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Febronianism

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The politico-ecclesiastical system outlined by Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim, Auxiliary Bishop of Trier, under the pseudonym Justinus Febronius, in his work entitled "Justini Febronii Juris consulti de Stata Ecclesiæ et legitimâ potestate Romani Pontificis Liber singularis ad reuniendos dissidentes in religione christianos compositus" (Bullioni apud Guillelmum Evrardi, 1763; in reality the work was published by Esslinger at Frankfort-on-the-Main ). Taking as a basis the Gallican principles which he had imbibed from the canonist Van Espen while pursuing his studies in Louvain, Hontheim advanced along the same lines, in spite of many inconsistencies, to a radicalism far outstripping traditional Gallicanism. He develops in this work a theory of ecclesiastical organization founded on a denial of the monarchical constitution of the Church. The ostensible purpose was to facilitate the reconciliation of the Protestant bodies with the Church by diminishing the power of the Holy See.

According to Febronius (cap. i), the power of the keys was entrusted by Christ to the whole body of the Church, which holds it principaliter et radicaliter , but exercises it through her prelates, to whom only the administration of this power is committed. Among these the pope comes first, though even he is subordinate to the Church as a whole. The Divine institution of the primacy in the church is acknowledged (cap. ii), but Febronius holds that its connexion with the Roman See does not rest on the authority of Christ, but on that of Peter and the Church, so that the Church has the power to attach it to another see. The power of the pope, therefore, should be confined to those essential rights inherent in the primacy which were exercised by the Holy See during the first eight centuries. The pope is the centre with which the individual Churches must be united. He must be kept informed of what is taking place everywhere throughout the Church, that he may exercise the care demanded by his office for the preservation of unity. It is his duty to enforce the observance of the canons in the whole Church ; he has the authority to promulgate laws in the name of the Church, and to depute legates to exercise his authority as primate. His power, as head of the whole Church, however, is of an administrative and unifying character, rather than a power of jurisdiction. But since the ninth century, chiefly through the influence of the False Decretals of Pseudo-Isidore, the constitution of the Church has undergone a complete transformation, in that the papal authority has been extended beyond proper bounds (cap. iii). By a violation of justice, questions which at one time were left to the decision of provincial synods and metropolitans gradually came to be reserved to the Holy See (cap. iv), as, for instance, the condemnation of heresies, the confirmation of episcopal elections, the naming of coadjutors with the right of succession, the transfer and removal of bishops, the establishment of new dioceses, and the erection of metropolitan and primatial sees. The pope, whose infallibility is expressly denied (cap. v), cannot, on his own authority, without a council or the assent of the entire episcopate, give forth any decisions on matters of faith of universal obligation. Likewise in matters of discipline, he can issue no decrees affecting the whole body of the faithful; the decrees of a general council have binding power only after their acceptance by the individual churches. Laws once promulgated cannot be altered at the pope's will or pleasure. It is also denied that the pope, by the nature and authority of the primacy, can receive appeals from the whole Church.

According to Febronius, the final court of appeal in the Church is the ecumenical council (cap. vi), the fights of which exclude the pretended monarchical constitution of the Church. The pope is subordinate to the general council; he has neither the exclusive authority to summon one, nor the right to preside at its sessions, and the conciliar decrees do not need his ratification. Ecumenical councils are of absolute necessity, as even the assent of a majority of bishops to a papal decree, if given by the individuals, outside a council, does not constitute a final, irrevocable decision. Appeal from the pope to a general council is justified by the superiority of the council over the pope. According to the Divine institution of the episcopate (cap. vii), all bishops have equal rights ; they do not receive their power of jurisdiction from the Holy See. It is not within the province of the pope to exercise ordinary episcopal functions in dioceses other than that of Rome. The papal reservations regarding the granting of benefices, annates, and the exemption of religious orders are thus in conflict with the primitive law of the Church, and must be abolished. Having shown, as he believes, that the existing ecclesiastical law with reference to papal power is a distortion of the original constitution of the Church, due chiefly to the False Decretals, Febronius demands that the primitive discipline, as outlined by him, be everywhere restored (cap. viii). He then suggests as means for bringing about this reformation (cap. ix), that the people shall be properly enlightened on this subject, that a general council with full freedom be held, that national synods be convened, but especially that Catholic rulers take concerted action, with the cooperation and advice of the bishops, that secular princes avail themselves of the Regium Placet to resist decrees, that obedience be openly refused to a legitimate extent, and finally that secular authority be appealed to through the Appellatio ab abusu . The last measures reveal the real trend of Febronian principles; Febronius, while ostensibly contending for a larger independence and greater authority for the bishops, seeks only to render the Churches of the different countries less dependent on the Holy See, in order to facilitate the establishment of national Churches in these states, and reduce the bishops to a condition in which they would be merely servile creatures of the civil power . Wherever an attempt was made to put his ideas into execution, it proceeded along these lines.

The book was formally condemned, 27 February, 1764, by Clement XIII. By a Brief of 21 May, 1764, the pope required the German episcopate to suppress the work. Ten prelates, among them the Elector of Trier, complied. Meanwhile no steps had been taken against the author personally, who was well known in Rome. Despite the ban of the Church, the book, harmonizing as it did with the spirit of the times, had a tremendous success. A second edition, revised and enlarged, was issued as early as 1765; it was reprinted at Venice and Zurich, and translations appeared in German, French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese. In the three later volumes, which Hontheim issued as supplementary to the original work, and numbered II to IV (Vol. II, Frankfort and Leipzig, 1770; Vol. III, 1772; Vol. IV, Parts 1 and 2, 1773-74), he defended it, under the name of Febronius and various other pseudonyms, against a series of attacks. Later he published an abridgment under the title: "Justinus Febronius abbreviatus et emendatus" (Cologne and Frankfort, 1777). In addition to the "Judicium academicum" of the University of Cologne (1765), refutations appeared from a large number of Catholic authors, the most important being: Ballerini, "De vi ac ratione primatus Romanorum Pontificum et de ipsorum infallibilitate in definiendis controversiis fidei" (Verona, 1766); Idem, "De potestate ecclesiasticâ Summorum Pontifleum et Conciliorum generalium liber, una cum vindiciis auctoritatis pontificiæ contra opus Just. Febronii (Verona, 1768; Augsburg, 1770; new ed. of both works, Münster in W., 1845, 1847); Zaccaria, "Antifebronio, ossia apologia polemicostorica del primato del Papa, contra la dannata opera di Giust. Febronio" (2 vols., Pesaro, 1767; 2nd ed., 4 vols., Cesena, 1768-70; tr. German, Reichenberger, Augsburg, 1768); Idem, "Antifebronius vindicatus" (4 vols., Cesena, 1771-2); Idem, "In tertium Justini Febronii tomum animadversiones Romano-catholicæ" (Rome, 1774); Mamachi, "Epistolæ ad Just. Febronium de ratione regendæ christianæ reipublicæ deque legitimâ Romani Pontificis potestate" (3 vols., Rome, 1776-78). There were, besides, refutations written from the Protestant standpoint, to repudiate the idea that a diminution of the papal power was all that was necessary to bring the Protestants back into union with the Church, for instance Karl Friedrich Bahrdt, "Dissertatio de eo, an fieri possit, ut sublato Pontificio imperio reconcilientur Dissidentes in religione Christiani" (Leipzig, 1763), and Johann Friedrich Bahrdt, "Do Romanâ Ecclesiâ irreconciliabili" (Leipzig, 1767); Karl Gottl. Hofmann, "Programma continens examen regulæ exegeticæ ex Vincentio Lerinensi in Febronio repetitæ" (Wittenberg, 1768).

The first measures against the author were taken by Pius VI, who urged Clemens Wenzeslaus, Elector of Trier, to prevail on Hontheim to recall the work. Only after prolonged exertions, and after a retractation, couched in general terms, had been adjudged unsatisfactory in Rome, the elector forwarded to Rome Hontheim's emended recantation (15 November, 1778). This was communicated to the cardinals in consistory by Pius VI on Christmas Day. That this retractation was not sincere on Hontheim's part is evident from his subsequent movements. That he had by no means relinguished his ideas appears from his "Justini Febronii Jcti. Commentarius in suam Retractationem Pio VI. Pont. Max. Kalendis Nov. anni 1778 submissam" (Frankfort, 1781; German ed., Augsburg, 1781), written for the purpose of justifying his position before the public. Meanwhile; notwithstanding the prohibition, the "Febronius" had produced its pernicious effects, which were not checked by the retractation. The ideas advanced in the work, being in thorough accord with the absolutistic tendencies of civil rulers, were eagerly accepted by the Catholic courts and governments of France, the Austrian Netherlands, Spain and Portugal, Venice, Austria, and Tuscany ; and they received further development at the hands of court theologians and canonists who favoured the scheme of a national Church. Among the advocates of the theory of Febronianism in Germany, mention should be made of the Trier professor, Franz Anton Haubs, "Themata ex historiâ ecclesiasticâ de hierarchiâ sacrâ primorum V sæculorum" (Trier, 1786); "Systema primævum de potestate episcopali ejusque applicatio ad episcopalia quædam jura in specie punctationibus I. II. et IV. congressus Emsani exposita" (Trier, 1788); and Wilhelm Joseph Castello, "Dissertatio historica de variis causis, queis accidentalis Romani Pontificis potestas successive ampliata fuit" (Trier, 1788). It was the Austrian canonists, however, who contributed most towards the compilation of a new law code regulating the relations of Church and State, which was reduced to practice under Joseph II. Especially noteworthy as being conceived in this spirit were the textbooks on canon law prescribed for the Austrian universities, and compiled by Paul Joseph von Riegger, "Institutiones juris ecclesiastici" (4 vols., Vienna, 1768-72; frequently reprinted), and Pehem, "Prælectiones in jus ecclesiasticum universum", also, in a more pronounced way, the work of Johann Valentin Eybel, "Introductia in jus ecclesiasticum Catholicorum" (4 vols., Vienna, 1777; placed on the Index, 1784).

The first attempt to give Febronian principles a practical application was made in Germany at the Coblenz Conference of 1769, where the three ecclesiastical Electors of Mains, Cologne, and Trier, through their delegates, and under the directions of Hontheim, compiled a list of thirty grievances against the Roman See, in consonance with the principles of the "Febronius" (Gravamina trium Archiepiscoporum Electorum, Moguntinensis, Trevirensis et Coloniensis contra Curiam Apostolicam anno 1769 ad Cæsarem delata; printed in Le Bret, "Magazin zum Gebrauch der Staaten- und Kirchengeschichte", Pt. VIII, Ulm, 1783, pp. 1-21). More significant was the Ems Congress of 1786, at which the three ecclesiastical electors and the Prince- Bishop of Salzburg, in imitation of the Coblenz Congress, and in conformity with the basic principles of the "Febronius", made a fresh attempt to readjust the relations of the German Church with Rome, with a view to securing for the former a greater measure of independence; they also had their representatives draw up the Ems Punctation in twenty-three articles; they achieved, however, no practical results. An attempt was made to realize the principles of the "Febronius" on a large scale in Austria, where under Joseph II a national Church was established according to the plan outlined. Efforts in the same direction were made by Joseph's brother Leopold in his Grand-Duchy of Tuscany. The resolutions adopted at the Synod of Pistoia, under Bishop Scipio Ricci, along these lines, were repudiated by the majority of the bishops of the country.

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Félix, Célestin Joseph

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Führich, Joseph

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Fürstenberg, Franz Friedrich Wilhelm von

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Façade

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Faa di Bruno, Francesco

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Faber, Felix

Felix Faber

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Faber, Frederick William

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Faber, Johann

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Faber, Johann Augustanus

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Faber, Matthias

Matthias Faber

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Faber, Peter, Saint

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Faber, Philip

Philip Faber

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Fabian, Pope Saint

Pope Saint Fabian

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Fabiola, Saint

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Fabre, Joseph

Joseph Fabre

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Fabri, Honoré

Honore Fabri

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Fabri, Philip

Philip Faber

(Or Fabri.) Theologian, philosopher and noted commentator of Duns Scotus ; born in 1564, at ...
Fabriano and Matelica

Fabriano and Matelica

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Fabrica Ecclesiæ

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Fabricius, Hieronymus

Hieronymus Fabricius

(Surnamed ab Aquapendente ). Distinguished Italian anatomist and surgeon, b. in the little ...
Fabyan, Robert

Robert Fabyan

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Facciolati, Jacopo

Jacopo Facciolati

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Fact, Dogmatic

Dogmatic Fact

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Faculties of the Soul

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Faculties, Canonical

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Facundus of Hermiane

Facundus of Hermiane

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Faenza

Faenza

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Fagnani, Prospero

Prospero Fagnani

Canonist, b. in Italy, place and date of birth uncertain; d. in 1678. Some writers place his ...
Fagnano, Guilio Carlo de' Toschi di

Guilio Carlo De' Toschi Di

Mathematician, born at Sinigaglia, Italy, 26 September, 1682; died there 18 May, 1766. He made ...
Faillon, Etienne-Michel

Etienne-Michel Faillon

Historian, born at Tarascon, France, 3 January, 1800; died at Paris, 25 October, 1870. He studied ...
Faith

Faith

I. THE MEANING OF THE WORD ( Pistis , fides). In the Old Testament , the Hebrew means ...
Faith, Hope, and Charity (Saints)

Sts. Faith, Hope and Charity

The names of two groups of Roman martyrs around whom a considerable amount of legendary lore has ...
Faith, The Rule of

The Rule of Faith

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Faithful, The

The Faithful

( Latin fideles , from fides , faith.) Those who have bound themselves to a religious ...
Falco, Juan Conchillos

Juan Conchillos Falco

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Faldstool

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Falkner, Thomas

Thomas Falkner

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Fall River

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Fallopio, Gabriello

Gabriello Fallopio

Anatomist, "one of the most important of the many-sided physicians of the sixteenth century" ...
Falloux du Coudray

Vicomte de Falloux du Coudray

Frédéric Alfred Pierre, Vicomte de Falloux du Coudray Born at Angers, 7 March, ...
False Decretals

False Decretals

(The Decretals of the Pseudo-Isidore) False Decretals is a name given to certain apocryphal ...
Falsity

Falsity

( Latin Falsitas .) A perversion of truth originating in the deceitfulness of one party, and ...
Famagusta

Famagusta

A titular see in the Island of Cyprus. The name appears to be derived from the Greek ...
Familiars

Familiars

Strictly speaking, seculars subject to a master's authority and maintained at his expense. In this ...
Family

Family

A term derived from the Latin, famulus , servant, and familia , household servants, or the ...
Fano

Fano

(FANENSIS.) Fano, the ancient Fanum Fortunæ, a city of the Marches in the province of ...
Fanon

Fanon

A shoulder-cape worn by the pope alone, consisting of two pieces of white silk ornamented with ...
Faraud, Henri

Henri Faraud

Titular Bishop of Anémour and first Vicar Apostolic of Athabasca-Mackenzie , Canada ; ...
Farfa, Abbey of

Abbey of Farfa

Situated about 26 miles from Rome, not far from the Farfa Sabina Railway station. A legend in the ...
Fargo

Fargo

(FARGUS; FARGENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of St. Paul, U.S.A., embracing the whole of the State ...
Faribault, George-Barthélemy

George-Barthelemy Faribault

An archaeologist, b. at Quebec, Canada, 3 Dec., 1789; d. 1866. He was a first cousin of ...
Faribault, Jean-Baptiste

Jean-Baptiste Faribault

A trader with the Indians and early settler in Minnesota, U.S.A.; b. 19 October, 1774, at ...
Farinato, Paolo

Paolo Farinato

An Italian painter, b. at Verona 1524; d. there, 1606. He belonged to the old Florentine ...
Faringdon, Blessed Hugh

Bl. Hugh Faringdon

( Vere COOK). English martyr ; b. probably at Faringdon, Berkshire, date unknown; d. at ...
Farlati, Daniele

Daniele Farlati

An ecclesiastical historian, b. at San Daniele del Friuli in the present Italian province of ...
Farnese, Alessandro

Alessandro Farnese

The name of two cardinals. For the elder see POPE PAUL III. The young Alessandro Farnese -- ...
Faro

Faro (Portugal)

(PHARENSIS) A suffragan of Evora, Portugal, and extending over the province of Algarve. The ...
Faroe Islands

Faroe Islands

Geography and Statistics A group of Danish islands rising from the sea some four hundred miles ...
Fast

Fast

In general abstinence from food or drink, a term common to the various Teutonic tongues. Some ...
Fatalism

Fatalism

Fatalism is in general the view which holds that all events in the history of the world, and, in ...
Fate

Fate

( Latin fatum, from fari, to tell or predict ). This word is almost redundant in the ...
Fathers of Mercy, The

The Fathers of Mercy

A congregation of missionary priests first established at Lyons, France, in 1808, and later at ...
Fathers of the Church

Fathers of the Church

The Appeal to the Fathers Classification of Patristic Writings Apostolic Fathers and the Second ...
Fathers, The Apostolic

The Apostolic Fathers

Christian writers of the first and second centuries who are known, or are considered, to have had ...
Faunt, Lawrence Arthur

Lawrence Arthur Faunt

A Jesuit theologian, b. 1554, d. at Wilna, Poland, 28 February, 1590-91. After two years at ...
Fauriel, Charles-Claude

Charles-Claude Fauriel

A historian, b. at St-Etienne, France, 27 October, 1772; d. at Paris,15 July, 1844. He studied ...
Faustinus and Jovita, Saints

Sts. Faustinus and Jovita

Martyrs, members of a noble family of Brescia ; the elder brother, Faustinus, being a priest, ...
Faustus of Riez

Faustus of Riez

Bishop of Riez ( Rhegium ) in Southern Gaul (Provence), the best known and most distinguished ...
Faversham Abbey

Faversham Abbey

A former Benedictine monastery of the Cluniac Congregation situated in the County of Kent ...
Faye, Hervé-Auguste-Etienne-Albann

Herve-Auguste-Etienne-Albans Faye

An astronomer, b. at Saint-Benoît-du-Sault (Indre, France ), Oct., 1814; d. at Paris, 4 ...
Fear (from a Moral Standpoint)

Fear (From a Moral Standpoint)

(CONSIDERED FROM A MORAL STANDPOINT.) Fear is an unsettlement of soul consequent upon the ...
Fear (in Canon Law)

Fear (In Canon Law)

(IN CANON LAW.) A mental disturbance caused by the perception of instant or future danger. ...
Feast of Fools

Feast of Fools

A celebration marked by much license and buffoonery, which in many parts of Europe, and ...
Feasts, Ecclesiastical

Ecclesiastical Feasts

( Latin Festum ; Greek heorte ). Feast Days, or Holy Days, are days which are celebrated in ...
Febronianism

Febronianism

The politico-ecclesiastical system outlined by Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim, Auxiliary Bishop of ...
Feckenham, John de

John de Feckenham

Last Abbot of Westminster, and confessor of the Faith ; b. in Feckenham Forest, ...
Feder, Johann Michael

Johann Michael Feder

A German theologian, b. 25 May, 1753, at Oellingen in Bavaria ; d. 26 July, 1824, at ...
Feilding, Rudolph William Basil

Rudolph William Basil Feilding

The eighth Earl of Denbigh, and ninth Earl of Desmond, b. 9 April, 1823; d. 1892. He was educated ...
Feilmoser, Andreas Benedict

Andreas Benedict Feilmoser

A theologian and Biblical scholar, b. 8 April, 1777, at Hopfgarten, Tyrol; d. at Tübingen, ...
Felbiger, Johann Ignaz von

Johann Ignaz von Felbiger

A German educational reformer, pedagogical writer, and canon regular of the Order of St. ...
Felician and Primus, Saints

Sts. Primus and Felician

Suffered martyrdom about 304 in the Diocletian persecution. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" ...
Felician Sisters, O.S.F.

Felician Sisters, O.S.F.

Founded 21 November, 1855, at Warsaw, Poland, by Mother Mary Angela, under the direction of ...
Felicissimus

Felicissimus

A deacon of Carthage who, in the middle of the third century, headed a short-lived but dangerous ...
Felicitas and Perpetua, Saints

Sts. Felicitas and Perpetua

Martyrs, suffered at Carthage, 7 March 203, together with three companions, Revocatus, Saturus, ...
Felicitas, Saint

St. Felicitas

MARTYR. The earliest list of the Roman feasts of martyrs, known as the "Depositio Martyrum" ...
Felix and Adauctus, Saints

Sts. Felix and Adauctus

Martyrs at Rome, 303, under Diocletian and Maximian. The Acts, first published in Ado's ...
Felix and Nabor, Saints

Sts. Nabor and Felix

Martyrs during the persecution of Diocletian (303). The relics of these holy witnesses to the ...
Felix I, Pope Saint

Pope St. Felix I

Date of birth unknown; d. 274. Early in 269 he succeeded Saint Dionysius as head of the Roman ...
Felix II

Felix II

Pope (more properly Antipope ), 355-358; d. 22 Nov., 365. In 355 Pope Liberius was ...
Felix III (II), Pope Saint

Pope St. Felix III

(Reigned 483-492). Born of a Roman senatorial family and said to have been an ancestor of ...
Felix IV (III), Pope Saint

Pope Felix IV

(Reigned 526-530). On 18 May, 526, Pope John I died in prison at Ravenna, a victim of the ...
Felix of Cantalice, Saint

St. Felix of Cantalice

A Capuchin friar, b. at Cantalice, on the north-western border of the Abruzzi; d. at Rome, 18 ...
Felix of Nola, Saint

St. Felix of Nola

Born at Nola, near Naples, and lived in the third century. After his father's death he ...
Felix of Valois, Saint

St. Felix of Valois

Born in 1127; d. at Cerfroi, 4 November, 1212. He is commemorated 20 November. He was surnamed ...
Felix V

Felix V

Regnal name of Amadeus of Savoy, Antipope (1440-1449). Born 4 December, 1383, died at ...
Feller, François-Xavier de

Francois Xavier de Feller

An author and apologist, b. at Brussels 18 August, 1735; d. at Ratisbon 22 May, 1802. He ...
Feneberg, Johann Michael Nathanael

Johann Michael Nathanael Feneberg

Born in Oberdorf, Allgau, Bavaria, 9 Feb., 1751; died 12 Oct., 1812. He studied at Kaufbeuren and ...
Fenn, John

John Fenn

Born at Montacute near Wells in Somersetshire; d. 27 Dec., 1615. He was the eldest brother of Ven. ...
Ferber, Nicolaus

Nicolaus Ferber

A Friar Minor and controversialist, born at Herborn, Germany, in 1485; died at Toulouse, 15 ...
Ferdinand II

Ferdinand II

Emperor, eldest son of Archduke Karl and the Bavarian Princess Maria, b. 1578; d. 15 February, ...
Ferdinand III, Saint

St. Ferdinand III

King of Leon and Castile, member of the Third Order of St. Francis, born in 1198 near ...
Ferdinand, Blessed

Blessed Ferdinand

Prince of Portugal, b. in Portugal, 29 September, 1402; d. at Fez, in Morocco, 5 June, 1443. He ...
Ferdinando, Luigi, Count de Marsigli

Luigi Ferdinando, Count de Marsigli

Italian geographer and naturalist, b. at Bologna 10 July, 1658; d. at Bologna 1 Nov., 1730. He ...
Ferentino, Diocese of

Ferentino

(FERENTINUM) In the province of Rome, immediately subject to the Holy See. The town was in ...
Fergus, Saints

Sts. Fergus

St. Fergus Cruithneach Died about 730, known in the Irish martyrologies as St. Fergus ...
Feria

Feria

( Latin for "free day"). A day on which the people, especially the slaves, were not obliged ...
Ferland, Jean-Baptiste-Antoine

Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Ferland

A French Canadian historian, b. at Montreal, 25 December, 1805; d. at Quebec, 11 January, ...
Fermo, Archdiocese of

Fermo

(FIRMANA). In the province of Ascoli Piceno (Central Italy ). The great antiquity of the ...
Fernández de Palencia, Diego

Diego Fernandez de Palencia

A Spanish conqueror and historian; b. at Palencia in the early part of the sixteenth century. ...
Fernández, Antonio

Antonio Fernandez

A Jesuit missionary; b. at Lisbon, c. 1569; d. at Goa, 12 November, 1642. About 1602 he was ...
Fernández, Juan

Juan Fernandez

A Jesuit lay brother and missionary; b. at Cordova ; d. 12 June, 1567, in Japan. In a letter ...
Ferns

Ferns

DIOCESE OF FERNS (FERNENSIS). Diocese in the province of Leinster ( Ireland ), suffragan of ...
Ferrara

Ferrara

A RCHDIOCESE OF F ERRARA (F ERRARIENSIS ). Archdiocese immediately subject to the Holy ...
Ferrari, Gaudenzio

Gaudenzio Ferrari

An Italian painter and the greatest master of the Piedmontese School, b. at Valduggia, near ...
Ferraris, Lucius

Lucius Ferraris

An eighteenth-century canonist of the Franciscan Order. The exact dates of his birth and death ...
Ferre, Vicente

Vicente Ferre

Theologian, b. at Valencia, Spain ; d. at Salamanca in 1682. He entered the Dominican Order ...
Ferreira, Antonio

Antonio Ferreira

A poet, important both for his lyric and his dramatic compositions, b. at Lisbon, Portugal, in ...
Ferrer, Rafael

Rafael Ferrer

A Spanish missionary and explorer; b. at Valencia, in 1570; d. at San José, Peru, in ...
Ferrer, Saint Vincent

St. Vincent Ferrer

Famous Dominican missionary, born at Valencia, 23 January, 1350; died at Vannes, Brittany, 5 ...
Ferrières, Abbey of

Abbey of Ferrieres

Situated in the Diocese of Orléans , department of Loiret, and arrondissement of ...
Ferstel, Heinrich, Freiherr von

Heinrich, Freiherr von Ferstel

Architect; with Hansen and Schmidt, the creator of modern Vienna ; b. 7 July, 1828, at Vienna ; ...
Fesch, Joseph

Joseph Fesch

Cardinal, b. at Ajaccio, Corsica, 3 January, 1763; d. at Rome, 13 May, 1839. He was the son of a ...
Fessler, Josef

Josef Fessler

Bishop of St. Polten in Austria and secretary of the Vatican Council ; b. 2 December, 1813, at ...
Fetherston, Blessed Richard

Bl. Richard Fetherston

Priest and martyr ; died at Smithfield, 30 July, 1540. He was chaplain to Catharine of Aragon ...
Feti, Domenico

Domenico Feti

An Italian painter ; born at Rome, 1589; died at Venice, 1624. He was a pupil of Cigoli ...
Fetishism

Fetishism

Fetishism means the religion of the fetish. The word fetish is derived through the Portuguese ...
Feuardent, François

Francois Feuardent

A Franciscan, theologian, preacher of the Ligue, b. at Coutanees, Normandy, in 1539; d. at ...
Feuchtersleben, Baron Ernst von

Baron Ernst von Feuchtersleben

An Austrian poet, philosopher, and physician; born at Vienna, 29 April, 1806; died 3 September, ...
Feudalism

Feudalism

Etymology This term is derived from the Old Aryan pe'ku , hence Sanskrit pacu , "cattle"; ...
Feuillants

Feuillants

The Cistercians who, about 1145, founded an abbey in a shady valley in the Diocese of Rieux ...
Feuillet, Louis

Louis Feuillet

(FEUILLÉE) Geographer, b. at Mane near Forcalquier, France, in 1660; d. at Marseilles ...
Feyjóo y Montenegro, Benito Jerónimo

Benito Jeronimo Feyjoo y Montenegro

A celebrated Spanish writer, b. at Casdemiro, in the parish of Santa Maria de Molias, Galicia, ...
Fiacc, Saint

St. Fiacc

(Lived about 415-520.) A poet, chief bishop of Leinster, and founder of two churches. His ...
Fiacre, Saint

St. Fiacre

Abbot, born in Ireland about the end of the sixth century; died 18 August, 670. Having been ...
Ficino, Marsilio

Marsilio Ficino

A philosopher, philologist, physician, b. at Florence, 19 Oct., 1433; d. at Correggio, 1 Oct, ...
Ficker, Julius

Julius Ficker

(More correctly Caspar von Ficker). Historian, b. at Paderborn, Germany, 30 April, 1826; d. at ...
Fideism

Fideism

(Latin fides , faith). A philosophical term meaning a system of philosophy or an ...
Fidelis of Sigmaringen, Saint

St. Fidelis of Sigmaringen

Born in 1577, at Sigmaringen, Prussia, of which town his father Johannes Rey was burgomaster; ...
Fiesole

Fiesole

DIOCESE OF FIESOLE (FÆSULANA). Diocese in the province of Tuscany, suffragan of Florence. ...
Figueroa, Francisco de

Francisco de Figueroa

A celebrated Spanish poet, surnamed "the Divine", b. at Alcalá de Henares, c. 1540, d. ...
Figueroa, Francisco García de la Rosa

Francisco Garcia de la Rosa Figueroa

Franciscan, b. in the latter part of the eighteenth century at Toluca, in the Archdiocese of ...
Fiji, Vicariate Apostolic of

Vicariate Apostolic of Fiji

Comprising the islands belonging to the Fiji Archipelago. This archipelago forms the central ...
Filby, Blessed William

Blessed William Filby

Blessed William Filby Born in Oxfordshire between 1557 and 1560; suffered at Tyburn, 30 May, ...
Filelfo, Franscesco

Francesco Filelfo

A humanist, b. at Tolentino, 25 July, 1398; d. at Florence 31 July, 1481. He studied grammar, ...
Filial Church

Filial Church

(Latin filialis , from filia , daughter), a church to which is annexed the cure of souls , ...
Filicaja, Vincenzo da

Vincenzo Da Filicaja

Lyric poet; born at Florence, 30 December, 1642; died there 24 September, 1707. At Pisa he was ...
Filioque

Filioque

Filioque is a theological formula of great dogmatic and historical importance. On the one ...
Fillastre, Guillaume

Guillaume Fillastre (Philastrius)

French cardinal, canonist, humanist, and geographer, b. 1348 at La Suze, Maine, France ; d. at ...
Filliucci, Vincenzo

Vincenzo Filliucci

Jesuit moralist; b. at Sienna, Italy, 1566; d. at Rome 5 April, 1622. Having entered the Society ...
Filliucius, Felix

Felix Filliucius

(Or, as his name is more often found, in its Italian form, FIGLIUCCI). An Italian humanist, a ...
Final Perseverance

Final Perseverance

( Perseverantia finalis ). Final perseverance is the preservation of the state of grace till ...
Finan, Saint

St. Finan

Second Bishop of Lindisfarne ; died 9 February, 661. He was an Irish monk who had been ...
Finbarr, Saint

St. Finbarr

(Lochan, Barr). Bishop and patron of Cork, born near Bandon, about 550, died at Cloyne, 25 ...
Finch, Ven. John

Ven. John Finch

A martyr, b. about 1548; d. 20 April, 1584. He was a yeoman of Eccleston, Lancashire, and a ...
Finglow, Ven. John

Ven. John Finglow

An English martyr ; b. at Barnby, near Howden, Yorkshire; executed at York, 8 August, 1586. He ...
Finland

Finland

Note: This article was taken from the 1909 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, and is presented ...
Finnian of Moville, Saint

St. Finnian of Moville

Born about 495; died 589. Though not so celebrated as his namesake of Clonard, he was the ...
Finotti, Joseph M.

Joseph M. Finotti

Born at Ferrara, Italy, 21 September, 1817; died at Central City, Colorado, 10 January, 1879. ...
Fintan, Saints

Sts. Fintan

St. Fintan of Clonenagh A Leinster saint, b. about 524; d. 17 February, probably 594, or at least ...
Fioretti di San Francesco d'Assisi

Fioretti di San Francesco d'Assisi

Little Flowers of Francis of Assisi , the name given to a classic collection of popular legends ...
Fire, Liturgical Use of

Liturgical Use of Fire

Fire is one of the most expressive and most ancient of liturgical symbols. All the creeds of ...
Firmament

Firmament

(Septuagint stereoma ; Vulgate, firmamentum ). The notion that the sky was a vast solid ...
Firmicus Maternus

Firmicus Maternus

Christian author of the fourth century; wrote a work "De errore profanarum religionum". Nothing ...
Firmilian

Firmilian

Bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia, died c. 269. He had among his contemporaries a reputation ...
First-Born

First-Born

The word, though casually taken in Holy Writ in a metaphorical sense, is most generally used by ...
First-Fruits

First-Fruits

The practice of consecrating first-fruits to the Deity is not a distinctly Jewish one (cf. ...
Fiscal Procurator

Fiscal Procurator

( Latin PROCURATOR FISCALIS). The duties of the fiscal procurator consist in preventing ...
Fischer, Antonius

Antonius Fischer

Archbishop of Cologne and cardinal, b. at Julich, 30 May, 1840; d. at Neuenahr, 30 July, 1912. ...
Fish, Symbolism of the

Symbolism of the Fish

Among the symbols employed by the primitive Christians, that of the fish ranks probably first in ...
Fisher, Philip

Philip Fisher

(An alias , real name THOMAS COPLEY) Missionary, b. in Madrid, 1595-6; d. in Maryland, U. ...
Fisherman, The Ring of the

The Ring of Fisherman

The earliest mention of the Fisherman's ring worn by the popes is in a letter of Clement IV ...
Fitter, Daniel

Daniel Fitter

Born in Worcestershire, England, 1628; died at St. Thomas' Priory, near Stafford, 6 Feb., 1700. ...
Fitton, James

James Fitton

Missionary, b. at Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. , 10 April, 1805; d. there, 15 Sept., 1881. His ...
Fitz-Simons, Thomas

Thomas Fitz-Simons

American merchant, b. in Ireland, 1741; d. at Philadelphia, U.S.A. 26 Aug., 1811. There is no ...
Fitzalan, Henry

Henry Fitzalan

Twelfth Earl of Arundel, b. about 1511; d. in London, 24 Feb., 1580 (O.S. 1579). Son of William, ...
FitzGibbon, Catherine

Sister Irene (Catherine Fitzgibbon)

(Catherine FitzGibbon.) Born in London, England, 12 May, 1823; died in New York, 14 August, ...
Fitzherbert, Anthony, Sir

Sir Anthony Fitzherbert

Judge, b. in 1470; d. 27 May, 1538. He was the sixth son of Ralph Fitzherbert of Norbury, ...
Fitzherbert, Maria Anne

Maria Anne Fitzherbert

Wife of King George IV; b. 26 July, 1756 (place uncertain); d. at Brighton, England, 29 March, ...
Fitzherbert, Thomas

Thomas Fitzherbert

Born 1552, at Swynnerton, Staffs, England ; died 17 Aug., 1640, at Rome. His father having died ...
Fitzpatrick, William John

William John Fitzpatrick

Historian, b. in Dublin, Ireland, 31 Aug., 1830; d. there 24 Dec., 1895. The son of a rich ...
Fitzralph, Richard

Richard Fitzralph

Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Dundalk, Ireland, about 1295; d. at Avignon, 16 Dec., 1360. He ...
Fitzsimon, Henry

Henry Fitzsimon

(Fitz Simon). Jesuit, b. 1566 (or 1569), in Dublin, Ireland ; d. 29 Nov., 1643 (or 1645), ...
Fixlmillner, Placidus

Placidus Fixlmillner

Astronomer, b. at Achleuthen near Kremsmünster, Austria, in 1721; d. at Kremsmünster, ...
Fizeau, Armand-Hippolyte-Louis

Armand-Hippolyte-Louis Fizeau

Physicist, b. at Paris, 23 Sept., 1819; d. at Nanteuil, Seine-et-Marne, 18 Sept., 1896. His ...
Fléchier, Esprit

Esprit Flechier

Bishop; b. at Pernes, France, 1632; died at Montpellier, 1710; member of the Academy, and ...
Flórez, Enrique

Enrique Florez

Spanish theologian, archeologist, and historian; born at Valladolid, 14 February, 1701; died at ...
Flabellum

Flabellum

The flabellum, in liturgical use, is a fan made of leather, silk, parchment, or feathers ...
Flaccilla, Ælia

Aelia Flaccilla

( Plakilla ) Empress, wife of Theodosius the Great , died c. A. D. 385 or 386. Like ...
Flagellants

Flagellants

A fanatical and heretical sect that flourished in the thirteenth and succeeding centuries, Their ...
Flagellation

Flagellation

The history of the whip, rod, and stick, as instruments of punishment and of voluntary penance, ...
Flaget, Benedict Joseph

Benedict Joseph Flaget

First Bishop of Bardstown (subsequently of Louisville ), Kentucky, U.S.A. b. at Contournat, ...
Flanagan, Thomas Canon

Thomas Canon Flanagan

Born in England in 1814, though Irish by descent; died at Kidderminster, 21 July, 1865. He was ...
Flanders

Flanders

(Flemish VLAENDEREN; German FLANDEREN; French FLANDRE). Designated in the eighth century a ...
Flandrin, Jean-Hippolyte

Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin

French painter, b. at Lyons, 23 March, 1809; d. at Rome, 21 March, 1864. He came of a family of ...
Flathead Indians

Flathead Indians

A name used in both Americas, without special ethnologic significance, to designate tribes ...
Flathers, Ven. Mathew

Ven. Mathew Flathers

( Alias Major). An English priest and martyr ; b. probably c. 1580 at Weston, Yorkshire, ...
Flavia Domitilla

Flavia Domitilla

A Christian Roman matron of the imperial family who lived towards the close of the first ...
Flavian, Saint

St. Flavian

Bishop of Constantinople, date of birth unknown; d. at Hypæpa in Lydia, August, 449. ...
Flavias

Flavias

A titular see of Cilicia Secunda. Nothing is known of its ancient name and history, except that ...
Flavigny, Abbey of

Abbey of Flavigny

A Benedictine abbey in the Diocese of Dijon, the department of Côte-d'Or, and ...
Flaviopolis

Flaviopolis

A titular see in the province of Honorias. The city, formerly called Cratia, originally belonged ...
Flemael, Bertholet

Bertholet Flemael

(The name was also spelled FLEMALLE and FLAMAEL). Painter, b. at Liège, Flanders, in ...
Fleming, Patrick

Patrick Fleming

Franciscan friar b. at Lagan, Couny Louth, Ireland, 17 April, 1599; d. 7 November, 1631. His ...
Fleming, Richard

Richard Fleming

(FLEMMING, FLEMMYNGE). Bishop of Lincoln and founder of Lincoln College, Oxford; b. of a ...
Fleming, Thomas

Thomas Fleming

Archbishop of Dublin, son of the Baron of Slane, b. in 1593; d. in 1665. He studied at thy ...
Fletcher, John

John Fletcher

A missionary and theologian, b. at Ormskirk, England, of an old Catholic family ; educated at ...
Flete, William

William Flete

An Augustinian hermit friar, a contemporary and great friend of St. Catherine of Siena ; the ...
Fleuriot, Zénaide-Marie-Anne

Zenaide-Marie-Anne Fleuriot

A French novelist, b. at Saint-Brieuc, 12 September, 1829; d. at Paris, 18 December, 1890. She ...
Fleury, Abbey of

Abbey of Fleury

( More completely FLEURY-SAINT-BENOÎT) One of the oldest and most celebrated ...
Fleury, André-Hercule de

Andre-Hercule de Fleury

Born at Lodève, 26 June, 1653; died at Paris, 29 January, 1742. He was a ...
Flodoard

Flodoard

(Or FRODOARD) French historian and chronicler, b. at Epernay in 894; d. in 966. He was ...
Flood of Noah

Deluge

Deluge is the name of a catastrophe fully described in Genesis 6:1 - 9:19 , and referred to in the ...
Floreffe, Abbey of

Abbey of Floreffe

Pleasantly situated on the right bank of the Sambre, about seven miles southwest of Namur, ...
Florence

Florence

(Latin Florentia ; Italian Firenze ). ARCHDIOCESE OF FLORENCE (FLORENTINA). Located in ...
Florence of Worcester

Florence of Worcester

English chronicler; all that is known of his personal history is that he was a monk of ...
Florence, Council of

Council of Florence

The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council was, correctly speaking, the continuation of the Council of ...
Florentina, Saint

St. Florentina

Virgin ; born towards the middle of the sixth century; died about 612. The family of St. ...
Florian, Jean-Pierre Claris, Chevalier de

Jean-Pierre Claris, Chevalier de Florian

Born at the château of Florian (Gard), 6 March, 1755; died at Sceaux, 13 September, 1794. An ...
Florians, The

The Florians

(Floriacenses), an altogether independent order, and not, as some consider, a branch of the ...
Florida

Florida

The Peninsular or Everglade State, the most southern in the American Union and second largest east ...
Florilegia

Florilegia

Florilegia (Lat., florilegium, an anthology) are systematic collections of excerpts (more or ...
Florus

Florus

A deacon of Lyons, ecclesiastical writer in the first half of the ninth century. We have no ...
Floyd, John

John Floyd

English missionary, wrote under the names Flud, Daniel à Jesu, Hermannus Loemelius, George ...
Fogaras

Fogaras

ARCHDIOCESE OF FOGARAS (FOGARASIENSIS). Archdiocese in Hungary, of the Greek-Rumanian Rite. It ...
Foggia

Foggia

DIOCESE OF FOGGIA (FODIANA). Diocese in the province of the same name in Apulia (Southern ...
Foillan, Saint

St. Foillan

( Irish FAELAN, FAOLAN, FOELAN, FOALAN.) Represented in iconography with a crown at his ...
Folengo, Teofilo

Teofilo Folengo

An Italian poet, better known by his pseudonyrn MERLIN COCCALO or COCAI; b. at Mantua in 1496; ...
Foley, Henry

Henry Foley

Born at Astley in Worcestershire, England, 9 Aug., 1811; died at Manresa House, Roehampton, 19 ...
Foligno

Foligno

DIOCESE OF FOLIGNO (FULGINATENSIS). Diocese in the province of Perugia, Italy, immediately ...
Foliot, Gilbert

Gilbert Foliot

Bishop of London, b. early in the twelfth century of an Anglo-Norman family and connected ...
Folkestone Abbey

Folkestone Abbey

Folkestone Abbey -- more correctly FOLKESTONE PRIORY -- is situated in the east division of ...
Fonseca Soares, Antonio da

Antonio Da Fonseca Soares

(ANTONIO DAS CHAGAS). Friar Minor and ascetical writer; b. at Vidigueira, 25 June, 1631; d. at ...
Fonseca, José Ribeiro da

Jose Ribeiro da Fonseca

Friar Minor ; b. at Evora, 3 Dec., 1690; d. at Porto, 16 June, 1752. He was received into the ...
Fonseca, Pedro Da

Pedro da Fonseca

A philosopher and theologian, born at Cortizada, Portugal, 1528; died at Lisbon, 4 Nov., 1599. ...
Fontana, Carlo

Carlo Fontana

An architect and writer; b. at Bruciato, near Como, 1634; d. at Rome, 1714. There seems to be no ...
Fontana, Domenico

Domenico Fontana

A Roman architect of the Late Renaissance, b. at Melide on the Lake of Lugano, 1543; d. at ...
Fontana, Felice

Felice Fontana

Italian naturalist and physiologist, b. at Pomarolo in the Tyrol, 15 April, 1730; d. at Florence, ...
Fontbonne, Jeanne

Jeanne Fontbonne

In religion Mother St. John, second foundress and superior-general of the Sisters of St. Joseph ...
Fonte-Avellana

Fonte-Avellana

A suppressed order of hermits, which takes its name from their first hermitage in the Apennines. ...
Fontenelle, Abbey of

Abbey of Fontenelle

(Or ABBEY OF SAINT WANDRILLE). A Benedictine monastery in Normandy ...
Fontevrault, Order and Abbey of

Order and Abbey of Fontevrault

I. CHARACTER OF THE ORDER The monastery of Fontevrault was founded by Blessed Robert ...
Fonts, Holy Water

Holy Water Fonts

Vessels intended for the use of holy water are of very ancient origin, and archaeological ...
Fools, Feast of

Feast of Fools

A celebration marked by much license and buffoonery, which in many parts of Europe, and ...
Foppa, Ambrogio

Ambrogio Foppa

Generally known as CARADOSS0. Italian goldsmith, sculptor, and die sinker, b. at Mondonico in ...
Forbes, John

John Forbes

Capuchin, b. 1570; d. 1606. His father, John, eighth Lord Forbes, being a Protestant, and his ...
Forbin-Janson, Comte de Charles-Auguste-Marie-Joseph

Comte de Forbin-Janson

A Bishop of Nancy and Toul, founder of the Association of the Holy Childhood , born in Paris, ...
Forcellini, Egidio

Egidio Forcellini

Latin lexicographer, b. at Fener, near Treviso, Italy, 26 Aug., 1688; d. at Padua, 4 April, ...
Ford, Blessed Thomas

Bl. Thomas Ford

Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...
Fordham University

Fordham University

Fordham University developed out of Saint John's College, founded by Bishop Hughes upon the old ...
Foreman, Andrew

Andrew Foreman

A Scottish prelate, of good border family ; b. at Hatton, near Berwick-on-Tweed; d. 1522. His ...
Forer, Laurenz

Laurenz Forer

Controversialist, b. at Lucerne, 1580; d. at Ratisbon, 7 January, 1659. He entered the Society ...
Foresters, Catholic Orders of

Catholic Orders of Foresters

I On 30 July, 1879, some members of the St. Vincent de Paul Society of Boston, Massachusetts, ...
Forgery, Forger

Forgery, Forger

If we accept the definition usually given by canonists, forgery ( Latin falsum ) differs very ...
Forli

Forli

(FOROLIVIENSIS) Diocese in the province of Romagna (Central Italy ); suffragan of Ravenna. ...
Form

Form

(Latin forma; Greek eidos, morphe, he kata ton logon ousia, to ti en einai : Aristotle) ...
Formby, Henry

Henry Formby

Born 1816; died at Normanton Hall, Leicester, 12 March, 1884. His father, Henry Grenehalgh Formby, ...
Formosus, Pope

Pope Formosus

(891-896) The pontificate of this pope belongs to that era of strife for political supremacy ...
Formularies

Formularies

(LIBRI FORMULARUM) Formularies are medieval collections of models for the execution of ...
Forrest, William

William Forrest

Priest and poet; dates of birth and death uncertain. Few personal details are known of him. He ...
Forster, Fobrenius

Frobenius Forster

Prince-Abbot of St. Emmeram at Ratisbon, b. 30 Aug., 1709, at Königsfeld in Upper Bavaria ...
Forster, Thomas Ignatius Maria

Thomas Ignatius Maria Forster

Astronomer and naturalist, b. at London, 9 Nov., 1789; d. at Brussels, 2 Feb., 1860. His literary ...
Fort Augustus Abbey

Fort Augustus Abbey

St. Benedict's Abbey, at Fort Augustus, Inverness-shire, is at present the only monastery for ...
Fort Wayne

Fort Wayne

DIOCESE OF (WAYNE CASTRENSIS). The Diocese of Vincennes, Indiana, U.S.A. established in ...
Fortaleza, Diocese of

Fortaleza

(FORTALEXIENSIS) The Diocese of Fortaleza is co-extensive with the State of Ceará in ...
Fortescue, Blessed Adrian

Bl. Adrian Fortescue

Knight of St. John, martyr, b. about 1476, executed 10 July, 1539. He belonged to the Salden ...
Fortitude

Fortitude

(1) Manliness is etymologically what is meant by the Latin word virtus and by the Greek andreia ...
Fortunato of Brescia

Fortunato of Brescia

Morphologist and Minorite of the Reform of Lombardy ; b. at Brescia, 1701; d. at Madrid, ...
Fortunatus

Fortunatus

Venantius Honorius Clementianus Fortunatus A Christian poet of the sixth century, b. ...
Forty Hours' Devotion

Forty Hours' Devotion

Also called Quarant' Ore or written in one word Quarantore , is a devotion in which continuous ...
Forty Martyrs

Forty Martyrs

A party of soldiers who suffered a cruel death for their faith, near Sebaste, in Lesser Armenia, ...
Forum, Ecclesiastical

Ecclesiastical Forum

That the Church of Christ has judicial and coercive power is plain from the constitution given ...
Fossano

Fossano

DIOCESE OF FOSSANO (FOSSANENSIS). Fossano is a town in the province of Cuneo, in Piedmont, ...
Fossombrone

Fossombrone (Forum Sempronii)

DIOCESE OF FOSSOMBRONE (FOROSEMPRONIENSIS). Diocese in the province of Pesaro, Italy, a ...
Fossors

Fossors

(Latin fossores , fossarii from fodere , to dig). Grave diggers in the Roman ...
Foster, John Gray

John Gray Foster

Soldier, convert, b. at Whitfield, New Hampshire, U.S.A. 27 May, 1823; d. at Nashua, New ...
Fothad, Saint

St. Fothad

Surnamed NA CANOINE ("of the Canon"). A monk of Fahan-Mura, County Doneval, Ireland, at the ...
Fouard, Constant

Constant Fouard

An ecclesiastical writer b. at Elbeuf, near Rouen, 6 Aug. 1837; his early life was a ...
Foucault, Jean-Bertrand-Léon

Jean-Bertrand-Leon Foucault

A physicist and mechanician, b. at Paris, 19 Sept., 1819; d. there 11 Feb., 1868. He received ...
Foulque de Neuilly

Foulque de Neuilly

A popular Crusade preacher, d. March, 1202. At the end of the twelfth century he was ...
Foundation

Foundation

( Latin fundatio; German Stiftung ) An ecclesiastical foundation is the making over of ...
Foundling Asylums

Foundling Asylums

Under this title are comprised all institutions which take charge of infants whose parents or ...
Fountains Abbey

Fountains Abbey

A monastery of the Cistercian Order situated on the banks of the Skell about two and a half ...
Fouquet, Jehan

Jehan Fouquet

(Or J EAN F OUQUET ) French painter and miniaturist, b. at Tours, c. 1415; d. about 1480. ...
Four Crowned Martyrs

Four Crowned Martyrs

The old guidebooks to the tombs of the Roman martyrs make mention, in connection with the ...
Four Masters, Annals of the

Annals of the Four Masters

The most extensive of all the compilations of the ancient annals of Ireland. They commence, ...
Fowler, John

John Fowler

Scholar and printer, b. at Bristol, England, 1537; d. at Namur, Flanders, 13 Feb., 1578-9. He ...
Foxe's Book of Martyrs

Foxe's Book of Martyrs

John Foxe was born at Boston in Lincolnshire, England, in 1516, and was educated at Magdalen ...
Fréchette, Louis-Honoré

Louis-Honore Frechette

Born at Notre-Dame de Lévis, P.Q., Canada, 16 November, 1839; died 30 May, 1908. He ...
Fréjus

Frejus

DIOCESE OF FRÉJUS (FORUM JULII). Suffragan of Aix ; comprises the whole department of ...
Fra Angelico

Fra Angelico

A famous painter of the Florentine school, born near Castello di Vicchio in the province of ...
Fractio Panis

Fractio Panis

(BREAKING OF BREAD.) The name given to a fresco in the so-called "Capella Greca" in the ...
France

France

The fifth in size (usually reckoned the fourth) of the great divisions of Europe. DESCRIPTIVE ...
Frances d'Amboise, Blessed

Bl. Frances d'Amboise

Duchess of Brittany, afterwards Carmelite nun, b. 1427; d. at Nantes, 4 Nov., 1485. The daughter ...
Frances of Rome, Saint

St. Frances of Rome

(Bussa di Leoni.) One of the greatest mystics of the fifteenth century; born at Rome, of a noble ...
Franceschini, Marc' Antonio

Marc' Antonio Franceschini

Italian painter ; b. at Bologna, 1648; d. there c. 1729; best known for the decorative works he ...
Franchi, Ausonio

Ausonio Franchi

The pseudonym of CRISTOFORO BONAVINO, philosopher ; b. 24 February, 1821, at Pegli, province of ...
Francia

Francia

(FRANCESCO RAIBOLINI) A famous Bolognese goldsmith, engraver, and artist, b. about 1450; d. in ...
Francis Borgia, Saint

Francis Borgia

(Spanish F RANCISCO DE B ORJA Y A RAGON ) Francis Borgia, born 28 October, 1510, was the ...
Francis Caracciolo, Saint

St. Francis Caracciolo

Co-founder with John Augustine Adorno of the Conregation of the Minor Clerks Regular ; b. in Villa ...
Francis de Geronimo, Saint

St. Francis de Geronimo

(Girolamo, Hieronymo). Born 17 December, 1642; died 11 May, 1716. His birthplace was ...
Francis de Sales, Saint

St. Francis de Sales

Bishop of Geneva, Doctor of the Universal Church ; born at Thorens, in the Duchy of Savoy, 21 ...
Francis I

Francis I

King of France ; b. at Cognac, 12 September, 1494; d. at Rambouillet, 31 March, 1547. He was the ...
Francis Ingleby, Venerable

Ven. Francis Ingleby

English martyr, born about 1551; suffered at York on Friday, 3 June, 1586 (old style). According ...
Francis of Assisi, Saint

St. Francis of Assisi

Founder of the Franciscan Order, born at Assisi in Umbria, in 1181 or 1182 -- the exact year ...
Francis of Fabriano, Blessed

Bl. Francis of Fabriano

Priest of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. 2 Sept., 1251; d. 22 April, 1322. His birth and ...
Francis of Paula, Saint

St. Francis of Paula

Founder of the Order of Minims; b. in 1416, at Paula, in Calabria, Italy ; d. 2 April, 1507, at ...
Francis of Vittoria

Francis of Vittoria

A Spanish theologian ; b. about 1480, at Vittoria, province of Avila, in Old Castile ; d. 12 ...
Francis Regis Clet, Blessed

Bl. Francis Regis Clet

A Lazarist missionary in China ; b. 1748, martyred, 18 Feb., 1820. His father was a merchant ...
Francis Solanus, Saint

St. Francis Solanus

South American missionary of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. at Montilla, in the Diocese of ...
Francis Xavier, Saint

St. Francis Xavier

Born in the Castle of Xavier near Sanguesa, in Navarre, 7 April, 1506; died on the Island of ...
Francis, Rule of Saint

Rule of Saint Francis

As known, St. Francis founded three orders and gave each of them a special rule. Here only the ...
Franciscan Crown

Franciscan Crown

( Or Seraphic Rosary.) A Rosary consisting of seven decades in commemoration of the seven ...
Franciscan Order

Franciscan Order

A term commonly used to designate the members of the various foundations of religious, whether men ...
Franck, Kasper

Kasper Franck

A theologian and controversialist; b. at Ortrand, Saxony, 2 Nov., 1543; d. at Ingolstadt, 12 ...
Franco, Giovanni Battista

Giovanni Battista Franco

(Frequently known as IL SEMOLIE) Italian historical painter and etcher, b. at Udine in ...
Frank, Michael Sigismund

Michael Sigismund Frank

Catholic artist and rediscoverer of the lost art of glass-painting; b. 1 June, 1770, at ...
Frankenberg

Graf von Frankenberg

JOHANN HEINRICH, GRAF VON FRANKENBERG. Archbishop of Mechlin (Malines), Primate of ...
Frankfort, Council of

Council of Frankfort

Convened in the summer of 794, by the grace of God, authority of the pope, and command of ...
Frankfort-on-the-Main

Frankfort-on-the-Main

Frankfort-on-the-Main, formerly the scene of the election and coronation of the German emperors, ...
Franks, The

The Franks

The Franks were a confederation formed in Western Germany of a certain number of ancient ...
Franzelin, Johann Baptist

Johann Baptist Franzelin

Cardinal and theologian ; b. at Aldein, in the Tyrol, 15 April, 1816; d. at Rome, 11 Dec., ...
Frascati

Frascati

DIOCESE OF FRASCATI (TUSCULANA). One of the six suburbicarian (i.e. neighbouring) dioceses ...
Frassen, Claude

Claude Frassen

A celebrated Scotist theologian and philosopher of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. near ...
Fraternal Correction

Fraternal Correction

Fraternal correction is here taken to mean the admonishing of one's neighbor by a private ...
Fraticelli

Fraticelli

(Or F RATRICELLI ) A name given to various heretical sects which appeared in the fourteenth ...
Fraud

Fraud

In the common acceptation of the word, an act or course of deception deliberately practised with ...
Fraunhofer, Joseph von

Joseph von Fraunhofer

Optician, b. at Straubing, Bavaria, 6 March, 1787; d. at Munich, 7 June, 1826. He was the tenth ...
Frayssinous, Denis de

Denis de Frayssinous

1765-1841, Bishop of Hermopolis in partibus infidelium , is celebrated chiefly for his ...
Fredegarius

Fredegarius

The name used since the sixteenth designate the supposed author of an anonymous historical ...
Fredegis of Tours

Fredegis of Tours

(Fridugisus or Fredegisus). A ninth-century monk, teacher, and writer. Fredegis was an ...
Frederick I (Barbarossa)

Frederick I

German King and Roman Emperor, son of Frederick of Swabia (d. 1147) and Judith, daughter of Henry ...
Frederick II

Frederick II

German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry VI and Constance of Sicily; born 26 Dec., 1194; died ...
Fredoli, Berenger

Berenger Fredoli

Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati ; b. at Vérune, France, c. ú d. at Avignon, 11 June, ...
Free Church of Scotland

Free Church of Scotland

(Known since 1900 as the UNITED FREE CHURCH) An ecclesiastical organization in Scotland ...
Free Will

Free Will

RELATION OF THE QUESTION TO DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY HISTORY Free Will in Ancient ...
Free-Thinkers

Free-Thinkers

Those who, abandoning the religious truths and moral dictates of the Christian Revelation, and ...
Freeman, Ven. William

Ven. William Freeman

A priest and martyr, b. at Manthorp near York, c. 1558; d. at Warwick, 13 August, 1595. His ...
Freemasonry

Masonry (Freemasonry)

The subject is treated under the following heads: I. Name and Definition;II. Origin and Early ...
Fregoso, Federigo

Federigo Fregoso

Cardinal ; b. at Genoa, about 1480; d. 22 July, 1541; belonged to the Fregosi, one of the four ...
Freiburg

Freiburg

City, archdiocese, and university in the Archduchy of Baden, Germany . THE CITY Freiburg in ...
Fremin, James

James Fremin

Jesuit missionary to the American Indians ; b. at Reims, 12 March, 1628; d. at Quebec, 2 July, ...
French Academy, The

The French Academy

The French Academy was founded by Cardinal de Richelieu in 1635. For several years a number of ...
French Catholics in the United States

French Catholics in the United States

The first Bishop of Burlington, the Right Reverend Louis de Goesbriand, in a letter dated 11 ...
French Concordat of 1801, The

Concordat of 1801

This name is given to the convention of the 26th Messidor, year IX (July 16, 1802), whereby Pope ...
French Literature

French Literature

Origin and Foundations of the French Language When the Romans became masters of Gaul, they imposed ...
French Revolution

French Revolution

The last thirty years have given us a new version of the history of the French Revolution, the ...
French, Nicholas

Nicholas French

Bishop of Ferns, Ireland, b. at Ballytory, Co. Wexford, in 1604, his parents being John ...
Freppel, Charles-Emile

Charles-Emile Freppel

Born at Ober-Ehnheim, Alsace, 1 June, 1827; died at Paris, 22 Dec., 1891. He was Bishop of ...
Frequent Communion

Frequent Communion

Without specifying how often the faithful should communicate, Christ simply bids us eat His Flesh ...
Fresnel, Augustin-Jean

Augustin-Jean Fresnel

Physicist; b. at Broglie near Bernay, Normandy, 10 May, 1788; d. at Ville d'Avray, near Paris, ...
Friar

Friar

[From Lat. frater , through O. Fr. fredre, frere, M. E. frere; It. frate (as prefix ...
Friars Minor, Order of

Order of Friars Minor

(Also known as FRANCISCANS.) This subject may be conveniently considered under the following ...
Fribourg, University of

University of Fribourg

From the sixteenth century, the foundation of a Catholic university in Switzerland had often ...
Fridelli, Xavier Ehrenbert

Xavier Ehrenbert Fridelli

(Properly FRIEDEL.) Jesuit missioner and cartographer, b. at Linz, Austria, 11 March, 1673; ...
Frideswide, Saint

St. Frideswide

(FRIDESWIDA, FREDESWIDA, French FRÉVISSE, Old English FRIS). Virgin, patroness of ...
Fridolin, Saint

St. Fridolin

Missionary, founder of the Monastery of Säckingen, Baden (sixth century). In accordance with ...
Friedrich von Hausen

Friedrich von Hausen

(HUSEN) Medieval German poet, one of the earliest of the minnesingers; date of birth ...
Friends of God

Friends of God

( German G OTTESFREUNDE ). An association of pious persons, both ecclesiastical and lay, ...
Friends, Society of

Society of Friends (Quakers)

The official designation of an Anglo - American religious sect originally styling themselves ...
Frigolet, Abbey of

Abbey of Frigolet

The monastery of St. Michael was founded, about 960, at Frigolet, by Conrad the Pacific, King ...
Fringes (in Scripture)

Fringes

This word is used to denote a special kind of trimming, consisting of loose threads of wool, silk, ...
Fritz, Samuel

Samuel Fritz

A Jesuit missionary of the eighteenth century noted for his exploration of the Amazon River and ...
Froissart, Jean

Jean Froissart

French historian and poet, b. at Valenciennes, about 1337, d. at sentence -->Chimay early ...
Fromentin, Eugène

Eugene Fromentin

French writer and artist; b. at La Rochelle, 24 October, 1820; d. at Saint-Maurice, near La ...
Frontal, Altar

Altar Frontal

The frontal ( antipendium, pallium altaris ) is an appendage which covers the entire front of ...
Frontenac, Louis de Baude

Count Louis de Buade Frontenac

A governor of New France, b. at Paris, 1622; d. at Quebec, 28 Nov., 1698. His father was captain ...
Frowin, Blessed

Bl. Frowin

Benedictine abbot, d. 11 March, 1178. Of the early life of Frowin nothing is known, save that he ...
Fructuosus of Braga, Saint

St. Fructuosus of Braga

An Archbishop, d. 16 April, c. 665. He was the son of a Gothic general, and studied in Palencia. ...
Fructuosus of Tarragona, Saint

St. Fructuosus of Tarragona

A bishop and martyr ; d. 21 January, 259. During the night of 16 January, he, together with ...
Fuchs, Johann Nepomuk von

Johann Nepomuk Fuchs

A chemist and mineralogist, b. at Mattenzell, near Bremberg, Lower Bavaria, 15 May, 1774; d. at ...
Fulbert of Chartres

Fulbert of Chartres

Bishop, b. between 952 and 962; d. 10 April, 1028 or 1029. Mabillon and others think that he was ...
Fulcran, Saint

St. Fulcran

Bishop of Lodève; d. 13 February, 1006. According to the biography which Bernard Guidonis, ...
Fulda

Fulda

DIOCESE OF FULDA (FULDENSIS). This diocese of the German Empire takes its name from the ...
Fulgentius Ferrandus

Fulgentius Ferrandus

A canonist and theologian of the African Church in the first half of the sixth century. He was ...
Fulgentius, Saint

St. Fulgentius

A Bishop of Ecija (Astigi), in Spain, at the beginning of the seventh century. Like his brothers ...
Fulgentius, Saint

Saint Fulgentius

(FABIUS CLAUDIUS GORDIANUS FULGENTIUS). Born 468, died 533. Bishop of Ruspe in the province ...
Fullerton, Lady Georgiana Charlotte

Lady Georgiana Charlotte Fullerton

Novelist; born 23 September, 1812, in Staffordshire, died 19 January, 1885, at Bournemouth. She ...
Fullo, Peter

Peter Fullo

Intruding Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch ; d. 488. He received the Greek surname Gnapheus ...
Fumo, Bartolommeo

Bartolommeo Fumo

A theologian, b. at Villon near Piacenza ; d. 1545. At an early age he entered the Dominican ...
Funchal

Funchal

(FUNCHALENSIS.) Diocese in the Madeira Islands. Both in neo-Latin and in Portuguese the name ...
Fundamental Articles

Fundamental Articles

This term was employed by Protestant theologians to distinguish the essential parts of the ...
Funeral Dues

Funeral Dues

The canonical perquisites of a parish priest receivable on the occasion of the funeral of any of ...
Funeral Pall

Funeral Pall

A black cloth usually spread over the coffin while the obsequies are performed for a deceased ...
Funk, Franz Xaver von

Franz Xaver von Funk

Church historian, b. in the small market town of Abtsgemünd in Würtemberg, 12 October, ...
Furness Abbey

Furness Abbey

Situated in the north of Lancashire about five miles from the town of Ulverston. Originally a ...
Furni

Furni

A titular see in Proconsular Africa, where two towns of this name are known to have existed. One ...
Furniss, John

John Furniss

A well-known children's missioner, born near Sheffield, England, 19 June, 1809; at Clapham, ...
Fursey, Saint

St. Fursey

An Abbot of Lagny, near Paris, d. 16 Jan., about 650. He was the son of Fintan, son of Finloga, ...
Fussola

Fussola

A titular see in Numidia. It was a fortified town, inhabited for the most part by Donatists ...
Fust, John

John Fust

( Or FAUST.) A partner of Gutenberg in promoting the art of printing, d. at Paris about ...
Fytch, William Benedict

William Benedict Fytch

An English Franciscan friar ot the Capuchin Reform, whose family name was Filch; b. at ...

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