of noble parents ; died there in 1670. A soldier ...
Tradition and Living Magisterium

Tradition and Living Magisterium

The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...
Traditionalism

Traditionalism

A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude. ...
Traducianism

Traducianism

Traducianism ( tradux , a shoot or sprout, and more specifically a vine branch made to take root ...
Trajan

Trajan

Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117. He ...
Trajanopolis

Trajanopolis

Titular metropolitan see of Rhodope. The city owes its foundation or restoration to Trajan. Le ...
Trajanopolis

Trajanopolis

A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. The only geographer who speaks ...
Tralles

Tralles

A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. It was founded, it is said, by the Argians ...
Trani and Barletta

Trani and Barletta

(T RANEN , et Barolen.) Diocese in Italy. The city of Trani is situated on the Adriatic in ...
Transcendentalism

Transcendentalism

The terms transcendent and transcendental are used in various senses, all of which, as a ...
Transept

Transept

A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica. It ...
Transfiguration

Transfiguration

The Transfiguration of Christ is the culminating point of His public life, as His Baptism is ...
Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the

Feast of the Transfiguration of Christ

Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. ...
Transubstantiation

The Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...
Transvaal

Transvaal

Vicariate apostolic ; lies between 23° 3' and 27° 30' S. lat., and 25° and 32° ...
Transylvania

Transylvania

(Also TRANSYLVANIENSIS or ERDELY). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Kalocsa Bács. The ...
Trapani

Trapani

(TREPANENSIS). Diocese in Sicily, suffragan of Palermo. The city is the capital of a ...
Trapezopolis

Trapezopolis

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan to Laodicea. Trapezopolis was a town of Caria ...
Trappists

Trappists

The common name by which the Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de ...
Trasilla and Emiliana, Saints

Sts. Trasilla and Emiliana

Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...
Treason, Accusations of

Accusations of Treason

A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics ...
Trebizond

Trebizond

(TRAPEZUNTINA). An Armenian Catholic diocese. The city owes its ancient name to the fact that ...
Trebnitz

Trebnitz

A former abbey of Cistercian nuns, situated north of Breslau in Silesia. It was founded in ...
Tredway, Lettice Mary

Lettice Mary Tredway

(Called "Lady" Tredway) Born 1595; died Oct., 1677; daughter of Sir Walter Tredway, of Buckley ...
Tregian, Francis

Francis Tregian

Confessor, b. in Cornwall, 1548; d. at Lisbon, 25 Sept., 1608. He was son of Thomas Tregian of ...
Tremithus

Tremithus

Titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. The city is mentioned by Ptolemy (Geog., V, xiii, ...
Trent

Trent

(TRIDENTUM; TRIDENTINA). Diocese ; suffragan of Salzburg. Trent became universally known ...
Trent, Council of

Council of Trent

The nineteenth ecumenical council opened at Trent on 13 December, 1545, and closed there on 4 ...
Trenton

Trenton

(T RENTONENSIS ). Diocese created 15 July, 1881, suffragan of New York, comprises Atlantic, ...
Tresham, Sir Thomas

Sir Thomas Tresham

Knight Bachelor (in or before 1524), Grand Prior of England in the Order of Knights ...
Treviso

Treviso

(TARVISINA). Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The capital is surrounded by the River ...
Tribe, Jewish

Jewish Tribe

( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...
Tricarico, Diocese of

Tricarico

(TRICARICENSIS.) Located in the Province of Potenza in the Basilicata (Southern Italy ), near ...
Tricassin, Charles Joseph

Charles Joseph Tricassin

One of the greatest theologians of the Capuchin Order, b. at Troyes ; d. in 1681. There is but ...
Tricca

Tricca

Titular see, suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. It was an ancient city of Thessaly, near the River ...
Trichinopoly, Diocese of

Trichinopoly

(TRICHINOPOLITAN.) Located in India, suffragan of Bombay, comprises the south east portion of ...
Trichur

Trichur

(TRICHURENSIS.) Vicariate Apostolic in India, one of the three vicariates of the Syro-Malabar ...
Tricomia

Tricomia

Titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palaestina Prima. It is mentioned in George of Cyprus ...
Triduum

Triduum

(Three days). A time frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices, whether ...
Trier

Trier

(TREVIRENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Cologne; includes in the Prussian province of the ...
Triesnecker, Francis a Paula

Francis a Paula Triesnecker

Astronomer, b. at Kirchberg on the Wagram, in Lower Austria, 2 April, 1745; d. at Vienna 29 ...
Triest-Capo d'Istria

Triest-Capo d'Istria

(TERGESTINA ET JUSTINOPOLITANA.) Suffragan diocese of Görz-Gradiska ; exists as a ...
Trincomalee

Trincomalee

(TRINCOMALIENSIS.) Located in Ceylon, suffragan of Colombo, was created in 1893 by a division ...
Trinità di Cava dei Tirrenti, Abbey of

Abbey of Trinita di Cava Dei Tirreni

Located in the Province of Salerno. It stands in a gorge of the Finestre Hills near Cava dei ...
Trinitarians, Order of

Order of Trinitarians

The redemption of captives has always been regarded in the Church as a work of mercy, as is ...
Trinity College

Trinity College

An institution for the higher education of Catholic women, located at Washington, D.C., and ...
Trinity Sunday

Trinity Sunday

The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity. In the early ...
Trinity, The Blessed

The Blessed Trinity

This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...
Triple-Candlestick

Triple-Candlestick

A name given along with several others (e.g. reed, tricereo, arundo, triangulum, lumen Christi ...
Trissino, Giangiorgio

Giangiorgio Trissino

Italian poet and scholar, b. of a patrician family at Vicenza in 1478; d. at Rome, 8 ...
Tritheists

Tritheists

(TRITHEITES). Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity. (1) Those who are ...
Trithemius, John

John Trithemius

A famous scholar and Benedictine abbot, b. at Trittenheim on the Moselle, 1 February, 1462; d. at ...
Trivento

Trivento

(Triventensis) Diocese in southern Italy. The earliest bishop was St. Castus of an uncertain ...
Trivet, Nicholas

Nicholas Trivet

(Or "Trevet" as he himself wrote it) B. about 1258; d. 1328. He was the son of Thomas Trevet, a ...
Troas

Troas

A suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespont. The city was first called Sigia; it was enlarged and ...
Trocmades

Trocmades

(Trocmada) Titular see of Galatia Secunda, suffragan of Pessinus. No geographer or historian ...
Trokelowe, John de

John de Trokelowe

(THROWLOW, or THORLOW) A monastic chronicler still living in 1330, but the dates of whose birth ...
Trondhjem, Ancient See of

Ancient See of Trondhjem

(NIDAROS). In Norway it was the kings who introduced Christianity, which first became ...
Trope

Trope

Definition and Description Trope, in the liturgico-hymnological sense, is a collective name ...
Tropology, Scriptural

Scriptural Tropology

The theory and practice of interpreting the figurative meaning of Holy Writ. The literal meaning, ...
Troy, John Thomas

John Thomas Troy

Archbishop of Dublin ; b. in the parish of Blanchardstown, near Dublin, 10 May, 1739; d. at ...
Troyes

Troyes

(TRECENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Aube. Re-established in 1802 as a suffragan ...
Truce of God

Truce of God

The Truce of God is a temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God ...
Truchsess von Waldburg, Otto

Otto Truchsess von Waldburg

Cardinal-Bishop of Augsburg (1543-73), b. at Castle Scheer in Swabia, 26 Feb., 1514; d. at ...
Trudo, Saint

St. Trudo

(TRON, TROND, TRUDON, TRUTJEN, TRUYEN). Apostle of Hasbein in Brabant; d. 698 (693). Feast 23 ...
Trudpert, Saint

St. Trudpert

Missionary in Germany in the seventh century. He is generally called a Celtic monk from ...
True Cross, The

The True Cross

(AND REPRESENTATIONS OF IT AS OBJECTS OF DEVOTION). (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult ; (2) ...
Trueba, Antonio de

Antonio de Trueba

Spanish poet and folklorist, b. at Montellana, Biscay, in 1821; d. at Bilbao, 10 March, 1889. In ...
Trujillo

Trujillo

Diocese comprising the Departments of Lambayeque, Libertad, Pinra, and the Province of Tumbes, ...
Trullo, Council in

Council in Trullo

This particular council of Constantinople, held in 692 under Justinian II, is generally known as ...
Trumpets, Feast of

Feast of Trumpets

The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...
Trumwin, Saint

Saint Trumwin

(TRIUMWINI, TRUMUINI). Died at Whitby, Yorkshire, England, after 686. He was consecrated by ...
Trustee System

Trustee System

I In the exercise of her inherent right of administering property, the Church often appoints ...
Trusts and Bequests

Trusts and Bequests

A trust has been defined, in its technical sense, as the right enforceable solely in equity to ...
Truth

Truth

Truth (Anglo-Saxon tréow, tryw, truth, preservation of a compact, from a Teutonic base ...
Truth Societies, Catholic

Catholic Truth Societies

This article will treat of Catholic Truth Societies in the chronological order of their ...
Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...
Tschiderer zu Gleifheim, Johann Nepomuk von

Tschiderer Zu Gleifheim

Bishop of Trent, b. at Bozen, 15 Feb., 1777; d. at Trent, 3 Dec., 1860. He sprang from a family ...
Tschupick, John Nepomuk

John Nepomuk Tschupick

A celebrated preacher, b. at Vienna, 7 or 12 April, 1729; d. there, 20 July, 1784. He entered the ...
Tuam

Tuam

(TUAMENSIS). The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly ...
Tuam, School of

School of Tuam

(Irish, Tuaim da Ghualann , or the "Mound of the two Shoulders"). The School of Tuam was ...
Tubunae

Tubunae

A titular see in Mauretania Caesariensis, according to the "Gerachia cattolica", or in Numidia ...
Tucson

Tucson

(T UCSONENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe. It comprises the State of ...
Tucumán

Tucuman

(T UCUMANENSIS ). Suffragan to Buenos Aires, erected from the Diocese of Salta on 15 ...
Tudela

Tudela

(TUTELÆ, TUTELENSIS). Diocese in Spain. The episcopal city has a population of 9213. ...
Tuguegarao

Tuguegarao

(TUGUEGARAONENSIS). Diocese in the Philippines ; situated in the north-eastern section of ...
Tulancingo

Tulancingo

(D E T ULANCINGO ). Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of Mexico. Its area is ...
Tulasne, Louis-René

Louis-Rene Tulasne

A noted botanist, b. at Azay-le-Rideau, Dept of Indre-et-Loire, France, 12 Sept., 1815; d. at ...
Tulle

Tulle

(TUTELENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Corrèze. It was suppressed by the ...
Tunic

Tunic

By tunic is understood in general a vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper ...
Tunis

Tunis

French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa. About the twelfth century before Christ ...
Tunja

Tunja

(T UNQUENENSIS ). Diocese established in 1880 as a suffragan of Bogotá, in the ...
Tunkers

Tunkers

( German tunken , to dip) A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite. ...
Tunstall, Cuthbert

Cuthbert Tunstall

Bishop of London, later of Durham, b. at Hackforth, Yorkshire, in 1474; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...
Tunstall, Venerable Thomas

Ven. Thomas Tunstall

Martyred at Norwich, 13 July, 1616. He was descended from the Tunstalls of Thurland, an ancient ...
Tunsted, Simon

Simon Tunsted

English Minorite, b. at Norwich, year unknown; d. at Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369. Having joined the ...
Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques

Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot

Baron de L' Aulne, French minister, born at Parish, 10 May, 1727; died there, 20 March, 1781. ...
Turin

Turin

(Turino; Taurinensis) The City of Turin is the chief town of a civil province in Piedmont and ...
Turin, Shroud of

The Shroud of Turin

This name is primarily given to a relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that ...
Turin, University of

The University of Turin

The University of Turin was founded in 1404, when the lectures at Piacenza and Pavia were ...
Turkestan

Turkestan

I. CHINESE TURKESTAN When Jenghiz Khan died (1227) his second son, Djagatai, had the greater part ...
Turkish Empire

Turkish Empire

Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the ...
Turnebus, Adrian

Adrian Turnebus

Philologist, b. at Andely in Normandy in 1512; d. in Paris, 12 June, 1565. The accounts of the ...
Turpin

Turpin

Archbishop of Reims, date of birth uncertain; d. 2 Sept., 800. He was a monk of St. Denis ...
Tuscany

Tuscany

Tuscany, a division of central Italy, includes the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, ...
Tuy

Tuy

(Tudensis.) Suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Santiago, comprises the civil provinces ...
Twenge, Saint John

St. John Twenge

Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...
Twiketal of Croyland

Twiketal of Croyland

(THURCYTEL, TURKETUL). Died July, 975. He was a cleric of royal descent, who is said to have ...
Tyana

Tyana

A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Prima. The city must first have been called Thoana, ...
Tychicus

St. Tychicus

A disciple of St. Paul and his constant companion. He was a native of the Roman province of ...
Tynemouth Priory

Tynemouth Priory

Tynemouth Priory, on the east coast of Northumberland, England, occupied the site of an earlier ...
Types in Scripture

Types in Scripture

Types, though denoted by the Greek word typoi , are not coextensive with the meaning of this ...
Tyrannicide

Tyrannicide

Tyrannicide literally is the killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a ...
Tyre

Tyre

(TYRUS.) Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese. The city is called in Hebrew, Zor , ...
Tyrie, James

James Tyrie

Theologian, b. at Drumkilbo, Perthshire, Scotland, 1543; d. at Rome, 27 May, 1597. Educated ...

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