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University of Graz

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The University of Graz, located in the capital of the Province of Steiermark, owes its establishment to the Counter-Reformation and the efforts of Archduke Karl von Steiermark, who, in 1584, requested Pope Gregory XIII to grant autonomous university privileges to the Jesuit college of Graz, which had been founded in 1578 and was already possessed of a theological and philosophical school. The documents of the archducal foundation and of papal recognition are dated 1 January, 158R The latter, however, was not made publie until 15 April, 1586, the occasion being the dedication exercises of the institution as a university, and it bore the signature of the new pope, Sixtus V. The letter of recognition of Emperor Rudolf II followed soon after. The archduke endowed the seat of learning with a yearly income and set aside for its benefit a certain proportion of the products yielded by Government lands. The papal Bull directed the Jesuit priests in charge to give public instruction in theology, philosophy, and the liberal arts, as was customary in other advanced schools of a similar character. The first scholastic year of the university began in 1586.

Subsequent to the Counter-Reformation, Archduke Ferdinand signed on behalf of the institution which his father had created a second document of foundation, in which he confirmed its purpose as set forth in the original decree, declaring it to be "the service of the Holy Roman Catholic Religion", and placed it on a solid material basis. He enriched it with new buildings and presented it with the revenues and full ecclesiastical supremacy of Mühlstatt, in Carinthia, and of other estates of the Crown, including the right of independent jurisdiction and exemption from the payment of duties and taxes. He obtained from Pope Clement VIII a confirmation of the Mühlstatt grant, with which the college of Graz had been given diocesan rights over the whole of that principality. He founded a burse for poor students, which was called the Ferdinandeum Another and similar foundation was the Josephinum, which was raised by private subscriptions (1748-49). It was not long before the cathedral chapter of Salzburg claimed for itself diocesan powers in the district of Mühlstatt; but a settlement was reached at a trial held in 1659, whereby on the one hand the ordinariate powers and independent jurisdiction of the college of Graz were recognized, while on the other certain concessions were made to the Diocese of Salzburg. Legal proceedings with the Kärnten authorities regarding the exemption of the Mühlstatt district from property taxes, which proceedings lasted more than one hundred years, resulted in a defeat for the Jesuit Order in 1755.

This institution of Graz was the Jesuits' centre of activity in their labours for the reclaiming of Steiermark to Catholicity. Here was prepared all the material necessary for such a mission, here Catholic influence found a new source of strength in the founding of academic sodalities of Mary and other societies of like import. Its school festivals were celebrated with dramas of a spiritual as well as profane character and with farces and comedies in Latin and German, which were produced in the college theatre. The chief aim of these plays was to awaken sentiments of faith and patriotism, and they formed a notable addition to the dramatic literature of the day.

As early as the year 1604, Georg Stobäus von Palmburg, Bishop of Lavant, advocated the further broadening of the University of Graz by the addition to its staff of a faculty of jurisprudence. But though negotiations were undertaken to this end between the institution and the Government, the former's insistence that its autonomy should remain unimpaired caused these negotiations to be suspended until the dissolution of the Jesuit Order. After the establishment, in Graz, of private courses in jurisprudence outside of the university, and the execution of a reform in theological and philosophical studies by the appointment of State Directors of Studies and the altering of examination methods, the university was placed in 1760 under the supervision of a State Commission of Studies designated for this purpose, and therefore lost almost entirely its monastic character of the Josephine period. The year 1773 proved to be, owing to the suppression of the Jesuits, the last school year of the Jesuit college at Graz. The university became a State institution, its material possessions were seized upon for the public treasury, and its course of instruction was remodelled to conform with that laid down by the newly-established imperial Commission of Studies for the University of Vienna. The winter of 1778 saw the inauguration of a faculty of jurisprudence which consisted of two professors, while higher instruction in medicine was likewise introduced, which received gradual development. At the end of 1782 Joseph II issued a decree converting the university into a lyceum with four faculties and the right to award degrees in theology and philosophy. The number of instructors was restricted to twelve. But the Lyceum of Graz recovered in the summer of 1827 its former rank and name as a univcrsity, through a grant of the Emperor Francis. Its faculty of philosophy grew steadily, and a duly organized faculty of medicine was added by an imperial decree of January, 1868. The Alma Mater Græcensis has since then occupied the third place among the institutions of learning in German-speaking Austria. The technical high school which had been founded in 1814 was taken over by the State in 1874.

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Ubaghs, Casimir

Casimir Ubaghs

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Ubaldus, Saint

St. Ubaldus

Confessor, Bishop of Gubbio, born of noble parents at Gubbio, Umbria, Italy, towards the ...
Ubanghi

Ubanghi

(UPPER FRENCH CONGO.) Vicariate Apostolic ; formerly part of the Vicariate of French Congo, ...
Ubanghi, Belgian

Prefecture Apostolic of Belgian Ubanghi

In Belgian Congo, separated on 7 April, 1911, from the Vicariate of the Belgian Congo and ...
Ubanghi-Chari

Ubanghi-Chari

Prefecture Apostolic in Equatorial Africa, lies west of the Bahr-el-Ghazal territory and south ...
Uberaba

Uberaba

(DE UBERABA.) Suffragan diocese of Marianna, in Brazil, created by the Consistorial ...
Ubertino of Casale

Ubertino of Casale

Leader of the Spirituals, born at Casale of Vercelli, 1259; died about 1330. He assumed the ...
Ubiquitarians

Ubiquitarians

Also called Ubiquists , a Protestant sect started at the Lutheran synod of Stuttgart, 19 ...
Ucayali

Ucayali

(SAN FRANCISCO DE UCAYALI.) Prefecture Apostolic in Peru. At the request of the Peruvian ...
Uccello

Uccello

Painter, born at Florence, 1397; died there, 1475. His real name was Paolo di Dono, but from his ...
Udine

Udine

(UTINENSIS) The city of Udine, the capital of a province and archdiocese in Friuli, northern ...
Ugento

Ugento

(UXENTIN) The city of Ugento, with its small harbour, is situated in the Province of Leece, in ...
Ughelli, Ferdinando

Ferdinando Ughelli

Historian, born at Florence, 21 March, 1595; died 19 May, 1670. Having entered the Cistercian ...
Uhtred

Uhtred

(Also spelled: Uhtred or Owtred ), an English Benedictine theologian and writer, born at ...
Ujejski, Cornelius

Cornelius Ujejski

Polish poet, born at Beremiany, Galicia, 1823; died at Cholojewie, 1897. His father was a ...
Ulenberg, Kaspar

Kaspar Ulenberg

Convert, theological writer and translator of the Bible , born at Lippstadt on the Lippe, ...
Ulfilas

Ulfilas

(Also: Ulphilas ), apostle of the Goths, missionary, translator of the Bible , and inventor ...
Ullathorne, William Bernard

William Bernard Ullathorne

English Benedictine monk and bishop, b. at Pocklington, Yorkshire, 7 May, 1806; d. at Oscott, ...
Ullerston, Richard

Richard Ullerston

Born in the Duchy of Lancaster, England ; d. in August or September, 1423. Having been ordained ...
Ulloa, Antoine de

Antoine de Ulloa

Naval officer and scientist, born at Seville, Spain, 12 Jan., 1716; died near Cadiz, Spain, 5 ...
Ulloa, Francisco de

Francisco de Ulloa

Died 1540. It is not known when he came to Mexico nor if he accompanied Hernan Cortés in ...
Ulrich of Bamberg

Ulrich of Bamberg

(Udalricus Babenbergensis), a cleric of the cathedral church of Bamberg, of whom nothing more ...
Ulrich of Richenthal

Ulrich of Richenthal

Chronicler of the Council of Constance , date of birth unknown; died about 1438. Ulrich was ...
Ulrich of Zell

St. Ulrich of Zell

(Wulderic; called also of Cluny, and of Ratisbon ), born at Ratisbon, at the beginning of 1029; ...
Ulrich, Saint

St. Ulrich

Bishop of Augsburg, born at Kyburg, Zurich, Switzerland, in 890; died at Augsburg, 4 July, ...
Ultan of Ardbracca

St. Ultan of Ardbraccan

St. Ultan of Ardbraccan, Ireland, was the maternal uncle of St. Brigid, and collected a life of ...
Ultramontanism

Ultramontanism

A term used to denote integral and active Catholicism, because it recognizes as its spiritual ...
Unam Sanctam

Unam Sanctam

(Latin the One Holy , i.e. Church ), the Bull on papal supremacy issued 18 November, 1302, ...
Unclean and Clean

Clean and Unclean

The distinction between legal and ceremonial, as opposed to moral, cleanness and uncleanness ...
Unction, Extreme

Extreme Unction

A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect ...
Ungava

Ungava

A Canadian territory lying north of the Province of Quebec, detached (1876) from the Great ...
Uniformity Acts

Uniformity Acts

These statutes, passed at different times, were vain efforts to secure uniformity in public ...
Unigenitus

Unigenitus

A celebrated Apostolic Constitution of Clement XI, condemning 101 propositions of Pasquier ...
Union of Brest

Union of Brest

Brest -- in Russian, Brest-Litovski; in Polish, Brzesc; in the old chronicles, called Brestii, or ...
Union of Christendom

Union of Christendom

The Catholic Church is by far the largest, the most widespread, and the most ancient of ...
Unions of Prayer

Unions of Prayer

A tendency to form unions of prayer among the faithful has recently manifested itself in the ...
Unitarians

Unitarians

A Liberal Protestant sect which holds as it distinctive tenet the belief in a uni-personal ...
Unitas Fratrum

Bohemian Brethren

(MORAVIAN BRETHREN, or UNITAS FRATRUM). DEFINITION AND DOCTRINAL POSITION "Bohemian Brethren" ...
United States of America, The

The United States of America

BOUNDARIES AND AREA On the east the boundary is formed by the St. Croix River and an arbitrary ...
Unitive Way

State Or Way (Purgative, Illuminative, Unitive)

The word state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers. It may be ...
Unity

Unity (As a Mark of the Church)

The marks of the Church are certain unmistakeable signs, or distinctive characteristics which ...
Universalists

Universalists

A Liberal Protestant sect -- found chiefly in North America -- whose distinctive tenet is the ...
Universals

Universals

The name refers on the one hand to the inclination towards uniformity ( uni-versus ) existing in ...
Universe

Universe

Universe (or "world") is here taken in the astronomical sense, in its narrower or wider ...
Universe, Relation of God to the

Relation of God to the Universe

1. Essential Dependence of the Universe on God (Creation and Conservation) In developing the ...
Universities

Universities

The principal Catholic foundations have been treated in special articles; here the general ...
University College (Dublin)

University College, Dublin

A constitutional college of the National University of Ireland. By its charter, granted 2 Dec., ...
Unjust Aggressor

Unjust Aggressor

According to the accepted teaching of theologians, it is lawful, in the defense of life or limb, ...
Unyanyembe

Unyanyembe

Vicariate apostolic in German East Africa, separated from the Vicariate Apostolic of Nyanza ...
Upper Nile

Upper Nile

Vicariate apostolic ; separated from the mission of Nyanza, 6 July, 1894, comprises the eastern ...
Upper Rhine

Upper Rhine

Ecclesiastical province; includes the Archdiocese of Freiburg and the suffragan Dioceses of ...
Upsala, Ancient See of

Upsala

When St. Ansgar, the Apostle of the North, went to Sweden in 829 the Swedes were still heathen ...
Upsala, University of

University of Upsala

The oldest and most celebrated university of Sweden. Even today the arrangement of its ...
Uranopolis

Uranopolis

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ancyra in Galatia Prima. It is vainly sought in any ...
Urban I, Pope Saint

Pope Urban I

Reigned 222-30, date of birth unknown; died 23 May, 230. According to the "Liber Pontificalis," ...
Urban II, Pope Blessed

Pope Bl. Urban II

(Otho, Otto or Odo of Lagery), 1088-1099, born of a knightly family, at Châtillon-sur-Marne ...
Urban III, Pope

Pope Urban III

Reigned 1185-87, born at Milan ; died at Ferrara, 19 October, 1187. Uberto, of the noble ...
Urban IV, Pope

Pope Urban IV

Reigned 1261-64 (Jacques Pantaléon), son of a French cobbler, born at Troyes, probably in ...
Urban V, Pope Blessed

Pope Bl. Urban V

Guillaume de Grimoard, born at Grisac in Languedoc, 1310; died at Avignon, 19 December, 1370. ...
Urban VI, Pope

Pope Urban VI

Bartolomeo Prignano, the first Roman pope during the Western Schism, born at Naples, about ...
Urban VII, Pope

Pope Urban VII

Giambattista Castagna, born at Rome, 4 Aug., 1521; elected pope, 15 September, 1590; died at ...
Urban VIII, Pope

Pope Urban VIII

Maffeo Barberini, born at Florence in April, 1568; elected pope, 6 August, 1623; died at Rome, 29 ...
Urbi et Orbi

Urbi Et Orbi

The term Urbi et Orbi (which means "for the city and for the world") signifies that a papal ...
Urbino

Urbino

(URBINATENSIS) Province of Pesaro and Urbino, Italy. The city of Urbino is situated on a ...
Urbs beata Jerusalem dicta pacis visio

Urbs Beata Jerusalem Dicta Pacis Visio

The first line of a hymn of probably the seventh or eighth century, comprising eight stanzas ...
Urdaneta, Andrés

Andres Urdaneta

Augustinian, born at Villafranca, Guipúzcoa, Spain, 1498; died in the City of Mexico, ...
Urgel

Urgel

(U RGELLENSIS ). Diocese in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; bounded on the N. by France ...
Urim and Thummim

Urim and Thummim

The sacred lot by means of which the ancient Hebrews were wont to seek manifestations of the ...
Urmiah

Urmiah

A residential see in Chaldea, in the Province of Adherbaidjan, Persia. The primitive name of this ...
Urráburu, Juan José

Juan Jose Urraburu

Scholastic philosopher, born at Ceanuri, Biscay, 23 May, 1844; died at Burgos, 13 August, 1904. ...
Ursperger Chronicle

Ursperger Chronicle

A history of the world in Latin that begins with the Assyrian King Ninius and extends to the year ...
Ursula of the Blessed Virgin, Society of the Sisters of Saint

Society of the Sisters of St. Ursula of the Blessed Virgin

Religious congregation of women founded in 1606 at Döle (then a Spanish possession), ...
Ursula, Saint, and the Eleven Thousand Virgins

St. Ursula and the Eleven Thousand Virgins

The history of these celebrated virgins of Cologne rests on ten lines, and these are open to ...
Ursulines of Quebec, The

The Ursulines of Quebec

The Ursuline monastery of Quebec is the oldest institution of learning for women in North ...
Ursulines, The

The Ursulines

A religious order founded by St. Angela de Merici for the sole purpose of educating young ...
Ursus, Saint

St. Ursus

Patron of the principal church of Solothurn (Soleure) in Switzerland, honoured from very early ...
Urubamba

Urubamba

(MISIONES DE SANTO DOMINGO DE URUBAMBA Y MADRE DE DIOS) This prefecture apostolic was created ...
Uruguay

Uruguay

(REPUBLICA ORIENTAL DEL URUGUAY). The smallest independent state in South America, extending ...
Uruguayana

Uruguayana

(URUGUAYANESIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Porto Alegre, Brazil. By a Decree dated 15 August, ...
Ushaw College

Ushaw College

(College of St. Cuthbert) A combined college and seminary for the six dioceses that were ...
Usilla

Usilla

A titular see of Byzacena in Africa. Nothing is known of the history of this city; it is ...
Usuard, Martyrology of

Martyrology of Usuard

Usuard was a Benedictine monk of the Abbey of St-Germain-des-Prxs, Paris. He seems to have ...
Usury

Usury

In the article INTEREST we have reserved the question of the lawfulness of taking interest on ...
Ut Queant Laxis Resonare Fibris

Ut Queant Laxis Resonare Fibris

The first line of a hymn in honour of St. John the Baptist. The Roman Breviary divides it ...
Utah

Utah

Utah, the thirty-second state admitted to the Union, takes its name from an Indian tribe known ...
Uthina

Uthina

A titular see of Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Uthina is mentioned by Ptolemy ...
Utica

Utica

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis. The city was founded by Tyrian colonists at the mouth ...
Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism

( Latin utilis , useful). Utilitarianism is a modern form of the Hedonistic ethical theory ...
Utopia

Utopia

(Greek ou no or not, and topos place), a term used to designate a visionary or an ideally ...
Utraquism

Utraquism

The principal dogma, and one of the four articles, of the Calixtines or Hussites . It was first ...
Utrecht, Archdiocese of

Utrecht

Situated in the Netherlands, includes the Provinces of Utrecht, Friesland, Overyssel, Drenthe, ...

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