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Impanation

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An heretical doctrine according to which Christ is in the Eucharist through His human body substantially united with the substances of bread and wine, and thus is really present as God, made bread: Deus panis factus . As, in consequence of the Incarnation, the properties of the Divine Word can be ascribed to the man Christ, and the properties of the man Christ can be predicated of the Word ( communicatio idiomatum ), in the very same way, in consequence of the impanation — a word coined in imitation of incarnation — an interchange of predicates takes place between the Son of God and the substance of bread, though only through the mediation of the body of Christ. The doctrine of impanation agrees with the doctrine of consubstantiation, as it was taught by Luther, in these two essential points: it denies on the one hand the Transubstantiation of bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ, and on the other professes nevertheless the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist . Yet the doctrines differ essentially in so far as Luther asserted that the Body of Christ penetrated the unchanged substance of the bread but denied a hypostatic union. Orthodox Lutheranism expressed this so-called sacramental union between the Body of Christ and the substance of bread in the well-known formula: The Body of Christ is "in, with and under the bread" — in, cum et sub pane; really present, though only at the moment of its reception by the faithful — in usu, non extra usum . The theologians of the Reformed Churches, calling this doctrine, in their attack against the Lutherans, impanation , use the term not in the strict sense explained above, but in a wider meaning.

If we search for the historic origin of the term, we must go back to the controversies against the disciples of Berengarius of Tours at the end of the eleventh century. Guitmund of Aversa (died before 1195), in his work "De corporis et sanguinis Christi veritate in Eucharistiâ" (P. L., CXLIX, 1427 sqq.), distinguishes two classes of disciples of Berengarius ; those who absolutely deny the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist , and those who, though they admit that the Body and Blood of Christ are really ( reverâ ) present in the Eucharist, reject the doctrine of Transubstantiation and explain Christ's Real Presence by a kind of impanation ( Christum quodammodo impanari ). Guitmund thinks this to be the essence of Berengarius's doctrine ( hanc esse subtiliorem Berengarii sententiam ). This teaching, however rightly or wrongly attributed to Berengarius, evidently does not profess impanation in the strict sense of the term; it rather coincides with the above-mentioned doctrine of consubstantiation as taught by Luther. Alger of Liège (1131), in his work, "De sacramento corporis et sanguinis Christi", I, 6 (P. L., CLXXX, 439-845), without mentioning any definite names, points out and opposes the errors of some ( errantes quidam ) who say that " Christ's Person is impanated in the bread, just as God is incarnated in the human flesh" (dicunt ita personaliter in pane impanatum Christum sicut in came humanâ personaliter incarnatum Deum). He calls this a heresy, which ought to be utterly rooted out, because it is an absurd novelty ( quia nova et absurda ). Who was it that introduced this new heresy ? For a long time the well-known Abbot Rupert of Deutz (1135) was suspected. Cardinal Bellarmine (De Euch., III, xi, xv), Baronius (Ann. Eccl.: ad annum 1111, n. 49), Francisco Suárez, and Vasquez thought they could trace back the doctrine of impanation to him (cf. his work "De div. officiis", II, 2 and 9), and recently P. Rocholl ("Rupert v. Deutz", Gütersloh, 1886, 247 sqq.) repeated the same charge. Others, however, acquit him of this error, as Alexander Natalis, Tournély, and especially Gerberon in his "Apologia Ruperti Tuitiensis" (Paris, 1669); and, amongst modern writers of the history of dogmatic theology , J. Bach ("Dogmengeschichte des Mittelalters", I, Vienna, 1875, 412 sqq.) and Schwane ("Dogmengeschichte", III, Freiburg, 1882, 641). They seem to be right, for a critical examination of all the passages bearing on the subject shows that Rupert, though at times he used ambiguous expressions, nevertheless believed in the Transubstantiation of the substance of bread into the Body of Christ. However this be, it cannot now be decided whether Alger of Liège cited Rupert as an advocate of impanation, since it remains unknown whether Rupert had already published his ambiguous expression at the time when Alger wrote his attack.

With much better reason, John of Paris (died 1306) is considered the champion of the strict doctrine of impanation. In his work, "Determinatio de modo existendi corpus [ sic ] Christi in sacramento altaris alio quam sit ille quem tenet Ecclesia" (ed. Peter Alix, London, 1686), he tries, in conscious opposition to the Church, to establish, as plausible at least, the hypothesis that "the bread does not remain in its own suppositum , but is assumed through the Flesh or through the Body of Christ as a part of the esse and hypostasis of the Logos " (Ego dico panem ibi manere non in proprio supposito, sed tractum ad esse et suppositum Verbi, mediante carne aut corpore parte). Consequently, he maintains that it is correct to say: "The Body of Christ is 'impanated', i.e. has become bread" ( Corpus Christi impanatum, I. e. panis factum); still it cannot be said that "the Man or Christ has become bread" (sed hominem aut Christum non possumus dicere impanatum), an explanation which is certainly not too conspicuous for clearness and precision. Amongst the reformers, Andreas Osiander (died 1552), a fervent disciple of Luther, seems to have held the doctrine of impanation, though later Lutheran theologians have tried to acquit him of this error. It is, however, difficult to discern the real meaning of this fiery writer from his confused expressions. For this reason Melanchthon, in a letter of 22 March, 1538, to the pastor Vitus Theodorus in Nuremberg, merely expresses his suspicion that Osiander held the doctrine of impanation. Both Melanchthon and Luther were thoroughly opposed to this absurd opinion. And this for many reasons, but especially because they would have been obliged to adore in the strictest sense of the word ( cultu latriœ ) the bread hypostatically united with the Body of Christ, and this would have been in diametrical opposition to the Lutheran principles and practices of the Lord's Supper. Recently, Bayma, a Catholic theologian, in a series of theses proposed a theory on Transubstantiation, which, upon critical examination, comes very close to the above mentioned teaching of William of Paris ; in fact, it seems to explain the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist by impanation. He bases his theory on the proposition that the substance of bread, in consequence of the conversion, ceases to be substance, and that it receives a new subject, without undergoing interior change, having its support no longer in itself but in another suppositum (substantia panis desinit esse substantia eo solum, et absque aliâ sui mutatione, quod in alio supernaturaliter sustentatur, ita ut jam non in se sit, sed in alio ut in primo subjecto). Consequently it is the Body of Christ that supports the nature of the bread ( Corpus Christi sustentat naturam panis). Of this hypothesis, which denies a real Transubstantiation entirely, or admits it only nominally, the Holy Office justly declared: tolerari non posse (7 July, 1875 — cf. Denzinger, "Enchiridion", 1843-46, 10th ed., Freiburg, 1908). The doctrine of impanation as far as it denies the Transubstantiation of bread and wine is certainly a heresy ; besides, it is also against reason, since a hypostatic union between the Word of God Incarnate, or the God-man Christ, and the dead substances of bread and wine is inconceivable. Much less conceivable is such a union if we presuppose Transubstantiation, for since the substance of bread no longer exists it cannot enter into a hypostatic union with Christ.

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Iona, School of

School of Iona

Iona is the modern name derived by change of letter from Adamnan's Ioua ; in Bede it is Hii ...
Ionian Islands

Ionian Islands

A group of seven islands (whence the name Heptanesus, by which they are also designated) and a ...
Ionian School of Philosophy

Ionian School of Philosophy

The Ionian School includes the earliest Greek philosophers, who lived at Miletus, an Ionian ...
Ionopolis

Ionopolis

A titular see in the province of Paphlagonia, suffragan of Gangres. The city was founded by a ...
Iowa

Iowa

Iowa is one of the North Central States of the American Union, and is about midway between the ...
Ipolyi, Arnold

Arnold Ipolyi

( Family name originally STUMMER) Bishop of Grosswardein (Nagy-Várad), b. at ...
Ippolito Galantini, Blessed

Bl. Ippolito Galantini

Founder of the Congregation of Christian Doctrine of Florence; b. at Florence of obscure ...
Ipsus

Ipsus

A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris, suffragan of Synnada. The locality was famous as the scene ...
Ireland

Ireland

GEOGRAPHY Ireland lies in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain, from which it is separated ...
Ireland, Ven. William

Ven. William Ireland

( Alias Ironmonger.) Jesuit martyr, born in Lincolnshire, 1636; executed at Tyburn, 24 Jan. ...
Irenaeus, Saint

St. Irenaeus

Bishop of Lyons, and Father of the Church. Information as to his life is scarce, and in some ...
Irene, Sister

Sister Irene (Catherine Fitzgibbon)

(Catherine FitzGibbon.) Born in London, England, 12 May, 1823; died in New York, 14 August, ...
Irenopolis

Irenopolis

A titular see of Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia. Five of its bishops are known: John (325), ...
Iriarte, Ignacio de

Ignacio de Iriarte

Painter, b. at Azcoitia, Guipuzcoa, in 1620; d. at Seville, 1685. Iriarte was the son of Esteban ...
Irish College, in Rome

Irish College, in Rome

Towards the close of the sixteenth century, Gregory XIII had sanctioned the foundation of an ...
Irish Colleges, on the Continent

Irish Colleges on the Continent

The religious persecution under Elizabeth and James I lead to the suppression of the monastic ...
Irish Confessors and Martyrs

Irish Confessors and Martyrs

General survey The period covered by this article embraces that between the years 1540 and ...
Irish Literature

Irish Literature

It is uncertain at what period and in what manner the Irish discovered the use of letters. It may ...
Irish, The, (in countries other than Ireland)

The Irish (In Countries Other Than Ireland)

I. IN THE UNITED STATES Who were the first Irish to land on the American continent and the ...
Irnerius

Irnerius

(GARNERIUS) An Italian jurist and founder of the School of Glossators, b. at Bologna about ...
Iroquois

Iroquois

A noted confederacy of five, and afterwards six, cognate tribes of Iroquoian stock, and closely ...
Irregularity

Irregularity

(Latin in , not, and regula , rule, i. e. not according to rule) A canonical impediment ...
Irremovability

Irremovability

( Latin in , not, and removere , to remove) A quality of certain ecclesiastical ...
Irvingites

Irvingites

A religious sect called after Edward Irving (1792-1834), a deposed Presbyterian minister. They ...
Isaac

Isaac

The son of Abraham and Sara. The incidents of his life are told in Genesis 15-35, in a ...
Isaac Jogues, Saint

St. Isaac Jogues

French missionary, born at Orléans, France, 10 January, 1607; martyred at Ossernenon, ...
Isaac of Armenia

Isaac of Armenia

(SAHAK) Catholicos or Patriarch of Armenia (338-439), otherwise known as ISAAC THE GREAT ...
Isaac of Nineveh

Isaac of Nineveh

A Nestorian bishop of that city in the latter half of the seventh century, being consecrated ...
Isaac of Seleucia

Isaac of Seleucia

Patriarch of the Persian Church, d. 410. Isaac is celebrated among the patriarchs of the ...
Isabel of France, Saint

St. Isabel of France

Daughter of Louis VIII and of his wife, Blanche of Castille, born in March, 1225; died at ...
Isabella I

Isabella I

("LA CATÓLICA" = "THE CATHOLIC") Queen of Castile ; born in the town of Madrigal de ...
Isaias

Isaias

Among the writers whom the Hebrew Bible styles the "Latter Prophets" foremost stands "Isaias, the ...
Isaura

Isaura

Titular see in the Province of Lycaonia, suffragan of Iconium. Isaura, the capital of the ...
Ischia

Ischia

Diocese of Ischia (Isclana). Ischia, suffragan to Naples, has for its territory the island of ...
Isernia and Venafro

Isernia and Venafro

(Diocese of Isernia and Venafro). Isernia is a city in the province of Campobasso in Molise ...
Ishmael

Ismael (Ishmael)

(Septuagint 'Ismaél ; Vulgate Ismahel, in 1 Chronicles 1:28, 20, 31 ). The son of ...
Isidore of Pelusium, Saint

St. Isidore of Pelusium

Born at Alexandria in the latter half of the fourth century; d. not later than 449-50. He is ...
Isidore of Seville, Saint

St. Isidore of Seville

Born at Cartagena, Spain, about 560; died 4 April, 636. Isidore was the son of Severianus and ...
Isidore of Thessalonica

Isidore of Thessalonica

Cardinal and sometime Metropolitan of Kiev or Moscow, b. at Thessalonica (Saloniki) towards ...
Isidore the Labourer, Saint

St. Isidore the Labourer

A Spanish daylabourer; b. near Madrid, about the year 1070; d. 15 May, 1130, at the same place. ...
Isionda

Isionda

A titular see in the province of Pamphylia Secunda; it was a suffragan of Perge. Artemidorus, ...
Isla, José Francisco de

Jose Francisco de Isla

Spanish preacher and satirist, b. at Villavidantes (Kingdom of Leon ), 24 March, 1703; d. at ...
Islam (Concept)

Islam (Concept)

Islam , an Arabic word which, since Mohammed's time, has acquired a religious and technical ...
Islam (Religion)

Mohammed and Mohammedanism (Islam)

I. THE FOUNDER Mohammed, "the Praised One", the prophet of Islam and the founder of ...
Isleta Pueblo

Isleta Pueblo

The name of two pueblos of the ancient Tigua tribe, of remote Shoshoncan stock. The older and ...
Islip, Simon

Simon Islip

An Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Islip, near Oxford; d. at Mayfield, Sussex, 26 April, 1366. ...
Ismael

Ismael (Ishmael)

(Septuagint 'Ismaél ; Vulgate Ismahel, in 1 Chronicles 1:28, 20, 31 ). The son of ...
Ispahan

Ispahan

A Catholic Armenian Latin see. Under the name of Aspandana it was once one of the principal towns ...
Israelites

Israel

The word designates the descendants of the Patriarch Jacob, or Israel. It corresponds to the ...
Issachar

Issachar

The exact derivation and the precise meaning of the name are unknown. It designates, first, the ...
Issus

Issus

A titular see of Cilicia Prima, suffragan of Tarsus. The city is famous for a whole series of ...
Ita, Saint

St. Ita

Saint Ita, called the "Brigid of Munster"; b. in the present County of Waterford, about 475; d. 15 ...
Italian Literature

Italian Literature

Origins and Development The modern language of Italy is naturally derived from Latin, a ...
Italians in the United States

Italians in the United States

Christopher Columbus, an Italian, was the leader of those who in succeeding centuries were led by ...
Italo-Greeks

Italo-Greeks

The name applied to the Greeks in Italy who observe the Byzantine Rite. They embrace three ...
Italy

Italy

In ancient times Italy had several other names: it was called Saturnia, in honour of Saturn; ...
Ite Missa Est

Ite Missa Est

This is the versicle chanted in the Roman Rite by the deacon at the end of Mass, after the ...
Itineraria

Itineraria

(MEDIEVAL CHRISTIAN GUIDE-BOOKS: Latin iter , gen. itineris , journey) Under this term are ...
Itinerarium

Itinerarium

A form of prayer used by monks and clerics before setting out on a journey, and for that ...
Ittenbach, Franz

Franz Ittenbach

Historical painter ; born at Königswinter, at the foot of the Drachenfels, in 1813; died at ...
Ives, Levi Silliman

Levi Silliman Ives

Born at Meriden, Connecticut, U.S.A. 16 September, 1797; d. at New York, 13 October, 1867. He ...
Ives, Saint

St. Ives (Yves)

(St. Yves) St. Ives, born at Kermartin, near Tréguier, Brittany, 17 October, 1253; died ...
Ivo of Chartres, Saint

ST. IVO (YVES) OF CHARTRES

(YVO, YVES). One of the most notable bishops of France at the time of the Investiture ...
Ivory

Ivory

Ivory (French ivoire ; Italian avorio ; Latin ebur ), dentine, the tusks of the elephant, ...
Ivrea, Diocese of

Ivrea

Suffragan of Turin, Northern Italy. The city is situated on the right bank of the Dora Baltea ...
Ixtlilxochitl, Fernando de Alba

Fernando de Alba Ixtlilxochitl

Born 1568; died 1648. The most illustrious of the native Mexican historians and the great-grandson ...

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