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University of Pisa

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In the eleventh century there were many jurisconsults at Pisa who lectured on law ; prominent among them were Opitone and Sigerdo. There also was preserved a codex of the Pandects, dated, it was said, from Justinian. Four professors of the Law School of Bologna, Bulgarus, Burgundius, Uguccione, and Bandino, successors of Irnerius, were trained here; Burgundius acquired renown by his translation of the Pandects and of Greek works on medicine. Gerardo de Fasiano, Lambertuccio Arminzochi, Zacchia da Volterra, Giovanni Fagioli, Ugo Benci, Baldo da Forli, and Giovanni d'Andrea taught at Pisa in the thirteenth century. In the same century medicine also was taught; the most famous professor was Guido of Pisa, who afterwards went to Bologna (1278). In 1338, as Benedict XII had placed Bologna under interdict, Ranieri da Forli and Bartolo removed to Pisa with a large following. The Studium of Pisa is mentioned in the communal documents of 1340. In 1343 Clement VI erected a studium generale , with all the faculties, including theology ; and Charles IV confirmed it in 1355.

The university, however, did not flourish. From 1359 to 1364 it was closed, and was only reopened by Urban VI. Meantime, however, the teaching of law was not discontinued. In 1406 Pisa fell into the power of the Florentines who suppressed the university. In 1473 Lorenzo de' Medici with Sixtus IV's approval closed the University of Florence and reopened Pisa. For its endowment the goods of the Church and clergy were put under contribution to such an extent that Paul III in 1534 recalled the concessions of his predecessors. The most celebrated teachers of this first epoch were the jurisconsults Francesco Tigrini, Baldo degli Ubaldi, Lancellotto Decio, Francesco Alcolti, Baldo Bartolini, Giasone del Maino, Bartolommeo and Mariano Socini; the physicians, Guido da Prato, Ammanati, Ugolino da Montecatini, Alessandro Sermoneta, Albertino da Cremona, Pietro Leoni, and Cristoforo Prati; the Humanists, Bartolommeo da Pratorecchi, Lorenzo Lippi, Andrea Dati, Mariano Tucci; the theologians, Bernardino Cherichini (1478) and Giorgio Benigni Salviati.

In 1543 Cosimo de' Medici undertook to restore the university, and to this end Paul III made large concessions out of the revenues of the Church and monasteries. Several colleges were founded, such as the Ducal College, the Ferdinando, and the Puteano (Pozzi for the Piedmontese ). The university at this time became famous especially by its cultivation of the natural sciences. Among its noted scientists were: Cesalpino (botany, medicine, philosophy ); Galileo Galilei (mathematics and astronomy ); Borelli (mechanics and medicine ); Luca Ghini, first director of the botanical gardens (1544); Andrea Vesalio, Realdo Colombo, Gabriele Falloppo ; Giovanni Risischi, and Lambeccari in anatomy ; Baccio Baldini, Vidio Vidi, Girolamo Mercuriale, Rodrigo Fonseca (seventeenth century), Fil. Cavriami, Marcello Malpighi in medicine. In view of its progressive spirit, Pisa may be called the cradle of modern science. The professors of jurisprudence were rather conservative, but there were not wanting able thinkers, such as the two Torellis, Francesco Vegio, Asinio, Giacomo Mandelli, the two Facchinis, and the Scotsman Dempster ; Nicola Bonaparte, who introduced into Pisa the critical-historical study of Roman Law inaugurated by Cujas, Giuseppe Averani, Stefano Fabrucci, historian of the university, Bernardo Tanucci, afterwards minister of Charles III of Naples.

At the beginning of the eighteenth century the university was again in a precarious condition ; but the new Lorenzian dynasty sought to strengthen it by increasing the scientific institutes, and revising the statutes ; thus after 1744 the rector was no longer elected by the scholars or from their ranks, but had to be one of the professors. In the eighteenth century Valsecchi and Berti won distinction in theology ; Andrea Guadegni, Bart. Franc. Pellegrini, Migliorotto Maccioni, Flaminio Dal Borgo, Gian Maria Lampredi, Sandonnini (canonist), the criminalists della Pura and Ranuccia in jurisprudence ; Politi, Corsini, Antonioli, Sarti in letters; Guido Grandi, Claudio Fromond, Anton Nicola Branchi, Lorenzo Pignotti, Lorenzo Tilli, and Giorgio Santi in natural science ; Angelo Gatti, Antonio Matani, Franc. Torrigiani in medicine ; Brogiani and Berlinghieri in anatomy. In 1808 the regulations of the French universities were introduced, but were superseded by others in 1814. The professors were then divided into the faculties of theology, law (comprising philosophy and literature), and medicine. But the number of the chairs increased; in 1840 there were six faculties. In 1847 the "Annali delle Università toscane" were published.

In 1851, for political reasons, the Universities of Pisa and Siena were united, the faculties of jurisprudence and theology located at Siena, and those of philosophy and medicine at Pisa. The former regime was re-established in 1859 with such modifications as the Law of Casati required. In 1873 all chairs of theology were suppressed throughout Italy. Noted professors in law were Lorenzo Quartieri, Federico del Rosso, Valeri, Poggi, Salvagnoli, Franc. Ferrara, P. Emilio Imbriani, and Franc. Carrara (criminalist). Science and letters were represented by the physicist Gerbi; the chemist Piria; the mathematician Betti; the physicians Puccinotti, Pacini, Marcacci, Ranzi (pathology); the criminalist Rosellini, the Latinist Ferrucci; and Francesco de Sanctis, literary critic. Besides the usual faculties, Pisa has schools of engineering, agriculture, veterinary medicine and pharmacy, and a normal high school. In 1910-11 there were 159 instructors and 1160 students.

More Volume: U 91

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Ubaghs, Casimir

Casimir Ubaghs

Born at Bergélez-Fauquemont, 26 November, 1800; died at Louvain, 15 February, 1875, was for ...
Ubaldus, Saint

St. Ubaldus

Confessor, Bishop of Gubbio, born of noble parents at Gubbio, Umbria, Italy, towards the ...
Ubanghi

Ubanghi

(UPPER FRENCH CONGO.) Vicariate Apostolic ; formerly part of the Vicariate of French Congo, ...
Ubanghi, Belgian

Prefecture Apostolic of Belgian Ubanghi

In Belgian Congo, separated on 7 April, 1911, from the Vicariate of the Belgian Congo and ...
Ubanghi-Chari

Ubanghi-Chari

Prefecture Apostolic in Equatorial Africa, lies west of the Bahr-el-Ghazal territory and south ...
Uberaba

Uberaba

(DE UBERABA.) Suffragan diocese of Marianna, in Brazil, created by the Consistorial ...
Ubertino of Casale

Ubertino of Casale

Leader of the Spirituals, born at Casale of Vercelli, 1259; died about 1330. He assumed the ...
Ubiquitarians

Ubiquitarians

Also called Ubiquists , a Protestant sect started at the Lutheran synod of Stuttgart, 19 ...
Ucayali

Ucayali

(SAN FRANCISCO DE UCAYALI.) Prefecture Apostolic in Peru. At the request of the Peruvian ...
Uccello

Uccello

Painter, born at Florence, 1397; died there, 1475. His real name was Paolo di Dono, but from his ...
Udine

Udine

(UTINENSIS) The city of Udine, the capital of a province and archdiocese in Friuli, northern ...
Ugento

Ugento

(UXENTIN) The city of Ugento, with its small harbour, is situated in the Province of Leece, in ...
Ughelli, Ferdinando

Ferdinando Ughelli

Historian, born at Florence, 21 March, 1595; died 19 May, 1670. Having entered the Cistercian ...
Uhtred

Uhtred

(Also spelled: Uhtred or Owtred ), an English Benedictine theologian and writer, born at ...
Ujejski, Cornelius

Cornelius Ujejski

Polish poet, born at Beremiany, Galicia, 1823; died at Cholojewie, 1897. His father was a ...
Ulenberg, Kaspar

Kaspar Ulenberg

Convert, theological writer and translator of the Bible , born at Lippstadt on the Lippe, ...
Ulfilas

Ulfilas

(Also: Ulphilas ), apostle of the Goths, missionary, translator of the Bible , and inventor ...
Ullathorne, William Bernard

William Bernard Ullathorne

English Benedictine monk and bishop, b. at Pocklington, Yorkshire, 7 May, 1806; d. at Oscott, ...
Ullerston, Richard

Richard Ullerston

Born in the Duchy of Lancaster, England ; d. in August or September, 1423. Having been ordained ...
Ulloa, Antoine de

Antoine de Ulloa

Naval officer and scientist, born at Seville, Spain, 12 Jan., 1716; died near Cadiz, Spain, 5 ...
Ulloa, Francisco de

Francisco de Ulloa

Died 1540. It is not known when he came to Mexico nor if he accompanied Hernan Cortés in ...
Ulrich of Bamberg

Ulrich of Bamberg

(Udalricus Babenbergensis), a cleric of the cathedral church of Bamberg, of whom nothing more ...
Ulrich of Richenthal

Ulrich of Richenthal

Chronicler of the Council of Constance , date of birth unknown; died about 1438. Ulrich was ...
Ulrich of Zell

St. Ulrich of Zell

(Wulderic; called also of Cluny, and of Ratisbon ), born at Ratisbon, at the beginning of 1029; ...
Ulrich, Saint

St. Ulrich

Bishop of Augsburg, born at Kyburg, Zurich, Switzerland, in 890; died at Augsburg, 4 July, ...
Ultan of Ardbracca

St. Ultan of Ardbraccan

St. Ultan of Ardbraccan, Ireland, was the maternal uncle of St. Brigid, and collected a life of ...
Ultramontanism

Ultramontanism

A term used to denote integral and active Catholicism, because it recognizes as its spiritual ...
Unam Sanctam

Unam Sanctam

(Latin the One Holy , i.e. Church ), the Bull on papal supremacy issued 18 November, 1302, ...
Unclean and Clean

Clean and Unclean

The distinction between legal and ceremonial, as opposed to moral, cleanness and uncleanness ...
Unction, Extreme

Extreme Unction

A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect ...
Ungava

Ungava

A Canadian territory lying north of the Province of Quebec, detached (1876) from the Great ...
Uniformity Acts

Uniformity Acts

These statutes, passed at different times, were vain efforts to secure uniformity in public ...
Unigenitus

Unigenitus

A celebrated Apostolic Constitution of Clement XI, condemning 101 propositions of Pasquier ...
Union of Brest

Union of Brest

Brest -- in Russian, Brest-Litovski; in Polish, Brzesc; in the old chronicles, called Brestii, or ...
Union of Christendom

Union of Christendom

The Catholic Church is by far the largest, the most widespread, and the most ancient of ...
Unions of Prayer

Unions of Prayer

A tendency to form unions of prayer among the faithful has recently manifested itself in the ...
Unitarians

Unitarians

A Liberal Protestant sect which holds as it distinctive tenet the belief in a uni-personal ...
Unitas Fratrum

Bohemian Brethren

(MORAVIAN BRETHREN, or UNITAS FRATRUM). DEFINITION AND DOCTRINAL POSITION "Bohemian Brethren" ...
United States of America, The

The United States of America

BOUNDARIES AND AREA On the east the boundary is formed by the St. Croix River and an arbitrary ...
Unitive Way

State Or Way (Purgative, Illuminative, Unitive)

The word state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers. It may be ...
Unity

Unity (As a Mark of the Church)

The marks of the Church are certain unmistakeable signs, or distinctive characteristics which ...
Universalists

Universalists

A Liberal Protestant sect -- found chiefly in North America -- whose distinctive tenet is the ...
Universals

Universals

The name refers on the one hand to the inclination towards uniformity ( uni-versus ) existing in ...
Universe

Universe

Universe (or "world") is here taken in the astronomical sense, in its narrower or wider ...
Universe, Relation of God to the

Relation of God to the Universe

1. Essential Dependence of the Universe on God (Creation and Conservation) In developing the ...
Universities

Universities

The principal Catholic foundations have been treated in special articles; here the general ...
University College (Dublin)

University College, Dublin

A constitutional college of the National University of Ireland. By its charter, granted 2 Dec., ...
Unjust Aggressor

Unjust Aggressor

According to the accepted teaching of theologians, it is lawful, in the defense of life or limb, ...
Unyanyembe

Unyanyembe

Vicariate apostolic in German East Africa, separated from the Vicariate Apostolic of Nyanza ...
Upper Nile

Upper Nile

Vicariate apostolic ; separated from the mission of Nyanza, 6 July, 1894, comprises the eastern ...
Upper Rhine

Upper Rhine

Ecclesiastical province; includes the Archdiocese of Freiburg and the suffragan Dioceses of ...
Upsala, Ancient See of

Upsala

When St. Ansgar, the Apostle of the North, went to Sweden in 829 the Swedes were still heathen ...
Upsala, University of

University of Upsala

The oldest and most celebrated university of Sweden. Even today the arrangement of its ...
Uranopolis

Uranopolis

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ancyra in Galatia Prima. It is vainly sought in any ...
Urban I, Pope Saint

Pope Urban I

Reigned 222-30, date of birth unknown; died 23 May, 230. According to the "Liber Pontificalis," ...
Urban II, Pope Blessed

Pope Bl. Urban II

(Otho, Otto or Odo of Lagery), 1088-1099, born of a knightly family, at Châtillon-sur-Marne ...
Urban III, Pope

Pope Urban III

Reigned 1185-87, born at Milan ; died at Ferrara, 19 October, 1187. Uberto, of the noble ...
Urban IV, Pope

Pope Urban IV

Reigned 1261-64 (Jacques Pantaléon), son of a French cobbler, born at Troyes, probably in ...
Urban V, Pope Blessed

Pope Bl. Urban V

Guillaume de Grimoard, born at Grisac in Languedoc, 1310; died at Avignon, 19 December, 1370. ...
Urban VI, Pope

Pope Urban VI

Bartolomeo Prignano, the first Roman pope during the Western Schism, born at Naples, about ...
Urban VII, Pope

Pope Urban VII

Giambattista Castagna, born at Rome, 4 Aug., 1521; elected pope, 15 September, 1590; died at ...
Urban VIII, Pope

Pope Urban VIII

Maffeo Barberini, born at Florence in April, 1568; elected pope, 6 August, 1623; died at Rome, 29 ...
Urbi et Orbi

Urbi Et Orbi

The term Urbi et Orbi (which means "for the city and for the world") signifies that a papal ...
Urbino

Urbino

(URBINATENSIS) Province of Pesaro and Urbino, Italy. The city of Urbino is situated on a ...
Urbs beata Jerusalem dicta pacis visio

Urbs Beata Jerusalem Dicta Pacis Visio

The first line of a hymn of probably the seventh or eighth century, comprising eight stanzas ...
Urdaneta, Andrés

Andres Urdaneta

Augustinian, born at Villafranca, Guipúzcoa, Spain, 1498; died in the City of Mexico, ...
Urgel

Urgel

(U RGELLENSIS ). Diocese in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; bounded on the N. by France ...
Urim and Thummim

Urim and Thummim

The sacred lot by means of which the ancient Hebrews were wont to seek manifestations of the ...
Urmiah

Urmiah

A residential see in Chaldea, in the Province of Adherbaidjan, Persia. The primitive name of this ...
Urráburu, Juan José

Juan Jose Urraburu

Scholastic philosopher, born at Ceanuri, Biscay, 23 May, 1844; died at Burgos, 13 August, 1904. ...
Ursperger Chronicle

Ursperger Chronicle

A history of the world in Latin that begins with the Assyrian King Ninius and extends to the year ...
Ursula of the Blessed Virgin, Society of the Sisters of Saint

Society of the Sisters of St. Ursula of the Blessed Virgin

Religious congregation of women founded in 1606 at Döle (then a Spanish possession), ...
Ursula, Saint, and the Eleven Thousand Virgins

St. Ursula and the Eleven Thousand Virgins

The history of these celebrated virgins of Cologne rests on ten lines, and these are open to ...
Ursulines of Quebec, The

The Ursulines of Quebec

The Ursuline monastery of Quebec is the oldest institution of learning for women in North ...
Ursulines, The

The Ursulines

A religious order founded by St. Angela de Merici for the sole purpose of educating young ...
Ursus, Saint

St. Ursus

Patron of the principal church of Solothurn (Soleure) in Switzerland, honoured from very early ...
Urubamba

Urubamba

(MISIONES DE SANTO DOMINGO DE URUBAMBA Y MADRE DE DIOS) This prefecture apostolic was created ...
Uruguay

Uruguay

(REPUBLICA ORIENTAL DEL URUGUAY). The smallest independent state in South America, extending ...
Uruguayana

Uruguayana

(URUGUAYANESIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Porto Alegre, Brazil. By a Decree dated 15 August, ...
Ushaw College

Ushaw College

(College of St. Cuthbert) A combined college and seminary for the six dioceses that were ...
Usilla

Usilla

A titular see of Byzacena in Africa. Nothing is known of the history of this city; it is ...
Usuard, Martyrology of

Martyrology of Usuard

Usuard was a Benedictine monk of the Abbey of St-Germain-des-Prxs, Paris. He seems to have ...
Usury

Usury

In the article INTEREST we have reserved the question of the lawfulness of taking interest on ...
Ut Queant Laxis Resonare Fibris

Ut Queant Laxis Resonare Fibris

The first line of a hymn in honour of St. John the Baptist. The Roman Breviary divides it ...
Utah

Utah

Utah, the thirty-second state admitted to the Union, takes its name from an Indian tribe known ...
Uthina

Uthina

A titular see of Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Uthina is mentioned by Ptolemy ...
Utica

Utica

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis. The city was founded by Tyrian colonists at the mouth ...
Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism

( Latin utilis , useful). Utilitarianism is a modern form of the Hedonistic ethical theory ...
Utopia

Utopia

(Greek ou no or not, and topos place), a term used to designate a visionary or an ideally ...
Utraquism

Utraquism

The principal dogma, and one of the four articles, of the Calixtines or Hussites . It was first ...
Utrecht, Archdiocese of

Utrecht

Situated in the Netherlands, includes the Provinces of Utrecht, Friesland, Overyssel, Drenthe, ...

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