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Johann Baptist von Hirscher

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Born 20 January, 1788, at Alt-Ergarten, Ravensburg; died 4 September, 1865. He studied at Weissenau monastery school, the lyceum of Constance, and the University of Freiburg. Ordained priest in 1810, he was for two years curate at Röhlingen; in 1812 he became a tutor in the theological faculty of Ellwangen ; and in 1814 assistant professor of philosophy at the Ellwangen lyceum. In 1817 he was elected to the chair of moral and pastoral theology in Tübingen University, where he remained twenty years. In 1837 he became professor of moral theology and catechetics at the University of Freiburg in the Breisgau, where, for a quarter of a century, he exerted a very great influence. He was made a canon in 1839, and dean of the chapter in 1850; after 1847 he was often sent as delegate of the university to the First Chamber of the Grand Duchy of Baden. His advanced age forced him to cease teaching in the summer of 1863.

Hirscher exerted a great influence in the domain of moral theology, homiletics, and catechetics. His book on Christian morality, published in 1835, ran through five editions. He defined Christian morality as the scientific doctrine of the effective return of man to the Divine filiation through the merits of Christ. In the earlier editions some of the expressions and opinions of Hirscher, owing to the influence of the day, were deserving of censure; be corrected them by degrees and Kleutgen admits that the last editions are perfectly orthodox. The book marked a reaction against rationalistic morality. Hirscher, always eager to dwell on religious truth, closely traced the moral act to a religious origin and a religious end, and he detested virtue that did not proceed from faith. Though not satisfactory from the point of view of confessors, Hirscher's work, as his apologist Hettinger says, had a salutary effect, and Hettinger himself made use of it to bring an unbeliever to the light of faith.

In homiletics, also, Hirscher's books marked a reaction against the half-rationalistic books of meditation written by the Swiss Zschokke, which were then widely read. Hirscher drew a distinction between false Aufklärung , which is purely negative and confined to combating superstition, and true Aufklärung , which is based on the Gospel. He published commentaries on the Gospels of Lent (1829), on the Gospels of each Sunday (1837), and on the Epistles of each Sunday. To this field of Hirscher's activity belong his "Geschichte Jesu Christi, des Sohnes Gottes und Weitheilandes" (1839); his "Erörterungen über die grossen religiösen Fragen der Gegenwart" (1846), which led to the development of Hettinger's vocation as an apologist ; his "Leben der seligsten Jungfrau und Gottesmutter Maria" (1854); his "Hauptstücke des christlichen Glaubens" (1857).

His work on cateehetics, published in 1840, was followed, in 1842, by a catechism, which was introduced into the Diocese of Freiburg and gave rise to lively discussions. To defend his catechism, Hirscher published "Zur Verständigung über den von mir bearbeiteten und demnächst erscheinenden Katechismus der christkatholischen Religion" (1842), and "Nachträge zur Verständigung" (1843). When eighty years of age, he published a brochure entitled "Besorgnisse hinsichtlich der Zweckmässigkeit unseres Religionsunterrichtes" (1863). He regarded the catechism as the history of the Kingdom of God. The first two books treat of God, the Creation, and the Redemption ; the next three, of the individualization of the Kingdom of God in souls and of its coming within and without us, that is to say, of justification, sanctification, and the Church ; the sixth book treats of the Kingdom of God in the other life. Kleutgen criticized Hirscher for insisting too exclusively on the work of education that God works within us, and neglecting to emphasize the gratuitous creation of the new man by grace. However, such as it was, Hirscher's catechetical work, with Alban Stolz's commentaries on it, helped to advance the teaching of religion in Germany.

Hirscher's ideas on the reform of the Church were more complex and open to suspicion. As a young man he had written a work on the Mass entitled "De genuina missæ notione", in which the idea of the sacrifice was relegated to the background, and which was put on the Index. Later he was blamed for never having formally retracted the book; he answered that at least he had held quite orthodox theories concerning the Mass in his later writings. Nevertheless a number of Catholics were not reassured, and when in 1842 and the following years there was question of appointing Hirscher coadjutor of Freiburg, the historian Hurter and his friend, Baron de Rinck, raised a cry of alarm. The "Schweizerische Kirchenzeitung" and the "Revue Sion" accused Hirscher of being an enemy of Rome and everything Roman, of dreaming of a German national Church, of opposing celibacy, the Breviary, and ecclesiastical discipline with regard to mixed marriages, of preventing the Freiburg theological review from attacking his benefactor Wessenberg, of being the friend of the Baden Liberals. Hirscher replied in the "Revue Sion" (30 November, 1842), and Schleyer, dean of the University of Freiburg, defended him in his book "Hirscher und seine Ankläger". But Rinck continued to write to the effect that if Hirscher were accepted as bishop there would be a worse schism than that of Ronge, and when the Government of Würtemberg wanted to have Hirscher appointed coadjutor to the aged Bishop Keller, Rome refused. These suspicions were confirmed by the pamphlets Hirscher published in 1849, on the social condition of the present day and the Church, "Die socialen Zustände der Gegenwart", and on the present state of religion, "Die kirchlichen Zustände der Gegenwart". These brochures created a profound sensation, for in them Hirscher showed himself hostile to the Catholic Associations' movement, which gave birth to the first general Congress of the German Catholics at Mains, in 1848; he feared that the movement might lead to imprudent demonstrations by the Catholics. He preferred lay associations to be undenominational, and favoured a synodal organization in which the laity would be represented, and which should be periodically convened by the bishops and presided over by them.

Finally he showed himself opposed to the preaching of missions in villages. Several of the bishops were aroused, and attention was drawn to the opinions in Hirscher's pamphlets that had been condemned already by Pius VI in his Constitution "Auctorem fidei". The canonist Phillips, the future Bishop Fessler, and Fathers Amberger of Ratisbon and Heinrich of Mainz, refuted Hirscher. He was condemned by the Congregation of the Index, and submitted with sincerity, for which Hettinger praises him; but he defended himself against his adversaries in another brochure. In 1854 Hirscher was hostile to the definition of the Immaculate Conception, though he was not opposed to the dogma itself; in 1862 after collaborating with Döllinger in drawing up the programme of the famous congress of Catholic scientists to be held at Munich, the following year, he quietly withdrew, judging that the time was not ripe for such a meeting. In the First Chamber of the Baden Diet Hirscher fought vigorously for the liberties of the Church. In 1848 he proposed a motion that the grand duke should be asked to employ "every means to preserve genuine Christianity, active and living, among all classes of society, especially among the young". In 1850 he asked that the grand duke should attend to the wants of the Church, and that he should grant without delay the establishment of three or four petits séminaires , where future clerics should be trained during the time of their gymnasium studies. In November, 1853, he drew up the address by which the chapter of Freiburg allied itself with Archbishop Vicari in his struggle against the bureaucracy of the State, and defended Vicari in his brochure, "Zur Orientirung über den derzeitigen Kirchenstreit" (1854).

Hirscher was an excellent priest whom many of his contemporaries, according to the testimony of Canon Lennig, venerated as a patriarch, and for whom Mgr. Orbin, who died Archbishop of Freiburg, had a real devotion. He aroused some to enthusiasm: the celebrated publicist, Alban Stolz, who did so much towards the Catholic revival in Germany, collaborated with Hirscher, with whom he spent an evening each week, and on one occasion wrote a vehement letter to a bishop who had forbidden his theologians to study at Freiburg, for fear of their falling under the influence of Hirscher; he asserted even that at first he had placed the writings of Hirscher above those of the Fathers. Hirscher's misfortune was to have known too little of Christian antiquity and especially of the Middle Ages. What he criticized under the name of Scholasticism in his pamphlet of 1823, on the relations of the Gospels with Scholastic theology, were formulæ of a handbook more impregnated with the philosophy of Wolf than with that of St. Thomas. Finally, the sometimes too bitter attacks of which he was the object prevented the diffusion of certain of his ideas which would have been dangerous; but, on the other hand, his zeal as a catechist, his exalted piety, his personal influence, the purity of his intentions, the ardour he displayed in his defence of Vicari, the part he played in the religious awakening in Baden, recognized by the "Historisch-politische BIätter" in 1854, won for Hirscher the gratitude of German Catholics.

More Volume: J 331

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Jáuregui, Juan de

Juan de Jauregui

A Spanish painter and poet, born at Seville c. 1570, or, according to some, as late as 1583; ...
Jíbaro Indians

Jibaro Indians

Jíbaro (Spanish orthography) "forest man", i.e. native. An important tribal group of ...
Jörg, Joseph Edmund

Joseph Edmund Jorg

Historian and politician, b. 23 Dec., 1819 at Immenstadt (Ahgau); d. at Landshut, 18 Nov., 1901. ...
Jaén

Jaen

(GIENNENSIS) Diocese in Southern Spain. The city of Jaén, capital of the province of ...
Jaca, Diocese of

Jaca

( Also JACCA; Latin JACCENSIS). Located in the Spanish province of Huesca. Jaca, the chief ...
Jackson, Henry Moore

Henry Moore Jackson

Knight, born in Grenada, 1849; died in London, 29 August, 1908. The youngest son of the Anglican ...
Jacob

Jacob

The son of Isaac and Rebecca, third great patriarch of the chosen people, and the immediate ...
Jacob of Jüterbogk

Jacob of Juterbogk

(In the world BENEDICT STOLZENHAGEN). Theologian and canonist, born of poor parents near ...
Jacobus de Teramo

Jacobus de Teramo

(AB ANCHARANO), belonging to the family of Palladini, canonist and bishop, born in 1349 at ...
Jacopo de Voragine, Blessed

Bl. Jacopo de Voragine (Di Viraggio)

( Also DI VIRAGGIO). Archbishop of Genoa and medieval hagiologist, born at Viraggio (now ...
Jacopone da Todi

Jacopone Da Todi

(Properly called JACOPO BENEDICTI or BENEDETTI). Franciscan poet, born at Todi in the first ...
Jacotot, Joseph

Joseph Jacotot

French educator, b. at Dijon, March, 1770; d. at Paris, 30 July, 1840. He studied in the college ...
Jacques de Vitry

Jacques de Vitry

Historian of the crusades, cardinal Bishop of Acre, later of Tusculum, b. at Vitry-sur-Seine, ...
Jacquier, François

Francois Jacquier

French mathematician and physicist, born at Vitry-le-Francois, 7 June, 1711; died at Rome, 3 ...
Jaenbert

Jaenbert

(Jaenberht, Janbriht, Janibert, Jambert, Lambert, Lanbriht, Genegberht.) Thirteenth ...
Jaffa

Jaffa

A titular see in the Patriarchate of Jerusalem. The city of Jaffa is very ancient. Even before ...
Jaffna, Diocese of

Jaffna

(JAFFNENSIS.) Situated in the northern portion of Ceylon, Jaffna comprises the northern and ...
Jainism

Jainism

A form of religion intermediate between Brahminism and Buddhism, originated in India in ...
Jamaica

Jamaica

The largest of the British West Indian islands, is situated in the Caribbean Sea, between latitude ...
Jamay, Denis

Denis Jamay

Franciscan, missionary, date and place of birth unknown; died in France, 1625; an important ...
James of Brescia

James of Brescia

Theologian of the fifteenth century. He entered the Dominican Order at Brescia, his native ...
James of Edessa

James of Edessa

A celebrated Syrian writer, b. most likely in A.D. 633; d. 5 June, 708. He was a native of the ...
James of Sarugh

James of Sarugh

A writer of the Syrian Church "the flute of the Holy Spirit and the harp of the believing ...
James of the Marches, Saint

St. James of the Marches

Franciscan, b. of a poor family named Gangala, at Monteprandone, Italy, 1391; d. at Naples, 28 ...
James Primadicci

James Primadicci

(Or Primadizzi.) Born at Bologna; died in the same city in 1460. As early as the year 1426 he ...
James the Greater, Saint

St. James the Greater

( Hebrew Yakob ; Septuagint Iakob ; N.T. Greek Iakobos ; a favourite name among the later ...
James the Less, Saint

St. James the Less

THE IDENTITY OF JAMES The name "James" in the New Testament is borne by several: James, the ...
James Thompson, Blessed

Bl. James Thompson

(Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...
James, Epistle of Saint

Epistle of St. James

The questions concerning this epistle are treated in the following order: I. Author and ...
Janauschek, Leopold

Leopold Janauschek

Cistercian, born at Brünn, Moravia, 13 October, 1827; died 23 July, 1898, at Baden, near ...
Jandel, Alexandre Vincent

Alexandre Vincent Jandel

General of the Dominican order, born at Gerbevilliers (Lorraine), 18 July, 1810; died at Rome, ...
Jane Frances de Chantal, Saint

St. Jane Frances de Chantal

Born at Dijon, France, 28 January, 1572; died at the Visitation Convent Moulins, 13 December, ...
Janner, Ferdinand

Ferdinand Janner

Theologian, born at Hirschau, in the Upper Palatinate (Bavaria), 4 Feb., 1836; died 1 November, ...
Janow, Matthew of

Matthew of Janow

A medieval ecclesiastical author, born in the fourteenth century in Bohemia ; died at ...
Jansen, Cornelius

Cornelius Jansen, the Elder

( Also Jansens, Janssen, Janssenius or Jansenius Gandaviensis). Exegete, born at Hulst, ...
Jansenius and Jansenism

Jansenius and Jansenism

Cornelius Jansen, Bishop of Ypres ( Cornelius Jansenius Yprensis ), from whom Jansenism derives ...
Janssen, Arnold

Arnold Janssen

Founder and first superior-general of the Society of the Divine Word, b. at Goch in the Rhine ...
Janssen, Johann

Johann Janssen

Historian, born 10 April, 1829, at Kanten, Germany ; died 24 December, 1891, at ...
Janssens, Abraham

Abraham Janssens

Flemish painter, b. at Antwerp about 1573; d. probably in the same place about 1631. He is also ...
Janssens, Johann Hermann

Johann Hermann

Catholic theologian, b. at Maeseyck, Belgium, 7 Dec., 1783; d. at Engis, 23 May, 1853. After ...
Januarius, Saint

St. Januarius

Martyr, Bishop of Beneventum. St. Januarius is believed to have suffered in the ...
Japan

Japan

AREA AND POPULATION Japan, called in the language of the country Nihon or Nippon (Land of the ...
Japanese Martyrs

Japanese Martyrs

There is not in the whole history of the Church a single people who can offer to the ...
Jarcke, Karl Ernst

Karl Ernst Jarcke

Born 10 November, 1801, at Danzig, Prussia ; died 27 December, 1852, at Vienna. He belonged to a ...
Jaricot, Pauline-Marie

Pauline-Marie Jaricot

Foundress of the Society of the Propagation of the Faith and the Association of the Living ...
Jarlath, Saint

St. Jarlath

Patron of the Archdiocese of Tuam , born in Connaught about 445; died 26 December, ( al. , 11 ...
Jaro

Jaro

Diocese in the Philippine Islands, formerly a part of the Diocese of Cebú, was made a ...
Jarric, Pierre de

Pierre de Jarric

Missionary writer, born at Toulouse in 1566; d. at Saintes, 2 March, 1617. He entered the ...
Jason

Jason

A Greek name adopted by many Jews whose Hebrew designation was Joshua (Jesus). In the Old ...
Jassus

Jassus

A titular see of Caria, and suffragan of Aphrodisias. The city was founded by colonists from ...
Jassy

Jassy

(Jassiensis). Diocese in Rumania. The town of Jassy stands in a very fertile plain on the ...
Javouhey, Venerable Anne-Marie

Ven. Anne-Marie Javouhey

Foundress of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny, born at Chamblanc, Diocese of Dijon, 11 ...
Jealousy

Jealousy

Jealousy is here taken to be synonymous with envy. It is defined to be a sorrow which one ...
Jean de La Bruyère

Jean de la Bruyere

Born at Paris in 1645; died at Chantilly in 1696. He was the son of a comptroller general of ...
Jean Eudes, Blessed

Blessed Jean Eudes

French missionary and founder of the Eudists and of the Congregation of Our Lady of Charity; ...
Jean-Baptiste-Marie Vianney, Saint

St. John Vianney

Curé of Ars, born at Dardilly, near Lyons, France, on 8 May, 1786; died at Ars, 4 ...
Jean-Gabriel Perboyre, Blessed

St. Jean-Gabriel Perboyre

Missionary and martyr, born at Puech, Diocese of Cahors, France, 6 January, 1802; martyred at ...
Jeanne de Valois, Saint

St. Jeanne de Valois

Queen and foundress of the Order of the Annonciades, b. 1464; d. at Bourges, 4 Feb., 1505. ...
Jeaurat, Edmond

Edmond Jeaurat

(EDME JEAURAT) French engraver, b. at Vermenton, near Auxerre, 1688; d. at Paris, 1738. He ...
Jedburgh

Jedburgh

(Eighty-two different spellings of the name are given in the "Origines Parochiales Scotiæ"). ...
Jehoshaphat

Josaphat

( Hebrew for " Yahweh hath judged"; Septuagint 'Iosaphát ). Fourth King of Juda ...
Jehoshaphat, Valley of

Valley of Josaphat

(JEHOSHAPHAT). Mentioned in only one passage of the Bible ( Joel 3 -- Hebrew text, 4). In ...
Jehovah

Jehovah (Yahweh)

The proper name of God in the Old Testament ; hence the Jews called it the name by ...
Jehu

Jehu

The derivation of the name is uncertain. By some it is translated " Yahweh is he". I. J EHU ...
Jemez Pueblo

Jemez Pueblo

An Indian pueblo situated upon the north bank of the river of the same name about twenty miles ...
Jeningen, Venerable Philipp

Ven. Philipp Jeningen

Born at Eichstätt, Bavaria, 5 January, 1642;d, at Ellwangen, 8 February, 1704. Entering the ...
Jenks, Silvester

Silvester Jenks

Theologian, born in Shropshire, c. 1656; died in December, 1714. He was educated at Douai ...
Jennings, Sir Patrick Alfred

Sir Patrick Alfred Jennings

An Australian statesman, b. at Newry, Ireland, 1831; d. July, 1897. He received his education, ...
Jephte

Jephte

One of the judges of Israel. The story of Jephte is narrated in chapters xi and xii of the Book ...
Jeremias

Jeremias

[Hebrew Irmeyah; often in the paragogic form Irmeyahu, especially in the Book of ...
Jeremias the Prophet

Jeremias

( THE P ROPHET .) Jeremias lived at the close of the seventh and in the first part of the ...
Jericho

Jericho

Three cities of this name have successively occupied sites in the same neighbourhood. I. A ...
Jeroboam

Jeroboam

(Septuagint `Ieroboám ), name of two Israelitish kings. (1) J EROBOAM I was the ...
Jerome Emiliani, Saint

St. Jerome Emiliani

Founder of the Order of Somascha; b. at Venice, 1481; d. at Somascha, 8 Feb., 1537; feast, 20 ...
Jerome, Saint

St. Jerome

Born at Stridon, a town on the confines of Dalmatia and Pannonia, about the year 340-2; died at ...
Jerusalem (71-1099)

Jerusalem (A.D. 71-1099)

I. TO THE TIME OF CONSTANTINE (71-312) When Titus took Jerusalem (April-September, A.D. 70) he ...
Jerusalem (After 1291)

Jerusalem (After 1291)

(1) Political History The Latin dominion over Jerusalem really came to an end on 2 October, ...
Jerusalem (Before A.D. 71)

Jerusalem (Before A.D. 71)

This article treats of the "City of God", the political and religious centre of the People of ...
Jerusalem, Assizes of

Assizes of Jerusalem

The signification of the word assizes in this connection is derived from the French verb ...
Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom of (1099-1291)

Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem

The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was founded as a result of the First Crusade, in 1099. Destroyed ...
Jerusalem, Liturgy of

Liturgy of Jerusalem

The Rite of Jerusalem is that of Antioch. That is to say, the Liturgy that became famous as ...
Jesi

Jesi

(ÆSINA) Diocese in the Province of Ancona, Italy, immediately subject to the Holy ...
Jesu Dulcis Memoria

Jesu Dulcis Memoria

A poem ranging from forty two to fifty three stanzas (in various manuscripts ), to form the three ...
Jesuit Apologetic

Jesuit Apologetic

The accusations brought against the Society have been exceptional for their frequency and ...
Jesuit Generals Prior to the Suppression

Jesuit Generals Prior To the Suppression (1541-1773)

(1) St. Ignatius Loyola (19 April 1541-31 July, 1556). The society spread rapidly, and at the ...
Jesuit's Bark

Jesuit's Bark

(C HINA B ARK ; C INCHONA ; C ORTEX C HINÆ ; P ERUVIAN B ARK ). Jesuit's ...
Jesuits, Distinguished

Distinguished Jesuits

Saints Ignatius Loyola ; Francis Xavier ; Francis Borgia ; Stanislaus Kostka; Alfonso ...
Jesuits, History of the (1773-1814)

History of the Jesuits (1773-1814)

The execution of the Brief of Suppression having been largely left to local bishops, there was ...
Jesuits, History of the (1814-1912)

The Restored Jesuits (1814-1912)

Pius VII had resolved to restore the Society during his captivity in France ; and after his ...
Jesuits, History of the (pre-1750)

Pre-1773 History of the Jesuits

Italy The history of the Jesuits in Italy was generally very peaceful. The only serious ...
Jesuits, Suppression of the (1750-1773)

The Suppression of the Jesuits (1770-1773)

The Suppression is the most difficult part of the history of the Society. Having enjoyed very high ...
Jesuits, The

The Jesuits (The Society of Jesus)

(Company of Jesus, Jesuits) See also DISTINGUISHED JESUITS , JESUIT APOLOGETIC, EARLY JESUIT ...
Jesus and Mary, Sisters of the Holy Childhood of

Sisters of the Holy Childhood of Jesus and Mary

(1) A congregation founded in 1835 in the Diocese of Fréjus, for the education of girls ...
Jesus Christ

Jesus Christ

Origin of the Name of Jesus In this article, we shall consider the two words -- "Jesus" and ...
Jesus Christ, Character of

Character of Jesus Christ

The surpassing eminence of the character of Jesus has been acknowledged by men of the most ...
Jesus Christ, Chronology of the Life of

Chronology of the Life of Jesus Christ

In the following paragraphs we shall endeavour to establish the absolute and relative chronology ...
Jesus Christ, Devotion to the Heart of

Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus

The treatment of this subject is divided into two parts: I. Doctrinal Explanations;II. Historical ...
Jesus Christ, Early Historical Documents on

Early Historical Documents On Jesus Christ

The historical documents referring to Christ's life and work may be divided into three classes: ...
Jesus Christ, Genealogy of

Genealogy of Christ

It is granted on all sides that the Biblical genealogy of Christ implies a number of exegetical ...
Jesus Christ, Holy Name of

Holy Name of Jesus

We give honour to the Name of Jesus, not because we believe that there is any intrinsic power ...
Jesus Christ, Knowledge of

Knowledge of Jesus Christ

" Knowledge of Jesus Christ," as used in this article, does not mean a summary of what we know ...
Jesus Christ, Origin of the Name of

The Name of Jesus Christ

In this article, we shall consider the two words which compose the Sacred Name. JESUS The word ...
Jesus Christ, Resurrection of

Resurrection of Jesus Christ

Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life. In this article, we shall ...
Jesus Mary, Religious of

Religious of Jesus Mary

The Congregation of the Religious of Jesus Mary was founded at Lyons, France, in October, 1818, by ...
Jesus, Daughters of

Daughters of Jesus

Founded at Kermaria, in the Diocese of Vannes , France, in 1834, for the care of the sick poor, ...
Jesus, The Society of

The Jesuits (The Society of Jesus)

(Company of Jesus, Jesuits) See also DISTINGUISHED JESUITS , JESUIT APOLOGETIC, EARLY JESUIT ...
Jewish Calendar

Jewish Calendar

Days From the remotest time to the present the Israelites have computed the day ( yôm ...
Jewish Tribe

Jewish Tribe

( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...
Jews (as a Religion)

Judaism

At the present day, the term designates the religious communion which survived the destruction of ...
Jews, History of the

History of the Jews

( Yehúd`m; Ioudaismos ). Of the two terms, Jews and Judaism , the former denotes ...
Jezabel

Jezabel

( Septuagint, 'Iezabél, ). Wife of Achab, King of Israel. She was the daughter of ...
Joachim of Flora

Joachim of Flora

Cistercian abbot and mystic; b. at Celico, near Cosenza, Italy, c. 1132; d. at San Giovanni in ...
Joachim, Saint

St. Joachim

Joachim (whose name means Yahweh prepares ), was the father of the Blessed Virgin Mary. If we ...
Joan of Arc, Saint

St. Joan of Arc

In French Jeanne d'Arc ; by her contemporaries commonly known as la Pucelle (the Maid). ...
Joan, Popess

Pope Joan

The fable about a female pope, who afterwards bore the name of Johanna (Joan), is first noticed ...
Joanna of Portugal, Blessed

Bl. Joanna of Portugal

Born at Lisbon, 16 February, 1452; died at Aveiro, 12 may, 1490; the daughter of Alfonso V, King ...
Joannes de Sacrobosco

Joannes de Sacrobosco

(John Holywood), a monk of English origin, lived in the first half of the thirteenth century as ...
Job

Job

One of the books of the Old Testament , and the chief personage in it. In this article it is ...
Jocelin

Jocelin

Cistercian monk and Bishop of Glasgow ; d. at Melrose Abbey in 1199. On 22 April, 1170, ...
Jocelin de Brakelond

Jocelin de Brakelond

An English chronicler, of the late twelfth century. He was the monk of Bury St. Edmund's ...
Jocelin of Wells

Jocelin of Wells

(Or JOSCELINE) Bishop of Bath and Wells (JOCELINUS THOTEMAN), d. 19 Nov., 1242. He was ...
Joel

Joel

The son of Phatuel, and second in the list of the twelve Minor Prophets. Nothing is known of his ...
Joest, Jan

Jan Joest

(V AN K ALKAR ). Otherwise JAN JOOST VAN CALCKER. Dutch painter, b. at Calcker, or ...
Jogues, Saint Isaac

St. Isaac Jogues

French missionary, born at Orléans, France, 10 January, 1607; martyred at Ossernenon, ...
John and Cyrus, Saints

Sts. Cyrus and John

Celebrated martyrs of the Coptic Church, surnamed thaumatourgoi anargyroi because they healed ...
John and Paul, Saints

Sts. John and Paul

Martyred at Rome on 26 June. The year of their martyrdom is uncertain according to their ...
John Baptist de la Salle, Saint

St. John Baptist de la Salle

Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools , educational reformer, and ...
John Baptist de Rossi, Saint

John Baptist de Rossi

(De Rubeis). Born at Voltaggio in the Diocese of Genoa, 22 February, 1698; died at Rome, 23 ...
John Beche, Blessed

John Beche

( Alias THOMAS MARSHALL). English Benedictine abbot and martyr ; date of birth unknown; ...
John Berchmans, Saint

St. John Berchmans

Born at Diest in Brabant, 13 March, 1599; died at Rome, 13 August, 1621. His parents watched ...
John Bosco, Saint

St. John Bosco (Don Bosco)

( Or St. John Bosco; Don Bosco.) Founder of the Salesian Society. Born of poor parents in ...
John Boste, Saint

St. John Boste

(Or JOHN BOAST.) Priest and martyr, b. of good Catholic family at Dufton, in Westmoreland, ...
John Britton, Venerable

Ven. John Britton

(Or Bretton). A layman and martyr, of all ancient family of Bretton near Barnsley in ...
John Buckley, Venerable

Ven. John Buckley

( Alias John Jones; alias John Griffith; in religion, Godfrey Maurice). Priest and martyr, ...
John Cantius, Saint

St. John Cantius

Born at Kenty, near Oswiecim, Diocese of Krakow, Poland, 1412 (or 1403); died at Krakow, 1473, ...
John Capistran, Saint

St. John Capistran

Born at Capistrano, in the Diocese of Sulmona, Italy, 1385; died 23 October, 1456. His father had ...
John Chrysostom, Saint

St. John Chrysostom

( Chrysostomos , "golden-mouthed" so called on account of his eloquence). Doctor of the ...
John Climacus, Saint

St. John Climacus

Also surnamed SCHOLASTICUS, and THE SINAITA, b. doubtlessly in Syria, about 525; d. on Mount ...
John Colombini, Blessed

Bl. John Colombini

Founder of the Congregation of Jesuati; b. at Siena, Upper Italy, about 1300; d. on the way to ...
John Cornelius and Companions, Venerable

Ven. John Cornelius and Companions

John Cornelius (called also Mohun) was born of Irish parents at Bodmin, in Cornwall, on the ...
John Damascene, Saint

Saint John Damascene

Born at Damascus, about 676; died some time between 754 and 787. The only extant life of the ...
John de Britto, Blessed

St. John de Britto

Martyr ; born in Lisbon, 1 March, 1647, and was brought up in court; martyred in India 11 ...
John Felton, Blessed

Bl. John Felton

Martyr, date and place of birth unknown, was executed in St. Paul's Churchyard, London, 8 ...
John Fisher, Saint

St. John Fisher

Cardinal, Bishop of Rochester, and martyr ; born at Beverley, Yorkshire, England, 1459 ...
John Forest, Blessed

Bl. John Forest

Born in 1471, presumably at Oxford, where his surname was then not unknown; suffered 22 May, ...
John Francis Regis, Saint

St. John Francis Regis

Born 31 January, 1597, in the village of Fontcouverte (department of Aude); died at la Louvesc, 30 ...
John Hambley, Venerable

Ven. John Hambley

English martyr (suffered 1587), born and educated in Cornwall, and converted by reading one ...
John I, Pope Saint

Pope St. John I

Died at Ravenna on 18 or 19 May (according to the most popular calculation), 526. A Tuscan by ...
John II, Pope

Pope John II

(533-535). The date of the birth of this pope is not known. He was a Roman and the son of ...
John III, Pope

Pope John III

(561-574). A Roman surnamed Catelinus, d. 13 July, 574. He was of a distinguished family, ...
John Ingram, Venerable

Ven. John Ingram

English martyr, born at Stoke Edith, Herefordshire, in 1565; executed at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 26 ...
John IV, Pope

Pope John IV

(640-642). A native of Dalmatia, and the son of the scholasticus (advocate) Venantius. The ...
John IX, Pope

Pope John IX

(898-900). Not only is the date of John's birth unknown, but the date of his election as ...
John Joseph of the Cross, Saint

St. John Joseph of the Cross

Born on the Island of Ischia, Southern Italy, 1654; d. 5 March, 1739. From his earliest years ...
John Larke, Blessed

Bl. John Larke

English martyr ; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1543-4. He was rector of St. Ethelburga's ...
John Malalas

John Malalas

A Monophysite Byzantine chronicler of the sixth century, born at Antioch where he spent most if ...
John Nelson, Blessed

Blessed John Nelson

English Jesuit martyr, b. at Skelton, four miles from York, in 1534; d. at Tyburn, 3 February, ...
John Nepomucene, Saint

St. John Nepomucene

Born at Nepomuk about 1340; died 20 March, 1393. The controversy concerning the identity of John ...
John of Antioch

John of Antioch

There are four persons commonly known by this name. I John, Patriarch of Antioch ...
John of Avila, Blessed

Bl. John of Avila

Apostolic preacher of Andalusia and author, b. at Almodóvar del Campo, a small town in ...
John of Beverley, Saint

Saint John of Beverley

Bishop of Hexham and afterwards of York; b. at Harpham, in the East Riding of Yorkshire; d. at ...
John of Biclaro

John of Biclaro

(Johannes Biclariensis.) Chronicler, born in Portugal, probably about the middle of the sixth ...
John of Cornwall

John of Cornwall

(JOHANNES CORNUBIENSIS, JOHANNES DE SANCTO GERMANO). John of Cornwall lived about 1176. He was ...
John of Ephesus

John of Ephesus

(Also known as JOHN OF ASIA). The earliest, and a very famous, Syriac historian. He was born ...
John of Fécamp

John of Fecamp

(Also known as JEANNELIN on account of his diminutive stature). Ascetic writer, b. near Ravenna ...
John of Falkenberg

John of Falkenberg

Author, b. at Falkenberg, Pomerania, Prussia, date unknown; d. about 1418 in Italy &151; ...
John of Fermo, Blessed

Blessed John of Fermo

More often called JOHN OF LA VERNA, from his long sojourn on that holy mountain, b. at Fermo ...
John of Genoa

John of Genoa

(Often called Balbi, or de Balbis.) Grammarian; born at Genoa, date unknown; died there ...
John of God, Saint

St. John of God

Born at Montemor o Novo, Portugal, 8 March, 1495, of devout Christian parents ; died at ...
John of Hauteville

John of Hauteville

Moralist and satirical poet of the twelfth century (flourished about 1184). Little is known of his ...
John of Janduno

John of Janduno

An Averroistic philosopher, theologian, and political writer of the fourteenth century. John of ...
John of Montecorvino

John of Montecorvino

A Franciscan and founder of the Catholic mission in China, b. at Montecorvino in Southern ...
John of Montesono

John of Montesono

Theologian and controversialist, born at Monzón, Spain ; dates of birth and death ...
John of Nikiû

John of Nikiu

An Egyptian chronicler who flourished in the latter part of the seventh century. The little we ...
John of Paris

John of Paris

( Called also Quidort and de Soardis). Theologian and controversialist; born at Paris, ...
John of Parma, Blessed

Blessed John of Parma

Minister General of the Friars Minor (1247-1257), b. at Parma about 1209; d. at Camerino 19 ...
John of Ragusa

John of Ragusa

(Sometimes confounded with John of Segovia ). A Dominican theologian, president of the ...
John of Roquetaillade (de Rupescissa)

John of Roquetaillade (De Rupescissa)

Franciscan alchemist, date of birth unknown; d. probably at Avignon, 1362. After pursuing the ...
John of Rupella

John of Rupella

Franciscan theologian, b. at La Rochelle (Rupella), towards the end of the twelfth century; d. ...
John of Sahagun, Saint

Saint John of Sahagun

Hermit, b. 1419, at Sahagún (or San Fagondez) in the Kingdom of Leon, in Spain ; d. 11 ...
John of Saint Thomas

John of St. Thomas

(Family name John Poinsot), theologian, born at Lisbon, 9 June, 1589; died at Fraga, Spain, 17 ...
John of Salisbury

John of Salisbury

(JOHANNES DE SARESBERIA, surnamed PARVUS). Born about 1115; died 1180; a distinguished ...
John of Segovia

John of Segovia

A Spanish theologian, b. at Segovia towards the end of the fourteenth century; d. probably in ...
John of the Cross, Saint

St. John of the Cross

Founder (with St. Teresa) of the Discalced Carmelites, doctor of mystic theology, b. at ...
John of Victring

John of Victring

(JOHANNES VICTORENSIS or DE VICTORIA). Chronicler, b. probably between 1270 and 1280; d. at ...
John of Winterthur

John of Winterthur

(Johannes Vitoduranus.) Historian, born about 1300 at Winterthur (Switzerland); died ...
John Parvus

John Parvus

Called in his day, JEHAN PETIT or LE PETIT. A French theologian and professor in the ...
John Payne, Blessed

Bl. John Payne

Born in the Diocese of Peterborough ; died at Chelmsford, 2 April, 1582. He went to Douai in ...
John Rigby, Saint

St. John Rigby

English martyr ; b. about 1570 at Harrocks Hall, Eccleston, Lancashire; executed at St. Thomas ...
John Roberts, Saint

St. John Roberts

First Prior of St. Gregory's, Douai (now Downside Abbey ), b. 1575-6; martyred 10 ...
John Rochester, Blessed

Bl. John Rochester

Priest and martyr, born probably at Terling, Essex, England, about 1498; died at York, 11 May, ...
John Sarkander, Blessed

Bl. John Sarkander

Martyr of the seal of confession, born at Skotschau in Austrian Silesia, 20 Dec., 1576; died at ...
John Scholasticus

John Scholasticus

( ho Scholastikos ; also called J OHN OF A NTIOCH ) Patriarch of Constantinople (J OHN ...
John Shert, Blessed

Bl. John Shert

A native of Cheshire; took the degree of B.A. at Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1566. Successively ...
John Stone, Blessed

Bl. John Stone

English martyr, executed at the Dane-John, Canterbury, probably in December, 1539, for denying ...
John Story, Blessed

Bl. John Story

( Or Storey.) Martyr ; born 1504; died at Tyburn, 1 June, 1571. He was educated at ...
John Talaia

John Talaia

Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria (481-482) at the time of the Monophysite troubles. He had ...
John the Almsgiver, Saint

St. John the Almsgiver

(JOANNES ELEEMOSYNARIUS; JOANNES MISERICORS). Patriarch of Alexandria (606-16), b. at Amathus ...
John the Baptist, Saint

St. John the Baptist

The principal sources of information concerning the life and ministry of St. John the Baptist are ...
John the Deacon

John the Deacon

(J OHANNES D IACONUS ). Among the writers of the Middle Ages who bear this name, four ...
John the Evangelist, Saint

St. John the Evangelist

I. New Testament Accounts II. The Alleged Presbyter John III. The Later Accounts of John IV. Feasts ...
John the Faster

John the Faster

( ‘o nesteutés, jejunator ) Patriarch of Constantinople (John IV, 582-595), ...
John the Silent, Saint

John the Silent

(Hesychastes, Silentiarius). Bishop of Colonia, in Armenia, b. at Nicopolis, Armenia, 8 ...
John Twenge, Saint

St. John Twenge

Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...
John V, Pope

Pope John V

(685-686). A Syrian whose father was one Cyriacus; when he was born is not known; d. 2 ...
John VI, Pope

Pope John VI

(701-705). A Greek, the date of whose birth is unknown; d. 11 January, 705. He ascended the ...
John VII, Pope

Pope John VII

(705-707). The year of his birth is unknown; d. 18 October, 707. Few particulars of his life ...
John VIII, Pope

Pope John VIII

(Reigned 872-82) A Roman and the son of Gundus. He seems to have been born in the first ...
John X, Pope

Pope John X

Born at Tossignano, Romagna; enthroned, 914; died at Rome, 928. First a deacon, he became ...
John XI, Pope

Pope John XI

Date of birth unknown, became pope in 931; d. 936. He was the son of Marozia by her first ...
John XII, Pope

Pope John XII

Date of birth unknown; reigned 955-64. The younger Alberic, after the downfall of his mother, ...
John XIII, Pope

Pope John XIII

Date of birth unknown; enthroned on 1 Oct., 965; d. 6 Sept., 972. After the death of John XII ...
John XIV, Pope

Pope John XIV

Date of birth unknown; d. 984. After the death of Benedict VII, Bishop Peter Campanora of Pavia, ...
John XIX (XX), Pope

Pope John XIX (XX)

Enthroned in 1024; d. 1032. After the death of the last patricius of the House of Crescentius, ...
John XV (XVI), Pope

Pope John XV (XVI)

Enthroned 985; d. April, 996. After John XIV had been removed by force, the usurper, Boniface ...
John XVI (XVII)

Antipope John XVI (XVII)

Antipope 997-998; d. probably in 1013. After the death of John XV, Bruno, a relative of Otto ...
John XVII (XVIII), Pope

Pope John XVII (XVIII)

Date of birth unknown; d. 6 Nov., 1003. When Sylvester II died on 12 May, 1003, there was no ...
John XVIII (XIX), Pope

Pope John XVIII (XIX)

Successor of John XVII, consecrated Christmas, 1003; d. June, 1009. He was the son of a Roman ...
John XXI (XX), Pope

Pope John XXI (XX)

Born at Lisbon between 1210 and 1220; enthroned, 1276; died at Viterbo, 20 May, 1277. The son ...
John XXII, Pope

Pope John XXII

(JACQUES D'EUSE) Born at Cahors in 1249; enthroned, 5 September, 1316; died at Avignon, 4 ...
John XXIII

Antipope John XXIII

Antipope of the Pisan party (1400-15), b. about 1370; d. 22 November, 1419. Cardinal Baldassare ...
John, Epistles of

Epistles of Saint John

Three canonical books of the New Testament written by the Apostle St. John. The subject will ...
John, Gospel of

Gospel of Saint John

This subject will be considered under the following heads: I. Contents and Scheme of the ...
Johnson, Blessed Robert

Bl. Robert Johnson

Born in Shropshire, entered the German College, Rome, 1 October, 1571. Ordained priest at ...
Johnson, Blessed Thomas

Bl. Thomas Johnson

Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...
Johnson, Lionel Pigot

Lionel Pigot Johnson

Born at Broadstairs on the Kentish coast, 15 Mar., 1867; died 4 Oct., 1902. He was the youngest ...
Johnston, Richard Malcolm

Richard Malcolm Johnston

Educator, author, b. 8 March, 1822, at Powellton, Georgia, U.S.A.; d. at Baltimore, Maryland, 23 ...
Joinville, Jean, Sire de

Jean, Sire de Joinville

Seneschal of Champagne, historian, b. in 1225; d. at Joinville, 1317. His family held an ...
Joliet, Louis

Louis Joliet

(Or JOLLIET). Louis Joliet, a discoverer and the son of a wagon-maker, was born at Quebec, ...
Joliette

Joliette

(JOLIETTENSIS). Diocese created by Pius X , 27 January, 1904 by division of the Archdiocese ...
Jolly, Philipp Johann Gustav von

Philipp Johann Gustav von Jolly

German physicist, born at Mannheim, 26 September, 1809; died at Munich, 24 December, 1884. His ...
Jonas

Jonah

The fifth of the Minor Prophets. The name is usually taken to mean "dove", but in view of the ...
Jonas of Bobbio

Jonas of Bobbio

(Or Jonas of Susa ) Monk and hagiographer, b. about the close of the sixth century at ...
Jonas of Orléans

Jonas of Orleans

Bishop and ecclesiastical writer, born in Aquitaine; died in 843 or 844. From 818, when he ...
Jonathan

Jonathan

(Hebrew, " Yahweh hath given", cf. Theodore; Septuagint 'Ionáthan .) Name of several ...
Jones, Inigo

Inigo Jones

A famous English architect, b. 15 July, 1573, in London ; d. 21 June, 1652, and was buried in ...
Jones, Venerable Edward

Ven. Edward Jones

Priest and martyr, b. in the Diocese of St. Asaph, Wales, date unknown; d. in London, 6 May ...
Jordan, The

The Jordan

(In Hebrew Yâdên, from the root Yârâd, to descend). The difference ...
Jordanis

Jordanis (Jornandes)

Historian, lived about the middle of the sixth century in the Eastern Roman Empire. His family ...
Jordanus of Giano

Jordanus of Giano

(DE JANO). Italian Minorite, b. at Giano in the Valley of Spoleto, c. 1195; d. after 1262. ...
Jornandes

Jordanis (Jornandes)

Historian, lived about the middle of the sixth century in the Eastern Roman Empire. His family ...
Josaphat

Josaphat

( Hebrew for " Yahweh hath judged"; Septuagint 'Iosaphát ). Fourth King of Juda ...
Josaphat and Barlaam

Barlaam and Josaphat

The principal characters of a legend of Christian antiquity, which was a favourite subject of ...
Josaphat Kuncevyc, Saint

St. Josaphat Kuncevyc

Martyr, born in the little town of Volodymyr in Lithuania (Volyn) in 1580 or -- according to ...
Josaphat, Valley of

Valley of Josaphat

(JEHOSHAPHAT). Mentioned in only one passage of the Bible ( Joel 3 -- Hebrew text, 4). In ...
Joseph

Joseph

The eleventh son of Jacob, the firstborn of Rachel, and the immediate ancestor of the tribes ...
Joseph Calasanctius of the Mother of God, Pious Workers of Saint

Pious Workers of St. Joseph Calasanctius

Founded at Vienna, 24 November, 1889, by Father Anton Maria Schwartz for all works of charity, ...
Joseph Calasanctius, Saint

St. Joseph Calasanctius

Called in religion "a Matre Dei", founder of the Piarists, b. 11 Sept., 1556, at the castle of ...
Joseph II

Joseph II

(1741-90). German Emperor (reigned 1765-90), of the House of Hapsburg-Lorraine, son and ...
Joseph of Arimathea

Joseph of Arimathea

All that is known for certain concerning him is derived from the canonical Gospels. He was born ...
Joseph of Cupertino, Saint

St. Joseph of Cupertino

Mystic, born 17 June, 1603; died at Osimo 18 September, 1663; feast, 18 September. Joseph ...
Joseph of Exeter

Joseph of Exeter

(JOSEPHUS ISCANUS.) A twelfth-century Latin poet; b. at Exeter, England. About 1180 he went ...
Joseph of Issachar

Joseph of Issachar

A man of the tribe of Issachar, and the father of Igal who was one of the spies sent by Moses ...
Joseph of Leonessa, Saint

St. Joseph of Leonessa

In the world named Eufranio Desiderio; born in 1556 at Leonessa in Umbria; died 4 February, ...
Joseph's Society for Colored Missions, Saint

St. Joseph's Society For Colored Missions

This organization began its labours in 1871, when four young priests from Mill Hill were put in ...
Joseph's Society for Foreign Missions, Saint

St. Joseph's Society For Foreign Missions

(Mill Hill, London, N.W.) A society of priests and laymen whose object is to labour for ...
Joseph, Saint

St. Joseph

Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary and foster-father of Our Lord Jesus Christ . LIFE Sources ...
Joseph, Sisters of Saint

Sisters of Saint Joseph

CONGREGATION OF THE SISTERS OF ST. JOSEPH Founded at Le Puy, in Velay, France, by the Rev. ...
Josephites

Josephites

(Sons of St. Joseph) A congregation devoted to the Christian education of youth, founded in ...
Josephus, Flavius

Flavius Josephus

Jewish historian, born A.D. 37, at Jerusalem ; died about 101. He belonged to a distinguished ...
Joshua

Josue (Joshua)

The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books. ( ...
Josias

Josias

(J OSIAH – Hebrew for " Yahweh supports"; Septuagint 'Iosías ). A pious ...
Josue

Josue (Joshua)

The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books. ( ...
Joubert, Joseph

Joseph Joubert

French philosopher ; b. at Martignac (Dordogne), 7 May, 1754, d. at Villeneuve-le-Roi (Yonne), 4 ...
Jouffroy, Claude-François-Dorothée de

Claude-Francois-Dorothee de Jouffroy

M ARQUIS d' A BBANS . Mechanician, b. at Abbans, near Besançon, 30 Sept., 1751; d. ...
Jouffroy, Jean de

Jean de Jouffroy

French prelate and statesman; b. at Luxeuil (Franche-Comté) about 1412; d. at the priory ...
Jouin, Louis

Louis Jouin

Linguist, philosopher, author, b. at Berlin, 14 June, 1818, d. at New York, 10 June, 1899. He ...
Jouvancy, Joseph de

Joseph de Jouvancy

(JOSEPHUS JUVENCIUS). Poet, pedagogue, philologist, and historian, b. at Paris, 14 September, ...
Jouvenet, Jean

Jean Jouvenet

Surnamed T HE G REAT . French painter, b. at Rouen in 1644, d. at Paris, 5 April, 1717. ...
Jovellanos, Gaspar Melchor de

Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos

(Also written JOVE-LLANOS). Spanish statesman and man of letters, at Gijon, Asturias, 5 Jan., ...
Jovianus, Flavius Claudius

Flavius Claudius Jovianus

Roman Emperor, 363-4. After the death of Julian the Apostate (26 June, 363), the army making ...
Jovinianus

Jovianus

An opponent of Christian asceticism in the fourth century, condemned as a heretic (390). Our ...
Jovius, Paulus

Paulus Jovius

(GIOVIO). Historian, b. at Como, Italy, 9 April, 1483, d. at Florence, 11 Dec., 1552. Having ...
Joyeuse, Henri, Duc de

Henri, Duc de Joyeuse

Born in 1563 and not, as is mistakenly stated in the "Biographic Michaud ", in 1567; died at ...
Juan Bautista de Toledo

Juan Bautista de Toledo

An eminent Spanish sculptor and architect; b. at Madrid (date not known); d. there 19 May, ...
Jubilate Sunday

Jubilate Sunday

The third Sunday after Easter, being so named from the first word of the Introit at Mass ...
Jubilee, Holy Year of

Holy Year of Jubilee

The ultimate derivation of the word jubilee is disputed, but it is most probable that the ...
Jubilee, Year of (Hebrew)

Year of Jubilee (Hebrew)

According to the Pentateuchal legislation contained in Leviticus, a Jubilee year is the year that ...
Jubilees, Book of

Book of Jubilees

( ta Iobelaia ). An apocryphal writing, so called from the fact that the narratives and ...
Juda

Juda

The name of one of the Patriarchs, the name of the tribe reputed to be descended from him, the ...
Judaism

Judaism

At the present day, the term designates the religious communion which survived the destruction of ...
Judaizers

Judaizers

(From Greek Ioudaizo , to adopt Jewish customs -- Esther 8:17 ; Galatians 2:14 ). A ...
Judas Iscariot

Judas Iscariot

The Apostle who betrayed his Divine Master . The name Judas ( Ioudas ) is the Greek form of ...
Judas Machabeus

Judas Machabeus

Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the ...
Judde, Claude

Claude Judde

French preacher and spiritual father; born at Rouen, about 20 December, 1661; died at Paris, ...
Jude, Epistle of Saint

Epistle of Saint Jude

The present subject will be treated under the following heads: I. The Author and the ...
Judea

Judea

Like the adjective Ioudaios , the noun Ioudaia comes from the Aramæan Iehûdai ...
Judge, Ecclesiastical

Ecclesiastical Judge

(J UDEX E CCLESIASTICUS ) An ecclesiastical person who possesses ecclesiastical ...
Judges, The Book of

Judges

The seventh book of the Old Testament , second of the Early Prophets of the Hebrew canon. I. ...
Judgment, Divine

Divine Judgment

This subject will be treated under two heads: I. Divine Judgment Subjectively and Objectively ...
Judgment, General

General Judgment (Last Judgment)

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...
Judgment, Last

General Judgment (Last Judgment)

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...
Judgment, Particular

Particular Judgment

A. Dogma of Particular Judgment The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that ...
Judica Sunday

Judica Sunday

Name given to the fifth Sunday of Lent, and derived from the first words of the Introit of ...
Judith, Book of

Book of Judith

HISTORY Nabuchodonosor, King of Nineveh, sends his general Holofernes to subdue the Jews. The ...
Julia Billiart, Saint

Saint Julie Billiart

( Also Julia). Foundress, and first superior-general of the Congregation of the Sisters of ...
Julian and Basilissa, Saints

Saints Julian and Basilissa

Husband and wife; died at Antioch or, more probably, at Antinoe, in the reign of Diocletian, ...
Julian of Eclanum

Julian of Eclanum

Born about 386; died in Sicily, 454; the most learned among the leaders of the Pelagian ...
Julian of Speyer

Julian of Speyer

Often called J ULIANUS T EUTONICUS . A famous composer, poet, and historian of the ...
Julian the Apostate

Julian the Apostate

(FLAVIUS CLAUDIUS JULIANUS). Roman emperor 361-63, b. at Constantinople in 331, d. 26 June, ...
Juliana Falconieri, Saint

St. Juliana Falconieri

Born in 1270; died 12 June, 1341. Juliana belonged to the noble Florentine family of Falconieri. ...
Juliana of Liège, Saint

St. Juliana of Liege

Nun, b. at Retinnes, near Liège, Belgium, 1193; d. at Fosses, 5 April, 1258. At the age ...
Juliana of Norwich

Juliana of Norwich

English mystic of the fourteenth century, author or recipient of the vision contained in the book ...
Juliana, Saint

St. Juliana

Suffered martyrdom during the Diocletian persecution. Both the Latin and Greek Churches mention ...
Julie Billiart, Saint

Saint Julie Billiart

( Also Julia). Foundress, and first superior-general of the Congregation of the Sisters of ...
Juliopolis

Juliopolis

Titular see in the province of Bithynia Secunda, suffragan of Nicaea. The city was founded under ...
Julitta and Quiricus

Sts. Quiricus and Julitta

Martyred under Diocletian. The names of these two martyrs, who in the early Church enjoyed a ...
Julius Africanus

Julius Africanus

(c. 160-c. 240; the full name is Sextus Iulius Africanus, Greek Sextos Ioulios Aphrikanos ). ...
Julius I, Pope Saint

Pope Saint Julius I

(337-352). The immediate successor of Pope Silvester, Arcus, ruled the Roman Church for ...
Julius II, Pope

Pope Julius II

(GIULIANO DELLA ROVERE). Born on 5 December, 1443, at Albissola near Savona; crowned on 28 ...
Julius III, Pope

Julius III

(GIAMMARIA CIOCCHI DEL MONTE). Born at Rome, 10 September, 1487; died there, 23 March, 1555. ...
Jumièges, Abbey of

Benedictine Abbey of Jumieges

Jumièges, situated on the north bank of the Seine, between Duclair and Caudebec, in ...
Junípero Serra

Junipero Serra

Born at Petra, Island of Majorca, 24 November, 1713; died at Monterey, California, 28 August, ...
Jungmann, Bernard

Bernard Jungmann

A dogmatic theologian and ecclesiastical historian, born at Münster in Westphalia, 1 ...
Jungmann, Josef

Josef Jungmann

Born 12 Nov., 1830, at Münster, Westphalia ; died at Innsbruck, 25 Nov., 1885. In 1850 he ...
Jurisdiction, Ecclesiastical

Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction

The right to guide and rule the Church of God. The subject is here treated under the following ...
Jus Spolii

Jus Spolii

(RIGHT OF SPOIL; also called JUS EXUVIARUM and RAPITE CAPITE) Jus Spolii, a claim, exercised in ...
Jussieu, De

De Jussieu

Name of five French botanists. (1) ANTOINE DE JUSSIEU, physician and botanist, b. at Lyons, ...
Juste

Juste

The name conventionally applied to a family of Italian sculptors, whose real name was Betti, ...
Justice

Justice

Justice is here taken in its ordinary and proper sense to signify the most important of the ...
Justification

Justification

(Latin justificatio ; Greek dikaiosis .) A biblio-ecclesiastical term; which denotes the ...
Justin de Jacobis, Blessed

Blessed Justin de Jacobis

Vicar Apostolic of Abyssinia and titular Bishop of Nilopolis, h. at San Fele, Province of ...
Justin Martyr, Saint

St. Justin Martyr

Christian apologist, born at Flavia Neapolis, about A.D. 100, converted to Christianity about ...
Justina and Cyprian, Saints

Sts. Cyprian and Justina

Christians of Antioch who suffered martyrdom during the persecution of Diocletian at ...
Justinian I

Justinian I

Roman Emperor (527-65) Flavius Anicius Julianus Justinianus was born about 483 at Tauresium ...
Justiniani, Benedetto

Benedetto Justiniani

(GIUSTINIANI). Theological and Biblical writer, born at Genoa, about the year 1550; died at ...
Justiniani, Nicholas

Nicholas Justiniani

Date of birth unknown, became monk in the Benedictine monastery of San Niccoló del Lido ...
Justinianopolis

Justinianopolis

A titular see of Armenia Prima, suffragan of Sebaste. This see is better known in history ...
Justus, Saint

St. Justus

Fourth Archbishop of Canterbury ; died 627 (?). For the particulars of his life we are almost ...
Juvencus, C. Vettius Aquilinus

Juvencus

Christian Latin poet of the fourth century. Of his life we know only what St. Jerome tells us ...
Juvenile Courts

Juvenile Courts

Tribunals for the trial of children charged with crimes or offences. The maximum age is usually ...

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