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Orestes Augustus Brownson

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Philosopher, essayist, reviewer, b. at Stockbridge, Vermont, U.S.A., 16 September, 1803; d. at Detroit, Michigan , 17 April, 1876.

His childhood was passed on a small farm with plain country people, honest and upright Congregationalists, who treated him with kindness and affection, taught him the Lord's Prayer, the Apostles' Creed, and the Assembly's Catechism; to be honest and industrious, truthful in all circumstances, and never to let the sun go down on his wrath. With no young companions, his fondness for reading grew rapidly, though he had access to few books, and those of a grave or religious nature. At the age of nineteen he had a fair knowledge of grammar and arithmetic and could translate Virgil's poetry. In October, 1822, he joined the Presbyterian Church, dreamed of becoming a missionary, but very soon felt repelled by Presbyterian discipline, and still more by the doctrines of unconditional election and reprobation, and that God foreordains the wicked to sin necessarily, that He may damn them justly. Rather than sacrifice his belief in justice and humanity on the altar of a religion confessedly of human origin and fallible in its teachings, Brownson rejected Calvinism for so-called liberal Christianity, and early in 1824, at the age of twenty, avowed himself a Universalist. In June, 1826, he was ordained, and from that time until near the end of 1829, he preached and wrote as a Universalist minister, calling himself a Christian ; but at last denying all Divine revelation, the Divinity of Christ, and a future judgment, he abandoned the ministry and became associated with Robert Dale Owen and Fanny Wright in their war on marriage, property, and religion, carried on in the "Free Enquirer" of New York, of which Brownson, then at Auburn, became corresponding editor. At the same time he established a journal in western New York in the interest of the Workingmen's Party, which they wished to use for securing the adoption of their system of education. But, besides this motive, Brownson's sympathy was always with the labouring class, and he entered with ardour on the work of elevating labour, making it respected and as well rewarded in its manual or servile, as in its mercantile or liberal, phases, and the end he aimed at was moral and social amelioration and equality, rather than political. The introduction of large industries carried on by means of vast outlays of capital or credit had reduced operatives to the condition of virtual slavery ; but Brownson soon became satisfied that the remedy was not to be secured by arraying labour against capital by a political organization, but by inducing all classes to co-operate in the efforts to procure the improvement of the workingman's condition. He found, too, that he could not advance a single step in this direction without religion. An unbeliever in Christianity, he embraced the religion of Humanity, severed his connexion with the Workingmen's Party and with "The Free Enquirer", and on the first Sunday in February, 1831, began preaching in Ithaca, New York, as an independent minister. As a Universalist, he had edited their organ, "The Gospel Advocate"; he now edited and published his own organ, "The Philanthropist".

Finding, from Dr. W.E. Channing's printed sermons, that Unitarians believed no more of Christianity than he did, he became associated with that denomination, and so remained for the next twelve years. In 1832 he was settled as pastor of the Unitarian Church at Walpole, New Hampshire ; in 1834 he was installed pastor of the First Congregational Church at Canton, Massachusetts ; and in 1836 he organized in Boston "The Society for Christian Union and Progress", to which he preached in the Old Masonic Temple, in Tremont Street. After conducting various periodicals, and contributing to others, the most important of which was "The Christian Examiner", he started a publication of his own called "The Boston Quarterly Review", the first number of which was dated January, 1838. Most of the articles of this review were written by him; but some were contributed by A. H. Everett, George Bancroft, George Ripley, A. Bronson Alcott, Sarah Margaret Fuller, Anne Charlotte Lynch, and other friends. Besides his articles on literary and philosophical subjects, his political essays in this review attracted attention throughout the country and brought him into close relations with the leaders of the Democratic Party. Although a steadfast Democrat, he disliked the name Democrat, and denounced pure democracy, called popular sovereignty, or the rule of the will of the majority, maintaining that government by the will, whether that of one man or that of many, was mere arbitrary government, and therefore tyranny, despotism, absolutism. Constitutions, if not too easily alterable, he thought a wholesome bridle on popular caprice, and he objected to legislation for the especial benefit of any individual or class; privileges, i.e. private laws ; exemption of stockholders in corporations from liability for debts of their corporation; tariffs to enrich the moneyed class at the expense of mechanics, agriculturists, and members of the liberal professions. He demanded equality of rights, not that men should be all equal, but that all should be on the same footing, and no man should make himself taller by standing on another's shoulders.

In his "Review" for July, 1840, he carried the democratic principles to their extreme logical conclusions, and urged the abolition of Christianity ; meaning, of course, the only Christianity he was acquainted with, if, indeed, it be Christianity ; denounced the penal code, as bearing with peculiar severity on the poor, and the expense to the poor in civil cases; and, accepting the doctrine of Locke, Jefferson, Mirabeau, Portalis, Kent, and Blackstone, that the right to devise or bequeath property is based on statute, not on natural, law, he objected to the testamentary and hereditary descent of property ; and, what gave more offence than all the rest, he condemned the modern industrial system, especially the system of labour at wages. In all this he only carried out the doctrine of European Socialists and the Saint-Simonians. Democrats were horrified by the article; Whigs paraded it as what Democrats were aiming at; and Van Buren, who was a candidate for a second term as President, blamed it as the main cause of his defeat. The manner in which he was assailed aroused Brownson's indignation, and he defended his essay with vigour in the following number of his "Review", and silenced the clamours against him, more than regaining the ground he had lost, so that he never commanded more attention, or had a more promising career open before him, than when, in 1844, he turned his back on honours and popularity to become a Catholic. At the end of 1842 the "Boston Quarterly Review" was merged in the "U.S. Democratic Review", of New York, a monthly publication, to each number of which Brownson contributed, and in which he set forth the principles of "Synthetic Philosophy " and a series of essays on the "Origin and Constitution of Government", which more than twenty years later he rewrote and published with the title of "The American Republic". The doctrine of these essays provoked such repeated complaints from the editor of the "Democratic Review", that Brownson severed his connexion with that monthly and resumed the publication of his own review, changing the title from "Boston" to "Brownson's Quarterly Review". The first number was issued in January, 1844, and the last in October, 1875. From January, 1865, to October, 1872, he suspended its publication.

The printed works of Brownson, other than contributions to his own and other journals, from the commencement of his preaching to the establishment of this review consisted of his sermons, orations, and other public addresses; his "New Views of Christianity, Society, and the Church" (Boston, 1836), in which he objected to Protestantism that it is pure materialism, to Catholicism, that it is mere spiritualism, and exalts his "Church of the Future" as the synthesis of both; "Charles Elwood" (Boston, 1840), in which the infidel hero becomes a convert to what the author calls Christianity and makes as little removed as possible from bald deism ; and "The Mediatorial Life of Jesus" (Boston, 1842), which is almost Catholic, and contains a doctrine of life which leads to the door of the Catholic Church. He soon after applied to the Bishop of Boston for admission, and in October, 1844, was received by the Coadjutor Bishop, John B. Fitzpatrick.

The Catholic body in the United States was at that time largely composed of men and women of the labouring class, who had emigrated from a country in which they and their forefathers had suffered centuries of persecution for the Faith, and had too long felt themselves a down-trodden people to be able to lift their countenances with the fearless independence of Americans; or, if they were better-to-do, feared to make their religion prominent and extended to those of other faiths the liberal treatment they hoped for in return. It was Brownson's first labour to change all this. He engaged at once in controversy with the organs of the various Protestant sects on one hand, and against liberalism, latitudinarianism, and political atheism of Catholics, on the other. The American people, prejudiced against Catholicity, and opposed to Catholics, were rendered more prejudiced and opposed by their tame and apologetic tone in setting forth and defending their Faith, and were delighted to find Catholics labouring to soften the severities and to throw off whatever appeared exclusive or rigorous in their doctrine. But Brownson resolved to stand erect; let his tone be firm and manly, his voice clear and distinct, his speech strong and decided. So well did he carry out this resolution, and so able and intrepid an advocate did he prove in defence of the Faith, that he merited a letter of approbation and encouragement from the Bishops of the United States assembled in Plenary Council at Baltimore, in May, 1849, and from Pope Pius IX, in April, 1854. In October, 1855, Brownson changed his residence to New York, and his "Review" was ever after published there—although, after 1857, he made his home in Elizabeth, New Jersey , till 1875, when he went to live in Detroit, where he died in the following April. A little over a year before moving to New York, he wrote, "The Spirit Rapper" (Boston, 1854), a book in the form of a novel and a biography, showing the connexion of spiritism with modern philanthropy, visionary reforms, socialism, revolutionism; with the aim of recalling the age to faith in the Gospel. His next book, written in New York, was "The Convert; or, Leaves from my Experience" (New York, 1857), tracing with fidelity his entire religious life down to his admission to the bosom of the Catholic Church.

Brownson had not been many years in New York before the influence of those Catholics with whom he mainly associated was perceptible in the tone of his writings, in the milder and almost conciliatory attitude towards those not of the Faith, which led many of his old admirers to fear he was becoming a "liberal Catholic ". At the same time, the War of the Rebellion having broken out, he was most earnest in denouncing Secession and urging its suppression, and as a means to this, the abolition of slavery. This alienated all his Southern and many of his Northern supporters. Domestic affliction was added by the death of his two sons in the summer of 1864. In these circumstances, he felt unable to go on with his "Review", and in October of that year announced its discontinuance. But he did not sit idle. During the eight years that followed, he wrote "The American Republic; Its Constitution, Tendencies, and Destiny" (New York, 1865); leading articles in the New York "Tablet", continued till within a few months of his death; several series of articles in "The Ave Maria "; generally one or two articles a month in "The Catholic World"; and, instructed by the "Syllabus of Errors " condemned by Pope Pius IX, "Conversations on Liberalism and the Church" (New York, 1869), a small book which shows that if for a short period of his Catholic life, he parleyed with Liberalism, he had too much horror of it to embrace it. In January, 1873, "Brownson's Quarterly Review" appeared again and regularly thereafter till the end of 1875. His last article was contributed to the "American Catholic Quarterly Review", for January, 1876. Brownson always disclaimed having originated any system of philosophy and acknowledged freely whatever he borrowed from others; but he had worked out and arrived at substantially the philosophy of his later writings before he ever heard of Gioberti, from whom he obtained the formula ens creat existentias , which Gioberti expressed in the formula ens creat existens , to indicate the ideal or intelligible object of thought. By the analysis of thought he finds that it is composed of three inseparable elements, subject, object, and their relation, simultaneously given. Analysis of the object shows that it is likewise composed of three elements simultaneously given, the ideal, the empirical, and their relation. He distinguished the ideal intuition, in which the activity is in the object presenting or offering itself, and empirical intuition or cognition, in which the subject as well as the object acts. Ideal intuition presents the object, reflection takes it as represented sensibly; that is, in case of the ideal, as represented in language. Identifying ideas with the categories of the philosophers, he reduced them to these three: Being, Existences, and their Relations. The necessary is Being; the contingent, Existences; and their relation, the creative act of Being. Being is God, personal because He has intelligence and will. From Him, as First Cause, proceed the physical laws ; and as Final Cause, the moral law, commanding to worship Him, naturally or supernaturally, in the way and manner He prescribes.

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O Antiphons

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O Filii et Filiæ

O Filii Et Filiae

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O Salutaris Hostia

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O'Braein, Tighernach

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Terence Albert O'Brien

Born at Limerick, 1600; died there, 31 October, 1651. He joined the Dominicans, receiving the ...
O'Bruadair, David

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Edmund Bailey O'Callaghan

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O'Connell, Daniel

Daniel O'Connell

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O'Conor, Charles

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O'Conor, Charles

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Gelasius O'Cullenan

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O'Curry, Eugene

Eugene O'Curry

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O'Daly, Daniel

Daniel O'Daly

A diplomatist and historian, born in Kerry, Ireland, 1595; died at Lisbon, 30 June, 1662. On his ...
O'Daly, Donogh Mór

Donogh Mor O'Daly

(In Irish Donnchadh Mór O Dálaigh ) A celebrated Irish poet, d. 1244. About ...
O'Devany, Cornelius

Cornelius O'Devany

(Conchobhar O'Duibheannaigh) Bishop of Down and Connor, Ireland, b. about 1532; d. at ...
O'Donnell, Edmund

Edmund O'Donnell

The first Jesuit executed by the English government; b. at Limerick in 1542, executed at ...
O'Donovan, John

John O'Donovan

Irish historian and antiquarian, b. at Atateemore, County Kilkenny, Ireland, 1806; d. at ...
O'Dugan, John

John O'Dugan

(Seághan "mor" O Dubhagáin) Died in Roscommon, 1372. His family were for ...
O'Dwyer, Joseph

Joseph O'Dwyer

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O'Fihely, Maurice

Maurice O'Fihely

Archbishop of Tuam, born about 1460; died at Galway, 1513. He was, according to Dr. Lynch, a ...
O'Growney, Eugene

Eugene O'Growney

Priest, patriot, and scholar, b. 25 August, 1863, at Ballyfallon, County Meath ; d. at Los ...
O'Hagan, John

John O'Hagan

Lawyer and man of letters, b. at Newry, County Down, Ireland, 19 March, 1822; d. near Dublin, ...
O'Hagan, Thomas

Thomas O'Hagan

First Baron of Tullyhogue, b. at Belfast, 29 May, 1812; d. 1 February, 1885. Called to the Irish ...
O'Hanlon, John

John O'Hanlon

Born at Stradbally, Queen's County, Ireland, 1821; died at Sandymount, Dublin, 1905. He entered ...
O'Hara, Theodore

Theodore O'Hara

Born in Danville, Kentucky, U.S.A. 11 February, 1822; died in Guerryton, Alabama, 6 June, 1867. ...
O'Hely, Patrick

Patrick O'Hely

Bishop of Mayo, Ireland ; d. At Kilmallock, September, 1579. He was a native of Connaught, and ...
O'Herlahy, Thomas

Thomas O'Herlahy

(O' H I ARLAITHE ). Bishop of Ross, Ireland, d. 1579. Consecrated about 1560, he was one ...
O'Higgins, Ambrose and Bernard

Ambrose Bernard O'Higgins

Ambrose Bernard O'Higgins Born in County Meath, Ireland, in 1720; died at Lima, 18 March, 1810. ...
O'Hurley, Dermond

Dermond O'Hurley

Archbishop of Cashel, Ireland ; died 19-29 June, 1584. His father, William O'Hurley of ...
O'Hussey, Maelbrighte

Maelbrighte O'Hussey

(Irish, Maol Brighde ua Heodhusa ; Latin, Brigidus Hossæus ). Known also as ...
O'Leary, Arthur

Arthur O'Leary

Franciscan, preacher, polemical writer, b. at Faniobbus, Iveleary, Co. Cork, Ireland, 1729; d. ...
O'Loghlen, Michael

Michael O'Loghlen

Born at Ennis, Co. Clare, Ireland, in 1789; died 1846. Educated at Ennis Academy, and Trinity ...
O'Meara, Kathleen

Kathleen O'Meara

Novelist and biographer, b. in Dublin, 1839; d. in Paris, 10 Nov., 1888; daughter of Dennis ...
O'Neill, Hugh

Hugh O'Neill

Earl of Tyrone, b. 1550, d. Rome, 1616; he was the youngest son of Mathew, of questionable ...
O'Neill, Owen Roe

Owen Roe O'Neill

Born 1582; died near Cavan, 6 Nov., 1649, the son of Art O'Neill and nephew of Hugh, the great ...
O'Queely, Malachias

Malachias O'Queely

(Maolsheachlainn O Cadhla). Archbishop of Tuam, Ireland, b. in Thomond, date unknown; d. at ...
O'Reilly, Bernard

Bernard O'Reilly

Historian, b. 20 Sept., 1820, in County Mayo, Ireland ; d. in New York, U.S.A. 26 April, ...
O'Reilly, Edmund

Edmund O'Reilly

Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Dublin, 1616; d. at Saumur, France, 1669, was educated in Dublin ...
O'Reilly, Edmund

Edmund O'Reilly

Theologian, b. in London, 30 April, 1811; d. at Dublin, 10 November, 1878. Educated at ...
O'Reilly, Hugh

Hugh O'Reilly

Archbishop of Armagh, head of the Confederates of Kilkenny, b. 1580; d. on Trinity Island in ...
O'Reilly, John Boyle

John Boyle O'Reilly

Poet, novelist, and editor, b. at Douth Castle, Drogheda, Ireland, 24 June, 1844; d. at Hull, ...
O'Reilly, Myles William Patrick

Myles William Patrick O'Reilly

Soldier, publicist, littérateur , b. near Balbriggan, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 13 March, ...
O'Rorke, Patrick Henry

Patrick Henry O'Rorke

Soldier, b. in County Cavan, Ireland, 25 March, 1837; killed at the battle of Gettysburg, Penn., ...
O'Sullivan Beare, Philip

Philip O'Sullivan Beare

Born in Ireland, c. 1590; died in Spain, 1660, son of Dermot O'Sullivan and nephew of Donal ...
O'Toole, Saint Lawrence

St. Lawrence O'Toole

(L ORCAN UA T UATHAIL ; also spelled Laurence O'Toole) Confessor, born about 1128, in the ...
Oakeley, Frederick

Frederick Oakeley

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Oates's Plot

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Oaths

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Oaths, English Post-Reformation

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Obazine, Monastery of

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Obba

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Obedience

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Obedience, Religious

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Obedientiaries

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Oblate Sisters of Providence

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Oblates of Mary Immaculate

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Oblates of St. Francis de Sales

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Oblati, Oblatæ, Oblates

Oblati

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Obligation

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Obregonians

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Obreption

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Observatory, Vatican

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Occam, William of

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Occasionalism

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Occasions of Sin

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Occleve, Thomas

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Occult Art, Occultism

Occult Art, Occultism

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Occurrence

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(IN LITURGY) I. DEFINITION Occurrence is the coinciding or occurring of two liturgical offices ...
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The whole of Oceania had at first been entrusted by the Propaganda to the Society of the Sacred ...
Ockham, William of

William of Ockham

Fourteenth-century Scholastic philosopher and controversial writer, born at or near the village ...
Octavarium Romanum

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The Octavarium Romanum is a liturgical book which may be considered as an appendix to the Roman ...
Octave

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I. ORIGIN It is the number seven, not eight, that plays the principal rôle in Jewish ...
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Odescalchi, Carlo

Carlo Odescalchi

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Odilia, Saint

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Patroness of Alsace, born at the end of the seventh century; died about 720. According to a ...
Odilo, Saint

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Odin, John Mary

John Mary Odin

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Odington, Walter

Walter Odington

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Odo of Cambrai, Blessed

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Odo of Canterbury

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Odo of Cheriton

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Preacher and fabulist, d. 1247. He visited Paris, and it was probably there that he gained the ...
Odo of Glanfeuil

Odo of Glanfeuil

(Saint-Maur-sur-Loire) Abbot, ninth-century hagiographer. He entered Glanfeuil not later than ...
Odo, Saint

St. Odo

Second Abbot of Cluny, born 878 or 879, probably near Le Mans ; died 18 November, 942. He ...
Odo, Saint

Saint Odo

(Oda) Archbishop of Canterbury, d. 2 June, 959 (not in 958; recent researches showing that he ...
Oertel, John James Maximilian

John James Maximilian Oertel

Journalist, born at Ansbach, Bavaria, 27 April, 1811; died at Jamaica, New York, 21 August, 1882. ...
Oettingen

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(ALTÖTTING, OETINGA) Oettingen, during the Carlovingian period a royal palace near the ...
Offa

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Offerings

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Offertory

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(Offertorium.) The rite by which the bread and wine are presented (offered) to God before ...
Office of the Dead

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Office, Divine

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("Liturgy of the Hours" I. THE EXPRESSION "DIVINE OFFICE" This expression signifies ...
Ogdensburg, Diocese of

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Oggione, Marco D'

Marco d'Oggione

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Ogilvie, John, Venerable

Ven. John Ogilvie

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Ogliastra

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Ohio

Ohio

The seventeenth state of the American Union, admitted on 19 Feb., 1803. It is bounded on the north ...
Ohler, Aloys Karl

Aloys Karl Ohler

Educationist, born at Mainz, 2 January, 1817; died there, 24 August, 1889. He attended the ...
Oil of Saints

Oil of Saints

(Manna Oil of Saints). An oily substance, which is said to have flowed, or still flows, from ...
Oils, Holy

Holy Oils

(OLEA SACRA). Liturgical Benediction Oil is a product of great utility the symbolic ...
Ointment in Scripture

Ointment in Scripture

That the use of oily, fragrant materials to anoint the body is a custom going back to remote ...
Ojeda, Alonso de

Alonso de Ojeda

Explorer; b. at Cuenca, Spain, about 1466; d. on the island of Santo Domingo , about 1508. He ...
Okeghem, Jean d'

Jean d'Okeghem

Also called Okekem, Okenghem, Okegnan, Ockenheim. Contrapuntist, founder and head of the second ...
Oklahoma

Oklahoma

I. GEOGRAPHY Oklahoma, the forty-sixth state to be admitted to the Union, is bounded on the north ...
Oláh, Nicolaus

Nicolaus Olah

(OLAHUS) Archbishop of Gran and Primate of Hungary, a distinguished prelate, born 10 ...
Olaf Haraldson, Saint

St. Olaf Haraldson

Martyr and King of Norway (1015-30), b. 995; d. 29 July, 1030. He was a son of King Harald ...
Olba

Olba

A titular see in Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia. It was a city of Cetis in Cilicia Aspera, ...
Old Catholics

Old Catholics

The sect organised in German-speaking countries to combat the dogma of Papal Infallibility. ...
Old Chapter, The

The Old Chapter

The origin of the body, fomerly known as the Old Chapter, dates from 1623, when after a period of ...
Old Hall (St. Edmund's College)

Old Hall (St. Edmund's College)

Located near Ware, Hertfordshire, England ; founded in 1793 after the fall of the English ...
Old Testament

Old Testament

I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...
Old Testament, Canon of the

Canon of the Old Testament

Overview The word canon as applied to the Scriptures has long had a special and consecrated ...
Oldcorne, Ven. Edward

Ven. Edward Oldcorne

Martyr, b. 1561; d. 1606. His father was a Protestant, and his mother a Catholic. He was ...
Oldenburg

Oldenburg

A grand duchy, one of the twenty-six federated states of the German Empire. It consists of three ...
Oldham, Hugh

Hugh Oldman

Bishop of Exeter, b. in Lancashire, either at Crumpsell or Oldham; d. 25 June, 1519. Having ...
Oldoini, Augustino

Augustino Oldoini

Historian and bibliographer, b. 6 Jan., 1612; d. at Perugia, 23 March, 1683. He came from La ...
Olenus

Olenus

A titular see and suffragan of Patras, in Achaia Quarta, one of the twelve primitive cities of ...
Olesnicki, Zbigniew

Zbigniew Olesnicki

(Sbigneus) A Polish cardinal and statesman, b. in Poland, 1389; d. at Sandomir, 1 April, ...
Olier, Jean-Jacques

Jean-Jacques Olier

Founder of the seminary and Society of St-Sulpice, b. at Paris, 20 Sept., 1608; d. there, 2 ...
Olinda

Olinda

Diocese in the north-east of Brazil, suffragan of San Salvador de Bahia. Erected into a vicariate ...
Oliva

Oliva

A suppressed Cistercian abbey near Danzig in Pomerania, founded with the assistance of the ...
Oliva, Gian Paolo

Gian Paolo Oliva

Born at Genoa, 4 October, 1600; died at Rome, at Sant' Andrea Quirinale, 26 November, 1681. In ...
Olivaint, Pierre

Pierre Olivaint

Pierre Olivaint was born in Paris, 22 Feb., 1816. His father, a man of repute but an unbeliever, ...
Oliver, George

George Oliver

Born at Newington in Surrey in 1781; died at Exeter in 1861. After studying for some years at ...
Olivet, Mount

Mount Olivet

(Latin, Mons Olivertus .) Occurring also in the English Bibles as the Mount of Olives ( ...
Olivetans

Olivetans

A branch of the white monks of the Benedictine Order, founded in 1319. It owed its origin to ...
Olivi, Pierre Jean

Pierre Jean Olivi

(PETRUS JOHANNIS) A Spiritual Franciscan and theological author, born at Sérignan, ...
Olivier de la Marche

Olivier de La Marche

Chronicler and poet, b. 1426, at the Chateau de la Marche, in Franche-Comté; d. at ...
Ollé-Laprune, Léon

Leon Olle-Laprune

French Catholic philosopher, b. in 1839; d. at Paris, 19 Feb., 1898. Under the influence of the ...
Olmütz

Olmutz

(OLOMUCENSIS) Archdiocese in Moravia. It is probable that Christianity penetrated into ...
Olympias, Saint

St. Olympias

Born 360-5; died 25 July, 408, probably at Nicomedia. This pious, charitable, and wealthy ...
Olympus

Olympus

A titular see of Lycia in Asia Minor. It was one of the chief cities of the "Corpus Lyciacum", ...
Omaha

Omaha

(OMAHENSIS) The Diocese embraces all that part of the State of Nebraska north of the southern ...
Ombus

Ombus

Titular see and suffragan of Ptolemais in Thebais Secunda. The city is located by Ptolemy (IV, ...
Omer, Saint

St. Omer

Born of a distinguished family towards the close of the sixth or the beginning of the seventh ...
Omission

Omission

(Latin omittere , to lay aside, to pass away). "Omission" is here taken to be the failure to ...
Omnipotence

Omnipotence

(Latin omnipotentia , from omnia and potens , able to do all things). Omnipotence is ...
Onias

Onias

( ’Onías ). Name of several Jewish pontiffs of the third and second centuries ...
Ontario

Ontario

Ontario, the most populous and wealthy province of Canada, has an area of 140,000,000 acres, ...
Ontologism

Ontologism

(from on, ontos , being, and logos , science) Ontologism is an ideological system which ...
Ontology

Ontology

( on, ontos , being, and logos , science, the science or philosophy of being). I. ...
Oostacker, Shrine of

Shrine of Oostacker

A miraculous shrine of the Blessed Virgin, and place of pilgrimage from Belgium, Holland, and ...
Opening Prayer (in the Mass)

Collect

The name now used only for short prayers before the Epistle in the Mass, which occur again at ...
Ophir

Ophir

Ophir, in the Bible , designates a people and a country. The people, for whom a Semitic ...
Oporto

Oporto

(Portucalensis) Diocese in Portugal ; comprising 26 civil concelhos of the districts of ...
Oppenordt, Gilles-Marie

Gilles-Marie Oppenordt

(Oppenord) Born in Paris, 1672; died there, 1742; a celebrated rococo artist, known as "the ...
Oppido Mamertina

Oppido Mamertina

Diocese ; suffragan of Reggio Calabria, Italy, famous for its prolonged resistance to Roger ...
Optatus, Saint

St. Optatus

Bishop of Milevis, in Numidia, in the fourth century. He was a convert, as we gather from St. ...
Optimism

Optimism

Optimism (Latin optimus , best) may be understood as a metaphysical theory, or as an emotional ...
Option, Right of

Right of Option

In canon law an option is a way of obtaining a benefice or a title, by the choice of the new ...
Oracle

Oracle

( oraculum; orare , to speak). A Divine communication given at a special place through ...
Oran

Oran

(ORANENSIS). Diocese in Algiers, separated from the Archdiocese of Algiers, 26 July, 1866, to ...
Orange Free State

Orange Free State

The Orange Free State, one of the four provinces of the Union of South Africa, lies between ...
Orange River

Orange River, South Africa

(also the PREFECTURE APOSTOLIC OF GREAT NAMAQUALAND) Located in South Africa. The vicariate was ...
Orange, Councils of

Councils of Orange

Two councils were held at Orange (Arausio), a town in the present department of Vaucluse in ...
Orans

Orans

(Orante) Among the subjects depicted in the art of the Roman catacombs one of those most ...
Orate Fratres

Orate Fratres

The exhortation (" Pray brethren that my sacrifice and yours be acceptable to God the Father ...
Oratorio

Oratorio

As at present understood, an Oratorio is a musical composition for solo voices, chorus, orchestra, ...
Oratory

Oratory

(Latin oratorium , from orare , to pray ) As a general term, Oratory signifies a place ...
Oratory of Saint Philip Neri, The

The Oratory of Saint Philip Neri

Under this head are included the Italian, Spanish, English, and other communities, which follow ...
Oratory, French Congregation of the

French Congregation of the Oratory

Founded in Paris at the beginning of the seventeenth century by Cardinal Pierre de ...
Orbellis, Nicolas d'

Nicolas d'Orbellis

Franciscan theologian and philosopher, Scotist ; born about 1400; died at Rome, 1475. He seems ...
Orcagna

Orcagna

(The conventional name in art history of A NDREA DI C IONE , also called A RCAGNUOLO or A ...
Orcistus

Orcistus

Titular see in Galatia Secunda. It is only mentioned in Peutinger's "Table". An inscription of ...
Ordeals

Ordeals

( Iudicium Dei ; Anglo-Saxon, ordâl ; German Urteil ). Ordeals were a means of ...
Ordericus Vitalis

Ordericus Vitalis

Historian, b. 1075; d. about 1143. He was the son of an English mother and a French priest who ...
Orders, Holy

Holy Orders

Order is the appropriate disposition of things equal and unequal, by giving each its proper place ...
Orders, The Military

The Military Orders

Including under this term every kind of brotherhood of knights, secular as well as religious, ...
Ordinariate

Ordinariate

(From Ordinary ). This term is used in speaking collectively of all the various organs ...
Ordinary

Ordinary

( Latin ordinarius , i. e., judex ) An Ordinary in ecclesiastical language, denotes any ...
Ordines Romani

Ordines Romani

The word Ordo commonly meant, in the Middle Ages, a ritual book containing directions for ...
Oregon

Oregon

One of the Pacific Coast States, seventh in size among the states of the Union (1910). It received ...
Oregon City

Oregon City

(OREGONOPOLITAN). Includes that part of the state of Oregon west of the Cascade Mountains, ...
Oremus

Oremus

Invitation to pray, said before collects and other short prayers and occurring continually in ...
Orense

Orense

(AURIENSIS) A suffragan of Compostela, includes nearly all of the civil Province of Orense, ...
Oresme, Nicole

Nicole Oresme

Philosopher, economist, mathematician, and physicist, one of the principal founders of modern ...
Organ

Organ

(Greek organon , "an instrument") A musical instrument which consists of one or several sets ...
Organic Articles, The

The Organic Articles

A name given to a law regulating public worship, comprising 77 articles relative to Catholicism, ...
Oria

Oria

(URITANA) Oria, in the Province of Lecce [now the Province of Brindisi -- Ed. ], Apulia, ...
Oriani, Barnaba

Barnaba Oriani

Italian Barnabite and astronomer, b. at Carignano, near Milan, 17 July, 1752; d. at Milan, 12 ...
Oriental Study and Research

Oriental Study and Research

In the broadest sense of the term, Oriental study comprises the scientific investigation and ...
Orientation of Churches

Orientation of Churches

According to Tertullian the Christians of his time were, by some who concerned themselves with ...
Orientius

Orientius

Christian Latin poet of the fifth century. He wrote an elegiac poem ( Commonitorium ) of 1036 ...
Oriflamme

Oriflamme

In verses 3093-5 of the "Chanson de Roland" (eleventh century) the oriflamme is mentioned as a ...
Origen and Origenism

Origen and Origenism

I. LIFE AND WORK OF ORIGEN A. BIOGRAPHY Origen, most modest of writers, hardly ever alludes to ...
Original Sin

Original Sin

I. Meaning II. Principal Adversaries III. Original Sin in ScriptureIV. Original Sin in ...
Orihuela

Orihuela

DIOCESE OF ORIHUELA (ORIOLENSIS, ORIOLANA). The Diocese of Orihuela comprises all the civil ...
Oriol, Saint Joseph

Saint Joseph Oriol

Priest, "Thaumaturgus of Barcelona", b. at Barcelona, 23 November, 1650; d. there, 23 March, ...
Oristano

Oristano

Diocese of Oristano (Arborensis) in Sardinia. Oristano was the capital of the giudicatura ...
Orkneys

Orkneys

A group of islands situated between 58° 41' and 59° 24' N. lat. and 2° 22' and 3° ...
Orléans

Orleans

(AURELIANUM) This Diocese comprises the Department of Loiret, suffragan of Paris since 1622, ...
Orléans, Councils of

Councils of Orleans

Six national councils were held at Orléans in the Merovingian period. I. — At the ...
Orlandini, Niccolò

Niccolo Orlandini

Born at Florence, 1554; died 1606 at Rome, 17 May. He entered the Jesuit novitiate 7 Nov., ...
Orley, Barent Van

Barent van Orley

(Bernard) Painter, b. at Brussels, about 1491; d. there 6 January, 1542. He studied under ...
Orme, Philibert de l'

Philibert de l'Orme

An architect, born about 1512; died 1570. His style, classical and of the more severe Italian ...
Oropus

Oropus

Titular see, suffragan of Anazarbus in Cilicia Secunda. It never really depended on Anazarbus ...
Orosius, Paulus

Paulus Orosius

Historian and Christian apologist ; b. probably at Bracara, now Braga, in Portugal, between 380 ...
Orphans and Orphanages

Orphans and Orphanages

The death of one or both parents makes the child of the very poor a ward of the community. The ...
Orsi, Giuseppe Agostino

Giuseppe Agostino Orsi

A cardinal, theologian, and ecclesiastical historian, born at Florence, 9 May, 1692, of an ...
Orsini

Orsini

One of the most ancient and distinguished families of the Roman nobility, whose members often ...
Orsisius

Orsisius

( Arsisios , Oresiesis-Heru-sa Ast) Egyptian monk of the fourth century; was a disciple ...
Ortelius, Abraham

Abraham Ortelius

(OERTEL) A cartographer, geographer, and archeologist, born in Antwerp, 4 April, 1527; died ...
Orthodox Church

Orthodox Church

The technical name for the body of Christians who use the Byzantine Rite in various languages ...
Orthodoxy

Orthodoxy

Orthodoxy ( orthodoxeia ) signifies right belief or purity of faith. Right belief is not ...
Orthodoxy, Feast of

Feast of Orthodoxy

(or SUNDAY) The first Sunday of the Great Forty days ( Lent ) in the Byzantine Calendar ...
Orthosias

Orthosias

A titular see of Phœnicia Prima, suffragan of Tyre. The city is mentioned for the first ...
Ortolano Ferrarese

Ortolano Ferrarese

Painter of the Ferrara School, b. in Ferrara, about 1490; d. about 1525. His real name was ...
Orval

Orval

(Aurea Vallis, Gueldenthal). Formerly a Cistercian abbey in Belgian Luxemburg, Diocese of ...
Orvieto

Orvieto

DIOCESE OF ORVIETO (URBEVETANA) Diocese in Central Italy. The city stands on a rugged mass of ...
Ory, Matthieu

Matthieu Ory

Inquisitor and theologian, b. at La Caune, 1492; d. at Paris, 1557. Entering the Dominican ...
Osaka

Osaka

(Osachensis). Osaka ( Oye , great river; saka , cliff), one of the three municipal ...
Osbald

Osbald

King of Northumbria, d. 799. Symeon of Durham (Historia Regum) tells us that when Ecfwald, a ...
Osbaldeston, Edward, Venerable

Ven. Edward Osbaldeston

English martyr, b. about 1560; hanged, drawn, and quartered at York, 16 November, 1594. Son of ...
Osbern

Osbern

Hagiographer, sometimes confused with Osbert de Clare alias Osbern de Westminster, b. at ...
Oscott (St. Mary's College)

Oscott (St. Mary's College)

In 1793, a number of the Catholic nobility and gentry of England formed a committee for the ...
Osee

Osee

NAME AND COUNTRY Osee (Hôsheá‘– Salvation ), son of Beeri, was one of ...
Osimo

Osimo

DIOCESE OF OSIMO (AUXIMANA). Diocese in the Province of Ascoli Piceno, Italy. Osimo was ...
Oslo, Ancient See of

Ancient See of Oslo

(ASLOIA, ASLOENSIS.) Oslo occupied part of the site of Christiania (founded 1624). After the ...
Osma

Osma

(OXOMENSIS) The Diocese borders Burgos and Logroño on the north, Soria and Saragossa ...
Osmund, Saint

St. Osmund

Bishop of Salisbury, died 1099; his feast is kept on 4 December. Osmund held an exalted ...
Osnabrück

Osnabrueck

(OSNABRUGENSIS) This diocese, directly subject to the Holy See, comprises, in the Prussian ...
Ossat, Arnaud d'

Arnaud d'Ossat

French cardinal, diplomat, and writer, b. at Larroque-Magnoac (Gascony), 20 July, 1537; d. at ...
Ossory, Diocese of

Ossory

(Ossoriensis.) In the Province of Leinster, Ireland, is bounded on the south by the Suir, on ...
Ostensorium

Ostensorium

(From ostendere , "to show"). Ostensorium means, in accordance with its etymology, a ...
Ostia and Velletri

Ostia and Velletri

SUBURBICARIAN DIOCESE OF OSTIA AND VELLETRI (OSTIENSIS ET VELITERNENSIS). Near Rome, central ...
Ostiensis

Ostiensis

Surname of LEO MARSICANUS, Benedictine chronicler, b. about 1045; d. 22 May, 1115, 1116, or ...
Ostracine

Ostracine

Titular see and suffragan of Pelusium in Augustamnica prima. Pliny (Hist. naturalis, V, xiv) ...
Ostraka, Christian

Christian Ostraka

Inscriptions on clay, wood, metal, and other hard materials. Like papyri, they are valuable ...
Ostrogoths

Ostrogoths

One of the two chief tribes of the Goths, a Germanic people. Their traditions relate that the ...
Oswald, Saint

St. Oswald

Archbishop of York, d. on 29 February, 992. Of Danish parentage, Oswald was brought up by his ...
Oswald, Saint

St. Oswald

King and martyr ; b., probably, 605; d. 5 Aug., 642; the second of seven brothers, sons of ...
Oswin, Saint

St. Oswin

King and martyr, murdered at Gilling, near Richmond, Yorkshire, England, on 20 August, 651, ...
Otfried of Weissenburg

Otfried of Weissenburg

He is the oldest German poet known by name, author of the "Evangelienbuch", a rhymed version of ...
Othlo

Othlo

(OTLOH) A Benedictine monk of St. Emmeran's, Ratisbon, born 1013 in the Diocese of ...
Othmar, Saint

St. Othmar

(Audomar.) Died 16 Nov., 759, on the island of Werd in the Rhine, near Echnez, Switzerland. ...
Otho, Marcus Salvius

Marcus Salvius Otho

Roman emperor, successor, after Galba, of Nero, b. in Rome, of an ancient Etruscan family ...
Otranto

Otranto

ARCHDIOCESE OF OTRANTO (HYDRUNTINA). Otranto is a city of the Province of Lecce, Apulia, ...
Ottawa, Archdiocese of

Ottawa

Archdiocese of Ottawa (Ottawiensis). The Archdiocese of Ottawa, in Canada, originally ...
Ottawa, University of

University of Ottawa

Conducted by the Oblates of Mary Immaculate ; founded in 1848. It was incorporated in 1849 under ...
Otto I, the Great

Otto I (The Great)

Roman emperor and German king, b. in 912; d. at Memleben, 7 May, 973; son of Henry I and his ...
Otto II

Otto II

King of the Germans and Emperor of Rome, son of Otto I and Adelaide, b. 955; d. in Rome, 7 ...
Otto III

Otto III

German king and Roman emperor, b. 980; d. at Paterno, 24 Jan., 1002. At the age of three he was ...
Otto IV

Otto IV

German king and Roman emperor, b. at Argentau (Dept. of Orne), c. 1182; d. 19 May, 1218; son of ...
Otto of Freising

Otto of Freising

Bishop and historian, b. between 1111 and 1114, d. at Morimond, Champagne, France, 22 ...
Otto of Passau

Otto of Passau

All we know of him is in the preface of his work, in which he calls himself a member of the ...
Otto of St. Blasien

Otto of Blasien

Chronicler, b. about the middle of the twelfth century; d. 23 July, 1223, at St. Blasien in the ...
Otto, Saint

Saint Otto

Bishop of Bamberg, b. about 1060; d. 30 June, 1139. He belonged to the noble, though not ...
Ottobeuren

Ottobeuren

(OTTOBURA, MONASTERIUM OTTOBURANUM) Formerly a Benedictine abbey, now a priory, near ...
Ouen, Saint

St. Ouen

(OWEN; DADON, Latin Audaenus ). Archbishop of Rouen, b. at Sancy, near Soissons about ...
Our Father, The

Lord's Prayer

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...
Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd

Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd

The aim of this institute is to provide a shelter for girls and women of dissolute habits, who ...
Our Lady of Good Counsel, Feast of

Feast of Our Lady of Good Counsel

Records dating from the reign of Paul II (1464-71) relate that the picture of Our Lady, at ...
Our Lady of Perpetual Help

Our Lady of Perpetual Succour (Our Lady of Perpetual Help)

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...
Our Lady of Perpetual Succour

Our Lady of Perpetual Succour (Our Lady of Perpetual Help)

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...
Our Lady of the Fields, Brothers of

Brothers of Our Lady of the Fields

A Canadian congregation founded in 1902 at St-Damien de Buckland in the Diocese of Quebec by ...
Our Lady of the Snow

Our Lady of the Snow

("Dedicatio Sanctæ Mariæ ad Nives"). A feast celebrated on 5 August to ...
Our Lady, Help of Christians, Feast of

Feast of Our Lady, Help of Christians

The invocation Auxilium Christianorum (Help of Christians ) originated in the sixteenth ...
Overbeck, Friedrich

Friedrich Overbeck

Convert and painter of religious subjects, b. at Lübeck, 3 July, 1789; d. at Rome, 12 ...
Overberg, Bernhard Heinrich

Bernhard Heinrich Overberg

A German ecclesiastic and educator, born 1 May, 1754; died 9 November, 1826. Of poor parents in ...
Overpopulation, Theories of

Overpopulation Theories

Down to the end of the eighteenth century, very little attention was given to the relation between ...
Oviedo

Oviedo

(OVETENSIS) This diocese comprises the civil province of the same name (the ancient Kingdom ...
Owen, Saint

St. Ouen

(OWEN; DADON, Latin Audaenus ). Archbishop of Rouen, b. at Sancy, near Soissons about ...
Owen, Saint Nicholas

St. Nicholas Owen

A Jesuit lay-brother, martyred in 1606. There is no record of his parentage, birthplace, date ...
Oxenford, John

John Oxenford

Dramatist, critic, translator, and song-writer, b. in London, 12 Aug., 1812; d. there 21 Feb., ...
Oxenham, Henry Nutcombe

Henry Nutcombe Oxenham

An English controversialist and poet, born at Harrow, 15 Nov., 1829; died at Kensington, 23 ...
Oxford

Oxford

Oxford, one of the most ancient cities in England, grew up under the shadow of a convent, said to ...
Oxford Movement, The

The Oxford Movement (1833-1845)

The Oxford Movement may be looked upon in two distinct lights. "The conception which lay at its ...
Oxford, University of

University of Oxford

I. ORIGIN AND HISTORY The most extraordinary myths have at various times prevailed as to the ...
Oxyrynchus

Oxyrynchus

Titular archdiocese of Heptanomos in Egypt. It was the capital of the district of its name, the ...
Ozanam, Antoine-Frédéric

Antoine-Frederic Ozanam

Great grand-nephew of Jacques Ozanam . Born at Milan, 23 April, 1813; died at Marseilles, 8 ...
Ozanam, Jacques

Jacques Ozanam

A French mathematician, born at Bouligneux (Ain), 1640; died in Paris, 3 April, 1717. He came of a ...
Ozias

Ozias

" Yahweh is my strength", name of six Israelites mentioned in the Bible . (1) Ozias, King ...
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