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Ratramnus

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(Rathramnus)

A Benedictine monk at the Abbey of Corbie, in the present Department of Somme, one of the most important ecclesiastical authors of the ninth century, d. after 868. Scarcely anything is known of his life. His best known work is a treatise on the Holy Eucharist, entitled "De corpore et sanguine Domini". It was written at the instance of the Emperor Charles the Bald, against a work of the same title by Paschasius Radbertus. The basis of Ratramnus's work is an attempt to solve the two questions:

  • Do we in the Holy Eucharist directly see the Body of Christ with our bodily eyes, or is the Body of Christ hidden from our sensory vision?
  • Is the Eucharistic Christ identical with the historic Christ?
  • In the solution of the first question Ratramnus distinguishes correctly between the invisible substance, "invisibilis substantia", which, he says, is truly the body and blood of Christ, "vere corpus et sanguis Christi" (xlix), and the external appearances which after the consecration by the priest remain the same as they were before (ix-x). The second question he answers in the negative, stating that the Eucharistic Christ is not in everything identical with the historic Christ "who was born of Mary, suffered, died, was buried, ascended into heaven and sitteth at the right hand of the Father" (cap. lxxxix). The work had almost been forgotten during the Middle Ages. Attention was again called to it by Blessed John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, who cited it in defence of the Catholic doctrine on the Eucharist in the preface to his work: "De veritate corporis et sanguinis Christi in Eucharistia adversus Joh. Œcolampadium" (Cologne, 1527). It was first printed with the wrong title: "Bertrami presbyteri ad Carolum Magnum Imperatorem" (Cologne, 1532). A wrong interpretation of the words "figura" and "veritas", and a few ambiguous passages have given rise to the opinion among a few Catholics and most Protestants that Ratramnus taught a merely symbolic presence of Christ in the Eucharist. Various German, French, and English translations made by the Sacramentarians only served to corroborate this opinion. For this reason it was placed on the Index of Prohibited Books in 1559, but was removed in 1900. His best work, from a literary as well as a dogmatic standpoint, is "Contra Græcorum opposita Romanam ecclesiam infamantium, libri quattuor". It was written in 868 at the request of the bishops of the province of Reims, as a refutation of Photius who, in a letter to the King of Bulgaria, had fiercely assailed the "Filioque", the papal primacy, and various customs of the Latin Church. His earliest work, "De eo quod Christus ex virgine natus est liber", defends the Catholic doctrine that the birth of Christ occurred in a natural manner. In his work: "De prædestinatione, libri duo", he upholds the double predestination for salvation and damnation but not for sin. A treatise in defence of the expression "trina Deitas", against Hincmar, has been lost, and two dissertations "De anima" are still unprinted. His works are in "P. L.", CXXI, 1-346 and 1153- 6, his extant letters in "Mon. Germ. Epist.", VI, 149 sq.

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    Rerum Deus Tenax Vigor

    Rerum Deus Tenax Vigor

    The daily hymn for None in the Roman Breviary, comprises (like the hymns for Terce and Sext ...
    Rerum Novarum

    Rerum Novarum

    The opening words and the title of the Encyclical issued by Leo XIII, 15 May, 1891, on the ...
    Rescripts, Papal

    Papal Rescripts

    ( Latin re-scribere , "to write back") Rescripts are responses of the pope or a Sacred ...
    Reservation

    Reservation

    The restriction in certain cases by a superior of the jurisdiction ordinarily exercised by an ...
    Reserved Cases

    Reserved Cases

    A term used for sins whose absolution is not within the power of every confessor, but is ...
    Residence, Ecclesiastical

    Ecclesiastical Residence

    A remaining or abiding where one's duties lie or where one's occupation is properly carried on, ...
    Respicius, Tryphon, and Nympha

    Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

    Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...
    Respighi, Lorenzo

    Lorenzo Respighi

    Born at Cortemaggiore, Province of Piacenza, 7 October, 1824; died at Rome, 10 December, 1889. He ...
    Responsorium

    Responsorium

    Responsory, or Respond, a series of verses and responses, usually taken from Holy Scripture and ...
    Restitution

    Restitution

    Restitution has a special sense in moral theology. It signifies an act of commutative justice ...
    Resurrection of Jesus Christ

    Resurrection of Jesus Christ

    Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life. In this article, we shall ...
    Resurrection, General

    General Resurrection

    Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life. The Fourth Lateran ...
    Rethel, Alfred

    Alfred Rethel

    Born at Aachen, 1816; died at Düsseldorf, 1859. He combined in a brilliant and forcible ...
    Retreat of the Sacred Heart, Congregation of

    Retreat of the Sacred Heart

    (DAMES DE LA RETRAITE) Originally founded in 1678 under the name of the Institute of Retreat, ...
    Retreats

    Retreats

    If we call a retreat a series of days passed in solitude and consecrated to practices of ...
    Retz, Cardinal de

    Cardinal de Retz

    ARCHBISHOP OF PARIS Born at the Château of Montmirail, Oct., 1614; died in Paris, 24 ...
    Reuben

    Ruben (Reuben)

    (REUBEN.) A proper name which designates in the Bible : (1) a patriarch; (II) a tribe of ...
    Reuchlin, Johannes

    Johannes Reuchlin

    ( Græcized , Capnion). Celebrated German humanist, b. at Pforzheim, Baden, 22 ...
    Reumont, Alfred von

    Alfred von Reumont

    Statesman and historian, b. at Aachen, 15 August, 1808; d. there, 27 April, 1887. After finishing ...
    Reusens, Edmond

    Edmond Reusens

    Archeologist and historian, b. at Wijneghem (Antwerp), 25 April, 1831; d. at Louvain, 25 Dec., ...
    Reuss

    Reuss

    Name of the two smallest states of the German Confederation, which lie almost in the centre of ...
    Revelation

    Revelation

    I. MEANING OF REVELATION Revelation may be defined as the communication of some truth by God ...
    Revelation, Book of

    Apocalypse

    Apocalypse, from the verb apokalypto , to reveal, is the name given to the last book in the ...
    Revelations, Private

    Private Revelations

    There are two kinds of revelations: (1) universal revelations, which are contained in the Bible ...
    Revocation

    Revocation

    The act of recalling or annulling, the reversal of an act, the recalling of a grant, or the making ...
    Revolution, English

    English Revolution of 1688

    James II, having reached the climax of his power after the successful suppression of Monmouth's ...
    Revolution, French

    French Revolution

    The last thirty years have given us a new version of the history of the French Revolution, the ...
    Rex Gloriose Martyrum

    Rex Gloriose Martyrum

    Rex Gloriose Martyrum, the hymn at Lauds in the Common of Martyrs (Commune plurimorum ...
    Rex Sempiterne Cælitum

    Rex Sempiterne Caelitum

    The Roman Breviary hymn for Matins of Sundays and weekdays during the Paschal Time (from ...
    Rey, Anthony

    Anthony Rey

    An educator and Mexican War chaplain, born at Lyons, 19 March, 1807; died near Ceralvo, Mexico, ...
    Reynolds, William

    William Reynolds

    (RAINOLDS, RAYNOLDS, REGINALDUS) Born at Pinhorn near Exeter, about 1544; died at Antwerp, ...
    Rhætia

    Rhaetia

    (RHÆTORUM). Prefecture Apostolic in Switzerland ; includes in general the district ...
    Rhaphanæa

    Rhaphanaea

    A titular see in Syria Secunda, suffragan of Apamea. Rhaphanæa is mentioned in ancient ...
    Rheinberger, Joseph Gabriel

    Joseph Gabriel Rheinberger

    A composer and organist, born at Vaduz, in the Principality of Lichtenstein, Bavaria, 17 March, ...
    Rhenish Palatinate

    Rhenish Palatinate

    ( German Rheinpfalz ). A former German electorate. It derives its name from the title of a ...
    Rhesæna

    Rhesaena

    A titular see in Osrhoene, suffragan of Edessa. Rhesæna (numerous variations of the name ...
    Rhinocolura

    Rhinocolura

    A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium. Rhinocolura or Rhinocorura was a ...
    Rhithymna

    Rhithymna

    (RHETHYMNA) A titular see of Crete, suffragan of Gortyna, mentioned by Ptolemy, III, 15, ...
    Rhizus

    Rhizus

    ( Rizous .) A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus suffragan of Neocæsarea, ...
    Rho, Giacomo

    Giacomo Rho

    Missionary, born at Milan, 1593; died at Peking 27 April, 1638. He was the son of a noble and ...
    Rhode Island

    Rhode Island

    The State of Rhode Island and xxyyyk.htm">Providence Plantations, one of the thirteen original ...
    Rhodes

    Rhodes

    (RHODUS) A titular metropolitan of the Cyclades. It is an island opposite to Lycia and ...
    Rhodes, Alexandre De

    Alexandre de Rhodes

    A missionary and author, born at Avignon, 15 March, 1591; died at Ispahan, Persia, 5 Nov., 1660. ...
    Rhodesia

    Rhodesia

    A British possession in South Africa, bounded on the north and north-west by the Congo Free ...
    Rhodiopolis

    Rhodiopolis

    A titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra, called Rhodia by Ptolemy (V, 3) and Stephanus ...
    Rhodo

    Rhodo

    A Christian writer who flourished in the time of Commodus (180-92); he was a native of Asia ...
    Rhosus

    Rhosus

    A titular see in Cilicia Secunda, suffragan to Anazarba. Rhosus or Rhossus was a seaport ...
    Rhymed Bibles

    Rhymed Bibles

    The rhymed versions of the Bible are almost entirely collections of the psalms. The oldest ...
    Rhythmical Office

    Rhythmical Office

    I. DESCRIPTION, DEVELOPMENT, AND DIVISION By rhythmical office is meant a liturgical horary ...
    Ribadeneira, Pedro de

    Pedro de Ribadeneira

    (Or RIBADENEYRA and among Spaniards often RIVADENEIRA) Pedro De Ribadeneira was born at ...
    Ribas, Andrés Pérez De

    Andres Perez de Ribas

    A pioneer missionary, historian of north-western Mexico; born at Cordova, Spain, 1576; died in ...
    Ribe, Ancient See of, in Denmark (Jutland)

    Ancient See of Ribe in Denmark (Jutland)

    (RIPAE, RIPENSIS.) The diocese (29 deaneries, 278 parishes ) consisted of the modern ...
    Ribeirao Preto

    Preto Ribeirao

    (DE RIBERAO PRETO) A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of São Paulo , Brazil, ...
    Ribera, Jusepe de

    Jusepe de Ribera

    Called also SPAGNOLETTO, L'ESPAGNOLET (the little Spaniard) Painter born at Jativa, 12 Jan., ...
    Ricardus Anglicus

    Ricardus Anglicus

    Ricardus Anglicus, Archdeacon of Bologna, was an English priest who was rector of the law ...
    Riccardi, Nicholas

    Nicholas Riccardi

    A theologian, writer and preacher; born at Genoa, 1585; died at Rome, 30 May, 1639. Physically ...
    Ricci, Lorenzo

    Lorenzo Ricci

    General of the Society of Jesus b. at Florence, 2 Aug., 1703; d. at the Castle of Sant' Angelo, ...
    Ricci, Matteo

    Matteo Ricci

    Founder of the Catholic missions of China, b. at Macerata in the Papal States, 6 Oct. 1552; ...
    Riccioli, Giovanni Battista

    Giovanni Battista Riccioli

    Italian astronomer, b. at Ferrara 17 April, 1598; d. at Bologna 25 June, 1671. He entered the ...
    Rice, Edmund Ignatius

    Edmund Ignatius Rice

    Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools (better known as "Irish ...
    Rich, St. Edmund

    St. Edmund Rich

    Archbishop of Canterbury, England, born 20 November, c. 1180, at Abingdon, six miles from ...
    Richard

    Richard (Franciscan Preacher)

    A Friar minor and preacher, appearing in history between 1428 and 1431, whose origin and ...
    Richard de Bury

    Richard de Bury

    Bishop and bibliophile, b. near Bury St. Edmund's, Suffolk, England, 24 Jan., 1286; d. at ...
    Richard de la Vergne, François-Marie-Benjamin

    Francois-Marie-Benjamin Richard de la Vergne

    Archbishop of Paris, born at Nantes, 1 March, 1819; died in Paris, 28 January, 1908. ...
    Richard de Wyche, Saint

    St. Richard de Wyche

    Bishop and confessor, b. about 1197 at Droitwich, Worcestershire, from which his surname is ...
    Richard Fetherston, Blessed

    Bl. Richard Fetherston

    Priest and martyr ; died at Smithfield, 30 July, 1540. He was chaplain to Catharine of Aragon ...
    Richard I, King Of England

    Richard I, King of England

    Richard I, born at Oxford, 6 Sept, 1157; died at Chaluz, France, 6 April, 1199; was known to ...
    Richard of Cirencester

    Richard of Cirencester

    Chronicler, d. about 1400. He was the compiler of a chronicle from 447 to 1066, entitled "Speculum ...
    Richard of Cornwall

    Richard of Cornwall

    (RICHARD RUFUS, RUYS, ROSSO, ROWSE). The dates of his birth and death are unknown, but he ...
    Richard of Middletown

    Richard of Middletown

    (A MEDIA VILLA). Flourished at the end of the thirteenth century, but the dates of his birth ...
    Richard of St. Victor

    Richard of St. Victor

    Theologian, native of Scotland, but the date and place of his birth are unknown; d. 1173 and ...
    Richard Thirkeld, Blessed

    Blessed Richard Thirkeld

    Martyr ; b. at Coniscliffe, Durham, England ; d. at York, 29 May, 1583. From Queen's College, ...
    Richard Whiting, Blessed

    Blessed Richard Whiting

    Last Abbot of Glastonbury and martyr, parentage and date of birth unknown, executed 15 Nov., ...
    Richard, Charles-Louis

    Charles-Louis Richard

    Theologian and publicist; b. at Blainville-sur-l'Eau, in Lorraine, April, 1711; d. at Mons, ...
    Richardson, Ven. William

    Ven. William Richardson

    ( Alias Anderson.) Last martyr under Queen Elizabeth; b. according to Challoner at Vales in ...
    Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis, Duke de

    Cardinal Richelieu

    Cardinal ; French statesman, b. in Paris, 5 September, 1585; d. there 4 December 1642. At first ...
    Richmond, Diocese of

    Richmond

    (RICHMONDENSIS.) Suffragan of Baltimore, established 11 July, 1820, comprises the State of ...
    Ricoldo da Monte di Croce

    Ricoldo Da Monte di Croce

    (PENNINI.) Born at Florence about 1243; d. there 31 October, 1320. After studying in various ...
    Riemenschneider, Tillmann

    Riemenschneider

    One of the most important of Frankish sculptors, b. at Osterode am Harz in or after 1460; d. at ...
    Rienzi, Cola di

    Cola di Rienzi

    (i.e., NICOLA, son of Lorenzo) A popular tribune and extraordinary historical figure. His ...
    Rieti

    Rieti

    (REATINA). Diocese in Central Italy, immediately subject to the Holy See. The city is ...
    Rievaulx, Abbey of

    Abbey of Rievaulx

    (RIEVALL.) Thurston, Archbishop of York, was very anxious to have a monastery of the newly ...
    Riffel, Caspar

    Caspar Riffel

    Historian, b. at Budesheim, Bingen, Germany, 19 Jan., 1807, d. at Mainz, 15 Dec., 1856. He ...
    Rigby, John, Saint

    St. John Rigby

    English martyr ; b. about 1570 at Harrocks Hall, Eccleston, Lancashire; executed at St. Thomas ...
    Rigby, Nicholas

    Nicholas Rigby

    Born 1800 at Walton near Preston, Lancashire; died at Ugthorpe, 7 September, 1886. At twelve years ...
    Right

    Right

    Right, as a substantive (my right, his right), designates the object of justice. When a person ...
    Right of Exclusion

    Right of Exclusion

    (Latin Jus Exclusivæ . The alleged competence of the more important Catholic ...
    Right of Option

    Right of Option

    In canon law an option is a way of obtaining a benefice or a title, by the choice of the new ...
    Right of Voluntary Association

    Right of Voluntary Association

    I. LEGAL RIGHT A voluntary association means any group of individuals freely united for the ...
    Rimbert, Saint

    St. Rimbert

    Archbishop of Bremen - Hamburg, died at Bremen 11 June, 888. It is uncertain whether he was ...
    Rimini

    Rimini

    DIOCESE OF RIMINI (ARIMINUM). Suffragan of Ravenna. Rimini is situated near the coast between ...
    Rimini, Council of

    Council of Rimini

    The second Formula of Sirmium (357) stated the doctrine of the Anomoeans, or extreme Arians. ...
    Rimouski

    Rimouski

    DIOCESE OF RIMOUSKI (SANCTI GERMANI DE RIMOUSKI) Suffragan of Quebec, comprises the counties of ...
    Ring of the Fisherman, The

    The Ring of Fisherman

    The earliest mention of the Fisherman's ring worn by the popes is in a letter of Clement IV ...
    Rings

    Rings

    Although the surviving ancient rings, proved by their devices, provenance, etc., to be of ...
    Rinuccini, Giovanni Battista

    Giovanni Battista Rinuccini

    Born at Rome, 1592; d. at Fermo, 1653; was the son of a Florentine patrician, his mother being a ...
    Rio Negro

    Rio Negro

    Prefecture Apostolic in Brazil, bounded on the south by a line running westwards from the ...
    Rio, Alexis-François

    Alexis-Francois Rio

    French writer on art, b. on the Island of Arz, Department of Morbihan, 20 May, 1797; d. 17 June, ...
    Riobamba

    Riobamba

    Diocese of (Bolivarensis), suffragan of Quito, Ecuador, erected by Pius IX, 5 January, 1863. ...
    Rioja, Francisco de

    Francisco de Rioja

    A poet, born at Seville, 1583; died at Madrid, 1659. Rioja was a canon in the cathedral at ...
    Ripalda, Juan Martínez de

    Juan Martinez de Ripalda

    Theologian, b. at Pamplona, Navarre, 1594; d. at Madrid, 26 April, 1648. He entered the Society ...
    Ripatransone

    Ripatransone

    (RIPANENSIS). Diocese in Ascoli Piceno, Central Italy. The city is situated on five hills, ...
    Ripon, Marquess of

    Marquess of Ripon

    George Frederick Samuel Robinson, K.G., P.C., G.C.S.I., F.R.S., Earl de Grey, Earl of Ripon, ...
    Risby, Richard

    Richard Risby

    Born in the parish of St. Lawrence, Reading, 1489; executed at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1534. ...
    Rishanger, William

    William Rishanger

    Chronicler, b. at Rishangles, Suffolk, about ú d. after 1312. He became a Benedictine at ...
    Rishton, Edward

    Edward Rishton

    Born in Lancashire, 1550; died at Sainte-Ménehould, Lorraine, 29 June, 1585. He was ...
    Rita of Cascia, Saint

    St. Rita of Cascia

    Born at Rocca Porena in the Diocese of Spoleto , 1386; died at the Augustinian convent of ...
    Rites

    Rites

    I. NAME AND DEFINITION Ritus in classical Latin in means primarily, the form and manner of any ...
    Rites in the United States

    Rites in the United States

    Since immigration from the eastern portion of Europe and from Asia and Africa set in with ...
    Ritschlianism

    Ritschlianism

    Ritschlianism is a peculiar conception of the nature and scope of Christianity, widely held in ...
    Ritter, Joseph Ignatius

    Joseph Ignatius Ritter

    Historian, b. at Schweinitz, Silesia, 12 April, 1787; d. at Breslau, 5 Jan., 1857. He pursued his ...
    Ritual

    Ritual

    The Ritual ( Rituale Romanum ) is one of the official books of the Roman Rite. It contains all ...
    Ritualists

    Ritualists

    The word "Ritualists" is the term now most commonly employed to denote that advanced section of ...
    Rivington, Luke

    Luke Rivington

    Born in London, May, 1838; died in London, 30 May, 1899; fourth son of Francis Rivington, a ...
    Rizal, José Mercado

    Jose Mercado Rizal

    Filipino hero, physician, poet, novelist, and sculptor ; b. at Calamba, Province of La Laguna, ...
    Robbers, Seven

    Seven Robbers

    (Septem Latrones), martyrs on the Island of Corcyra (Corfu) in the second century. Their ...
    Robbia, Andrea della

    Andrea Della Robbia

    Nephew, pupil, assistant, and sharer of Luca's secrets, b. at Florence, 1431; d. 1528. It is ...
    Robbia, Lucia di Simone

    Lucia di Simone Robbia

    Sculptor, b. at Florence, 1400; d. 1481. He is believed to have studied design with a goldsmith, ...
    Robert Bellarmine, Saint

    St. Robert Bellarmine

    (Also, "Bellarmino"). A distinguished Jesuit theologian, writer, and cardinal, born at ...
    Robert Johnson, Blessed

    Bl. Robert Johnson

    Born in Shropshire, entered the German College, Rome, 1 October, 1571. Ordained priest at ...
    Robert of Arbrissel

    Robert of Arbrissel

    Itinerant preacher, founder of Fontevrault, b. c. 1047 at Arbrissel (now Arbressec) near ...
    Robert of Courçon

    Robert of Courcon

    (DE CURSONE, DE CURSIM, CURSUS, ETC.). Cardinal, born at Kedleston, England ; died at ...
    Robert of Geneva

    Robert of Geneva

    Antipope under the name of Clement VII, b. at Geneva, 1342; d. at Avignon, 16 Sept., 1394. He ...
    Robert of Jumièges

    Robert of Jumieges

    Archbishop of Canterbury (1051-2). Robert Champart was a Norman monk of St. Ouen at Rouen ...
    Robert of Luzarches

    Robert of Luzarches

    (LUS). Born at Luzarches near Pontoise towards the end of the twelfth century; is said to have ...
    Robert of Melun

    Robert of Melun

    (DE MELDUNO; MELIDENSIS; MEIDUNUS). An English philosopher and theologian, b. in England ...
    Robert of Molesme, Saint

    St. Robert of Molesme

    Born about the year 1029, at Champagne, France, of noble parents who bore the names of Thierry ...
    Robert of Newminster, Saint

    St. Robert of Newminster

    Born in the district of Craven, Yorkshire, probably at the village of Gargrave; died 7 June, 1159. ...
    Robert Pullus

    Robert Pullus

    (PULLEN, PULLAN, PULLY.) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Cardinal, English philosopher and ...
    Robert, Saint

    St. Robert

    Founder of the Abbey of Chaise-Dieu in Auvergne, b. at Aurilac, Auvergne, about 1000; d. in ...
    Roberts, Saint John

    St. John Roberts

    First Prior of St. Gregory's, Douai (now Downside Abbey ), b. 1575-6; martyred 10 ...
    Robertson, James Burton

    James Burton Robertson

    Historian, b. in London 15 Nov., 1800; d. at Dublin 14 Feb., 1877, son of Thomas Robertson, a ...
    Robinson, Venerable Christopher

    Ven. Christopher Robinson

    Born at Woodside, near Westward, Cumberland, date unknown; executed at Carlisle, 19 Aug., 1598. ...
    Robinson, William Callyhan

    William Callyhan Robinson

    Jurist and educator, b. 26 July, 1834, at Norwich, Conn.; d. 6 Nov., 1911, at Washington, D.C. ...
    Rocaberti, Juan Tomás de

    Juan Tomas de Rocaberti

    Theologian, b. of a noble family at Perelada, in Catalina, c. 1624; d. at Madrid 13 June, 1699. ...
    Rocamadour

    Rocamadour

    Communal chief town of the canton of Gramat, district of Gourdon, Department of Lot, in the ...
    Rocca, Angelo

    Angelo Rocca

    Founder of the Angelica Library at Rome, b. at Rocca, now Arecevia, near Ancone, 1545; d. at ...
    Roch, Saint

    St. Roch

    Born at Montpellier towards 1295; died 1327. His father was governor of that city. At his birth ...
    Rochambeau, Jean-Baptiste-Donatien

    Rochambeau

    Marshal, b. at Vendôme, France, 1 July, 1725; d. at Thoré, 10 May, 1807. At the age ...
    Roche, Alanus de la

    Alanus de Rupe (Alanus de la Roche)

    ( Sometimes DE LA ROCHE). Born about 1428; died at Zwolle in Holland, 8 September, 1475. ...
    Rochester, Ancient See of

    Rochester

    (ROFFA; ROFFENSIS). The oldest and smallest of all the suffragan sees of Canterbury, was ...
    Rochester, Blessed John

    Bl. John Rochester

    Priest and martyr, born probably at Terling, Essex, England, about 1498; died at York, 11 May, ...
    Rochester, Diocese of

    Rochester

    This diocese, on its establishment by separation from the See of Buffalo, 24 January, 1868, ...
    Rochet

    Rochet

    An over-tunic usually made of fine white linen (cambric; fine cotton material is also allowed), ...
    Rochette, Désiré Raoul

    Desire Raoul Rochette

    Usually known as Raoul-Rochette, a French archeologist, b. at St. Amand (Cher), 9 March, 1789; d. ...
    Rock, Daniel

    Daniel Rock

    Antiquarian and ecclesiologist, b. at Liverpool, 31 August, 1799; d. at Kensington, London, 28 ...
    Rockford, Diocese of

    Rockford

    (ROCKFORDIENSIS). Created 23 September, 1908, comprises Jo Daviess, Stephenson, Winnebago, ...
    Rockhampton

    Rockhampton

    Diocese in Queensland, Australia. In 1862 Father Duhig visited the infant settlement on the banks ...
    Rococo Style

    Rococo Style

    This style received its name in the nineteenth century from French émigrés , who ...
    Rodez

    Rodez

    (RUTHENAE) The Diocese of Rodez was united to the Diocese of Cahors by the Concordat of ...
    Rodrigues Ferreira, Alexandre

    Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira

    A Brazilian natural scientist and explorer, b. at Bahia in 1756; d. at Lisbon in 1815. He ...
    Rodriguez, Alonso

    Alonso Rodriguez

    Born at Valladolid, Spain, 1526; died at Seville 21 February, 1616. When twenty years of age he ...
    Rodriguez, Joao

    Joao Rodriguez

    (GIRAM, GIRAO, GIRON, ROIZ). Missionary and author, b. at Alcochete in the Diocese of Lisbon ...
    Rodriguez, Saint Alphonsus

    St. Alphonsus Rodriguez

    (Also Alonso). Born at Segovia in Spain, 25 July, 1532; died at Majorca, 31 October, 1617. ...
    Roe, Bartholomew

    Bartholomew Roe

    (VENERABLE ALBAN). English Benedictine martyr, b. in Suffolk, 1583; executed at Tyburn, 21 ...
    Roermond

    Roermond

    (RUBAEMUNDENSIS). Diocese in Holland ; suffragan of Utrecht. It includes the Province of ...
    Rogation Days

    Rogation Days

    Days of prayer, and formerly also of fasting, instituted by the Church to appease God's anger ...
    Roger Bacon

    Roger Bacon

    Philosopher, surnamed D OCTOR M IRABILIS , b. at Ilchester, Somersetshire, about 1214; d. at ...
    Roger Cadwallador, Venerable

    Ven. Roger Cadwallador

    English martyr, b. at Stretton Sugwas, near Hereford, in 1568; executed at Leominster, 27 Aug., ...
    Roger of Wendover

    Roger of Wendover

    Benedictine monk, date of birth unknown; d. 1236, the first of the great chroniclers of St. ...
    Roger, Bishop of Worcester

    Roger, Bishop of Worcester

    Died at Tours, 9 August, 1179. A younger son of Robert, Earl of Gloucester, he was educated ...
    Roh, Peter

    Peter Roh

    Born at Conthey (Gunthis) in the canton of Valais ( French Switzerland ), 14 August, 1811; d. at ...
    Rohault de Fleury

    Rohault de Fleury

    A family of French architects and archaeologists of the nineteenth century, of which the most ...
    Rohrbacher, Réné François

    Rene Francois Rohrbacher

    Ecclesiastical historian, b. at Langatte (Langd) in the present Diocese of Metz, 27 September, ...
    Rojas y Zorrilla, Francisco de

    Francisco de Rojas y Zorrilla

    Spanish dramatic poet, b. at Toledo, 4 Oct., 1607; d. 1680. Authentic information regarding the ...
    Rokewode, John Gage

    John Gage Rokewode

    Born 13 Sept., 1786; died at Claughton Hall, Lancashire, 14 Oct., 1842. He was the fourth son of ...
    Rolduc

    Rolduc

    (RODA DUCIS, also Roda, Closterroda or Hertogenrade). Located in S. E. Limburg, Netherlands. ...
    Rolfus, Hermann

    Hermann Rolfus

    Catholic educationist, b. at Freiburg, 24 May, 1821; d. at Buhl, near Offenburg, 27 October, ...
    Rolle de Hampole, Richard

    Richard Rolle de Hampole

    Solitary and writer, b. at Thornton, Yorkshire, about 1300; d. at Hampole, 29 Sept., 1349. The ...
    Rollin, Charles

    Charles Rollin

    Born in Paris, 1661; died there, 1741. The son of a cutler, intended to follow his father's ...
    Rolls Series

    Rolls Series

    A collection of historical materials of which the general scope is indicated by its official ...
    Rolph, Thomas

    Thomas Rolph

    Surgeon, b. 1800; d. at Portsmouth, 17 Feb., 1858. He was a younger son of Dr. Thomas Rolph and ...
    Roman Catacombs

    Roman Catacombs

    This subject will be treated under seven heads: I. Position; II. History; III. Inscriptions; IV. ...
    Roman Catechism

    Roman Catechism

    This catechism differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the ...
    Roman Catholic

    Roman Catholic

    A qualification of the name Catholic commonly used in English-speaking countries by those ...
    Roman Catholic Relief Bill

    Roman Catholic Relief Bill

    IN ENGLAND With the accession of Queen Elizabeth (1558) commenced the series of legislative ...
    Roman Christian Cemeteries, Early

    Early Roman Christian Cemeteries

    This article treats briefly of the individual catacomb cemeteries in the vicinity of Rome. For ...
    Roman Colleges

    Roman Colleges

    This article treats of the various colleges in Rome which have been founded under ...
    Roman Congregations

    The Roman Congregations

    Certain departments have been organized by the Holy See at various times to assist it in the ...
    Roman Curia

    Roman Curia

    Strictly speaking, the ensemble of departments or ministries which assist the sovereign pontiff ...
    Roman Processional

    Roman Processional

    Strictly speaking it might be said that the Processional has no recognized place in the Roman ...
    Roman Rite, The

    The Roman Rite

    ( Ritus romanus ). The Roman Rite is the manner of celebrating the Holy Sacrifice, ...
    Romanos Pontifices, Constitutio

    Consitutio Romanos Pontifices

    The restoration by Pius IX, 29 Sept. 1850, by letters Apostolic "Universalis ecclesiæ" of ...
    Romanos, Saint

    St. Romanos

    Surnamed ho melodos and ho theorrhetor , poet of the sixth century. The only authority for ...
    Romans, Epistle to the

    Epistle To the Romans

    This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. The Roman Church and St. Paul; II. ...
    Romanus, Pope

    Pope Romanus

    Of this pope very little is known with certainty, not even the date of his birth nor the exact ...
    Romanus, Saints

    Saints Romanus

    (1) A Roman martyr Romanus is mentioned in the "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, 155) ...
    Rome

    Rome

    The significance of Rome lies primarily in the fact that it is the city of the pope. The Bishop ...
    Rome, University of

    University of Rome

    The University of Rome must be distinguished from the "Studium Generale apud Curiam", established ...
    Romero, Juan

    Juan Romero

    Missionary and Indian linguist, b. in the village of Machena, Andalusia, Spain, 1559; d. at ...
    Romuald, Saint

    St. Romuald

    Born at Ravenna, probably about 950; died at Val-di-Castro, 19 June, 1027. St. Peter Damian, his ...
    Romulus Augustulus

    Romulus Augustulus

    Deposed in the year 476, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire. His reign was purely ...
    Ronan, Saint

    St. Ronan

    There are twelve Irish saints bearing the name of Ronan commemorated in the "Martyrology of ...
    Ronsard, Pierre de

    Pierre de Ronsard

    French poet, b. 2 (or 11) Sept., 1524, at the Château de la Poissonniere, near ...
    Rood

    Rood

    (Anglo-Saxon Rod, or Rode, "cross"), a term, often used to signify the True Cross itself, ...
    Roothaan, Johann Philipp

    Johann Philipp Roothaan

    Twenty-first General of the Society of Jesus , b. at Amsterdam, 23 November, 1785; d. at Rome, ...
    Roper, William

    William Roper

    Biographer of St. Thomas More, born 1496; died 4 January, 1578. Both his father and mother ...
    Rorate Coeli

    Rorate Coeli

    (Vulgate, text), the opening words of Isaiah 45:8 . The text is used frequently both at Mass and ...
    Rosa, Salvatore

    Salvatore Rosa

    (Also spelled SALVATOR; otherwise known as RENNELLA, or ARENELLA, from the place of his birth). ...
    Rosalia, Saint

    St. Rosalia

    Hermitess, greatly venerated at Palermo and in the whole of Sicily of which she in patroness. ...
    Rosary, Breviary Hymns of the

    Breviary Hymns of the Rosary

    The proper office granted by Leo XIII (5 August, 1888) to the feast contains four hymns ...
    Rosary, Confraternity of the

    Confraternity of the Holy Rosary

    In accordance with the conclusion of the article ROSARY no sufficient evidence is forthcoming to ...
    Rosary, Feast of the Holy

    Feast of the Holy Rosary

    Apart from the signal defeat of the Albigensian heretics at the battle of Muret in 1213 which ...
    Rosary, Seraphic

    Franciscan Crown

    ( Or Seraphic Rosary.) A Rosary consisting of seven decades in commemoration of the seven ...
    Rosary, The

    The Rosary

    Please see our How to Recite the Holy Rosary sheet in PDF format, and feel free to copy and ...
    Rosate, Alberico de

    Alberico de Rosate

    (Or ROSCIATE). Jurist, date of birth unknown; died in 1354. He was bom in the village of ...
    Roscelin

    Roscelin

    Roscelin, a monk of Compiègne, was teaching as early as 1087. He had contact with ...
    Roscommon

    Roscommon

    Capital of County Roscommon, Ireland ; owes origin and name to a monastery founded by St. Coman ...
    Rose of Lima, Saint

    St. Rose of Lima

    Virgin, patroness of America, born at Lima, Peru 20 April, 1586; died there 30 August, 1617. ...
    Rose of Viterbo, Saint

    St. Rose of Viterbo

    Virgin, born at Viterbo, 1235; died 6 March, 1252. The chronology of her life must always remain ...
    Rose Window

    Rose Window

    A circular window, with mullions and traceries generally radiating from the centre, and filled ...
    Rosea

    Rosea

    A titular see. The official catalogue of the Roman Curia mentioned formerly a titular see of ...
    Roseau

    Roseau

    (ROSENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Port of Spain, Trinidad, B.W.I. The different islands of ...
    Rosecrans, William Starke

    William Starke Rosecrans

    William Born at Kingston, Ohio, U.S.A. 6 Sept., 1819; died near Redondo California, 11 March, ...
    Roseline, Saint

    St. Roseline

    (Rossolina.) Born at Château of Arcs in eastern Provence, 1263; d. 17 January, 1329. ...
    Rosenau

    Rosenau

    ( Hungarian ROZSNYÓ; Latin ROSNAVIENSIS). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Eger, ...
    Rosh Hashanah

    Feast of Trumpets

    The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...
    Rosicrucians

    Rosicrucians

    The original appelation of the alleged members of the occult-cabalistic- theosophic "Rosicrucian ...
    Roskilde, Ancient See of, in Denmark

    Ancient See of Roskilde in Denmark

    (ROSCHILDIA, ROSKILDENSIS.) Suffragan to Hamburg, about 991-1104, to Lund, 1104-1536. The ...
    Roskoványi, August

    August Roskovanyi

    Bishop of Neutra in Hungary, doctor of philosophy and theology, b. at Szenna in the County ...
    Rosmini and Rosminianism

    Rosmini and Rosminianism

    Antonio Rosmini Serbati, philosopher, and founder of the Institute of Charity, born 24 March, ...
    Rosminians

    Rosminians

    The Institute of Charity, or, officially, Societas a charitate nuncupata , is a religious ...
    Ross

    Ross

    (ROSSENSIS). Diocese in Ireland. This see was founded by St. Fachtna, and the place-name ...
    Ross, School of

    School of Ross

    The School of Ross &151; now called Ross-Carbery, but formerly Ross-Ailithir from the large ...
    Rossano

    Rossano

    (ROSSANENSIS). Archdiocese in Calabria, province of Cosenza, Southern Italy. The city is ...
    Rosselino, Antonio di Matteo di Domenico

    Antonio di Matteo di Domenico Rosselino

    The youngest of five brothers, sculptors and stone cutters, family name Gamberelli (1427-78). He ...
    Rosselino, Bernardo

    Bernardo Rosselino

    (Properly BERNARDO DI MATTEO GAMBARELLI.) B. at Florence, 1409; d. 1464. Rosselino occupies ...
    Rosselli, Cosimo

    Cosimo Rosselli

    (LORENZO DI FILIPPO). Italian fresco painter, b. at Florence, 1439; d. there in 1507. The ...
    Rossi, Bernardo de

    Bernardo de Rossi

    (DE RUBEIS, GIOVANNI FRANCESCO BERNARDO MARIA). Theologian and historian; b. at Cividale del ...
    Rossi, Giovanni Battista de

    Giovanni Battista de Rossi

    A distinguished Christian archaeologist , best known for his work in connection with the Roman ...
    Rossi, Pellegrino

    Pellegrino Rossi

    Publicist, diplomat, economist, and statesman, b. at Carrara, Italy, 13 July, 1787; assassinated ...
    Rossini, Gioacchino Antonio

    Gioacchino Antonio Rossini

    Born 29 February, 1792, at Pesaro in the Romagna; died 13 November, 1868, at Passy, near Paris. ...
    Rostock, Sebastian von

    Sebastian von Rostock

    Bishop of Breslau, b. at Grottkau, Silesia, 24 Aug. 1607; d. at Breslau, 9 June, 1671. He ...
    Rostock, University of

    University of Rostock

    Located in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, founded in the year 1419 through the united efforts of Dukes John ...
    Roswitha

    Hroswitha

    A celebrated nun -poetess of the tenth century, whose name has been given in various forms, ...
    Rota, Sacra Romana

    Sacra Romana Rota

    In the Constitution "Sapienti Consilio" (29 June, 1908), II, 2, Pins X re-established the Sacra ...
    Roth, Heinrich

    Heinrich Roth

    Missionary in India and Sanskrit scholar, b. of illustrious parentage at Augsburg, 18 December, ...
    Rothe, David

    David Rothe

    Bishop of Ossory ( Ireland ), b. at Kilkenny in 1573, of a distinguished family ; d. 20 ...
    Rottenburg

    Rottenburg

    (ROTTENBURGENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of the ecclesiastical Province of the Upper Rhine. It ...
    Rotuli

    Rotuli

    Rotuli, i.e. rolls — in which a long narrow strip of papyrus or parchment, written on one ...
    Rouen, Archdiocese of

    Rouen

    (ROTHOMAGENSIS) Revived by the Concordat of 1802 with the Sees of Bayeux, Evreux, and ...
    Rouen, Synods of

    Synods of Rouen

    The first synod is generally believed to have been held by Archbishop Saint-Ouen about 650. ...
    Rouquette, Adrien

    Adrien Rouquette

    Born in Louisiana in 1813, of French parentage; died as a missionary among the Choctaw Indians ...
    Rousseau, Jean-Baptiste

    Jean-Baptiste Rousseau

    French poet, b. in Paris, 16 April 1670; d. at La Genette, near Brussels, 17 May, 1741. ...
    Rovezzano, Benedetto da

    Benedetto Da Rovezzano

    Sculptor and architect, b. in 1490, either at Rovezzano, near Florence, or, according to some ...
    Rowsham, Stephen

    Stephen Rowsham

    A native of Oxfordshire, entered Oriel College, Oxford, in 1572. He took orders in the English ...
    Royal Declaration, The

    The Royal Declaration

    This is the name most commonly given to the solemn repudiation of Catholicity which, in ...
    Royer-Collard, Pierre-Paul

    Pierre-Paul Royer-Collard

    Philosopher and French politician, b. at Sompuis (Marne), 21 June, 1763; d. at ...
    Ruadhan, Saint

    St. Ruadhan

    One of the twelve "Apostles of Erin" ; died at the monastery of Lorrha, County Tipperary, ...
    Ruben

    Ruben (Reuben)

    (REUBEN.) A proper name which designates in the Bible : (1) a patriarch; (II) a tribe of ...
    Rubens, Peter Paul

    Peter Paul Rubens

    Eminent Flemish painter, b. at Siegen, Westphalia, 28 June, 1577; d. at Antwerp, 30 May, 1640. ...
    Rubrics

    Rubrics

    I. IDEA Among the ancients, according to Columella, Vitruvius, and Pliny, the word rubrica , ...
    Rubruck, William

    William Rubruck

    (Also called William of Rubruck and less correctly Ruysbrock, Ruysbroek, and Rubruquis), ...
    Rudolf of Fulda

    Rudolf of Fulda

    Chronicler, d. at Fulda, 8 March, 862. In the monastery of Fulda Rudolf entered the ...
    Rudolf of Habsburg

    Rudolf of Habsburg

    German king, b. 1 May 1218; d. at Speyer, 15 July, 1291. He was the son of Albert IV, the founder ...
    Rudolf of Rüdesheim

    Rudolf of Rudesheim

    Bishop of Breslau, b. at Rüdesheim on the Rhine, about 1402; d. at Breslau in Jan., 1482. ...
    Rudolf von Ems

    Rudolf von Ems

    [Hohenems in Austria ]. A Middle High German epic poet of the thirteenth century. Almost ...
    Rueckers, Family of

    Family of Rueckers

    Famous organ and piano-forte builders of Antwerp. Hans Rueckers, the founder, lived in ...
    Ruffini, Paolo

    Paolo Ruffini

    Physician and mathematician, b. at Valentano in the Duchy of Castro, 3 Sept., 1765; d. at Modena, ...
    Rufford Abbey

    Rufford Abbey

    A monastery of the Cistercian Order, situated on the left bank of the Rainworth Water, about ...
    Rufina, Saints

    Sts. Rufina

    The present Roman Martyrology records saints of this name on the following days: (1) On ...
    Rufinus, Saint

    Saints Rufinus

    The present Roman Martyrology records eleven saints named Rufinus: (1) On 28 February, a ...
    Rufus, Saint

    Saints Rufus

    The present Roman Martyrology records ten saints of this name. Historical mention is made of ...
    Ruiz de Alarcón y Mendoza, Juan de

    Juan de Ruiz de Alarcon y Mendoza

    Spanish dramatic poet, b. at Mexico City, about 1580; d. at Madrid, 4 August, 1639. He received ...
    Ruiz de Montoya, Antonio

    Antonio Ruiz de Montoya

    One of the most distinguished pioneers of the original Jesuit mission in Paraguay, and a ...
    Ruiz de Montoya, Diego

    Diego Ruiz de Montoya

    Theologian, b. at Seville, 1562; d. there 15 March, 1632. He entered the Society of Jesus in ...
    Rule of Faith, The

    The Rule of Faith

    The word rule ( Latin regula , Gr. kanon ) means a standard by which something can be ...
    Rule of St. Augustine

    Rule of St. Augustine

    The title, Rule of Saint Augustine , has been applied to each of the following documents: ...
    Rule of St. Benedict

    Rule of St. Benedict

    This work holds the first place among monastic legislative codes, and was by far the most ...
    Rumania

    Rumania

    A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, situated between the Black Sea, the Danube, the Carpathian ...
    Rumohr, Karl Friedrich

    Karl Friedrich Rumohr

    Art historian, b. at Dresden, 1785; d. there, 1843. He became a Catholic in 1804. He was ...
    Rupe, Alanus de

    Alanus de Rupe (Alanus de la Roche)

    ( Sometimes DE LA ROCHE). Born about 1428; died at Zwolle in Holland, 8 September, 1475. ...
    Rupert, Saint

    St. Rupert

    (Alternative forms, Ruprecht, Hrodperht, Hrodpreht, Roudbertus, Rudbertus, Robert, Ruprecht). ...
    Rusaddir

    Rusaddir

    A titular see of Mauritania Tingitana. Rusaddir is a Phoenician settlement whose name ...
    Rusicade

    Rusicade

    A titular see of Numidia. It is mentioned by Ptolemy (IV, 3), Mela (I, 33), Pliny (V, 22), ...
    Ruspe

    Ruspe

    Titular see of Byzacena in Africa, mentioned only by Ptolemy (IV, 3) and the "Tabula" of ...
    Russell, Charles

    Charles Russell

    (BARON RUSSELL OF KILLOWEN). Born at Newry, Ireland, 10 November, 1832; died in London, 10 ...
    Russell, Charles William

    Charles William Russell

    Born at Killough, Co. Down, 14 May, 1812; died at Dublin 26 Feb., 1880. He was descended from the ...
    Russell, Richard

    Richard Russell

    Bishop of Vizéu in Portugal, b. in Berkshire, 1630; d. at Vizéu, 15 Nov., 1693. He ...
    Russia

    Russia

    GEOGRAPHY Russia ( Rossiiskaia Imperiia; Russkoe Gosudarstvo ) comprises the greater part of ...
    Russia, The Religion of

    The Religion of Russia

    A. The Origin of Russian Christianity There are two theories in regard to the early Christianity ...
    Russian Language and Literature

    Russian Language and Literature

    The subject will be treated under the following heads, viz. RUSSIAN LANGUAGE; ANCIENT POPULAR ...
    Rusticus of Narbonne, Saint

    St. Rusticus of Narbonne

    Born either at Marseilles or at Narbonnaise, Gaul; died 26 Oct., 461. According to biographers, ...
    Ruth, Book of

    Book of Ruth

    One of the proto-canonical writings of the Old Testament, which derives its name from the heroine ...
    Ruthenian Rite

    Ruthenian Rite

    There is, properly speaking, no separate and distinct rite for the Ruthenians, but inasmuch as ...
    Ruthenians

    Ruthenians

    (Ruthenian and Russian: Rusin , plural Rusini ) A Slavic people from Southern Russia, ...
    Rutter, Henry

    Henry Rutter

    ( vere BANISTER) Born 26 Feb., 1755; died 17 September, 1838, near Dodding Green, ...
    Ruvo and Bitonto

    Ruvo and Bitonto

    (RUBENSIS ET BITUNTINENSIS) Diocese in the Province of Bari, Aquileia, Southern Italy. Ruvo, ...
    Ruysbroeck, Blessed John

    Blessed John Ruysbroeck

    Surnamed the Admirable Doctor, and the Divine Doctor, undoubtedly the foremost of the Flemish ...
    Ruysch, John

    John Ruysch

    Astronomer, cartographer, and painter, born at Utrecht about 1460; died at Cologne, 1533. Little ...
    Ryan, Father Abram J.

    Father Abram J. Ryan

    The poet-priest of the South, born at Norfolk, Virginia, 15 August, 1839; died at Louisville, ...
    Ryan, Patrick John

    Patrick John Ryan

    Sixth Bishop and second Archbishop of Philadelphia, b. At Thurles, County Tipperary, ...
    Ryder, Henry Ignatius Dudley

    Henry Ignatius Dudley Ryder

    English Oratorian priest and controversialist, b. 3 Jan., 1837; d. at Edgbaston, Birmingham, 7 ...
    Ryken, Theodore James

    Theodore James Ryken

    Known as B ROTHER F RANCIS X AVIER , founder of the Xaverian Brothers. Born at Elshout, ...

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