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The Faculty of Arts

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One of the four traditional divisions of the teaching body of the university. It is impossible to fix the date of the origin of autonomous faculties in the early medieval universities, because, as Denifle has observed, the division did not take place all at once, or as the result of deliberate action, but came about gradually, as the result of a spontaneous inner development. As a matter of fact, the formation of faculties sprang from the same academic impulse that gave rise to the universities themselves. The mother universities of Europe were those of Paris and Bologna. The germ of the University of Paris was the voluntary association of the teaching Masters, after the fashion of the universally prevalent guild-formation. At Bologna, it was the association of the students that gave rise to the corporate university. In both places it was but natural, and, as it seems to us now inevitable, that the teachers in a common field of knowledge should gradually come to act together along the lines of their identical interests. Such unions appear to have been formed soon after these two universities came into existence, if indeed they did not exist before. Schools of arts, theology, law, and medicine had been established throughout Europe previous to the organization of the universities, and the separate existence of such schools foreshadowed the division of the university teaching-body into faculties. Although there is evidence of the existence of a general association of the Masters at Paris, about the year 1175, the first direct proof of the existence of faculties in the same university goes back only to the year 1213. The four faculties then recognized were theology, arts, canon law, and civil law. The term faculty was used at first to designate a specific field of knowledge ; but in 1255 we find the Masters at Paris using the term in the modern meaning of a union of the teachers in a certain department of knowledge. The new turn given to the meaning of the word was not without significance. The centre of power, the "facultas" , had shifted from the objective to the subjective side of knowledge. Henceforth the teacher was to be the dominant influence.

The term Arts, in medieval academic usage, comprehended all studies in the sphere of the higher and non-professional intellectual activity. The traditional "liberal arts" derived from the Romano-Hellenic schools, were seven in number. They were made up of the trivium, embracing grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic, and the quadrivium, or music, arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy. The trivium may be said to have corresponded to the Arts studies proper in the modern college course, and the quadrivium to the science studies. While the medieval universities held to the traditional number of the liberal arts, they did so only in a theoretical way. New subjects were at times introduced into the curriculum, and classified as belonging to one or other of the seven arts. The instruction given under the several arts was, quantitatively as well as qualitatively, very unequal. The trivium generally formed the body of the Arts curriculum, especially up to the B.A. degree. After that, more or less of the quadrivium was given, together with advanced courses covering the ground of the trivium. Grammar was a wide term. Theoretically, it included the study of the whole Latin language and literature. Rhetoric was the art of expression, both in writing and speaking. It corresponded to what we should now call, in a broad sense, oratory. Dialectic was the study of philosophy, including logic, metaphysics, and ethics. In philosophy, Aristotle was the great authority, the Magister , as he came to be reverentially called. Certain of his treatises had long been known throughout Europe, and these, together with the logical works of Boethius, were called, in school parlance, the "Old Logic," in contradistinction to those Aristotelian treatises which became known in Northern Europe only in the twelfth century, and hence were designated as the "New Logic." The old cloistral and cathedral schools had kept alive the study of the Latin classics, and handed it on to the universities ; but the passion for dialectic swept aside the study of grammar and rhetoric. The Latin authors were but little read, or not at all; the Greek classics were unknown. It was not until the rise of Humanism in the fifteenth century that the study of the ancient literatures of Rome and Greece was, generally speaking, made a regular and important part of the university course in Arts.

The following list includes the books that were to be "read," or lectured on, by the Masters of the Faculty of Arts, at Paris in 1254. It covers the period of six or seven years from entrance, or matriculation, up to the Master's degree, and, were the "disputations" added, it might be regarded as typical of the Arts course in the medieval universities generally. A specific date was set for finishing the "reading" of each book.

  • Old Logic: Porphyry, "Isagoge" (Introduction to the Categoriae); Aristotle, "Categoriae" and "Perihermenia"; Boethius, "Divisiones" and "Topica," except Bk. IV.
  • New Logic: Aristotle, "Topica," "Elenchi," "Analytica Priora," and "Analytica Posteriora."
  • Ethics: Aristotle, "Ethica," (ad Nichomachum), four books.
  • Metaphysics: Aristotle, "Metaphysica."
  • Astronomy: Aristotle, "De Coelo," "Meteora," first Bk.
  • Psychology and Natural Philosophy : Aristotle, "Physica," "De Animalibus," "De Anima," "Da Generatione," "De Causis (attributed at the time to Aristotle ), "De Sensu et Sensato," "De Somno et Vigilia," "De Plantis," "De Memoria et Reminiscentia," "De Morte et Vita," Costa Ben Luca, "De Differentia Spiritus et Animae."
  • Grammar and Rhetoric: Priscian Major (16 books of his "Institutiones Grammaticae"), Priscian Minor (last two books of the same); Gilbert de la Porrée , "Sex Principia"; Barbarismus (third book of Donatus, "Ars Major"); Priscian, "De Accentu," (Cf. Chartularium Univ. Paris, Part I, n. 246.)
  • Masters of Arts, like masters, or doctors, of other faculties, were divided into regents and non-regents. Regents were Masters actually engaged in teaching. All who received the degree of Master in the Arts course at Paris, had to take an oath to act as regents, i.e. to teach, for a period of two years, unless dispensed. The purpose of this statute was, partly at least, to provide a sufficiency of teachers for the Arts course, which usually included the great mass of the students of the University, and which was the necessary gateway to the higher studies of theology, law, and medicine. As the Master's degree, at Paris, could be taken at twenty years of age, the consequence of the regency rule was to make the Faculty of Arts a body of young men, many of them being at the same time students of one of the higher faculties or preparing to become such. Teaching included lectures, disputations, and repetitions. It was long before there were salaries, the Masters being dependent on what they were able to collect as tuition-fees from their pupils. The oath requiring newly created Masters to teach for a period at the university was abolished at Paris only in 1452. At Oxford the custom was continued for a half-century later, and some vestiges of it remained until comparatively recent times. The Privatdozent of the modern German university represents a development of the medieval regency rule.

    At Oxford and Cambridge, which have the most faithfully adhered to the medieval archetype, the Faculty of Arts still occupies a position of predominant importance. At Oxford, especially, the Arts studies still furnish the materials for the most characteristic type of mental training given by the University. The B.A. course is followed by the great majority of the students, and philosophy, much of it Aristotelian, is still the backbone of the body of knowledge for all candidates for the Baccalaureate. The Master of Arts at Oxford on taking his degree becomes a member of the Faculty by right, and a member of the governing body of the University as well. The governing body consists of two houses, the Congregation and the Convocation, the former including all resident Masters of Arts, and the latter those who are non-resident. Outside of England, the relative position of the Faculty of Arts in the university has been considerably altered since medieval times. The promising development of the Arts studies under Humanism was checked in Northern Europe by the absorbing theological controversies and civil wars which grew out of the preaching of the new doctrines by Luther and the other reformers. The effect was most evident in Germany, where, until the close of the seventeenth century, the course in Arts, or Philosophy, as it had come to be called, was relegated to a position of decided inferiority. Theology was in the foreground, and it became the fashion to look upon the study of the classics with contempt. With the eighteenth century, however, a new era began. Under the lead of the new universities, Halle and Goettingen, philosophical studies gradually regained a place of importance in the universities, and during the nineteenth century completely recovered their ancient prestige. Taking Germany as a whole, the Faculty of Philosophy includes today about one-fourth of all the teachers in the universities. In modern times the development of knowledge, especially of the sciences, has, in some universities, led to a fundamental change in the constitution of the Faculty of Arts. Owing to the multiplication of courses, the teachers in the Faculty of Arts in many cases outnumber those in all the other Faculties together. The difficulties arising out of this condition come not only from the fact that the Faculty of Arts in such cases is a larger body than it formerly was, but also from the fact that its members have fewer interests in common. In the days when Aristotle was the text-book for both philosophy and science, it was natural enough that teachers of the two branches should work side by side; their cooperation was based on both principle and method. But today there is often little in common between them, except what results from the traditional association of their respective subjects under the same faculty. In France, the problem has been met by splitting the Faculty of Arts into two separate faculties, those of Letters and of Science. At most of the German universities the Faculty of Philosophy has remained intact, but the old humanistic group of studies and the mathematical-science group receive recognition respectively as distinct departments. In a few institutions, the problem has been solved, as in France, by dividing the Faculty of Philosophy into two separate faculties, or even into three. In American universities and colleges the Faculty of Arts occupies much the same position as at Oxford, although there is considerable diversity in the names by which it is officially known. It usually has under its jurisdiction the great majority of professors and students, and all courses of study outside of the purely professional and technical departments. In some cases the Faculty has been split up into several distinct faculties; but in general there has been a strong desire to adhere to the medieval tradition that all cultural studies, whether undergraduate or post-graduate, whether in the arts or in the sciences, should be grouped together, the danger of inefficiency being guarded against usually by dividing the Faculty into a number of departments, each of which controls, to a greater or less extent, the work of its instructors and students.

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    Rene-Prosper Tassin

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    Torquato Tasso

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    John Tauler

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    Ethelred Taunton

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    John Taverner

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    Ten Commandments, The

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    Ten Thousand Martyrs, The

    The Ten Thousand Martyrs

    On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. On 18 March: ...
    Tencin, Pierre-Guérin de

    Pierre-Guerin Tencin

    French statesman and cardinal, b. at Grenoble, 22 August, 1680; d. at Lyons, 2 March, 1758. ...
    Tenebræ

    Tenebrae

    Tenebræ is the name given to the service of Matins and Lauds belonging to the last three ...
    Tenebrae Hearse

    Tenebrae Hearse

    The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...
    Tenedos

    Tenedos

    A titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades. The island, called in Turkish ...
    Teneriffe

    Teneriffe

    DIOCESE OF TENERIFFE (TENERIFENSIS). Suffragan of Seville, formerly called Nivariensis from ...
    Teniers, David

    David Teniers

    The name of two eminent Flemish landscape painters ; the elder, born at Antwerp in 1582; ...
    Tennessee

    Tennessee

    The State of Tennessee lies between 35° and 36°30' N. lat. and 81°37' and 90°38' ...
    Tenney, William Jewett

    William Jewett Tenney

    An author, editor, born at Newport, Rhode Island, 1814; died at Newark, New Jersey, 20 Sept., ...
    Tentyris

    Tentyris

    (TENTYRA) Seat of a titular suffragan see of Ptolemais in Thebaid Secunda. The city was ...
    Tenure, Ecclesiastical

    Ecclesiastical Tenure

    I. In the feudal system an ecclesiastical fief followed all the laws laid down for temporal ...
    Teos

    Teos

    Titular see ; suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. A city of Caria situated on a peninsula ...
    Tepic

    Tepic

    DIOCESE OF TEPIC (TEPICENSIS) A diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the ...
    Tepl

    Tepl

    A Premonstratensian abbey in the western part of Bohemia, included in the Archdiocese of Prague ...
    Teramo

    Teramo

    Diocese in southern Italy. In the past the city was injured by earthquakes. It is situated at ...
    Terce

    Terce

    The origin of Terce, like that of Sext and None, to which it bears a close relationship, dates ...
    Terenuthis

    Terenuthis

    Titular see, suffragan of Antinoë in Thebais Prima. Le Quien (Oriens christ., II, 611) ...
    Teresa of Avila, Saint

    St. Teresa of Jesus (Teresa of Avila)

    Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada Born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at ...
    Teresa of Lisieux, Saint

    Saint Therese of Lisieux

    (Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...
    Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed

    The Martyrs of Compiegne

    Guillotined at the Place du Trône Renversé (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 ...
    Terill, Anthony

    Anthony Terill (Bonville)

    English theologian, b. at Canford, Dorsetshire, in 1623; d. at Liège, 11 Oct., 1676. His ...
    Termessus

    Termessus

    A titular see, suffragan of Perge in Pamphylia Secunda. This is one of the most ancient cities ...
    Termoli

    Termoli

    (THERMULARUM) Located on the Italian coast of the Adriatic, having a small harbour near the ...
    Ternan, Saint

    St. Ternan

    Bishop of the Picts, flourished in the sixth century. Much obscurity attaches to his history, and ...
    Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

    Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

    (TERRACINENSIS, SETINENSIS ET PRIVERNENSIS) Located in the Province of Rome. The city of ...
    Terrasson, André

    Andre Terrason

    A French preacher, born at Lyons in 1669; died at Paris, 25 April, 1723. He was the eldest son ...
    Terrestrial Paradise

    The Garden of Eden

    ( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...
    Terrien, Jean-Baptiste

    Jean-Baptiste Terrien

    Dogmatic theologian, born at St-Laurent-des-Autels, Maine-et-Loire, 26 Aug., 1832; d. at ...
    Tertiaries

    Tertiaries

    (From the Latin tertiarius , the relative adjective of tertius , third ). Tertiaries, or ...
    Tertullian

    Tertullian

    (Q UINTUS S EPTIMIUS F LORENS T ERTULLIANUS ). Ecclesiastical writer in the second and ...
    Teruel

    Teruel

    (TUROLENSIS) A suffragan of Saragossa, comprises the civil province of the same name, ...
    Test-Oath, Missouri

    Missouri Test-Oath

    In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...
    Testament, New

    New Testament

    I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...
    Testament, Old

    Old Testament

    I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...
    Testem Benevolentiae

    Testem Benevolentiae

    An Apostolic Letter of Leo XIII addressed to Cardinal Gibbons, 22 January, 1899. It opens by ...
    Tetzel, Johann

    Johann Tetzel

    First public antagonist of Luther, b. at Pirna in Meissen, 1465; d. at Leipzig, 11 Aug., 1519. ...
    Teuchira

    Teuchira

    A titular see in Libyan Pentapolis. Teuchira ( Teucheira ) neuter plural, was a city on the ...
    Teutonic Order

    Teutonic Order

    A medieval military order modelled on the Hospitallers of St. John, which changed its residence ...
    Tewdrig

    Tewdrig

    (THEODORIC) A Welsh saint, son of King Ceithfalt of Morganwg or Southern Wales, flourished ...
    Texas

    Texas

    S TATE OF T EXAS . The name, Texas, is probably derived from Tejas, the name of a ...
    Textual Criticism

    Biblical Criticism

    The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...
    Thænæ

    Thaenae

    A titular see in Africa Byzacena. It is mentioned in numerous ancient geographical documents ...
    Thébaud, Augustus

    Augustus Thebaud

    Jesuit educator and publicist, b. at Nantes, France, 20 Nov., 1807; d. at St. John's College, ...
    Thénard, Louis-Jacques, Baron

    Baron Louis-Jacques Thenard

    Chemist, b. at Louptière, near Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube, France, on 4 May, 1777; d. at Paris, ...
    Théophane Vénard

    Bl. Theophane Venard

    (JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...
    Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint

    Saint Therese of Lisieux

    (Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...
    Thabor, Mount

    Mount Thabor

    The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...
    Thabraca

    Thabraca

    A titular see of Numidia near the sea, between the Armua and the Tusca. Thabraca was the last ...
    Thacia Montana

    Thacia Montana

    A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. An inscription discovered in the ...
    Thagaste

    Thagaste

    (TAGASTE) Thagaste, a titular see in Numidia, was a rather important municipality. It is ...
    Thagora

    Thagora

    (Tagora) Titular see in Numidia, mentioned by the "Rabula Peutingeriana", which calls it ...
    Thais, Saint

    Saint Thais

    (THAISIS or THAISIA). A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century. In the Greek menology her ...
    Thalberg, Sigismond

    Sigismond Thalberg

    Musical composer and pianist, b. at Geneva, 1812; d. at Posilipo, Italy, 27 April, 1871. The ...
    Thalhofer, Valentin

    Valentin Thalhofer

    German theologian, b. at Unterroth, near Ulm, 21 January, 1825; d. at the same place, 17 ...
    Thangmar

    Thangmar

    (THANKMAR) Historian, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. probably at Hildesheim ...
    Thanksgiving before and after Meals

    Grace Before Meals

    The word grace , which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English ...
    Thanksgiving Day

    Thanksgiving Day

    A civil holiday observed annually in the United States of America on the last Thursday in ...
    Thapsus

    Thapsus

    A titular see in Byzacene Africa. It was a Phoenician market on the coast of Byzacium in ...
    Thasos

    Thasos

    A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. The island of Thasos was anciently ...
    Thaumaci

    Thaumaci

    A titular see in Thessaly, suffragan of Larissa, commanding the defile of Coele at the ...
    Thayer, John

    John Thayer

    Missionary, convert, first native of New England ordained to the priesthood, b. Boston, ...
    Theatines

    Theatines

    (CLERICS REGULAR) A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo ...
    Theatre, The

    The Theatre

    Considering the tone of what is preserved to us of the works of the Greek tragedians and even of ...
    Thebaid

    Thebaid

    The valley of the Nile, under Roman domination, was divided into four provinces: Lower and Upper ...
    Thebes

    Thebes (Achaia Secunda)

    (THEBAE) A metropolitan titular see of Achaia Secunda. The city was founded by the ...
    Thebes

    Thebes (Thebais Secunda)

    (THEBAE) Titular see of Thebais Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais, and the seat of a Coptic ...
    Thecla, Saint

    St. Thecla

    Benedictine Abbess of Kitzingen and Ochsenfurt; date of birth unknown; d. at Kitzingen about 790 ...
    Thecla, Saints

    Sts. Thecla

    I. Thecla of Iconium The reputed pupil of the Apostle Paul , who is the heroine of the ...
    Theft

    Theft

    Theft is the secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other. ...
    Thegan (Degan) of Treves

    Thegan

    Chronicler, d. about 850. Very little is known of his life; all that is certain is that he was ...
    Theiner, Augustin

    Augustin Theiner

    Theologian and historian, b. at Breslau, 11 April, 1804; d. at Civitavecchia, 8 Aug., 1874. He was ...
    Thelepte

    Thelepte

    A titular see in Byzacene. From an inscription we learn that it was a colony. An important ...
    Themiscyra

    Themiscyra

    A titular see, suffragan of Amasea in the Hellespont. There was a town of this name near the ...
    Themisonium

    Themisonium

    A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. Themisonium was a city of Phrygia, ...
    Thennesus

    Thennesus

    A titular suffragan see of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima. Cassian (Collat., XI, 1-3) gives a ...
    Theobald

    Theobald

    (T EDBALD .) Archbishop of Canterbury ; d. 18 April, 1161. He was a Norman by descent and ...
    Theobald, Saint

    Saint Theobald

    Born at Provins in the Province of Champagne, France, in 1017; died at Salanigo in Italy 30 June, ...
    Theocracy

    Theocracy

    A form of civil government in which God himself is recognized as the head. The laws of the ...
    Theodard, Saint

    Saint Theodard

    Archbishop of Narbonne, b. at Montauban about 840; d. at the same place 1 May, 893. He seems to ...
    Theodicy

    Theodicy

    Etymologically considered theodicy ( théos díe ) signifies the justification of ...
    Theodore I, Pope

    Pope Theodore I

    Pope from 642 to 649; the date of his birth is unknown. He was a Greek of Jerusalem and the ...
    Theodore II, Pope

    Pope Theodore II

    Son of Photius. His pontificate lasted only twenty days; neither the date of his birth nor of his ...
    Theodore of Amasea, Saint

    St. Theodore of Amasea

    Surnamed Tyro (Tiro), not because he was a young recruit, but because for a time he belonged to ...
    Theodore of Gaza

    Theodore of Gaza

    A fifteenth-century Greek Humanist and translator of Aristotle, b. at Thessalonica early in ...
    Theodore of Studium, Saint

    Theodore of Studium

    A zealous champion of the veneration of images and the last geat representative of the unity ...
    Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

    Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

    Seventh Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Tarsus in Cilicia about 602; d. at Canterbury 19 ...
    Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia

    Theodore of Mopsuestia

    Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer; b. at Antioch about 350 (thus also ...
    Theodoret

    Theodoret

    Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457. He says ...
    Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

    Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

    A Platonist philosopher of the twelfth century, b. in France at the beginning of the twelfth ...
    Theodoric the Great

    Theodoric the Great

    King of the Ostrogoths, born A.D. 454 (?); died 26 August, 526. He was an illegitimate son of ...
    Theodorus and Theophanes, Saints

    Sts. Theodorus and Theophanes

    (Called Grapti , "written upon", graptoi ) Theodorus, b. about 775; d. about 842-43; ...
    Theodorus Lector

    Theodorus Lector

    A lector attached to the Church of St. Sophia of Constantinople in the early part of the sixth ...
    Theodosiopolis

    Theodosiopolis

    A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Prima. In the beginning the city was called Apros, or ...
    Theodosius Florentini

    Theodosius Florentini

    Born at Münster, in the Grisons, Switzerland, 23 May, 1808; died at Heiden, in Appenzell, ...
    Theodosius I

    Theodosius I

    Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 ...
    Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint

    St. Theodotus of Ancyra

    Martyr. On 18 May the Roman Martyrology says: "At Ancyra, in Galatia, the martyr Saint Theodotus ...
    Theodulf

    Theodulf

    (Theodulfus, Theodulfe), Bishop of Orléans, a writer skilled in poetic forms and a ...
    Theology of Christ (Christology)

    Christology

    Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ. In its full extent ...
    Theology, Ascetical

    Ascetical Theology

    Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of ...
    Theology, Dogmatic

    Dogmatic Theology

    Dogmatic theology is that part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith ...
    Theology, History of Dogmatic

    History of Dogmatic Theology

    The imposing edifice of Catholic theology has been reared not by individual nations and men, ...
    Theology, Moral

    Moral Theology

    Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...
    Theology, Mystical

    Mystical Theology

    Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...
    Theology, Pastoral

    Pastoral Theology

    Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...
    Theonas

    Theonas

    Bishop of Alexandria from about 283 to 301 ( Eusebius, "Chronicle", Ann. Abr. 2299, St. Jerome's ...
    Theophanes Kerameus

    Theophanes Kerameus

    ( Kerameus , potter). Archbishop of Rossano in Calabria (1129-52), a celebrated homiletic ...
    Theophanes, Saint

    St. Theophanes

    Chronicler, born at Constantinople, about 758; died in Samothracia, probably 12 March, 817, on ...
    Theophilanthropists

    Theophilanthropists

    ("Friends of God and Man") A deistic sect formed in France during the latter part of the ...
    Theophilus

    Theophilus

    Bishop of Antioch. Eusebius in his "Chronicle" places the name of Theophilus against that of ...
    Theophilus

    Theophilus

    Patriarch of Alexandria (385-412). Concerning the extraction and early life of Theophilus we ...
    Theosophy

    Theosophy

    ( Theosophia = "wisdom concerning God ") Theosophy is a term used in general to designate ...
    Theotocopuli, Domenico

    El Greco

    One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...
    Thera (Santorin)

    Thera

    DIOCESE OF THERA (SANTORINO) Diocese in the Cyclades. About the year 2000 B.C., the ...
    Thermae Basilicae

    Thermae Basilicae

    A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. The Greek "Notitiae episcopatuum" ...
    Thermopylae

    Thermopylae

    A titular see and suffragan of Athens in Achaia Prima. It is the name of a defile about 4 ...
    Thessalonians, Epistles to the

    Epistles to the Thessalonians

    Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul. This article will treat the Church of ...
    Thessalonica

    Thessalonica

    (SALONIKI) Titular metropolis in Macedonia. It was at first a village called Alia, situated ...
    Theveste

    Theveste

    Titular see of Numidia. The city seems to have had some importance even prior to Christianity. ...
    Thibaris

    Thibaris

    Titular see in Byzacena ( Africa ), not mentioned by any ancient author. The official list of ...
    Thibaut de Champagne

    Thibaut de Champagne

    Thibaut IV, count of Champagne and King of Navarre, a French poet, b. 1201, at Troyes ; d. 8 ...
    Thierry of Freburg

    Thierry of Freiburg

    ( Or Thierry of Saxony). A philosopher and physician of the Middle Ages, and a member of ...
    Thiers, Louis-Adolphe

    Louis-Adolphe Thiers

    French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic, b. at Marseilles, ...
    Thignica

    Thignica

    A titular see in Numidia. The Roman Curia's official list of titular sees places Thignica in ...
    Thijm, Joseph Albert Alberdingk

    Joseph Albert Alberdingk Thijm

    Born at Amsterdam, 8 July, 1820; d. there, 17 March, 1889. After finishing his studies in his ...
    Thijm, Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk

    Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk Thijm

    Brother of Joseph Alberdingk Thijm , b. at Amsterdam, 21 Oct., 1827, d. at Louvain, 1 Feb., ...
    Thimelby, Richard

    Richard Thimelby

    ( Alias ASHBY) Missionary priest, b. in Lincolnshire, England, 1614; d. at St. Omer's, ...
    Third Orders

    Third Orders

    I. GENERAL Third Orders signify in general lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women ...
    Thirty Years War

    The Thirty Years War

    The Thirty Years War (1618-48), though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance ...
    Thmuis

    Thmuis

    A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium ; a city of Lower Egypt, on the ...
    Thomas á Jesu

    Thomas a Jesu

    (Diaz Sanchez de Avila). Discalced Carmelite, writer on mystical theology, born at Baeza, ...
    Thomas à Kempis

    Thomas a Kempis

    Author of the "Imitation of Christ" , born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; ...
    Thomas Abel, Blessed

    Blessed Thomas Abel

    (Also ABLE, or ABELL.) Priest and martyr, born about 1497; died 30 July, 1540. He was ...
    Thomas Alfield, Venerable

    Ven. Thomas Alfield

    (AUFIELD, ALPHILDE, HAWFIELD, OFFELDUS; alias BADGER). Priest, born at Gloucestershire; ...
    Thomas Aquinas, Saint

    St. Thomas Aquinas

    Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church ( Angelicus Doctor ), patron of Catholic ...
    Thomas Atkinson, Venerable

    Ven. Thomas Atkinson

    Martyred at York, 11 March, l6l6. He was born in the East Riding of Yorkshire, was ordained ...
    Thomas Becket, Saint

    St. Thomas Becket

    Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, born at London, 21 December, 1118 (?); died at Canterbury, 29 ...
    Thomas Belchiam, Venerable

    Venerable Thomas Belchiam

    A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537. He ...
    Thomas Christians, Saint

    St. Thomas Christians

    An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent ...
    Thomas Cottam, Blessed

    Bl. Thomas Cottam

    Martyr, born 1549, in Lancashire; executed at Tyburn, 30 May, 1582. His parents, Laurence cottam ...
    Thomas Ford, Blessed

    Bl. Thomas Ford

    Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...
    Thomas Garnet, Saint

    St. Thomas Garnet

    Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...
    Thomas Johnson, Blessed

    Bl. Thomas Johnson

    Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...
    Thomas More, Saint

    St. Thomas More

    Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...
    Thomas of Beckington

    Thomas of Beckington

    (BEKYNTON.) Bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Beckington, Somerset, about 1390; died at ...
    Thomas of Bradwardine

    Thomas of Bradwardine

    (BRAGWARDIN, BRANDNARDINUS, BREDWARDYN, BRADWARDYN, DE BREDEWARDINA). Born about 1290; died in ...
    Thomas of Cantimpré

    Thomas of Cantimpre

    Medieval writer, preacher, and theologian, born of noble parentage at Leuw St. Pierre near ...
    Thomas of Celano

    Thomas of Celano

    Friar Minor, poet, andhagiographical writer, born at Celano in the Province of the Abruzzi, about ...
    Thomas of Dover

    Thomas of Dover

    Martyr ; died 2 or 5 August, 1295. On the above date the French ravaged Dover with fire and ...
    Thomas of Hereford

    St. Thomas of Hereford

    (THOMAS DE CANTELUPE). Born at Hambledon, Buckinghamshire, England, about 1218; died at ...
    Thomas of Jesus

    Thomas of Jesus

    (THOMAS DE ANDRADA). Reformer and preacher, born at Lisbon, 1529; died at Sagena, Morocco, 17 ...
    Thomas of Jorz

    Thomas of Jorz

    (Often but erroneously called JOYCE and frequently referred to as ANGLUS or ANGLICUS). ...
    Thomas of Strasburg

    Thomas of Strasburg

    A fourteenth-century scholastic of the Augustinian Order, born, according to some writers, at ...
    Thomas of Villanova, Saint

    St. Thomas of Villanova

    Educator, philanthropist, born at Fuentellana, Spain, 1488; died at Valencia, 8 September, 1555. ...
    Thomas Percy, Blessed

    Bl. Thomas Percy

    Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...
    Thomas Sherwood, Blessed

    Bl. Thomas Sherwood

    Martyr, born in London, 1551; died at Tyburn, London, 7 February, 1578. His parents also ...
    Thomas the Apostle, Saint

    St. Thomas the Apostle

    Little is recorded of St. Thomas the Apostle, nevertheless thanks to the fourth Gospel his ...
    Thomas Thwing, Venerable

    Ven. Thomas Thwing

    Martyr. Born at Heworth Hall, near York, in 1635; suffered at York, 23 Oct., 1680. His father was ...
    Thomas Woodhouse, Blessed

    Bl. Thomas Woodhouse

    Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...
    Thomas, Charles L.A.

    Charles L.A. Thomas

    French composer, born at Metz, 5 August, 1811; died at Paris, 12 February, 1896. He gained the ...
    Thomassin, Louis

    Louis Thomassin

    Theologian and French Oratorian, b. at Aix-en-Provence 28 Aug., 1619; d. in Paris, 24 Dec., ...
    Thomism

    Thomism

    In a broad sense, Thomism is the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. ...
    Thompson River Indians

    Thompson River Indians

    (THOMPSON INDIANS). An important tribe of British Columbia of Salishan linguistic stock, also ...
    Thompson, Blessed James

    Bl. James Thompson

    (Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...
    Thompson, Edward Healy and Harriet Diana

    Edward and Harriet Thompson

    The name of two English converts : (1) Edward Healy and (2) Harriet Diana. Edward Healy ...
    Thompson, Francis

    Francis Thompson

    Poet, b. at Preston, Lancashire, 18 Dec., 1859; d. in London, 13 Nov., 1907. He came from the ...
    Thompson, Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David

    Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David Thompson

    Jurist and first Catholic Premier of Canada, b. at Halifax, Nova Scotia , 10 Nov., 1844; d. ...
    Thonissen, Jean-Joseph

    Jean-Joseph Thonissen

    Professor of law at the University of Louvain, minister in the Belgian Government, b. at ...
    Thorlaksson, Arni

    Arni Thorlaksson

    An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297. While a deacon, he visited ...
    Thorney Abbey

    Thorney Abbey

    (i.e. "the isle of thorns", anciently called ANCARIG). Thorney Abbey, in Cambridgeshire, ...
    Thorns, Crown of

    Crown of Thorns

    Although Our Saviour's Crown of Thorns is mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded ...
    Thorns, Feast of the Crown of

    Feast of the Crown of Thorns

    The first feast in honour of the Crown of Thorns ( Festum susceptionis coronae Domini ) was ...
    Thorpe, Venerable Robert

    Venerable Robert Thorpe

    Priest and martyr, b. in Yorkshire; suffered at York, 15 May, 1591. He reached the English ...
    Thou, Jacques-Auguste de

    Jacques-Auguste de Thou

    French historian, b. at Paris, 8 October, 1553; d. there, 7 May, 1617. The son of Christophe de ...
    Thou, Nicolas de

    Nicolas de Thou

    Bishop of Chartres, uncle of the historian Jacques-Auguste de Thou, b. at Paris, 1528; d. at ...
    Three Chapters

    Three Chapters

    The Three chapters ( trîa kephálaia ) were propositions anathematizing : (1) the ...
    Three Rivers

    Three Rivers (Quebec)

    DIOCESE OF THREE RIVERS (TRIFLUVIANENSIS) Formed from the Archdiocese of Quebec , to which it ...
    Throne

    Throne

    (Latin thronus, cathedra, sedes episcopalis ), the seat the bishop uses when not engaged at ...
    Thuburbo Minus

    Thuburbo Minus

    A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Thuburbo Minus is mentioned in ...
    Thugga

    Thugga

    Titular see of Numidia, perhaps the Numidian fortress of Tocai mentioned about 305 B.C. by ...
    Thugut, Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula

    Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula Thugut

    Austrian statesman, born at Linz, 31 March, 1736; died at Vienna, 28 May, 1818. He was the son of ...
    Thulis, Venerable John

    Ven. John Thulis

    English martyr, born at Up Holland, Lancashire, probably about 1568; suffered at Lancaster, 18 ...
    Thun-Hohenstein, Count Leo

    Count Leo Thun-Hohenstein

    Austrian statesman, b. at the family castle of Tetschen in Bohemia, 7 April, 1811; d. at Vienna, ...
    Thundering Legion

    Thundering Legion

    ( Legio fulminata , or fulminea , not fulminatrix ). The story of the Thundering Legion ...
    Thuringia

    Thuringia

    The name Thuringia is given to a large part of Central Germany, bounded on the west by the ...
    Thurmayr, Johannes

    Johannes Thurmayr

    (Called AVENTINUS from the place of his birth) Born at Abensberg, Bavaria, 4 July, 1477; died ...
    Thyatira

    Thyatira

    A titular suffragan see of Sardes in Lydia. According to Stephanus Byzantius, the name was ...
    Thynias

    Thynias

    A titular see, suffragan of Nicomedia, in Bithynia Prima. It is an island situated in the Black ...
    Thyräus, Hermann

    Hermann Thryaus

    German Jesuit, b. at Neuss on the Rhine, 1532; d. at Mainz, 26 October, 1591. He studied first ...
    Tiara

    Tiara

    The papal crown, a costly covering for the head, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, ...
    Tibaldi, Pellegrino

    Pellegrino Tibaldi

    Known also as Pellegrino da Bologna and as Pellegrino Pellegrini; decorator, mural painter, and ...
    Tiberias

    Tiberias

    Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda. The town of Tiberias was founded on ...
    Tiberias, Sea of

    Sea of Galilee

    So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1 ), otherwise known as "the sea of Galilee" ( Matthew 4:18 ; Mark ...
    Tiberiopolis

    Tiberiopolis

    Titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana. Tiberiopolis is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, 2, 25); Socrates ...
    Tiberius

    Tiberius

    The second Roman emperor ( A. D. 14-37), b. 16 November, 42 B. C. , d. 16 March, A. D. 37. ...
    Tibet

    Tibet

    A vast plateau, about 463,320 square miles, about 1240 miles in its greatest length from east to ...
    Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints

    Sts. Tiburtius and Susanna

    Roman martyrs, feast 11 August. The story is related in the legend of St. Sebastian that ...
    Ticelia

    Ticelia

    Titular see, suffragan of Cyrene, in the Libya Pentapolis. Under this name it is not found in any ...
    Tichborne, Ven. Nicholas

    Ven. Nicholas Tichborne

    Martyr, b. at Hartley Mauditt, Hampshire; suffered at Tyburn, London, 24 Aug., 1601. He was a ...
    Tichborne, Ven. Thomas

    Ven. Thomas Tichborne

    Born at Hartley, Hampshire, 1567; martyred at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1602. He was educated ...
    Ticonius

    Ticonius

    (Also TYCONIUS, TYCHONIUS, etc.) An African Donatist writer of the fourth century who ...
    Ticuna Indians

    Ticuna Indians

    A tribe of Indians of some importance, constituting a distinct linguistic stock, inhabiting the ...
    Tieffentaller, Joseph

    Joseph Tieffentaller

    Jesuit missionary and noted geographer in Hindustan, b. at Bozen in the Tyrol, 27 August, 1710; ...
    Tiepolo

    Tiepolo

    Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Tiepolo Born in Venice in 1696; died at Madrid, 27 March, 1770. ...
    Tierney, Mark Aloysius

    Mark Aloysius Tierney

    Born at Brighton, Sept., 1795; died at Arundel, 19 Feb., 1862. After his early schooling with the ...
    Tigris, Saint

    St. Tigris

    Irish saint, sister of St. Patrick. Much obscurity attaches to her life, and she has been ...
    Tillemont, Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de

    Louis-Sebastien Le Nain de Tillemont

    French historian and priest, b. at Paris, 30 November, 1637; d. there, 10 January, 1698; he was ...
    Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of

    Count of Tilly

    Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632. He was a member of a noble family of ...
    Timbrias

    Timbrias

    A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. It is called Thymbrium in the official lists ...
    Time

    Time

    The problem of time is one of the most difficult and most keenly debated in the field of natural ...
    Timothy and Symphorian, Saints

    Sts. Timotheus and Symphorian

    Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August. During the pontificate of Melchiades (311-13), ...
    Timothy and Titus, Epistles to

    Epistles to Timothy and Titus

    (T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...
    Timucua Indians

    Timucua Indians

    A principal group or confederacy of Ancient Florida, notable for the successful missions ...
    Tincker, Mary Agnes

    Mary Agnes Tincker

    Novelist, born at Ellsworth, Maine, 18 July, 1833; died at Boston, Massachusetts, 4 December, ...
    Tingis

    Tingis

    A titular see of Mauretania Tingitana (the official list of the Roman Curia places it in ...
    Tinin

    See of Tinin (Dalmatia)

    SEE OF TININ (KNIN). Located in Dalmatia ; suffragan to Kalocsa-Bacs. Knin is a town on ...
    Tinos and Mykonos

    Tinos and Mykonos

    DIOCESE OF TINOS AND MYKONOS (TINENSIS ET MYCONENSIS) A Latin diocese of the Cyclades, ...
    Tintern Abbey

    Tintern Abbey

    This abbey, in Monmouthshire, England [actually Wales -- Ed. ], was founded in 1131 by ...
    Tintoretto, Il

    Il Tintoretto

    (J ACOPO R OBUSTI ) Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594. His father was a ...
    Tipasa

    Tipasa

    A titular see of Numidia. The Phoenician word signifies passage. Early in its history we find ...
    Tiraboschi, Girolamo

    Girolamo Tiraboschi

    Italian scholar, b. in the region of Bergamo, 1731; d. 3 June, 1794. At an early age he entered ...
    Tiraspol

    Tiraspol

    DIOCESE OF TIRASPOL (or CHERSONESE) (TIRASPOLENSIS; CHERSONENSIS) Diocese in Southern Russia ...
    Tisio da Garofalo, Benvenuto

    Benvenuto Tisio da Garofalo

    An Italian painter of the Ferrarese school ; b. in 1481 at Garofalo, whence, as was the ...
    Tissot, James

    James Tissot

    (JOSEPH-JACQUES TISSOT) French draughtsman and painter, b. at Nantes, 15 Oct., 1836; d. at ...
    Tithes

    Tithes

    (Anglo-Saxon teotha , a tenth). Generally defined as "the tenth part of the increase arising ...
    Tithes, Lay

    Lay Tithes

    Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...
    Titian

    Titian

    (T IZIANO V ECELLI , called T ITIAN ). The greatest of Venetian painters, born at Pieve ...
    Titopolis

    Titiopolis

    (TITIOPOLIS) Titular see, suffragan of Seleucia Trachaea in Isauria. Le Quien (Oriens ...
    Titulus

    Titulus

    In pagan times titulus signified an inscription on stone, and later the stone which marked ...
    Titus

    Titus

    Roman Emperor 79-81, b. 30 Dec., 41; d. 13 Sept., 81; son of the Emperor Vespasian, and from the ...
    Titus and Timothy, Epistles to

    Epistles to Timothy and Titus

    (T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...
    Titus, Bishop of Bostra

    Titus, Bishop of Bostra

    Born about 362-371. Sozomen (Hist. eccl., III, xiv) names Titus among the great men of the time ...
    Tius

    Tius

    (TIUM) Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in Honorias. According to Strabo (542, 545) the ...
    Tivoli

    Tivoli

    DIOCESE OF TIVOLI (TIBURTINA) Diocese in the Province of Rome. The city in situated where the ...
    Tlaxcala

    Tlaxcala

    (TLAXCALENSIS) A former diocese of the colony of New Spain. It was the fifth diocese ...
    Tlos

    Tlos

    A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Tlos was one of the six cities forming the Lycian ...
    Toaldo, Giuseppe

    Giuseppe Toaldo

    Priest and physicist, b. at Pianezze, 1719; d. at Padua, 1797. In his fourteenth year he entered ...
    Toba Indians

    Toba Indians

    One of the few still unconquered savage tribes of the great Chaco wilderness of South America, and ...
    Tobias

    Book of Tobias

    We shall first enumerate the various Biblical persons and then treat the book of this name. I. ...
    Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de

    Alexis de Tocqueville

    (CHARLES-ALEXIS-HENRI-MAURICE-CLEREL DE TOCQUEVILLE) Writer and statesman, b. at Verneuil, ...
    Todi

    Todi

    (T UDERTINA ). Diocese in Central Italy ; immediately dependent on the Holy See. The city ...
    Tokio

    Tokio (Tokyo)

    (Tokiensis) Archdiocese comprising 21 provinces or 15 departments with a population of over ...
    Toledo (Ohio)

    Toledo (Ohio)

    (Toletana in America) A diocese in Ohio, U.S.A. formed out of the Diocese of Cleveland and ...
    Toledo (Spain)

    Toledo (Spain)

    ARCHDIOCESE OF TOLEDO (TOLETANENSIS) Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost ...
    Toledo, Francisco

    Francisco Toledo

    Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, son of an actuary, b. at Córdova, 4 Oct., 1532; d. ...
    Tolentino and Macerata

    Macerata and Tolentino

    Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...
    Toleration, History of

    History of Toleration

    In any attempt to deal historically with the attitude of the Church towards religious toleration ...
    Toleration, Religious

    Religious Toleration

    Toleration in general signifies patient forbearance in the presence of an evil which one is ...
    Tolomei, John Baptist

    John Baptist Tolomei

    A distinguished Jesuit theologian and cardinal, born of noble parentage, at Camberaia, between ...
    Tomb

    Tomb

    A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons, ...
    Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

    Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

    The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...
    Tomb, Altar

    Altar Tomb

    A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having ...
    Tomi

    Tomi

    A titular metropolitan see in the Province of Scythia, on the Black Sea. It was a Greek colony ...
    Tommasi, Blessed Giuseppe Maria

    Bl. Giuseppe Maria Tommasi

    A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...
    Tongerloo, Abbey of

    Abbey of Tongerloo

    Located near Antwerp, Belgium, founded in 1128 in honour of the Blessed Virgin, by de ...
    Tongiorgi, Salvator

    Salvator Tongiorgi

    Philosopher, born at Rome, Italy, 25 December, 1820; d. there, 12 November, 1865. At the age of ...
    Tongues, Gift of

    Gift of Tongues (Glossolalia)

    (Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...
    Tonica Indians

    Tonica Indians

    (Or TUNICA). A small tribe constituting a distinct linguistic stock living, when first known ...
    Tonkawa Indians

    Tonkawa Indians

    A tribal group or confederacy, of low culture status and constituting a distinct linguistic stock, ...
    Tonsure

    Tonsure

    ( Latin tondere , "to shear") A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized ...
    Tootell, Hugh

    Hugh Tootell

    Commonly known as Charles Dodd. Historian, b. in 1671 or 1672, at Durton-in-Broughton, ...
    Torah

    Torah

    I. USE OF WORD Torah, (cf. Hiph. of ), signifies first "direction, instruction", as, for ...
    Torbido, Francesco

    Francesco Torbido

    Often called IL MORO (The Moor). Veronese painter and engraver, b. at Verona about 1486; ...
    Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint

    St. Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo

    Archbishop of Lima ; b. at Mayorga, León, Spain, 1538; d. near Lima Peru, 23 March ...
    Tornielli, Girolamo Francesco

    Girolamo Francesco Tornielli

    Italian Jesuit, preacher and writer, b. at Cameri, 1 Febreuary, 1693, of a distinguished family ...
    Torone

    Torone

    A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. Torone was a colony of Chalcideans from ...
    Toronto

    Toronto

    (TORONTINA). Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada. When constituted a diocese, it ...
    Torquemada, Tomás de

    Tomas de Torquemada

    First Grand Inquisitor of Spain, born at Valladolid in 1420; died at Avila, 16 September, ...
    Torres Naharro, Bartolemé de

    Bartolome de Torres Naharro

    Spanish poet and dramatist, b. at Torres, near Badajoz, towards the end of the fifteenth ...
    Torres, Francisco

    Francisco Torres

    (TURRIANUS.) Hellenist and polemicist, born in Herrera, Palencia, about 1509; died at Rome, ...
    Torricelli, Evangelista

    Evangelista Torricelli

    Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 ...
    Torrubia, José

    Jose Torrubia

    Born towards the end of the seventeenth century at Granada, Spain ; died in 1768 in the ...
    Tortona

    Tortona

    DIOCESE OF TORTONA (DERTONENSIS) Diocese in Piedmont, Italy. The city is situated on the ...
    Tortosa

    Tortosa

    DIOCESE OF TORTOSA (DERTHUSENSIS, DERTUSA). Located in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; ...
    Toscanella and Viterbo

    Viterbo and Toscanella

    (VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...
    Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo

    Paolo Dal Pozzo Toscanelli

    Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer, b. at Florence in 1397; d. there, 10 May, 1482. ...
    Tosephta

    Tosephta

    ( Hebrew = addition, supplement ) Tosephta is the name of compilation of ...
    Tostado, Alonso

    Alonso Tostado

    (ALONSO TOSTATUS) Exegete, b. at Madrigal, Castile, about 1400; d. at Bonilla de la Sierra, ...
    Tosti, Luigi

    Luigi Tosti

    Benedictine historian, b. at Naples 13 Feb., 1811; d. at Monte Cassino, 24 Sept., 1897. His ...
    Totemism

    Totemism

    Totemism from ote , root ot , possessive form otem , in the Ojibway dialect of the ...
    Totonac Indians

    Totonac Indians

    One of the smaller cultured nations of ancient Mexico, occupying at the time of the Spanish ...
    Touchet, George Anselm

    George Anselm Touchet

    Born at Stalbridge, Dorset; died about 1689. He was second son of Mervyn, twelfth Lord Audley, ...
    Toulouse

    Toulouse

    A RCHDIOCESE OF T OULOUSE (T OLOSENSIS ) Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne. As ...
    Tournély, Honoré

    Honore Tournely

    Theologian, b. Antibes, Provence, 28 August, 1658; d. at Paris, 26 December 1729. His parents ...
    Tournai

    Tournai

    DIOCESE OF TOURNAI (Latin TURNACUM, TORNACUM; Flemish, DOORNIJK — TORNACENSIS) Diocese ...
    Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de

    Joseph Pitton de Tournefort

    French botanist, b. at Aix in Provence, 5 June, 1656; d. at Paris, 28 Dec., 1708. After his ...
    Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de

    Charles-Thomas Maillard de Tournon

    Papal legate to India and China, cardinal, born of a noble Savoyard family at Turin, 21 ...
    Touron, Antoine

    Antoine Touron

    Dominican biographer and historian, born at Graulhet, Tarn, France, on 5 September, 1686; died ...
    Tours

    Tours

    (TURONENSIS.) Comprises the Department of Indre-et-Loire, and was re-established by the ...
    Toustain, Charles-François

    Charles-Francois Toustain

    French Benedictine, and member of the Congregation of St-Maur, born at Repas in the Diocese of ...
    Touttée, Antoine-Augustin

    Antoine-Augustin Touttee

    A French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. at Riom, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, ...
    Tower of Babel

    Tower of Babel

    The "Tower of Babel" is the name of the building mentioned in Genesis 11:19 . History of the ...
    Tracy, Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de

    Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de Tracy

    Viceroy of New France, born in France, 1603, of noble parents ; died there in 1670. A soldier ...
    Tradition and Living Magisterium

    Tradition and Living Magisterium

    The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...
    Traditionalism

    Traditionalism

    A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude. ...
    Traducianism

    Traducianism

    Traducianism ( tradux , a shoot or sprout, and more specifically a vine branch made to take root ...
    Trajan

    Trajan

    Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117. He ...
    Trajanopolis

    Trajanopolis

    Titular metropolitan see of Rhodope. The city owes its foundation or restoration to Trajan. Le ...
    Trajanopolis

    Trajanopolis

    A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. The only geographer who speaks ...
    Tralles

    Tralles

    A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. It was founded, it is said, by the Argians ...
    Trani and Barletta

    Trani and Barletta

    (T RANEN , et Barolen.) Diocese in Italy. The city of Trani is situated on the Adriatic in ...
    Transcendentalism

    Transcendentalism

    The terms transcendent and transcendental are used in various senses, all of which, as a ...
    Transept

    Transept

    A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica. It ...
    Transfiguration

    Transfiguration

    The Transfiguration of Christ is the culminating point of His public life, as His Baptism is ...
    Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the

    Feast of the Transfiguration of Christ

    Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. ...
    Transubstantiation

    The Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist

    In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...
    Transvaal

    Transvaal

    Vicariate apostolic ; lies between 23° 3' and 27° 30' S. lat., and 25° and 32° ...
    Transylvania

    Transylvania

    (Also TRANSYLVANIENSIS or ERDELY). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Kalocsa Bács. The ...
    Trapani

    Trapani

    (TREPANENSIS). Diocese in Sicily, suffragan of Palermo. The city is the capital of a ...
    Trapezopolis

    Trapezopolis

    A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan to Laodicea. Trapezopolis was a town of Caria ...
    Trappists

    Trappists

    The common name by which the Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de ...
    Trasilla and Emiliana, Saints

    Sts. Trasilla and Emiliana

    Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...
    Treason, Accusations of

    Accusations of Treason

    A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics ...
    Trebizond

    Trebizond

    (TRAPEZUNTINA). An Armenian Catholic diocese. The city owes its ancient name to the fact that ...
    Trebnitz

    Trebnitz

    A former abbey of Cistercian nuns, situated north of Breslau in Silesia. It was founded in ...
    Tredway, Lettice Mary

    Lettice Mary Tredway

    (Called "Lady" Tredway) Born 1595; died Oct., 1677; daughter of Sir Walter Tredway, of Buckley ...
    Tregian, Francis

    Francis Tregian

    Confessor, b. in Cornwall, 1548; d. at Lisbon, 25 Sept., 1608. He was son of Thomas Tregian of ...
    Tremithus

    Tremithus

    Titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. The city is mentioned by Ptolemy (Geog., V, xiii, ...
    Trent

    Trent

    (TRIDENTUM; TRIDENTINA). Diocese ; suffragan of Salzburg. Trent became universally known ...
    Trent, Council of

    Council of Trent

    The nineteenth ecumenical council opened at Trent on 13 December, 1545, and closed there on 4 ...
    Trenton

    Trenton

    (T RENTONENSIS ). Diocese created 15 July, 1881, suffragan of New York, comprises Atlantic, ...
    Tresham, Sir Thomas

    Sir Thomas Tresham

    Knight Bachelor (in or before 1524), Grand Prior of England in the Order of Knights ...
    Treviso

    Treviso

    (TARVISINA). Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The capital is surrounded by the River ...
    Tribe, Jewish

    Jewish Tribe

    ( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...
    Tricarico, Diocese of

    Tricarico

    (TRICARICENSIS.) Located in the Province of Potenza in the Basilicata (Southern Italy ), near ...
    Tricassin, Charles Joseph

    Charles Joseph Tricassin

    One of the greatest theologians of the Capuchin Order, b. at Troyes ; d. in 1681. There is but ...
    Tricca

    Tricca

    Titular see, suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. It was an ancient city of Thessaly, near the River ...
    Trichinopoly, Diocese of

    Trichinopoly

    (TRICHINOPOLITAN.) Located in India, suffragan of Bombay, comprises the south east portion of ...
    Trichur

    Trichur

    (TRICHURENSIS.) Vicariate Apostolic in India, one of the three vicariates of the Syro-Malabar ...
    Tricomia

    Tricomia

    Titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palaestina Prima. It is mentioned in George of Cyprus ...
    Triduum

    Triduum

    (Three days). A time frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices, whether ...
    Trier

    Trier

    (TREVIRENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Cologne; includes in the Prussian province of the ...
    Triesnecker, Francis a Paula

    Francis a Paula Triesnecker

    Astronomer, b. at Kirchberg on the Wagram, in Lower Austria, 2 April, 1745; d. at Vienna 29 ...
    Triest-Capo d'Istria

    Triest-Capo d'Istria

    (TERGESTINA ET JUSTINOPOLITANA.) Suffragan diocese of Görz-Gradiska ; exists as a ...
    Trincomalee

    Trincomalee

    (TRINCOMALIENSIS.) Located in Ceylon, suffragan of Colombo, was created in 1893 by a division ...
    Trinità di Cava dei Tirrenti, Abbey of

    Abbey of Trinita di Cava Dei Tirreni

    Located in the Province of Salerno. It stands in a gorge of the Finestre Hills near Cava dei ...
    Trinitarians, Order of

    Order of Trinitarians

    The redemption of captives has always been regarded in the Church as a work of mercy, as is ...
    Trinity College

    Trinity College

    An institution for the higher education of Catholic women, located at Washington, D.C., and ...
    Trinity Sunday

    Trinity Sunday

    The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity. In the early ...
    Trinity, The Blessed

    The Blessed Trinity

    This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...
    Triple-Candlestick

    Triple-Candlestick

    A name given along with several others (e.g. reed, tricereo, arundo, triangulum, lumen Christi ...
    Trissino, Giangiorgio

    Giangiorgio Trissino

    Italian poet and scholar, b. of a patrician family at Vicenza in 1478; d. at Rome, 8 ...
    Tritheists

    Tritheists

    (TRITHEITES). Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity. (1) Those who are ...
    Trithemius, John

    John Trithemius

    A famous scholar and Benedictine abbot, b. at Trittenheim on the Moselle, 1 February, 1462; d. at ...
    Trivento

    Trivento

    (Triventensis) Diocese in southern Italy. The earliest bishop was St. Castus of an uncertain ...
    Trivet, Nicholas

    Nicholas Trivet

    (Or "Trevet" as he himself wrote it) B. about 1258; d. 1328. He was the son of Thomas Trevet, a ...
    Troas

    Troas

    A suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespont. The city was first called Sigia; it was enlarged and ...
    Trocmades

    Trocmades

    (Trocmada) Titular see of Galatia Secunda, suffragan of Pessinus. No geographer or historian ...
    Trokelowe, John de

    John de Trokelowe

    (THROWLOW, or THORLOW) A monastic chronicler still living in 1330, but the dates of whose birth ...
    Trondhjem, Ancient See of

    Ancient See of Trondhjem

    (NIDAROS). In Norway it was the kings who introduced Christianity, which first became ...
    Trope

    Trope

    Definition and Description Trope, in the liturgico-hymnological sense, is a collective name ...
    Tropology, Scriptural

    Scriptural Tropology

    The theory and practice of interpreting the figurative meaning of Holy Writ. The literal meaning, ...
    Troy, John Thomas

    John Thomas Troy

    Archbishop of Dublin ; b. in the parish of Blanchardstown, near Dublin, 10 May, 1739; d. at ...
    Troyes

    Troyes

    (TRECENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Aube. Re-established in 1802 as a suffragan ...
    Truce of God

    Truce of God

    The Truce of God is a temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God ...
    Truchsess von Waldburg, Otto

    Otto Truchsess von Waldburg

    Cardinal-Bishop of Augsburg (1543-73), b. at Castle Scheer in Swabia, 26 Feb., 1514; d. at ...
    Trudo, Saint

    St. Trudo

    (TRON, TROND, TRUDON, TRUTJEN, TRUYEN). Apostle of Hasbein in Brabant; d. 698 (693). Feast 23 ...
    Trudpert, Saint

    St. Trudpert

    Missionary in Germany in the seventh century. He is generally called a Celtic monk from ...
    True Cross, The

    The True Cross

    (AND REPRESENTATIONS OF IT AS OBJECTS OF DEVOTION). (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult ; (2) ...
    Trueba, Antonio de

    Antonio de Trueba

    Spanish poet and folklorist, b. at Montellana, Biscay, in 1821; d. at Bilbao, 10 March, 1889. In ...
    Trujillo

    Trujillo

    Diocese comprising the Departments of Lambayeque, Libertad, Pinra, and the Province of Tumbes, ...
    Trullo, Council in

    Council in Trullo

    This particular council of Constantinople, held in 692 under Justinian II, is generally known as ...
    Trumpets, Feast of

    Feast of Trumpets

    The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...
    Trumwin, Saint

    Saint Trumwin

    (TRIUMWINI, TRUMUINI). Died at Whitby, Yorkshire, England, after 686. He was consecrated by ...
    Trustee System

    Trustee System

    I In the exercise of her inherent right of administering property, the Church often appoints ...
    Trusts and Bequests

    Trusts and Bequests

    A trust has been defined, in its technical sense, as the right enforceable solely in equity to ...
    Truth

    Truth

    Truth (Anglo-Saxon tréow, tryw, truth, preservation of a compact, from a Teutonic base ...
    Truth Societies, Catholic

    Catholic Truth Societies

    This article will treat of Catholic Truth Societies in the chronological order of their ...
    Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

    Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

    Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...
    Tschiderer zu Gleifheim, Johann Nepomuk von

    Tschiderer Zu Gleifheim

    Bishop of Trent, b. at Bozen, 15 Feb., 1777; d. at Trent, 3 Dec., 1860. He sprang from a family ...
    Tschupick, John Nepomuk

    John Nepomuk Tschupick

    A celebrated preacher, b. at Vienna, 7 or 12 April, 1729; d. there, 20 July, 1784. He entered the ...
    Tuam

    Tuam

    (TUAMENSIS). The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly ...
    Tuam, School of

    School of Tuam

    (Irish, Tuaim da Ghualann , or the "Mound of the two Shoulders"). The School of Tuam was ...
    Tubunae

    Tubunae

    A titular see in Mauretania Caesariensis, according to the "Gerachia cattolica", or in Numidia ...
    Tucson

    Tucson

    (T UCSONENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe. It comprises the State of ...
    Tucumán

    Tucuman

    (T UCUMANENSIS ). Suffragan to Buenos Aires, erected from the Diocese of Salta on 15 ...
    Tudela

    Tudela

    (TUTELÆ, TUTELENSIS). Diocese in Spain. The episcopal city has a population of 9213. ...
    Tuguegarao

    Tuguegarao

    (TUGUEGARAONENSIS). Diocese in the Philippines ; situated in the north-eastern section of ...
    Tulancingo

    Tulancingo

    (D E T ULANCINGO ). Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of Mexico. Its area is ...
    Tulasne, Louis-René

    Louis-Rene Tulasne

    A noted botanist, b. at Azay-le-Rideau, Dept of Indre-et-Loire, France, 12 Sept., 1815; d. at ...
    Tulle

    Tulle

    (TUTELENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Corrèze. It was suppressed by the ...
    Tunic

    Tunic

    By tunic is understood in general a vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper ...
    Tunis

    Tunis

    French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa. About the twelfth century before Christ ...
    Tunja

    Tunja

    (T UNQUENENSIS ). Diocese established in 1880 as a suffragan of Bogotá, in the ...
    Tunkers

    Tunkers

    ( German tunken , to dip) A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite. ...
    Tunstall, Cuthbert

    Cuthbert Tunstall

    Bishop of London, later of Durham, b. at Hackforth, Yorkshire, in 1474; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...
    Tunstall, Venerable Thomas

    Ven. Thomas Tunstall

    Martyred at Norwich, 13 July, 1616. He was descended from the Tunstalls of Thurland, an ancient ...
    Tunsted, Simon

    Simon Tunsted

    English Minorite, b. at Norwich, year unknown; d. at Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369. Having joined the ...
    Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques

    Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot

    Baron de L' Aulne, French minister, born at Parish, 10 May, 1727; died there, 20 March, 1781. ...
    Turin

    Turin

    (Turino; Taurinensis) The City of Turin is the chief town of a civil province in Piedmont and ...
    Turin, Shroud of

    The Shroud of Turin

    This name is primarily given to a relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that ...
    Turin, University of

    The University of Turin

    The University of Turin was founded in 1404, when the lectures at Piacenza and Pavia were ...
    Turkestan

    Turkestan

    I. CHINESE TURKESTAN When Jenghiz Khan died (1227) his second son, Djagatai, had the greater part ...
    Turkish Empire

    Turkish Empire

    Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the ...
    Turnebus, Adrian

    Adrian Turnebus

    Philologist, b. at Andely in Normandy in 1512; d. in Paris, 12 June, 1565. The accounts of the ...
    Turpin

    Turpin

    Archbishop of Reims, date of birth uncertain; d. 2 Sept., 800. He was a monk of St. Denis ...
    Tuscany

    Tuscany

    Tuscany, a division of central Italy, includes the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, ...
    Tuy

    Tuy

    (Tudensis.) Suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Santiago, comprises the civil provinces ...
    Twenge, Saint John

    St. John Twenge

    Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...
    Twiketal of Croyland

    Twiketal of Croyland

    (THURCYTEL, TURKETUL). Died July, 975. He was a cleric of royal descent, who is said to have ...
    Tyana

    Tyana

    A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Prima. The city must first have been called Thoana, ...
    Tychicus

    St. Tychicus

    A disciple of St. Paul and his constant companion. He was a native of the Roman province of ...
    Tynemouth Priory

    Tynemouth Priory

    Tynemouth Priory, on the east coast of Northumberland, England, occupied the site of an earlier ...
    Types in Scripture

    Types in Scripture

    Types, though denoted by the Greek word typoi , are not coextensive with the meaning of this ...
    Tyrannicide

    Tyrannicide

    Tyrannicide literally is the killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a ...
    Tyre

    Tyre

    (TYRUS.) Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese. The city is called in Hebrew, Zor , ...
    Tyrie, James

    James Tyrie

    Theologian, b. at Drumkilbo, Perthshire, Scotland, 1543; d. at Rome, 27 May, 1597. Educated ...

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