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University of Fribourg (Switzerland)

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From the sixteenth century, the foundation of a Catholic university in Switzerland had often been canvassed among the Catholic cantons. The need of such an institution was with the passage of time ever more keenly felt, as the fact that higher educational institutions existed only in the Protestant cantons ensured for the Protestants a certain intellectual ascendancy. In spite of the pressing nature of the case, however, the want of the necessary means and the jealousy among the Catholic cantons combined to prevent any solution of the question being arrived at. From the very beginning, the inhabitants of Fribourg had laboured most zealously for the establishment of a university in their town. Out of their own resources, they founded in 1763 a school of law, which was continued till 1889 and then merged in the juristic faculty of the university. During the nineteenth century, the Catholic movement in Switzerland, making the Swiss "Pius-Verein" its rallying-centre, reinaugurated the agitation for a Catholic university. The Catholic Conservative Government of Fribourg finally took the matter in hand, and George Python, State Councillor for Fribourg and from 1886 Director of Public Education, who enjoyed the fullest confidence of the people, effected the foundation of the university. It was certainly a bold undertaking for a little state of only 119,000 (in 1909, 130,000) inhabitants, but the energy and political acumen of Python coupled with the unselfish liberality of the legislative council were a certain guarantee of success. The conversion of the public debt under favourable conditions in 1886 resulted in a saving of 2,500,000 francs (500,000 dollars), and on 24 December of the same year the supreme council resolved to set aside this sum as a foundation fund for the proposed university. On 4 October, 1889, a second resolution was passed, appropriating the interest on this capital to the foundation of the first faculties, which were opened in the following November, the juristic faculty (the extended school of law ) with nine professors and the philosophical (for philosophy, literature, and history) with eighteen.

The town of Fribourg, seat of the university, contributed half a million francs towards the funded capital of the university, and in the autumn of 1890 the theological faculty was instituted with seven professors, In accordance with an agreement between the Government of Fribourg and Father Larocca, General of the Dominicans, this faculty was with the sanction of Leo XIII entrusted to the Dominican Order, and placed directly under the care of the Holy See. Many secular priests, however, have held chairs in the theological faculty, which has received from Rome the privilege of granting academical degrees (baccalaureate, licentiate, doctorate) in theology. The other faculties confer only the degrees of licentiate and doctorate. By the appropriation to the university of the profit on the public supply of water and electricity, and of a fixed annual sum from the newly-founded state bank, the further development of these three faculties and the establishment of the faculty of mathematical physics were made possible. The new faculty was opened in 1895 with eleven professors, and, as the institution of infirmaries has already been some years in progress, the establishment of the medical faculty-the only story now needed to crown the academical edifice-may be expected at an early date. Meanwhile, chairs of physiology and bacteriology have been instituted in connexion with the faculty of mathematical physics.

Despite many difficulties, including the crisis caused by the wanton dismissal of eight German professors in 1898, the development of the University of Fribourg has been steadily maintained. As a cantonal public institution, it stands on the same legal footing as the other universities of Switzerland. The supreme authority is vested in the Cantonal Department of Public Education (i.e the State Council), practically all the expenses being borne by the canton. The general constitution of the university is regulated by the Charter of 1 December, 1899. Leo XIII viewed its foundation with a great satisfaction to which he gave personal expression in many letters to the authorities of the Canton, to the university itself, and to the Swiss episcopate. The main sources of revenue, according to the cantonal budget for 1909, are as follows: Interest on foundation fund, 125,000 francs; yearly contributions from state bank, 80,000 frs.; profits arising from the electric and water works, 150,000 frs.; lease, 2,580 frs. To this sum of 357,580 frs. must be added 7700 frs. for the legal chairs and other endowments (especially the "Grivel" and the "Westermaier"). Many funds have been established for the assistance of students, and the institution of prizes.

In accordance with the wishes of its founder, the university has always maintained an international character, which consists not alone in the appointment of native professors to teach the history and literature of their native lands, but also in the various nationalities of the students attracted to the university. The lectures are delivered in Latin, French, and German. In the winter term of 1908-9, the teaching staff consisted of 70 lecturers from ten different lands, but especially from Switzerland, Germany, France, and Austria. Their distribution among the faculties was as follows: Theology, 13 ordinary and 2 extraordinary professors; Law, 14 ordinary and 4 extraordinary professors; Philosophy, 19 ordinary and 3 extraordinary professors; Mathematical Physics 10 ordinary and 3 extraordinary professors with 2 I4ivatdozen~en. The increase in the attendance at the university may be judged from this table of matriculated students:

Winter Term.

1890--1

1900--1

1908--9

Theology
Law
Philosophy
Mathematical Physics

Total

64
46
28

138

127
65
54
80

326

202
124
107
135

568

Of the 568 students in the winter term of 1908-9 181 were Swiss, 90 Germans, 86 Russians (Poles and Lithuanians), 32 Bulgarians, 31 Italians, 23 from the United States, 21 from Austria-Hungary, and the remainder from eleven other lands.

The university is governed by the rector, elected each year at the general meeting of the ordinary professors. He is assisted by the senate, which consists of the rector, pro-rector, and the deans and assistant deans of the separate faculties. At the head of each faculty stands the dean, who also holds office for a single year. The professors are appointed by the Council of State on the recommendation of the members of the faculty concerned, except that in the appointment of professors of theology due attention is always paid to the requirements of ecclesiastical law and the terms of the agreement with the Dominican Order. Candidates are recognized as matriculated students on the production of a certificate which can be procured by following a certain course of academical studies in their native towns. Since 1905, women are allowed to matriculate, and, in addition to the regular students, permission may be given by the rector to other persons to attend particular lectures. As such persons numbered 119 in the winter term 1908-9, the total number of students who attended lectures during this period was 687. All the matriculated students are enrolled in a general association, called the "Akademia", and also contribute to an academic sick-fund. Many societies have been founded by the students of various lands for the promotion of social and intellectual intercourse. Thus, the "Columbia" has been instituted by the students from the United States, and publishes its own bulletin "The Columbia". There are three colleges for theological students: the Albertinum, Salesianum, and Canisianum, A special university society has been inaugurated to further the interests of the university. The university library is associated with that of the canton (which contains 140,000 volumes, 16,000 brochures, 534 manuscripts, and 350 incunabula), a new building for the accommodation of both libraries having been opened in 1908. The library expends an annual sum of 16,500 frs. in the purchase of books and journals. There are separate libraries for the different academical courses and institutes, 7650 frs. being spent annually on those in connection with the theological, legal, and philosophical faculties, and 30,000 frs. for those of the faculty of mathematical physics. The university has its own scientific publication, the "Collectanea Friburgensia", for which only contributions from professors are accepted, and in which twenty-five works have already appeared in three series. The list of the publications of the university lecturers, which is appended to the rector's annual report, gives one a good idea of the activity of the professors in other directions.

More Volume: U 91

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Ubaghs, Casimir

Casimir Ubaghs

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Ubaldus, Saint

St. Ubaldus

Confessor, Bishop of Gubbio, born of noble parents at Gubbio, Umbria, Italy, towards the ...
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(UPPER FRENCH CONGO.) Vicariate Apostolic ; formerly part of the Vicariate of French Congo, ...
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Prefecture Apostolic of Belgian Ubanghi

In Belgian Congo, separated on 7 April, 1911, from the Vicariate of the Belgian Congo and ...
Ubanghi-Chari

Ubanghi-Chari

Prefecture Apostolic in Equatorial Africa, lies west of the Bahr-el-Ghazal territory and south ...
Uberaba

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(DE UBERABA.) Suffragan diocese of Marianna, in Brazil, created by the Consistorial ...
Ubertino of Casale

Ubertino of Casale

Leader of the Spirituals, born at Casale of Vercelli, 1259; died about 1330. He assumed the ...
Ubiquitarians

Ubiquitarians

Also called Ubiquists , a Protestant sect started at the Lutheran synod of Stuttgart, 19 ...
Ucayali

Ucayali

(SAN FRANCISCO DE UCAYALI.) Prefecture Apostolic in Peru. At the request of the Peruvian ...
Uccello

Uccello

Painter, born at Florence, 1397; died there, 1475. His real name was Paolo di Dono, but from his ...
Udine

Udine

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Ugento

Ugento

(UXENTIN) The city of Ugento, with its small harbour, is situated in the Province of Leece, in ...
Ughelli, Ferdinando

Ferdinando Ughelli

Historian, born at Florence, 21 March, 1595; died 19 May, 1670. Having entered the Cistercian ...
Uhtred

Uhtred

(Also spelled: Uhtred or Owtred ), an English Benedictine theologian and writer, born at ...
Ujejski, Cornelius

Cornelius Ujejski

Polish poet, born at Beremiany, Galicia, 1823; died at Cholojewie, 1897. His father was a ...
Ulenberg, Kaspar

Kaspar Ulenberg

Convert, theological writer and translator of the Bible , born at Lippstadt on the Lippe, ...
Ulfilas

Ulfilas

(Also: Ulphilas ), apostle of the Goths, missionary, translator of the Bible , and inventor ...
Ullathorne, William Bernard

William Bernard Ullathorne

English Benedictine monk and bishop, b. at Pocklington, Yorkshire, 7 May, 1806; d. at Oscott, ...
Ullerston, Richard

Richard Ullerston

Born in the Duchy of Lancaster, England ; d. in August or September, 1423. Having been ordained ...
Ulloa, Antoine de

Antoine de Ulloa

Naval officer and scientist, born at Seville, Spain, 12 Jan., 1716; died near Cadiz, Spain, 5 ...
Ulloa, Francisco de

Francisco de Ulloa

Died 1540. It is not known when he came to Mexico nor if he accompanied Hernan Cortés in ...
Ulrich of Bamberg

Ulrich of Bamberg

(Udalricus Babenbergensis), a cleric of the cathedral church of Bamberg, of whom nothing more ...
Ulrich of Richenthal

Ulrich of Richenthal

Chronicler of the Council of Constance , date of birth unknown; died about 1438. Ulrich was ...
Ulrich of Zell

St. Ulrich of Zell

(Wulderic; called also of Cluny, and of Ratisbon ), born at Ratisbon, at the beginning of 1029; ...
Ulrich, Saint

St. Ulrich

Bishop of Augsburg, born at Kyburg, Zurich, Switzerland, in 890; died at Augsburg, 4 July, ...
Ultan of Ardbracca

St. Ultan of Ardbraccan

St. Ultan of Ardbraccan, Ireland, was the maternal uncle of St. Brigid, and collected a life of ...
Ultramontanism

Ultramontanism

A term used to denote integral and active Catholicism, because it recognizes as its spiritual ...
Unam Sanctam

Unam Sanctam

(Latin the One Holy , i.e. Church ), the Bull on papal supremacy issued 18 November, 1302, ...
Unclean and Clean

Clean and Unclean

The distinction between legal and ceremonial, as opposed to moral, cleanness and uncleanness ...
Unction, Extreme

Extreme Unction

A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect ...
Ungava

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Uniformity Acts

Uniformity Acts

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Unigenitus

Unigenitus

A celebrated Apostolic Constitution of Clement XI, condemning 101 propositions of Pasquier ...
Union of Brest

Union of Brest

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Union of Christendom

Union of Christendom

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Unions of Prayer

Unions of Prayer

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Unitarians

Unitarians

A Liberal Protestant sect which holds as it distinctive tenet the belief in a uni-personal ...
Unitas Fratrum

Bohemian Brethren

(MORAVIAN BRETHREN, or UNITAS FRATRUM). DEFINITION AND DOCTRINAL POSITION "Bohemian Brethren" ...
United States of America, The

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BOUNDARIES AND AREA On the east the boundary is formed by the St. Croix River and an arbitrary ...
Unitive Way

State Or Way (Purgative, Illuminative, Unitive)

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Unity

Unity (As a Mark of the Church)

The marks of the Church are certain unmistakeable signs, or distinctive characteristics which ...
Universalists

Universalists

A Liberal Protestant sect -- found chiefly in North America -- whose distinctive tenet is the ...
Universals

Universals

The name refers on the one hand to the inclination towards uniformity ( uni-versus ) existing in ...
Universe

Universe

Universe (or "world") is here taken in the astronomical sense, in its narrower or wider ...
Universe, Relation of God to the

Relation of God to the Universe

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Unjust Aggressor

Unjust Aggressor

According to the accepted teaching of theologians, it is lawful, in the defense of life or limb, ...
Unyanyembe

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Vicariate apostolic in German East Africa, separated from the Vicariate Apostolic of Nyanza ...
Upper Nile

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Vicariate apostolic ; separated from the mission of Nyanza, 6 July, 1894, comprises the eastern ...
Upper Rhine

Upper Rhine

Ecclesiastical province; includes the Archdiocese of Freiburg and the suffragan Dioceses of ...
Upsala, Ancient See of

Upsala

When St. Ansgar, the Apostle of the North, went to Sweden in 829 the Swedes were still heathen ...
Upsala, University of

University of Upsala

The oldest and most celebrated university of Sweden. Even today the arrangement of its ...
Uranopolis

Uranopolis

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ancyra in Galatia Prima. It is vainly sought in any ...
Urban I, Pope Saint

Pope Urban I

Reigned 222-30, date of birth unknown; died 23 May, 230. According to the "Liber Pontificalis," ...
Urban II, Pope Blessed

Pope Bl. Urban II

(Otho, Otto or Odo of Lagery), 1088-1099, born of a knightly family, at Châtillon-sur-Marne ...
Urban III, Pope

Pope Urban III

Reigned 1185-87, born at Milan ; died at Ferrara, 19 October, 1187. Uberto, of the noble ...
Urban IV, Pope

Pope Urban IV

Reigned 1261-64 (Jacques Pantaléon), son of a French cobbler, born at Troyes, probably in ...
Urban V, Pope Blessed

Pope Bl. Urban V

Guillaume de Grimoard, born at Grisac in Languedoc, 1310; died at Avignon, 19 December, 1370. ...
Urban VI, Pope

Pope Urban VI

Bartolomeo Prignano, the first Roman pope during the Western Schism, born at Naples, about ...
Urban VII, Pope

Pope Urban VII

Giambattista Castagna, born at Rome, 4 Aug., 1521; elected pope, 15 September, 1590; died at ...
Urban VIII, Pope

Pope Urban VIII

Maffeo Barberini, born at Florence in April, 1568; elected pope, 6 August, 1623; died at Rome, 29 ...
Urbi et Orbi

Urbi Et Orbi

The term Urbi et Orbi (which means "for the city and for the world") signifies that a papal ...
Urbino

Urbino

(URBINATENSIS) Province of Pesaro and Urbino, Italy. The city of Urbino is situated on a ...
Urbs beata Jerusalem dicta pacis visio

Urbs Beata Jerusalem Dicta Pacis Visio

The first line of a hymn of probably the seventh or eighth century, comprising eight stanzas ...
Urdaneta, Andrés

Andres Urdaneta

Augustinian, born at Villafranca, Guipúzcoa, Spain, 1498; died in the City of Mexico, ...
Urgel

Urgel

(U RGELLENSIS ). Diocese in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; bounded on the N. by France ...
Urim and Thummim

Urim and Thummim

The sacred lot by means of which the ancient Hebrews were wont to seek manifestations of the ...
Urmiah

Urmiah

A residential see in Chaldea, in the Province of Adherbaidjan, Persia. The primitive name of this ...
Urráburu, Juan José

Juan Jose Urraburu

Scholastic philosopher, born at Ceanuri, Biscay, 23 May, 1844; died at Burgos, 13 August, 1904. ...
Ursperger Chronicle

Ursperger Chronicle

A history of the world in Latin that begins with the Assyrian King Ninius and extends to the year ...
Ursula of the Blessed Virgin, Society of the Sisters of Saint

Society of the Sisters of St. Ursula of the Blessed Virgin

Religious congregation of women founded in 1606 at Döle (then a Spanish possession), ...
Ursula, Saint, and the Eleven Thousand Virgins

St. Ursula and the Eleven Thousand Virgins

The history of these celebrated virgins of Cologne rests on ten lines, and these are open to ...
Ursulines of Quebec, The

The Ursulines of Quebec

The Ursuline monastery of Quebec is the oldest institution of learning for women in North ...
Ursulines, The

The Ursulines

A religious order founded by St. Angela de Merici for the sole purpose of educating young ...
Ursus, Saint

St. Ursus

Patron of the principal church of Solothurn (Soleure) in Switzerland, honoured from very early ...
Urubamba

Urubamba

(MISIONES DE SANTO DOMINGO DE URUBAMBA Y MADRE DE DIOS) This prefecture apostolic was created ...
Uruguay

Uruguay

(REPUBLICA ORIENTAL DEL URUGUAY). The smallest independent state in South America, extending ...
Uruguayana

Uruguayana

(URUGUAYANESIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Porto Alegre, Brazil. By a Decree dated 15 August, ...
Ushaw College

Ushaw College

(College of St. Cuthbert) A combined college and seminary for the six dioceses that were ...
Usilla

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A titular see of Byzacena in Africa. Nothing is known of the history of this city; it is ...
Usuard, Martyrology of

Martyrology of Usuard

Usuard was a Benedictine monk of the Abbey of St-Germain-des-Prxs, Paris. He seems to have ...
Usury

Usury

In the article INTEREST we have reserved the question of the lawfulness of taking interest on ...
Ut Queant Laxis Resonare Fibris

Ut Queant Laxis Resonare Fibris

The first line of a hymn in honour of St. John the Baptist. The Roman Breviary divides it ...
Utah

Utah

Utah, the thirty-second state admitted to the Union, takes its name from an Indian tribe known ...
Uthina

Uthina

A titular see of Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Uthina is mentioned by Ptolemy ...
Utica

Utica

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis. The city was founded by Tyrian colonists at the mouth ...
Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism

( Latin utilis , useful). Utilitarianism is a modern form of the Hedonistic ethical theory ...
Utopia

Utopia

(Greek ou no or not, and topos place), a term used to designate a visionary or an ideally ...
Utraquism

Utraquism

The principal dogma, and one of the four articles, of the Calixtines or Hussites . It was first ...
Utrecht, Archdiocese of

Utrecht

Situated in the Netherlands, includes the Provinces of Utrecht, Friesland, Overyssel, Drenthe, ...

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