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Visitation Order

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The nuns of the Visitation of Mary, called also Filles de Sainte-Marie, Visitandines, and Salesian Sisters, were founded in 1610 at Annecy in the Duchy of Savoy by St. Francis de Sales, Bishop of Geneva, and by St. Jane de Chantal. Their aim was to secure the benefit of the religious life for persons who had neither the physical strength nor the attraction for the corporal austerities at that time general in religious orders. St. Francis wished especially to apply in souls of good will and in a permanent institution the spiritual method dear to him: to reach God chiefly through interior mortification and to endeavour to do in every action only the Divine Will with the greatest possible love. The Visitation is therefore the principal work of St. Francis de Sales , the perpetuation of his doctrine and spirit, the living commentary on the "Introduction à la vie dévote" and the "Traité de l'amour de Dieu".

At first the founder had not a religious order in mind ; he wished to form a congregation without external vows, where the cloister should be observed only during the year of novitiate, after which the sisters should be free to go out by turns to visit the sick poor. This was why he called his institute the Visitation. The project was quite different from the idea realized later by St. Vincent de Paul in the Sisters of Charity, for what the bishop desired above all was the contemplative life ; to this he added visitation of the sick, but merely by way of devotion. The undertaking was begun on Trinity Sunday, 6 June, 1610. The Baronne de Chantal, a widow, native of Burgundy, was destined to be the first superioress. Marie-Jacqueline Favre, daughter of the Savoyard juris-consult Antoine Favre, and Mlle Charlotte de Brechard, a Burgundian, accompanied the foundress as did also a servant, Anne-Jacqueline Coste, destined to be the first outdoor sister of the Visitation. After having receive the bishop's blessing they assembled in the house of "la Galerie", still standing, in a suburb of Annecy. Trials, especially those arising from ridicule, were not wanting to the young congregation. People did not readily understand the mild and simple rule of the new institute. Superficial observers did not take into account that the bishop was in his conduct and direction really the most mortified of all the saints. Nevertheless the novices arrived, and the names of two, Peronne-Marie de Chatel and Marie-Amee de Blonay, have remained noted in the history of the Visitation.

When the establishment was an accomplished fact (1615) Archbishop de Marquemont of Lyons undertook to persuade the founder to follow the common practice and erect his congregation into a religious order under the Rule of St. Augustine, with the cloister imposed by the Council of Trent. At first the saint resisted. It cost him much to abandon the sick poor and leave to his daughters only the apostolate of prayer and sacrifice, but he eventually yielded. He then (1616) undertook the compilation of the "Constitutions pour les religieuses de la Visitation Sainte-Marie". The Church has thus characterized this work: "He had added to the rule of St. Augustine constitutions which are admirable for wisdom, discretion, and sweetness" (Brev. Rom., 29 Jan., sixth lesson). At once the founder opened the door of the monastery to all of good will. No severity, however great, could prevent the weak and infirm from coming "there to seek the perfection of Divine love ". He expressly ordered the reception at the Visitation not only of virgins but also of widows, on condition that they were legitimately freed from the care of their children; the aged, provided they were of right mind ; the crippled, provided they were sound in mind and heart; even the sick, except those who had contagious diseases.

Austerities of the cloister, like rising at night, sleeping on hard surfaces, were suppressed. Instead of chanting the canonical office in the middle of the night the sisters recited the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin at half-past eight in the evening. There was no perpetual abstinence nor prolonged fast. Besides the ordinary fast days of the Church, he retained only that on every Friday and certain vigils. Corporal mortifications properly so called were limited to the use of discipline every Friday. But the wise legislator was careful to give to interior mortification what he withdrew from exterior mortification. His first concern was for poverty, which is nowhere so strict as in the Visitation, where everything is absolutely in common. No sister may "have as property anything however little, or under any pretext whatever". Not only the rooms and the beds, but medals, crosses, rosary beads, even pictures, are changed every year in order that the sisters may never come to consider them as their own. Next comes obedience. Whether general or particular it extends to every moment of the day, and the superior is to be obeyed as a mother, "carefully, faithfully, promptly, simply, frankly, and cordially". The most trying mortification is perhaps that of the common life as understood by St. Francis de Sales . The day of the Visitandine is divided from 5 a. m. until 10 p. m. into a multitude of short exercises which keep her occupied every instant in duties determined by her rule. An hour of mental prayer in the morning and a half-hour in the evening, Mass, Office, spiritual readings, and examens of conscience succeed one another, and keep the religious in perpetual contemplation. Silence, recollection, modesty of demeanour prepare for and facilitate prayer. Two recreations of an hour each relax without dissipating the mind ; the sisters should talk with cordiality and simplicity only of agreeable and piously cheerful topics.

A little book based on St. Francis de Sales and which St. Jane de Chantal added from the first to the Constitutions of the order, namely, the "Directoire spirituel pour les actions journalieres", gives the practical means of fulfilling the Constitutions in the spirit of the holy founder, the method of performing each of the daily actions under the eye of God, in dependence on Him, and in union with the Divine Model, Jesus Christ. It may be said that the "Directoire" is the mould of the Visitandines. The sisters wear a black habit. The gown is made a sac, rather full, and is confined by a girdle. On the head they wear a veil of black taminy. A black bandeau encircles the brow; a guimpe or barbette of white linen covers the neck, from which is suspended a silver cross; a large chaplet hangs at the belt. There are three grades among the sisters: the choir sisters who sing the Office; the associate sisters dispensed from the Office because of their health, but in other respects the same as the first grade; and finally the lay sisters who wear a white veil and are engaged in domestic tasks; they have no voice in the chapter but they make the same vows and are as much religious as the others. The communities are cloistered. The outdoor sisters who make publicly only the vow of obedience are charged with the external service of the house. Each convent is governed by a superior whom all the sisters elect by secret ballot. She is chosen for three years at the end of which time she is eligible for election for three more years. When this time is ended she is ineligible for the subsequent term. A council of four other sisters assist her in the government of the house. An assistant replaces her when it is necessary. All the houses of the order are independent of one another. Circulars sent from time to time keep all acquainted with the events of each convent. There is no superior general, no visitor general, nor general chapter. In doubts regarding observance, recourse is had to the house of Annecy, the sainte source , which actually exercises no authority, but whose right to advise is recognized as that of an elder sister. The first superior of each convent is the bishop of the diocese and it is under his direct and immediate care. Two priests are charged by the bishop with the care of the convent, one with the title of superior, the other with that of confessor.

Such are the chief rules of the Visitation, their most striking characteristic being moderation and common sense. Made for generous souls, there is nothing about them which could weaken the body, while they overlook nothing which could mortify the spirit. For three centuries the Visitation has never stood in need of reform and each century has brought to the Church and the world its contingent of holy souls. The Order of the Visitation of Mary was canonically erected in 1618 by Paul V who granted it all the privileges enjoyed by the other orders. A Bull of Urban VIII solemnly approved it in 1626. At the first centenary of the institute in 1710 came renewed praise for its Constitutions "admirable for wisdom, discernment, and mildness, and which open up a certain easy and united path" to religious perfection. The Visitation developed rapidly. As early as the third year the house of "la Galerie" was too small; it was necessary to purchase an estate and build not far from the lake the convent which kept the name of the first convent of Annecy. The church still exists; the remainder of the building was destroyed during the French Revolution. Lyons (1615) was the first foundation with Mother Favre as superior; Moulines (1616) was the second with Mother de Brechard. Grenoble (1618), Bourges (1618), and Paris (1619) followed in close succession. When St. Francis de Sales died (1622) there were already 13 convents established. At the death of St. Jane de Chantal (1641) there were 86. The Bull of Clement XI at the first centenary of the foundation mentions 147. In the seventeenth century the order was confined to France and especially to Savoy ; in the eighteenth century it extended to Italy, Germany, Spain, Switzerland, Poland, and the Low Countries. There were 167 houses in 1792 when the French Revolution dispersed and closed all the convents it reached. The foreign houses retained the traditions of the founders. The storm passed and as early as 1800 the convents of the Visitation began gradually to be restored in all parts of France. That of Annecy was not restored until 1824.

The convent of Georgetown was the first house of the Visitation founded in the United States (see sub-article below). The Visitation of Georgetown founded that of Mobile 1833 and in the same year that of Kaskaskia, which was transferred to St. Louis in 1844. In 1837 it founded the Visitation of Baltimore, that of Frederick in 1846, and Philadelphia in 1848. These various convents founded others, and at present there are in the United States 21 houses of the Visitation in relation with Annecy. England has two convents, Westbury, now transferred to Harrow, London, and that of Roseland, Walmer, Kent, which is the ancient convent of Vilna, Poland. The last Visitation convent founded in an English-speaking country is that of Ottawa, Canada, founded by sisters from Annecy in 1910. At the third centenary of the order, 6 June, 1910, the Visitation numbered 170 convents : 56 in France and 12 other French houses which the religious persecution compelled to go into exile; 30 in Italy ; 2 in Switzerland ; 7 in Austria ; 1 in Russian Poland ; 4 in Belgium ; 1 in Holland ; 2 in England ; 17 in Spain ; 3 in Portugal (these convents were driven into exile by the Revolution in 1910); 21 in the United States ; 1 in Canada ; 11 in Latin America; and 2 in Syria.

The first Visitandines, emulating their foundress, had nearly all received extraordinary gifts of prayer. The process of beatification of Mother de Brechard was even begun but was abandoned to make way for that of Mother de Chantal. It was Blessed Margaret Mary Alacoque (q.v.), a Visitandine of Paray-le- Monial in Burgundy, to whom the Sacred Heart of Jesus was manifested, in order that the devotion to the Sacred Heart might be communicated to the Church. Another Visitandine, Venerable Anne-Madeleine Remusat of the second convent of Marseilles, was the propagator of devotion to the Sacred Heart at the time of the plague of Marseilles in 1722; her cause was introduced in 1891. The cause of Venerable Marie de Sales Chappuis, superioress of the Visitation convent of Troyes (d. in 1875), was introduced in 1879 and the process of her beatification is proceeding rapidly. A religious of exalted virtue, she encouraged a number of souls both within and without the cloister in that path of confidence, generosity, obedience to the Divine Will, of fidelity to the duty of the present moment, which was inculcated by St. Francis de Sales . In the course of the process of beatification her authentic writings have been carefully examined and approved by the Sacred Congregation of Rites ( Decree of 21 Sept., 1892). The Visitandines are contemplatives, and in order that they might not be turned aside from the chief aim the founder often recurs in his letters to the necessity of not imposing external duties which would divert them from their first vocation. Nevertheless, even in the time of St. Francis de Sales the Visitation several times accepted temporarily the mission of reforming foreign communities or even houses of penitent women, and God has blessed their devotion. It was likewise the need of the times which at a certain period led many convents to open within their cloisters boarding-schools for young girls. These boarding-schools which still exist in certain communities have done great good to youth. The instruction given at the Visitation is generally solid and on a par with that of the most serious schools. But what especially characterizes the schools of the Visitation and the pupils themselves is the strong education of will and character. In a constantly serene and maternal atmosphere the child leans at an early age self-denial, a sense of duty, and of responsibility to God for every action. The mistress's methods of going to God become to a certain extent those of the children.

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More Volume: V 294

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Vácz, Diocese of

Waitzen

(VÄCZ or VACIENSIS). Located in Hungary ; suffragan of Gran ; probably founded by King ...
Vénard, Théophane

Bl. Theophane Venard

(JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...
Véron, François

Francois Veron

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Völuspá

Voluspa

"The wisdom of the prophetess ", the most famous mythological poem of the "Elder Edda", relates ...
Vaast, Abbey of Saint

Abbey of Saint Vaast

Situated at Arras, the ancient capital of Artois, Department of Pas-de-Calais, France ; founded ...
Vacancy

Vacancy

The state of being vacant, free, unoccupied: a term applied to an office or position devoid of an ...
Vadstena, Abbey of

Abbey of Vadstena

Motherhouse of the Brigittine Order, situated on Lake Wetter, in the Diocese of Linköping, ...
Vaga

Vaga

A titular see of Numidia, frequently mentioned by historians and ancient geographers. Before ...
Vaillant de Gueslis, François

Francois Vaillant de Gueslis

Jesuit missionary, born at Orlxans, 20 July, 1646; died at Moulins, 24 Sept., 1718. He entered ...
Vaison, Ancient Diocese of

Ancient Diocese of Vaison

(VASIONENSIS.) This was suppressed by the Concordat of 1801 , and its territory is now ...
Valdés, Alfonso de

Alfonso de Valdes

Spanish Humanist and chancellor of the Emperor Charles V, born at Cuenca in Castile about 1500; ...
Valence, Diocese of

Valence

(VALENTINENSIS). See also UNIVERSITY OF VALENCE. Comprises the present Department of Drome. ...
Valence, University of

University of Valence

See also DIOCESE OF VALENCE . Erected 26 July, 1452, by letters patent from the Dauphin Louis, ...
Valencia

Valencia

(VALENTINA). Archdiocese located in Spain ; comprises the civil Provinces of Valencia, ...
Valencia, University of

University of Valencia

At the request of Jaime I the Conqueror, Innocent IV in 1246, authorized by a Bull the ...
Valens, Flavius

Flavius Valens

Emperor of the East, b. in Pannonia (now Hungary ) c. 328; d. near Adrianople, in Thrace, ...
Valentine, Pope

Pope Valentine

Date of birth unknown; died about October, 827. Valentine was by birth was Roman, belonging to the ...
Valentine, Saint

St. Valentine

At least three different Saint Valentines, all of them martyrs, are mentioned in the early ...
Valentinian I

Valentinian I

(FLAVIUS VALENTINIANUS). Emperor of the West, 364-75. Born at Cibalis (probably Mikanovici), ...
Valentinian II

Valentinian II

(FLAVIUS VALENTINIANUS) Reigned 375-392; born in Gaul, about 371, murdered at Vienne, ...
Valentinian III

Valentinian III

Reigned 425-55, b. at Ravenna, 3 July, 419; d. at Rome, 16 March, 455; son of Constantius III ...
Valentinus and Valentinians

Valentinus and Valentinians

Valentinus, the best known and most influential of the Gnostic heretics, was born according to ...
Valerian

Valerian

(Publius Aurelius Licinius Valerianus). Roman emperor (253-60). Member of a distinguished ...
Validation of Marriage

Validation of Marriage

Validation of marriage may be effected by a simple renewal of consent when its nullity arises ...
Vallée-Poussin, Charles-Louis-Joseph-Xavier de la

Charles-Louis-Joseph-Xavier de la Vallee-Poussin

Professor of geology and mineralogy at the Catholic University of Louvain (1863), doctor honoris ...
Valla, Lorenzo

Lorenzo Valla

(DELLA VALLE). Humanist and philosopher, b. at Rome, 1405; d. there, 1 Aug., 1457. His ...
Valladolid, Archdiocese of

Valladolid

(VALLISOLETANA). Bounded on the north by Palencia, east by Burgos and Segovia, south by ...
Valladolid, University of

University of Valladolid

The name of the founder and the date of foundation of the University of Valladolid are not known ...
Vallarsi, Dominic

Dominic Vallarsi

An Italian priest, born at Verona, 13 November, 1702; died there, 14 August, 1771. He studied ...
Valle, Pietro della

Pietro Della Valle

Italian traveller in the Orient, b. at Rome, 2 April, 1586; d. there, 21 April, 1652. He ...
Valleyfield, Diocese of

Valleyfield

(CAMPIVALLENSIS.) Valleyfield is a thriving city of about 10,000 inhabitants, situated at the ...
Vallgornera, Thomas de

Thomas de Vallgornera

Dominican theologian and ascetical writer, renowned for his learning and piety, born in ...
Valliscaulian Order

Valliscaulian Order

("Vallis Caulium", or "Val-des-Choux", the name of the first monastery of that order, in Burgundy ...
Vallo and Capaccio

Capaccio and Vallo

(CAPUTAQUENSIS ET VALLENSIS) Suffragan diocese of Salerno. Capaccio is a city in the ...
Vallumbrosan Order

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The name is derived from the motherhouse, Vallombrosa (Latin Vallis umbrosa, shady valley), ...
Valois, Henri

Henri Valois

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Valona

Valona

Titular see, suffragan of Dyrrachium, in Epirus Nova. The ancient name was Aulon, mentioned for ...
Valroger, Hyacinthe de

Hyacinthe de Valroger

French Oratorian, born at Caen, 6 January, 1814; died 10 October, 1876. He first studied ...
Valva and Sulmona, Dioceses of

Dioceses of Valva and Sulmona

(VALVEN. ET SULMONEN.) Located in Italy ; united aeque principaliter . Valva, a medieval ...
Valverde, Vincent de

Vincent de Valverde

Born at Oropesa, Spain towards the close of the fifteenth century; d. at the Island of ...
Van Beethoven, Ludwig

Ludwig van Beethoven

Born at Bonn, probably on 16 December, 1770; died at Vienna, 26 March, 1827. The date of his ...
Van Beneden, Pierre-Joseph

Pierre-Joseph van Beneden

Born at Mechlin, Belgium, 19 Dec., 1809; died at Louvain, 8 Jan., 1894. Educated for the ...
Van Buren, William Home

William Home van Buren

Distinguished American surgeon, b. at Philadelphia, 5 April, 1819; d. at New York, 25 March, 1883. ...
Van Cleef, Jan

Jan van Cleef

A Flemish painter, b. in Guelderland in 1646, d. at Ghent, 18 December, 1716. He was a pupil of ...
Van Cleef, Joost

Joost van Cleef

(JOSSE VAN CLEVE). The "Madman", a Flemish painter born in Antwerp c. 1520, died c. 1556. ...
Van Cleef, Martin

Martin van Cleef

A Flemish painter, born at Antwerp in 1520; died in 1570; was the son of the painter William ...
Van de Velde, Peter

Peter van de Velde

(PEDRO CAMPAÑA). Painter, b. at Brussels, 1503; d. in that city in 1580. This artist ...
Van De Vyver, Augustine

Augustine van de Vyver

Sixth Bishop of Richmond, Virginia ; b. at Haesdonck, East Flanders, Belgium, 1 Dec., 1844; ...
Van den Broek, Theodore J.

Theodore J. van Den Broek

Priest and missionary, b. at Amsterdam, Holland, 5 Nov., 1783; d. at Little Chute, Wisconsin, 5 ...
Van der Bundere, Joannes

Joannes Bunderius

(VAN DEN BUNDERE). A Flemish theologian and controversialist, born of distinguished parents ...
Van der Sandt, Maximilian

Maximilian van Der Sandt

(SANDAUS). Born at Amsterdam, 17 April, 1578; d. at Cologne, 21 June, 1656. He entered the ...
Van der Weyden, Rogier

Rogier van Der Weyden

Painter, b. at Tournai, 1399 or 1400; d. at Brussels, 1464. His original name was De la Pasture, ...
Van Eyck, Hubert and Jan

Hubert and Jan van Eyck

Brothers, Flemish illuminators and painters, founders of the school of Bruges and ...
Vancouver

Vancouver

(VANCOUVERIENSIS). Archdiocese ; includes that part of the mainland of the Province of British ...
Vandal, Albert

Albert Vandal

French writer, b. at Paris, 7 July, 1853; d. there, 30 Aug., 1910. His father was director ...
Vandals

Vandals

A Germanic people belonging to the family of East Germans. According to Tacitus, they were ...
Vane, Thomas

Thomas Vane

The place and time of his birth and death are not known; but he was educated at Christ's ...
Vannes, Diocese of

Vannes

(VENETENSIS). Comprises the Department of Morbihan, and was re-established by the Concordat ...
Vanni, Andrea

Andrea Vanni

Painter and statesman, b. at Siena, 1320; d. 1414. He entered politics after the democratic ...
Vanni, Francesco

Francesco Vanni

Painter, b. at Siena, 1565; d. there, 1609. Vanni was one of the better class of artists of the ...
Varani, Blessed Baptista

Blessed Baptista Varani

(Varano). An ascetical writer, b. at Camerino, in the Camerino, belonged to an illustrious ...
Vargas y Mexia, Francisco de

Francisco de Vargas y Mexia

Spanish diplomat and ecclesiastical writer, b. at Madrid, date unknown; d. At the ...
Vargas, Luis de

Luis de Vargas

Painter, b. at Seville, in 1502; d. there in 1568. He has two claims upon our attention; he was ...
Vasari, Giorgio

Giorgio Vasari

Painter, architect, and writer, b. at Arezzo, 1511; d. at Florence, 1574. Although an artist of ...
Vase, Altar

Altar Vase

Vase to hold flowers for the decoration of the altar. The Cæremoniale Episcoporum (I, xii, ...
Vasquez, Gabriel

Gabriel Vasquez

Theologian, b. at Villaescusa de Haro, near Belmonte, Cuenca, 1549 or 1551; d. at Alcalá, ...
Vatable, François

Francois Vatable

(Or better WATEBLED, the name is also written GASTEBLED or OUATEBLE). French Hellenist and ...
Vatican as a Scientific Institution, The

The Vatican as a Scientific Institute

Regarded from the point of view of scientific productivity, the Vatican is the busiest ...
Vatican Council

Vatican Council

The Vatican Council, the twentieth and up to now [1912] the last ecumenical council, opened on 8 ...
Vatican Observatory

Vatican Observatory

The Vatican Observatory now bears the official title, "Specola Astronomica Vaticana". To ...
Vatican, The

The Vatican

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Introduction; II. Architectural ...
Vaticanus, Codex

Codex Vaticanus

(CODEX B), a Greek manuscript, the most important of all the manuscripts of Holy Scripture . ...
Vaudreuil

Vaudreuil

Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil Governor of Canada, born in Languedoc, France, in the ...
Vaughan, Herbert

Herbert Vaughan

Cardinal, and third Archbishop of Westminster ; b. at Gloucester, 15 April, 1832; d. at St. ...
Vaughan, Roger William

Roger William Vaughan

(B EDE ). Second Archbishop of Sydney, b. at Courtfield, Herefordshire, 9 January, 1834; ...
Vauquelin, Louis-Nicolas

Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin

Born at Saint-André d'Hebertot, Normandy, 16 May, 1763; died 14 Nov., 1829. In youth as ...
Vaux, Laurence

Laurence Vaux

(V OSE ). Canon regular, author of a catechism, martyr in prison, b. at Blackrod, ...
Vaux-de-Cernay

Vaux-De-Cernay

A celebrated Cistercian abbey situated in the Diocese of Versailles, Seine-et-Oise, in what was ...
Vavasour, Thomas

Thomas Vavasour

English Catholic physician, pensioner of St. John's College, Cambridge, b. about 1536-7; d. at ...
Vavasseur, François

Francois Vavasseur

Humanist and controversialist, b. at Paray-le-Monial, 8 Dec., 1605; d. at Paris, 16 Dec., ...
Vaz, Blessed Joseph

Blessed Joseph Vaz

A Goanese priest, Apostle of Ceylon [ Sri Lanka ], b. at Goa, 21 April, 1651; d. at Kandy, 16 ...
Vecchietta, Lorenzo di Pietro

Lorenzo di Pietro Vecchietta

Painter, sculptor, goldsmith, and architect, b. at Castiglione di Val d'Orcia, 1412; d. there, ...
Vedas

Vedas

The sacred books of ancient India. The Sanskrit word veda means "knowledge", more particularly ...
Vega, Andreas de

Andreas de Vega

Theologian and Franciscan Observantine, b. at Segovia in Old Castile, Spain, at unknown date ...
Veghe, Johannes

Johannes Veghe

German preacher and religious writer, b. at Münster in Westphalia about 1435; d. there, 21 ...
Vegio, Maffeo

Maffeo Vegio

(MAPHEUS VEGIUS.) Churchman, humanist, poet, and educator, b. at Lodi, Italy, 1406; d. at ...
Veglia, Diocese of

Veglia

(VEGIENSIS ET ARBENSIS). In Austria, suffragan of Görz-Gradisca. Parallel to the Dinaric ...
Vehe, Michael

Michael Vehe

Born at Bieberach near Wimpfen; died at Halle, April, 1559. He joined the Dominicans at Wimpfen, ...
Veil, Humeral

Humeral Veil

This is the name given to a cloth of rectangular shape about 8 ft. long and 1 1/2 ft. wide. The ...
Veil, Religious

Religious Veil

In ancient Rome a red veil, or a veil with red stripes, distinguished newly-married women from ...
Veit, Philipp

Philipp Veit

Painter, b. at Berlin, 13 Feb., 1793; d. at Mainz, 18 Dec., 1877. Veit was a grandson of the ...
Veith, Johann Emanuel

Johann Emanuel Veith

Preacher, b. of Jewish parents at Kuttenplan, Bohemia, 1787; d. at Vienna, 6 Nov., 1876. In ...
Velazquez, Diego Rodriguez de Silva y

Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velazquez

Spanish painter, b. at Seville 5 June, 1599 (the certificate of baptism is dated 6 June); d. at ...
Venezuela

Venezuela

A republic formed out of the provinces which, under Spanish rule, constituted the captaincy ...
Veni Creator Spiritus

Veni Creator Spiritus

The "most famous of hymns " (Frere), is assigned in the Roman Breviary to Vespers (I and II) ...
Veni Sancte Spiritus Et Emitte Coelitus

Veni Sancte Spiritus Et Emitte Coelitus

The sequence for Pentecost (the "Golden Sequence "). It is sung at Mass from Whitsunday until ...
Veni Sancte Spiritus Reple

Veni Sancte Spiritus Reple

A prose invocation of the Holy Ghost . The Alleluia following the Epistle of Whitsunday ...
Venice

Venice

Venice, the capital of a province in Northern Italy, is formed of a group of 117 small islands ...
Venosa

Venosa

(VENUSIN.) Diocese in Southern Italy. The city is situated on a high precipitous hill, one of ...
Ventimiglia

Ventimiglia

(VENTIMILIENSIS) Located in the Province of Porto Maurizio, northern Italy. The city is ...
Ventura di Raulica, Gioacchino

Gioacchino Ventura di Raulica

Italian pulpit orator, patriot, phyilosopher, b. at Palermo, 8 Dec., 1792; d. at Versailles, 2 ...
Venturino of Bergamo

Venturino of Bergamo

Preacher, b. at Bergamo, 9 April, 1304; d. at Smyrna, 28 March, 1346. He received the habit of ...
Venusti, Raffaele

Raffaele Venusti

(VENOSTA.) Born at Tirano, Valtellina, northern Italy, about the end of the fifteenth ...
Vera Cruz

Vera Cruz

(VERAE CRUCIS or JALAPENSIS). Diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the Archbishopric ...
Verapoly, Archdiocese of

Verapoly

(VERAPOLITANA.) Located on the Malabar Coast, India, having the Diocese of Quilon as ...
Verbiest, Ferdinand

Ferdinand Verbiest

Missionary and astronomer, b. at Pitthem near Coutrai, Also spelled "Kortrijk" Belgium, 9 ...
Verbum Supernum Prodiens

Verbum Supernum Prodiens

The first line of two hymns celebrating respectively the Nativity of Christ and the Institution ...
Vercelli

Vercelli

(VERCELLENSIS). Archdiocese in the Province of Novara, Piedmont, Italy. The city of Vercelli ...
Vercellone, Carlo

Carlo Vercellone

Biblical scholar, born at Biella, Milan ; died at Rome, 19 January, 1869. He entered the Order ...
Verdaguer, Jacinto

Jacinto Verdaguer

Poet, b. at Riudeperas, Province of Barcelona, Spain, 17 April, 1845; d. at Vallvidrera, ...
Verdi, Giuseppe

Giuseppe Verdi

Composer, b. at Le Roncole, Parma, Italy, 10 October, 1813; d. at S. Agata, near Busseto, 27 ...
Verdun, Diocese of

Verdun

(VIRODUNENSIS.) Comprises the Department of the Meuse. Suppressed by the Concordat of 1802, ...
Verecundus

Verecundus

sentence --> Bishop of Junca, in the African Province of Byzacena, in the middle of the ...
Vergani, Paolo

Paolo Vergani

Italian political economist, b. in Piedmont, 1753; d. in Paris, about 1820. As a student, he ...
Vergerio, Pier Paolo, the Elder

Pier Paolo Vergerio, the Elder

Humanist, statesman, and canonist, b. at Capodistria, 23 July, 1370; d. at Budapest, 8 July, 1444 ...
Vergil, Polydore

Polydore Vergil

Born at Ubino about 1470; died there probably in 1555. Having studied at Bologna and Padua, he ...
Vergilius of Salzburg, Saint

St. Vergilius of Salzburg

Irish missionary and astronomer, of the eighth century. Vergilius (or Virgilius, in Irish ...
Vering, Friedrich Heinrich

Friedrich Heinrich Vering

A German canonist, b. at Liesborn in Westphalia, 9 March, 1833; d. at Prague, 30 March, 1896. ...
Vermont

Vermont

One of the New England states, extends from the line of Massachusetts, on the south 42° 44' N. ...
Verna, La

La Verna

An isolated mountain hallowed by association with St. Francis of Assisi, situated in the centre ...
Vernazza, Tommasina

Tommasina Vernazza

Born at Genoa, 1497; died there, 1587. Her father, Ettore Vernazza, was a patrician, founder of ...
Verne, Jules

Jules Verne

Novelist, b. at Nantes, France, 1828; d. at Amiens, 1905. His first literary venture was a ...
Vernier, Pierre

Pierre Vernier

Inventor of the instrument which bears his name, b. at Ornans, Franche-Comte, c. 1580; d. there, ...
Veroli, Diocese of

Veroli

(VERULANA). Located in the Province of Rome. The city of Veroli (Verulae) is situated on the ...
Verona

Verona

(VERONENSIS.) Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The city, situated on both branches of ...
Veronica Giuliani, Saint

St. Veronica Giuliani

Born at Mercatello in the Duchy of Urbino, Italy, 1660; died at Citt` di Castello, 9 July, 1727. ...
Veronica, Saint

St. Veronica

In several regions of Christendom there is honored under this name a pious matron of ...
Verot, Augustin

Augustin Verot

Third Bishop of Savannah, first of St. Augustine, b. at Le Puy, France, May, 1804; d. at St. ...
Verrazano, Giovanni da

Giovanni Da Verrazano

Navigator, b. about 1485, of good family, at Val di Greve, near Florence ; executed at Puerto ...
Verreau, Hospice-Anthelme

Hospice-Anthelme Verreau

A French-Canadian priest, educator, and historian, b. at l'Islet, P.Q., 6 Sept., 1828, of Germain ...
Verri, Count Pietro

Count Pietro Verri

Economist, b. at Milan, Dec., 1728; d. there, 29 June, 1797. After studying at Monza, Rome, and ...
Verrocchio, Andrea del

Andrea Del Verrocchio

Born at Florence, 1435; d. at Venice, 1488. He was called Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' ...
Versailles

Versailles

(VERSALIENSIS). Diocese ; includes the Department of Seine-et-Oise, France. Created in ...
Versions of the Bible

Versions of the Bible

Synopsis GREEK : Septuagint; Aquila; Theodotion; Symmachus; other versions. VERSIONS FROM THE ...
Versions of the Bible, Coptic

Coptic Bibles

DIALECTS The Coptic language is now recognized in four principal dialects, Bohairic (formerly ...
Verstegan, Richard

Richard Verstegan

( Alias ROWLANDS). Publisher and antiquarian, born at London, about 1548; died at Antwerp ...
Vertin, John

John Vertin

Third Bishop of Marquette, U.S.A. b. at Doblice, Diocese of Laibach (Carniolia), Austria, 17 ...
Vertot, Réné-Aubert, Sieur de

Rene-Aubert, Sieur de Vertot

French historian, b. at Benetot, Normandy, 25 Nov., 1655; d. in Paris, 15 June, 1735. He was for ...
Veruela

Veruela

A celebrated Cistercian monastery and church dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. It is situated ...
Vesalius, Andreas

Andreas Vesalius

(WESALIUS.) The reorganizer of the study of anatomy ; b. at Brussels, 31 Dec., 1514; d. in a ...
Vespasian

Vespasian

(TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS). Roman Emperor, b. at Reate (now Rieti ), the ancient capital of ...
Vespasiano da Bisticci

Vespasiano Da Bisticci

( Or FIORENTINO.) Florentine humanist and librarian, b. in 1421; d. in 1498. He was ...
Vespers

Vespers

This subject will be treated under the following headings: I. Vespers in the sixth century; II. ...
Vespers, Music of

Music of Vespers

The texts (e.g. antiphons, psalms, hymn ) sung in Vespers vary according to the feast or the ...
Vespers, Sicilian

Sicilian Vespers

The traditional name given to the insurrection which broke out at Palermo on Easter Tuesday, 31 ...
Vespucci, Amerigo

Amerigo Vespucci

A famous Italian navigator, born at Florence, 9 March, 1451; died at Seville, 22 February, 1512. ...
Vessels, Altar

Altar Vessels

The chalice is the cup in which the wine and water of the Eucharistic Sacrifice is contained. ...
Vestibule (in Architecture)

Vestibule (Porch)

A hall projecting in front of the façade of a church, found from the fifth century both ...
Vestments

Vestments

IN WESTERN EUROPE By liturgical vestments are meant the vestments that, according to the rules ...
Veszprém

Veszprem

(VESPRIMIENSIS.) Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Gran, one of the sees founded about 1009 by ...
Veto, The Royal

The Royal Veto

(In the appointment of Bishops in Ireland and England.) Although the penal laws enacted ...
Vetter, Conrad

Conrad Vetter

Preacher and polemical writer, b. at Engen in the present Grand Duchy of Baden, 1547; d. at ...
Veuillot, Louis

Louis Veuillot

Journalist and writer, b. at Boynes, Loiret, 11 Oct., 1813; d. in Paris, 7 April, 1883. He was ...
Vexiö, Ancient See of

Ancient See of Vexio

(WEPIONENSIS.) The Ancient See of Vexiö, in Sweden, comprised the County of Kronoberg ...
Vexilla Regis Prodeunt

Vexilla Regis Prodeunt

This "world-famous hymn, one of the grandest in the treasury of the Latin Church " (Neale), and ...
Vezzosi, Antonio Francesco

Antonio Francesco Vezzosi

Member of the Theatine Congregation and biographical writer, born at Arezzo, Italy, 4 October, ...
Via Crucis

Way of the Cross

(Also called Stations of the Cross, Via Crucis, and Via Dolorosa). These names are used to signify ...
Via Dolorosa

Way of the Cross

(Also called Stations of the Cross, Via Crucis, and Via Dolorosa). These names are used to signify ...
Viader, José

Jose Viader

Born at Gallimes, Catalonia, 27 August, 1765. He received the habit of St. Francis at Barcelona ...
Vianney, Saint Jean-Baptiste-Marie

St. John Vianney

Curé of Ars, born at Dardilly, near Lyons, France, on 8 May, 1786; died at Ars, 4 ...
Viaticum

Viaticum

Name Among the ancient Greeks the custom prevailed of giving a supper to those setting out on a ...
Viator, Clerics of Saint

Clerics of Saint Viator

St. Viator, lector of the cathedral at Lyons, France, lived in the fourth century and is the ...
Viborg, Ancient See of

Ancient See of Viborg in Denmark

(VIBERGAE, VIBERGENSIS.) The ancient See of Viborg, in Denmark, comprised the Province of ...
Vicar

Vicar

( Latin vicarius , from vice , "instead of") In canon law, the representative of a person ...
Vicar Apostolic

Vicar Apostolic

(1) In the early ages of the Church, the popes committed to some residentiary bishops the ...
Vicar Capitular

Vicar Capitular

The administrator of a vacant diocese, elected by a cathedral chapter. On the death of a ...
Vicar of Christ

Vicar of Christ

(Latin Vicarius Christi ). A title of the pope implying his supreme and universal ...
Vicar-General

Vicar-General

The highest official of a diocese after the ordinary. He is a cleric legitimately deputed to ...
Vicari, Hermann von

Hermann von Vicari

Archbishop of Freiburg in Baden, b. at Aulendorf in Wurtemberg, 13 May, 1773; d. at Freiburg, ...
Vicariate Apostolic (Updated List)

Vicariate Apostolic

The following is an account of the newly-erected vicariates Apostolic and of those changed so ...
Vice

Vice

( Latin vitium , any sort of defect) is here regarded as a habit inclining one to sin. It is ...
Vicelinus, Saint

St. Vicelinus

Bishop of Oldenburg, apostle of Holstein, b. at Hameln about 1086; d. 12 Dec., 1154. Orphaned ...
Vicente, Gil

Gil Vicente

Portuguese dramatist, b. about 1470; he was living in 1536. He took up the study of law but ...
Vicenza, Diocese of

Vicenza

(VICENTINA). The city is the capital of a province in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The ...
Vich, Diocese of

Vich

(Vicensis, Ausonensis). Suffragan of Tarragona, bounded on the north by Gerona, on the east ...
Vico, Francescoe de

Francescoe de Vico

Astronomer, b. at Macerata, States of the Church, 19 May, 1805; d. at London, England, 15 Nov., ...
Victimae Paschali Laudes Immolent Christiani

Victimae Paschali Laudes Immolent Christiani

The first stanza of the Easter sequence. Medieval missals placed it on various days within the ...
Victor

Victor (Bishop of Tunnunum)

Bishop of Tunnunum (Tonnenna, Tunnuna) in Northern Africa and zealous supporter of the Three ...
Victor I, Pope Saint

Pope St. Victor I

(189-198 or 199), date of birth unknown. The "Liber Pontificalis" makes him a native of Africa ...
Victor II, Pope

Pope Victor II

(GEBHARD, COUNT OF CALW, TOLLENSTEIN, AND HIRSCHBERG.) Born about 1018; died at Arezzo, 28 ...
Victor III, Pope Blessed

Pope Blessed Victor III

(DAUFERIUS or DAUFAR). Born in 1026 or 1027 of a non-regnant branch of the Lombard dukes of ...
Victor IV

Victor IV

Two antipopes of this name. I. Cardinal Gregory Conti, elected in opposition to Innocent II ...
Victor of Capua

Victor of Capua

A sixth-century bishop about whose life nothing is known except what is found in his epitaph ...
Victor Vitensis

Victor Vitensis

An African bishop of the Province of Byzacena (called VITENSIS from his See of Vita), b. ...
Victoria

Victoria

(VICTORIEN. IN INS. VANCOUVER.) Diocese in southwestern British Columbia, of which province it ...
Victoria Nyanza, Northern

Vicarite Apostolic of Northern Victoria Nyanza

The Mission of Victoria Nyanza, founded in 1878 by the White Fathers of Cardinal Lavigerie, was ...
Victoria Nyanza, Southern

Southern Victoria Nyanza

Vicariate apostolic erected from the mission of Nyanza, 13 June, 1894, lies north of the ...
Victorinus, Caius Marius

Caius Marius Victorinus

(Called also VICTORINUS MARIUS, or MARIUS FABIUS VICTORINUS, and frequently referred to as ...
Victorinus, Saint

St. Victorinus

An ecclesiastical writer who flourished about 270, and who suffered martyrdom probably in 303, ...
Vida, Marco Girolamo

Marco Girolamo Vida

Italian Humanist, b. at Cremona about 1490; d. in 1566. He came to Rome under Julius II ; a ...
Vieira, Antonio

Antonio Vieira

Missionary, diplomat, orator, b. at Lisbon, 6 February, 1608; d. at Bahia, Brazil, 18 July, 1697. ...
Viel, Nicholas

Nicholas Viel

Died 1625, the first victim of apostolic zeal on the shores of the St. Lawrence. After ...
Vienna

Vienna

Vienna -- the capital of Austria-Hungary, the residence of the emperor, and the seat of a Latin ...
Vienna, University of

University of Vienna

Foundation of the University Next to the University of Prague that of Vienna is the oldest ...
Vienne, Council of

Council of Vienne (1311-12)

Pope Clement V, by the Bull "Regnans in coelis" of 12 Aug., 1308, called a general council to ...
Vierthaler, Franz Michael

Franz Michael Vierthaler

A distinguished Austrian pedagogue, b. at Mauerkirchen, Upper Austria, 25 September, 1758; d. ...
Vieta, François

Francois Vieta, Seigneur de la Bigottiere

(VIÈTE.) Father of modern algebra, b. at Fontenay-le-Comte (Poitou), 1540; d. in ...
Viger, Denis-Benjamin

Denis-Benjamin Viger

French-Canadian statesman and writer, b. at Montreal, 19 Aug., 1774; d. 1861. After studying ...
Viger, Jacques

Jacques Viger

French-Canadian antiquarian and archaeologist, b. at Montreal, 7 May, 1787; d. 12 Dec., 1858. ...
Vigevano

Vigevano

(VIGLEVANENSIS.) Diocese in Lombardy, Province of Pavia. The city is a great agricultural ...
Vigilius

Vigilius

Bishop of Tapsus, in the African Province of Byzacena. Mentioned in the "Notitia" appended to ...
Vigilius, Pope

Pope Vigilius

Reigned 537-55, date of birth unknown; died at Syracuse, 7 June 555. He belonged to a ...
Vigilius, Saint

St. Vigilius (Bishop of Trent)

Bishop of Trent, martyr, patron of Trent and of Tyrol, b. c. 353; d. 26 June, 405; feast 26 ...
Vignola, Giacomo Barozzi da

Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola

A theoretical and practical architect of the Transition Period between the Renaissance and ...
Vigor, Simon

Simon Vigor

French bishop and controversialist, b. at Evreux, Normandy, about 1515; d. at Carcassonne, 1 ...
Vikings

Northmen (Vikings)

The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western ...
Villalpandus, Juan Bautista

Juan Bautista Villalpandus

Born at Cordova, Spain, in 1552; entered the Society of Jesus in 1575; died on 22 May, 1608. His ...
Villani, Giovanni

Giovanni Villani

Florentine historian, b. about 1276; d. of the plague in 1348. Descended from a wealthy family ...
Villanovanus, Arnaldus

Arnaldus Villanovanus

(ARNALDUS OF VILLANUEVA, or VILLENEUVE, or BACHUONE). Celebrated in his day as a physician, ...
Villefranche, Jacques-Melchior

Jacques-Melchior Villefranche

Publicist, b. at Couzon-sur-Saone, 17 Dec., 1829; d. at Bourg, 10 May, 1904. After excellent ...
Villehardouin, Geoffroi de

Geoffroi de Villehardouin

Maréchal de Champagne, warrior, and first historian in the French language, b. about 1150; ...
Villeneuve-Barcement, Jean-Paul-Alban

Jean-Paul-Alban Villeneuve-Barcement

Vicomte de, b. at Saint-Auban, Var, 8 Aug., 1784; d. at Paris, 8 June, 1850. After having taken ...
Villermé, Louis-René

Louis-Rene Villerme

French economist, b. at Paris, 10 March, 1782; d. there, 16 Nov., 1863. He was devoted to ...
Villers, Cistercian Abbey of

Cistercian Abbey of Villers

Situated on the confines of Villers and Tilly, Duchy of Brabant, present Diocese of Namur ...
Vilna

Vilna

(VILENSIS). Vilna, the capital of Lithuania, is situated at the junction of the Rivers ...
Vincent de Paul, Saint

St. Vincent de Paul

Born at Pouy, Gascony, France, in 1580, though some authorities have said 1576; died at Paris, ...
Vincent de Paul, Sisters of Charity of Saint

Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul

A congregation of women with simple vows, founded in 1633 and devoted to corporal and ...
Vincent de Paul, Sisters of Charity of Saint (New York)

Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul (New York)

(Motherhouse at Mt. St. Vincent-on Hudson, New York; not to be confused with the Sisters of ...
Vincent de Paul, Society of Saint

Society of Saint Vincent de Paul

An international association of Catholic laymen engaging systematically in personal service of ...
Vincent Ferrer, Saint

St. Vincent Ferrer

Famous Dominican missionary, born at Valencia, 23 January, 1350; died at Vannes, Brittany, 5 ...
Vincent Kadlubek, Blessed

Blessed Vincent Kadlubek

(KADLUBO, KADLUBKO). Bishop of Cracow, chronicler, b. at Karnow, Duchy of Sandomir, Poland, ...
Vincent of Beauvais

Vincent of Beauvais

Priest and encyclopedist. Little is known of his personal history. The years of his birth and ...
Vincent of Lérins, Saint

St. Vincent of Lerins

Feast on 24 May, an ecclesiastical writer in Southern Gaul in the fifth century. His work is ...
Vincent, Saint

St. Vincent

(MALDEGARIUS). Founder and abbot of the monasteries of Hautmont and Soignies, b. of a noble ...
Vincent, Saint

St. Vincent

Deacon of Saragossa, and martyr under Diocletian, 304; mentioned in the Roman Martyrology, 22 ...
Vincentians

Congregation of the Mission (Vincentians)

A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul. The ...
Vincenzo de Vit

Vincenzo de Vit

Latinist, b. at Mestrina, near Padua, 10 July, 1810; d. at Domo d'Ossola, 17 Aug., 1892. He made ...
Vinci, Leonardo di Ser Piero da

Leonardo da Vinci

(LEONARDO DI SER PIERO DA VINCI) Florentine painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and ...
Vindicianus, Saint

St. Vindicianus

Bishop of Cambrai - Arras, b. if tradition is to be believed, perhaps at Beaulaincourt, near ...
Vineam Domini

Vineam Domini

An Apostolic Constitution issued by Clement XI against the Jansenists on 16 July, 1705. It ...
Violence

Violence

Violence ( Latin vis ), an impulse from without tending to force one without any concurrence on ...
Viotti, Giovanni Battista

Giovanni Battista Viotti

Founder of the modern school of violinist, b. at Fontanetto, Piedmont, 23 May, 173; d. 3 ...
Viraggio, Jacopo di

Bl. Jacopo de Voragine (Di Viraggio)

( Also DI VIRAGGIO). Archbishop of Genoa and medieval hagiologist, born at Viraggio (now ...
Virgilius, Saint

Saint Virgilius

(VIRGILE). Archbishop of Arles, died c. 610. According to a life written in the eighth ...
Virgin Birth of Christ

Virgin Birth of Christ

The dogma which teaches that the Blessed Mother of Jesus Christ was a virgin before, during, ...
Virgin Mary, Devotion to the

Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary

Down to the Council of Nicaea Devotion to Our Blessed Lady in its ultimate analysis must be ...
Virgin Mary, Name of

The Name of Mary

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. The Hebrew ...
Virgin Mary, The

The Blessed Virgin Mary

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. In general, the ...
Virginia

Virginia

Surnamed "The Old Dominion", "The Mother of States and of Statesmen", one of the thirteen original ...
Virginity

Virginity

Morally, virginity signifies the reverence for bodily integrity which is suggested by a virtuous ...
Virtue

Virtue

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Definitions; II. Subjects; III. ...
Virtue, Heroic

Heroic Virtue

The notion of heroicity is derived from hero, originally a warrior, a demigod; hence it connotes a ...
Vischer, Peter

Peter Vischer

Sculptor and metal founder, b. at Nuremberg about 1460; d. in 1529. His father Hermann, who ...
Visdelou, Claude de

Claude de Visdelou

Born at the Château de Bienassis, Pléneuf, Brittany, 122 Aug., 1656; died at ...
Visigoths

Visigoths

One of the two principal branches of the Goths. Until 375 their history is combined with that of ...
Visions

Visions and Apparitions

This article will deal not with natural but with supernatural visions, that is, visions due to ...
Visit ad Limina

Visit Ad Limina

(Sc. Apostolorum ) The visit ad limina means, technically, the obligation incumbent on ...
Visitation Convent, Georgetown

The Visitation Convent (Georgetown)

Located in the District of Columbia , United States of America . This convent was founded by ...
Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary

I. THE EVENT Assuming that the Annunciation and the Incarnation took place about the vernal ...
Visitation Order

Visitation Order

The nuns of the Visitation of Mary, called also Filles de Sainte-Marie, Visitandines, and ...
Visitation, Canonical

Canonical Visitation

The act of an ecclesiastical superior who in the discharge of his office visits persons or ...
Visitors Apostolic

Visitors Apostolic

Officials whom canonists commonly class with papal legates. Visitors differ from other Apostolic ...
Visits to the Blessed Sacrament

Visits To the Blessed Sacrament

By this devotional practice, which is of comparatively modern development, the presence of ...
Vitalian, Pope Saint

Pope St. Vitalian

(Reigned 657-72). Date of birth unknown; d. 27 January, 672. Nothing is known of Vitalian's ...
Vitalini, Bonifazio

Bonifazio Vitalini

(DE VITALINIS). Jurist, b. at Mantua, Italy, about 1320; d. at Avignon after 1388. After ...
Vitalis and Agricola, Saints

Sts. Vitalis and Agricola

Martyred at Bologna about 304 during Diocletian's persecution. Agricola, who was beloved for ...
Vitalis of Savigny, Saint

St. Vitalis of Savigny

Founder of the monastery and Congregation of Savigny (1112), b. at Tierceville near Bayeaux ...
Vitalis, Saint

St. Vitalis

Martyr. His legend, which is of little historical value, relates that he was martyred by order ...
Vitelleschi, Muzio

Muzio Vitelleschi

Born at Rome 2 Dec., 1563; died there 9 Feb., 1645. He belonged to a distinguished family but ...
Vitellius, Lucius

Lucius Vitellius

Proclaimed Roman Emperor by the soldiers at Cologne during the civil war of A.D. 69; d. at Rome, ...
Vitensis, Victor

Victor Vitensis

An African bishop of the Province of Byzacena (called VITENSIS from his See of Vita), b. ...
Viterbo and Toscanella

Viterbo and Toscanella

(VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...
Vitoria

Vitoria

(VICTORIENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Burgos, in Spain, bounded on the north by the Bay of ...
Vittorino da Feltre

Vittorino Da Feltre

(VITTORINO DE' RAMBALDONI). Humanist educator, b. at Feltre, 1397; d. at Mantua, 1446. He was ...
Vitus, Modestus, and Crescentia, Saints

Sts. Vitus, Modestus, and Crescentia

According to the legend, martyrs under Diocletian ; feast, 15 June. The earliest testimony for ...
Viva, Domenico

Domenico Viva

Writer, b. at Lecce, 19 Oct., 1648; d. 5 July, 1726. He entered the Society of Jesus 12 May, ...
Vivarini

Vivarini (Family of Painters)

A family of Italian painters. Alvise Vivarini Born in 1446 or 1447; died in 1502. He was the ...
Vives, Juan Luis

Juan Luis Vives

Spanish humanist and philosopher, b. at Valencia, 6 March, 1492; d. at Bruges, 6 May, 1540. ...
Viviers

Viviers

(VIVARIUM). Diocese ; includes the Department of Ardèche, France. It was suppressed ...
Vivisection

Moral Aspect of Vivisection

Defined literally the word vivisection signifies the dissection of living creatures; ordinarily it ...
Vizagapatam, Diocese of

Vizagapatam

Located in the east of India, suffragan to Madras. It is bounded on the north by the River ...
Vizeu

Vizeu

(VISENSIS). Diocese in north central Portugal. The bishopric dates from the sixth century and ...
Vladimir the Great, Saint

St. Vladimir the Great

(VLADIMIR or VOLODOMIR). Grand Duke of Kieff and All Russia, grandson of St. Olga, and the ...
Vocation, Ecclesiastical and Religious

Ecclesiastical and Religious Vocation

An ecclesiastical or religious vocation is the special gift of those who, in the Church of God, ...
Vogüé, Eugène-Melchior, Vicomte de

Eugene-Melchior, Vicomte de Vogue

Critic, novelist, and historian, born at Nice, 25 February, 1848; died in Paris, 24 February, ...
Vogler, George Joseph

George Joseph Vogler

Theorist, composer and organist, b. at Würzburg, 15 June 1749, d. at Darmstadt, 6 May, ...
Volk, Wilhelm

Wilhelm Volk

(Pseudonym, LUDWIG CLARUS). Born at Halberstadt 25 Jan., 1804; died at Erfurt 17 March, 1869. ...
Volksverein

Volksverein

(PEOPLE'S UNION) FOR CATHOLIC GERMANY. A large and important organization of German Catholics ...
Volta, Alessandro

Alessandro Volta

Physicist, b. at Como, 18 Feb., 1745; d. there, 5 March, 1827. As his parents were not in ...
Volterra

Volterra

(VOLTARRANENSIS). Diocese in Tuscany. The city stands on a rocky mountain 1770 feet above the ...
Volterra, Daniele da

Daniele Da Volterra

(RICCIARELLI). Italian painter, b. at Volterra, 1509; d. in Rome, 1566. Ricciarelli was called ...
Voluntarism

Voluntarism

Voluntarism ( Latin voluntas , will) in the modern metaphysical sense is a theory which ...
Voluntary

Voluntary

Wilful, proceeding from the will. It is requisite that the thing be an effect of the will ...
Voluntary Association, Right of

Right of Voluntary Association

I. LEGAL RIGHT A voluntary association means any group of individuals freely united for the ...
Von Gagern, Max, Freiherr

Freiherr Max von Gagern

Born at Weilburg (in Nassau), Germany, 25 March, 1810; died at Vienna, 17 October, 1889. He was ...
Vondel, Joost van Den

Joost van Den Vondel

Netherland poet and convert, b. at Cologne, 17 Nov., 1587, of parents whose residence was ...
Voragine, Jacopo de

Bl. Jacopo de Voragine (Di Viraggio)

( Also DI VIRAGGIO). Archbishop of Genoa and medieval hagiologist, born at Viraggio (now ...
Votive Mass

Votive Mass

( Missa votiva ) A Mass offered for a votum , a special intention. So we frequently find ...
Votive Offerings

Votive Offerings

The general name given to those things vowed or dedicated to God, or a saint, and in ...
Votive Offices

Votive Offices

A votive office is one not entered in the general calendar, but adopted with a view to satisfying ...
Vows

Vows

I. GENERAL VIEW A vow is defined as a promise made to God. The promise is binding, and so differs ...
Vrau, Philibert

Philibert Vrau

"The holy man of Lille ", organizer of numerous Catholic activities; b. at Lille, 19 Nov., ...
Vrie, Theodoric

Theodoric Vrie

Historian of the Council of Constance . He describes himself as a brother of the Order of ...
Vulgate, Revision of

Revision of Vulgate

In the spring of 1907 the public press announced that Pius X had determined to begin preparations ...

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