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Franciscus Quaresmius

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A writer and Orientalist of the seventeenth century, born at Lodi (Lombardy), 4 April, 1583; died at Milan, 25 Oct., 1650. His father was the noble Alberto Quaresmi and his mother Laura Papa. At an early age he was enrolled among the Franciscan Observantines at Mantua. For many years he held the chairs of philosophy, theology, and canon law, and became successively guardian, custos , and minister of his province. Later (1645-8) he occupied the two highest posts in the order, that of definitor and procurator general. The memoirs of the order extol his consummate virtue, particularly his piety, prudence, and extraordinary meekness. His long apostolate in the East and the magnificent works he has left us have secured for Quaresmius world-wide fame, especially among earlier historians, Biblical scholars, and Orientalists. On 3 March, 1616, he went to Jerusalem, where he became Guardian and Vice-Commissary Apostolic of Aleppo in Syria (1616-8), and Superior and Commissary Apostolic of the East (1618-9). During this period he was twice imprisoned by the Turks. In 1620 he returned to Europe, but in 1625 was back in Jerusalem, whence the following year he addressed from the Holy Sepulchre an appeal to Philip IV of Spain, inviting him to reconquer the Holy Land, and at the same time dedicating to him his work, "Hierosolymæ afflictæ". Between 1616 and 1626 he wrote his classical work, "Elucidatio terræ Sanctæ", adjudged by the learned a monumental contribution to history, geography, archæology, Biblical and moral science. During 1627-9 he was at Aleppo as papal commissary and as vicar-patriarch for the Chaldeans and Maronites of Syria and Mesopotamia. In 1629 he went to Italy to render an account to the Holy See of the state of the Eastern Churches ; he then returned to the East, but how long he remained is not known. Meanwhile he journeyed through Egypt and Sinai, the Holy Land, Syria, Mesopotamia, Cyprus, Rodi, Constantinople, and a large part of Asia Minor ; he also visited Germany, France, Belgium, and Holland. In 1637 he was guardian of S. Angelo (Milan), where in 1643 he completed his other great work on the Passion of Christ.

No bibliographer has yet given us a complete list of his works. His published works are:

  • "Historica, theologica et moralis terræ sanctæ elucidatio: in qua pleraque ad veterem et præsentem ejusdem terræ statum spectantia accurate explicantur" (2 fol. vols., pp. xxx-924-98 and 1014-120, Antwerp, 1639); second edition edited by P. Cypriano da Treviso (4 pts. in 2 fol. vols., Venice, 1880-1);
  • "De sacratissimis D. N. J. Christi quinque vulneribus, varia, pia et luculenta tractatlo . . ." [5, not 3, fol. vols.; I, 202; II, 258; III, 368; IV, 400; V, 271, besides an index of pp. 200 (Venice, 1652)], approved by the examining theologians in 1643, but unknown to bibliographers; only three copies are extant -- one in the library of Brera, the Ambrosiana of Milan, and the National Library (Florence);
  • "Jerosolymæ afflictæ et humiliatæ deprecatio ad suum Philippum IV Hispaniarum et Novi Orbis potentissimum ac Catholicum Regem" (1 quarto vol., pp. 74, Milan, 1631), very rare; there is a copy in the Ambrosiana of Milan ;
  • "Ad SS. DD. N. Alexandrum VII Pont. Opt. Max. Fr. Francisci Quaresmii Laud. Ord. Min. Pia Vota pro anniversaria Passionis Christi solemnitate" (1 quarto vol., pp. xx-58, Milan, 1656), of which there is one copy in the Ambrosiana;
  • "Pro confraternitate SS. Stellarii B. Virginis Mariæ tractatus" (1 quarto vol., Palermo, 1648);
  • "Itinerario di Caldea del Rev. P. Francesco Quaresmio e di Fr. Tomaso da Milano suo compagno. Min. Oss. e Giov. Batt. Eliano. Maronita, ed Elia Patriarca e con li Nestoriani etc. l'anno 1629", edited by Marcellino da Civezza in "Storia delle Missioni Francescane", XI, 595-608.
Still in manuscript are:
  • "Apparatus pro reductione Chaldæorum ad catholicam fidem" ("six manuscript volumes", says Fr. Cyprian), which Quaresmius wrote when among the Chaldeans, and to which he refers in "Elucidatio terræ sanctæ", I, li;
  • "Adversus errores Armenorum" ("three volumes in folio", says Sbaralea), preserved in the Convent of Lodi ;
  • "Deipara in Sanguine Agni dealbata", left incomplete by the author;
  • "Epistolæ ex oriente", in the archives of the Propaganda Fide.
  • These and other manuscript works are said to be preserved, some in the municipal library of Pavia and Lodi and some at Jerusalem.

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    Benito Jeronimo Feyjoo y Montenegro

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    St. Fiacc

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    Ficino, Marsilio

    Marsilio Ficino

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    Julius Ficker

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    Fideism

    Fideism

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    Fidelis of Sigmaringen, Saint

    St. Fidelis of Sigmaringen

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    Fiesole

    Fiesole

    DIOCESE OF FIESOLE (FÆSULANA). Diocese in the province of Tuscany, suffragan of Florence. ...
    Figueroa, Francisco de

    Francisco de Figueroa

    A celebrated Spanish poet, surnamed "the Divine", b. at Alcalá de Henares, c. 1540, d. ...
    Figueroa, Francisco García de la Rosa

    Francisco Garcia de la Rosa Figueroa

    Franciscan, b. in the latter part of the eighteenth century at Toluca, in the Archdiocese of ...
    Fiji, Vicariate Apostolic of

    Vicariate Apostolic of Fiji

    Comprising the islands belonging to the Fiji Archipelago. This archipelago forms the central ...
    Filby, Blessed William

    Blessed William Filby

    Blessed William Filby Born in Oxfordshire between 1557 and 1560; suffered at Tyburn, 30 May, ...
    Filelfo, Franscesco

    Francesco Filelfo

    A humanist, b. at Tolentino, 25 July, 1398; d. at Florence 31 July, 1481. He studied grammar, ...
    Filial Church

    Filial Church

    (Latin filialis , from filia , daughter), a church to which is annexed the cure of souls , ...
    Filicaja, Vincenzo da

    Vincenzo Da Filicaja

    Lyric poet; born at Florence, 30 December, 1642; died there 24 September, 1707. At Pisa he was ...
    Filioque

    Filioque

    Filioque is a theological formula of great dogmatic and historical importance. On the one ...
    Fillastre, Guillaume

    Guillaume Fillastre (Philastrius)

    French cardinal, canonist, humanist, and geographer, b. 1348 at La Suze, Maine, France ; d. at ...
    Filliucci, Vincenzo

    Vincenzo Filliucci

    Jesuit moralist; b. at Sienna, Italy, 1566; d. at Rome 5 April, 1622. Having entered the Society ...
    Filliucius, Felix

    Felix Filliucius

    (Or, as his name is more often found, in its Italian form, FIGLIUCCI). An Italian humanist, a ...
    Final Perseverance

    Final Perseverance

    ( Perseverantia finalis ). Final perseverance is the preservation of the state of grace till ...
    Finan, Saint

    St. Finan

    Second Bishop of Lindisfarne ; died 9 February, 661. He was an Irish monk who had been ...
    Finbarr, Saint

    St. Finbarr

    (Lochan, Barr). Bishop and patron of Cork, born near Bandon, about 550, died at Cloyne, 25 ...
    Finch, Ven. John

    Ven. John Finch

    A martyr, b. about 1548; d. 20 April, 1584. He was a yeoman of Eccleston, Lancashire, and a ...
    Finglow, Ven. John

    Ven. John Finglow

    An English martyr ; b. at Barnby, near Howden, Yorkshire; executed at York, 8 August, 1586. He ...
    Finland

    Finland

    Note: This article was taken from the 1909 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, and is presented ...
    Finnian of Moville, Saint

    St. Finnian of Moville

    Born about 495; died 589. Though not so celebrated as his namesake of Clonard, he was the ...
    Finotti, Joseph M.

    Joseph M. Finotti

    Born at Ferrara, Italy, 21 September, 1817; died at Central City, Colorado, 10 January, 1879. ...
    Fintan, Saints

    Sts. Fintan

    St. Fintan of Clonenagh A Leinster saint, b. about 524; d. 17 February, probably 594, or at least ...
    Fioretti di San Francesco d'Assisi

    Fioretti di San Francesco d'Assisi

    Little Flowers of Francis of Assisi , the name given to a classic collection of popular legends ...
    Fire, Liturgical Use of

    Liturgical Use of Fire

    Fire is one of the most expressive and most ancient of liturgical symbols. All the creeds of ...
    Firmament

    Firmament

    (Septuagint stereoma ; Vulgate, firmamentum ). The notion that the sky was a vast solid ...
    Firmicus Maternus

    Firmicus Maternus

    Christian author of the fourth century; wrote a work "De errore profanarum religionum". Nothing ...
    Firmilian

    Firmilian

    Bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia, died c. 269. He had among his contemporaries a reputation ...
    First-Born

    First-Born

    The word, though casually taken in Holy Writ in a metaphorical sense, is most generally used by ...
    First-Fruits

    First-Fruits

    The practice of consecrating first-fruits to the Deity is not a distinctly Jewish one (cf. ...
    Fiscal Procurator

    Fiscal Procurator

    ( Latin PROCURATOR FISCALIS). The duties of the fiscal procurator consist in preventing ...
    Fischer, Antonius

    Antonius Fischer

    Archbishop of Cologne and cardinal, b. at Julich, 30 May, 1840; d. at Neuenahr, 30 July, 1912. ...
    Fish, Symbolism of the

    Symbolism of the Fish

    Among the symbols employed by the primitive Christians, that of the fish ranks probably first in ...
    Fisher, Philip

    Philip Fisher

    (An alias , real name THOMAS COPLEY) Missionary, b. in Madrid, 1595-6; d. in Maryland, U. ...
    Fisherman, The Ring of the

    The Ring of Fisherman

    The earliest mention of the Fisherman's ring worn by the popes is in a letter of Clement IV ...
    Fitter, Daniel

    Daniel Fitter

    Born in Worcestershire, England, 1628; died at St. Thomas' Priory, near Stafford, 6 Feb., 1700. ...
    Fitton, James

    James Fitton

    Missionary, b. at Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. , 10 April, 1805; d. there, 15 Sept., 1881. His ...
    Fitz-Simons, Thomas

    Thomas Fitz-Simons

    American merchant, b. in Ireland, 1741; d. at Philadelphia, U.S.A. 26 Aug., 1811. There is no ...
    Fitzalan, Henry

    Henry Fitzalan

    Twelfth Earl of Arundel, b. about 1511; d. in London, 24 Feb., 1580 (O.S. 1579). Son of William, ...
    FitzGibbon, Catherine

    Sister Irene (Catherine Fitzgibbon)

    (Catherine FitzGibbon.) Born in London, England, 12 May, 1823; died in New York, 14 August, ...
    Fitzherbert, Anthony, Sir

    Sir Anthony Fitzherbert

    Judge, b. in 1470; d. 27 May, 1538. He was the sixth son of Ralph Fitzherbert of Norbury, ...
    Fitzherbert, Maria Anne

    Maria Anne Fitzherbert

    Wife of King George IV; b. 26 July, 1756 (place uncertain); d. at Brighton, England, 29 March, ...
    Fitzherbert, Thomas

    Thomas Fitzherbert

    Born 1552, at Swynnerton, Staffs, England ; died 17 Aug., 1640, at Rome. His father having died ...
    Fitzpatrick, William John

    William John Fitzpatrick

    Historian, b. in Dublin, Ireland, 31 Aug., 1830; d. there 24 Dec., 1895. The son of a rich ...
    Fitzralph, Richard

    Richard Fitzralph

    Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Dundalk, Ireland, about 1295; d. at Avignon, 16 Dec., 1360. He ...
    Fitzsimon, Henry

    Henry Fitzsimon

    (Fitz Simon). Jesuit, b. 1566 (or 1569), in Dublin, Ireland ; d. 29 Nov., 1643 (or 1645), ...
    Fixlmillner, Placidus

    Placidus Fixlmillner

    Astronomer, b. at Achleuthen near Kremsmünster, Austria, in 1721; d. at Kremsmünster, ...
    Fizeau, Armand-Hippolyte-Louis

    Armand-Hippolyte-Louis Fizeau

    Physicist, b. at Paris, 23 Sept., 1819; d. at Nanteuil, Seine-et-Marne, 18 Sept., 1896. His ...
    Fléchier, Esprit

    Esprit Flechier

    Bishop; b. at Pernes, France, 1632; died at Montpellier, 1710; member of the Academy, and ...
    Flórez, Enrique

    Enrique Florez

    Spanish theologian, archeologist, and historian; born at Valladolid, 14 February, 1701; died at ...
    Flabellum

    Flabellum

    The flabellum, in liturgical use, is a fan made of leather, silk, parchment, or feathers ...
    Flaccilla, Ælia

    Aelia Flaccilla

    ( Plakilla ) Empress, wife of Theodosius the Great , died c. A. D. 385 or 386. Like ...
    Flagellants

    Flagellants

    A fanatical and heretical sect that flourished in the thirteenth and succeeding centuries, Their ...
    Flagellation

    Flagellation

    The history of the whip, rod, and stick, as instruments of punishment and of voluntary penance, ...
    Flaget, Benedict Joseph

    Benedict Joseph Flaget

    First Bishop of Bardstown (subsequently of Louisville ), Kentucky, U.S.A. b. at Contournat, ...
    Flanagan, Thomas Canon

    Thomas Canon Flanagan

    Born in England in 1814, though Irish by descent; died at Kidderminster, 21 July, 1865. He was ...
    Flanders

    Flanders

    (Flemish VLAENDEREN; German FLANDEREN; French FLANDRE). Designated in the eighth century a ...
    Flandrin, Jean-Hippolyte

    Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin

    French painter, b. at Lyons, 23 March, 1809; d. at Rome, 21 March, 1864. He came of a family of ...
    Flathead Indians

    Flathead Indians

    A name used in both Americas, without special ethnologic significance, to designate tribes ...
    Flathers, Ven. Mathew

    Ven. Mathew Flathers

    ( Alias Major). An English priest and martyr ; b. probably c. 1580 at Weston, Yorkshire, ...
    Flavia Domitilla

    Flavia Domitilla

    A Christian Roman matron of the imperial family who lived towards the close of the first ...
    Flavian, Saint

    St. Flavian

    Bishop of Constantinople, date of birth unknown; d. at Hypæpa in Lydia, August, 449. ...
    Flavias

    Flavias

    A titular see of Cilicia Secunda. Nothing is known of its ancient name and history, except that ...
    Flavigny, Abbey of

    Abbey of Flavigny

    A Benedictine abbey in the Diocese of Dijon, the department of Côte-d'Or, and ...
    Flaviopolis

    Flaviopolis

    A titular see in the province of Honorias. The city, formerly called Cratia, originally belonged ...
    Flemael, Bertholet

    Bertholet Flemael

    (The name was also spelled FLEMALLE and FLAMAEL). Painter, b. at Liège, Flanders, in ...
    Fleming, Patrick

    Patrick Fleming

    Franciscan friar b. at Lagan, Couny Louth, Ireland, 17 April, 1599; d. 7 November, 1631. His ...
    Fleming, Richard

    Richard Fleming

    (FLEMMING, FLEMMYNGE). Bishop of Lincoln and founder of Lincoln College, Oxford; b. of a ...
    Fleming, Thomas

    Thomas Fleming

    Archbishop of Dublin, son of the Baron of Slane, b. in 1593; d. in 1665. He studied at thy ...
    Fletcher, John

    John Fletcher

    A missionary and theologian, b. at Ormskirk, England, of an old Catholic family ; educated at ...
    Flete, William

    William Flete

    An Augustinian hermit friar, a contemporary and great friend of St. Catherine of Siena ; the ...
    Fleuriot, Zénaide-Marie-Anne

    Zenaide-Marie-Anne Fleuriot

    A French novelist, b. at Saint-Brieuc, 12 September, 1829; d. at Paris, 18 December, 1890. She ...
    Fleury, Abbey of

    Abbey of Fleury

    ( More completely FLEURY-SAINT-BENOÎT) One of the oldest and most celebrated ...
    Fleury, André-Hercule de

    Andre-Hercule de Fleury

    Born at Lodève, 26 June, 1653; died at Paris, 29 January, 1742. He was a ...
    Flodoard

    Flodoard

    (Or FRODOARD) French historian and chronicler, b. at Epernay in 894; d. in 966. He was ...
    Flood of Noah

    Deluge

    Deluge is the name of a catastrophe fully described in Genesis 6:1 - 9:19 , and referred to in the ...
    Floreffe, Abbey of

    Abbey of Floreffe

    Pleasantly situated on the right bank of the Sambre, about seven miles southwest of Namur, ...
    Florence

    Florence

    (Latin Florentia ; Italian Firenze ). ARCHDIOCESE OF FLORENCE (FLORENTINA). Located in ...
    Florence of Worcester

    Florence of Worcester

    English chronicler; all that is known of his personal history is that he was a monk of ...
    Florence, Council of

    Council of Florence

    The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council was, correctly speaking, the continuation of the Council of ...
    Florentina, Saint

    St. Florentina

    Virgin ; born towards the middle of the sixth century; died about 612. The family of St. ...
    Florian, Jean-Pierre Claris, Chevalier de

    Jean-Pierre Claris, Chevalier de Florian

    Born at the château of Florian (Gard), 6 March, 1755; died at Sceaux, 13 September, 1794. An ...
    Florians, The

    The Florians

    (Floriacenses), an altogether independent order, and not, as some consider, a branch of the ...
    Florida

    Florida

    The Peninsular or Everglade State, the most southern in the American Union and second largest east ...
    Florilegia

    Florilegia

    Florilegia (Lat., florilegium, an anthology) are systematic collections of excerpts (more or ...
    Florus

    Florus

    A deacon of Lyons, ecclesiastical writer in the first half of the ninth century. We have no ...
    Floyd, John

    John Floyd

    English missionary, wrote under the names Flud, Daniel à Jesu, Hermannus Loemelius, George ...
    Fogaras

    Fogaras

    ARCHDIOCESE OF FOGARAS (FOGARASIENSIS). Archdiocese in Hungary, of the Greek-Rumanian Rite. It ...
    Foggia

    Foggia

    DIOCESE OF FOGGIA (FODIANA). Diocese in the province of the same name in Apulia (Southern ...
    Foillan, Saint

    St. Foillan

    ( Irish FAELAN, FAOLAN, FOELAN, FOALAN.) Represented in iconography with a crown at his ...
    Folengo, Teofilo

    Teofilo Folengo

    An Italian poet, better known by his pseudonyrn MERLIN COCCALO or COCAI; b. at Mantua in 1496; ...
    Foley, Henry

    Henry Foley

    Born at Astley in Worcestershire, England, 9 Aug., 1811; died at Manresa House, Roehampton, 19 ...
    Foligno

    Foligno

    DIOCESE OF FOLIGNO (FULGINATENSIS). Diocese in the province of Perugia, Italy, immediately ...
    Foliot, Gilbert

    Gilbert Foliot

    Bishop of London, b. early in the twelfth century of an Anglo-Norman family and connected ...
    Folkestone Abbey

    Folkestone Abbey

    Folkestone Abbey -- more correctly FOLKESTONE PRIORY -- is situated in the east division of ...
    Fonseca Soares, Antonio da

    Antonio Da Fonseca Soares

    (ANTONIO DAS CHAGAS). Friar Minor and ascetical writer; b. at Vidigueira, 25 June, 1631; d. at ...
    Fonseca, José Ribeiro da

    Jose Ribeiro da Fonseca

    Friar Minor ; b. at Evora, 3 Dec., 1690; d. at Porto, 16 June, 1752. He was received into the ...
    Fonseca, Pedro Da

    Pedro da Fonseca

    A philosopher and theologian, born at Cortizada, Portugal, 1528; died at Lisbon, 4 Nov., 1599. ...
    Fontana, Carlo

    Carlo Fontana

    An architect and writer; b. at Bruciato, near Como, 1634; d. at Rome, 1714. There seems to be no ...
    Fontana, Domenico

    Domenico Fontana

    A Roman architect of the Late Renaissance, b. at Melide on the Lake of Lugano, 1543; d. at ...
    Fontana, Felice

    Felice Fontana

    Italian naturalist and physiologist, b. at Pomarolo in the Tyrol, 15 April, 1730; d. at Florence, ...
    Fontbonne, Jeanne

    Jeanne Fontbonne

    In religion Mother St. John, second foundress and superior-general of the Sisters of St. Joseph ...
    Fonte-Avellana

    Fonte-Avellana

    A suppressed order of hermits, which takes its name from their first hermitage in the Apennines. ...
    Fontenelle, Abbey of

    Abbey of Fontenelle

    (Or ABBEY OF SAINT WANDRILLE). A Benedictine monastery in Normandy ...
    Fontevrault, Order and Abbey of

    Order and Abbey of Fontevrault

    I. CHARACTER OF THE ORDER The monastery of Fontevrault was founded by Blessed Robert ...
    Fonts, Holy Water

    Holy Water Fonts

    Vessels intended for the use of holy water are of very ancient origin, and archaeological ...
    Fools, Feast of

    Feast of Fools

    A celebration marked by much license and buffoonery, which in many parts of Europe, and ...
    Foppa, Ambrogio

    Ambrogio Foppa

    Generally known as CARADOSS0. Italian goldsmith, sculptor, and die sinker, b. at Mondonico in ...
    Forbes, John

    John Forbes

    Capuchin, b. 1570; d. 1606. His father, John, eighth Lord Forbes, being a Protestant, and his ...
    Forbin-Janson, Comte de Charles-Auguste-Marie-Joseph

    Comte de Forbin-Janson

    A Bishop of Nancy and Toul, founder of the Association of the Holy Childhood , born in Paris, ...
    Forcellini, Egidio

    Egidio Forcellini

    Latin lexicographer, b. at Fener, near Treviso, Italy, 26 Aug., 1688; d. at Padua, 4 April, ...
    Ford, Blessed Thomas

    Bl. Thomas Ford

    Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...
    Fordham University

    Fordham University

    Fordham University developed out of Saint John's College, founded by Bishop Hughes upon the old ...
    Foreman, Andrew

    Andrew Foreman

    A Scottish prelate, of good border family ; b. at Hatton, near Berwick-on-Tweed; d. 1522. His ...
    Forer, Laurenz

    Laurenz Forer

    Controversialist, b. at Lucerne, 1580; d. at Ratisbon, 7 January, 1659. He entered the Society ...
    Foresters, Catholic Orders of

    Catholic Orders of Foresters

    I On 30 July, 1879, some members of the St. Vincent de Paul Society of Boston, Massachusetts, ...
    Forgery, Forger

    Forgery, Forger

    If we accept the definition usually given by canonists, forgery ( Latin falsum ) differs very ...
    Forli

    Forli

    (FOROLIVIENSIS) Diocese in the province of Romagna (Central Italy ); suffragan of Ravenna. ...
    Form

    Form

    (Latin forma; Greek eidos, morphe, he kata ton logon ousia, to ti en einai : Aristotle) ...
    Formby, Henry

    Henry Formby

    Born 1816; died at Normanton Hall, Leicester, 12 March, 1884. His father, Henry Grenehalgh Formby, ...
    Formosus, Pope

    Pope Formosus

    (891-896) The pontificate of this pope belongs to that era of strife for political supremacy ...
    Formularies

    Formularies

    (LIBRI FORMULARUM) Formularies are medieval collections of models for the execution of ...
    Forrest, William

    William Forrest

    Priest and poet; dates of birth and death uncertain. Few personal details are known of him. He ...
    Forster, Fobrenius

    Frobenius Forster

    Prince-Abbot of St. Emmeram at Ratisbon, b. 30 Aug., 1709, at Königsfeld in Upper Bavaria ...
    Forster, Thomas Ignatius Maria

    Thomas Ignatius Maria Forster

    Astronomer and naturalist, b. at London, 9 Nov., 1789; d. at Brussels, 2 Feb., 1860. His literary ...
    Fort Augustus Abbey

    Fort Augustus Abbey

    St. Benedict's Abbey, at Fort Augustus, Inverness-shire, is at present the only monastery for ...
    Fort Wayne

    Fort Wayne

    DIOCESE OF (WAYNE CASTRENSIS). The Diocese of Vincennes, Indiana, U.S.A. established in ...
    Fortaleza, Diocese of

    Fortaleza

    (FORTALEXIENSIS) The Diocese of Fortaleza is co-extensive with the State of Ceará in ...
    Fortescue, Blessed Adrian

    Bl. Adrian Fortescue

    Knight of St. John, martyr, b. about 1476, executed 10 July, 1539. He belonged to the Salden ...
    Fortitude

    Fortitude

    (1) Manliness is etymologically what is meant by the Latin word virtus and by the Greek andreia ...
    Fortunato of Brescia

    Fortunato of Brescia

    Morphologist and Minorite of the Reform of Lombardy ; b. at Brescia, 1701; d. at Madrid, ...
    Fortunatus

    Fortunatus

    Venantius Honorius Clementianus Fortunatus A Christian poet of the sixth century, b. ...
    Forty Hours' Devotion

    Forty Hours' Devotion

    Also called Quarant' Ore or written in one word Quarantore , is a devotion in which continuous ...
    Forty Martyrs

    Forty Martyrs

    A party of soldiers who suffered a cruel death for their faith, near Sebaste, in Lesser Armenia, ...
    Forum, Ecclesiastical

    Ecclesiastical Forum

    That the Church of Christ has judicial and coercive power is plain from the constitution given ...
    Fossano

    Fossano

    DIOCESE OF FOSSANO (FOSSANENSIS). Fossano is a town in the province of Cuneo, in Piedmont, ...
    Fossombrone

    Fossombrone (Forum Sempronii)

    DIOCESE OF FOSSOMBRONE (FOROSEMPRONIENSIS). Diocese in the province of Pesaro, Italy, a ...
    Fossors

    Fossors

    (Latin fossores , fossarii from fodere , to dig). Grave diggers in the Roman ...
    Foster, John Gray

    John Gray Foster

    Soldier, convert, b. at Whitfield, New Hampshire, U.S.A. 27 May, 1823; d. at Nashua, New ...
    Fothad, Saint

    St. Fothad

    Surnamed NA CANOINE ("of the Canon"). A monk of Fahan-Mura, County Doneval, Ireland, at the ...
    Fouard, Constant

    Constant Fouard

    An ecclesiastical writer b. at Elbeuf, near Rouen, 6 Aug. 1837; his early life was a ...
    Foucault, Jean-Bertrand-Léon

    Jean-Bertrand-Leon Foucault

    A physicist and mechanician, b. at Paris, 19 Sept., 1819; d. there 11 Feb., 1868. He received ...
    Foulque de Neuilly

    Foulque de Neuilly

    A popular Crusade preacher, d. March, 1202. At the end of the twelfth century he was ...
    Foundation

    Foundation

    ( Latin fundatio; German Stiftung ) An ecclesiastical foundation is the making over of ...
    Foundling Asylums

    Foundling Asylums

    Under this title are comprised all institutions which take charge of infants whose parents or ...
    Fountains Abbey

    Fountains Abbey

    A monastery of the Cistercian Order situated on the banks of the Skell about two and a half ...
    Fouquet, Jehan

    Jehan Fouquet

    (Or J EAN F OUQUET ) French painter and miniaturist, b. at Tours, c. 1415; d. about 1480. ...
    Four Crowned Martyrs

    Four Crowned Martyrs

    The old guidebooks to the tombs of the Roman martyrs make mention, in connection with the ...
    Four Masters, Annals of the

    Annals of the Four Masters

    The most extensive of all the compilations of the ancient annals of Ireland. They commence, ...
    Fowler, John

    John Fowler

    Scholar and printer, b. at Bristol, England, 1537; d. at Namur, Flanders, 13 Feb., 1578-9. He ...
    Foxe's Book of Martyrs

    Foxe's Book of Martyrs

    John Foxe was born at Boston in Lincolnshire, England, in 1516, and was educated at Magdalen ...
    Fréchette, Louis-Honoré

    Louis-Honore Frechette

    Born at Notre-Dame de Lévis, P.Q., Canada, 16 November, 1839; died 30 May, 1908. He ...
    Fréjus

    Frejus

    DIOCESE OF FRÉJUS (FORUM JULII). Suffragan of Aix ; comprises the whole department of ...
    Fra Angelico

    Fra Angelico

    A famous painter of the Florentine school, born near Castello di Vicchio in the province of ...
    Fractio Panis

    Fractio Panis

    (BREAKING OF BREAD.) The name given to a fresco in the so-called "Capella Greca" in the ...
    France

    France

    The fifth in size (usually reckoned the fourth) of the great divisions of Europe. DESCRIPTIVE ...
    Frances d'Amboise, Blessed

    Bl. Frances d'Amboise

    Duchess of Brittany, afterwards Carmelite nun, b. 1427; d. at Nantes, 4 Nov., 1485. The daughter ...
    Frances of Rome, Saint

    St. Frances of Rome

    (Bussa di Leoni.) One of the greatest mystics of the fifteenth century; born at Rome, of a noble ...
    Franceschini, Marc' Antonio

    Marc' Antonio Franceschini

    Italian painter ; b. at Bologna, 1648; d. there c. 1729; best known for the decorative works he ...
    Franchi, Ausonio

    Ausonio Franchi

    The pseudonym of CRISTOFORO BONAVINO, philosopher ; b. 24 February, 1821, at Pegli, province of ...
    Francia

    Francia

    (FRANCESCO RAIBOLINI) A famous Bolognese goldsmith, engraver, and artist, b. about 1450; d. in ...
    Francis Borgia, Saint

    Francis Borgia

    (Spanish F RANCISCO DE B ORJA Y A RAGON ) Francis Borgia, born 28 October, 1510, was the ...
    Francis Caracciolo, Saint

    St. Francis Caracciolo

    Co-founder with John Augustine Adorno of the Conregation of the Minor Clerks Regular ; b. in Villa ...
    Francis de Geronimo, Saint

    St. Francis de Geronimo

    (Girolamo, Hieronymo). Born 17 December, 1642; died 11 May, 1716. His birthplace was ...
    Francis de Sales, Saint

    St. Francis de Sales

    Bishop of Geneva, Doctor of the Universal Church ; born at Thorens, in the Duchy of Savoy, 21 ...
    Francis I

    Francis I

    King of France ; b. at Cognac, 12 September, 1494; d. at Rambouillet, 31 March, 1547. He was the ...
    Francis Ingleby, Venerable

    Ven. Francis Ingleby

    English martyr, born about 1551; suffered at York on Friday, 3 June, 1586 (old style). According ...
    Francis of Assisi, Saint

    St. Francis of Assisi

    Founder of the Franciscan Order, born at Assisi in Umbria, in 1181 or 1182 -- the exact year ...
    Francis of Fabriano, Blessed

    Bl. Francis of Fabriano

    Priest of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. 2 Sept., 1251; d. 22 April, 1322. His birth and ...
    Francis of Paula, Saint

    St. Francis of Paula

    Founder of the Order of Minims; b. in 1416, at Paula, in Calabria, Italy ; d. 2 April, 1507, at ...
    Francis of Vittoria

    Francis of Vittoria

    A Spanish theologian ; b. about 1480, at Vittoria, province of Avila, in Old Castile ; d. 12 ...
    Francis Regis Clet, Blessed

    Bl. Francis Regis Clet

    A Lazarist missionary in China ; b. 1748, martyred, 18 Feb., 1820. His father was a merchant ...
    Francis Solanus, Saint

    St. Francis Solanus

    South American missionary of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. at Montilla, in the Diocese of ...
    Francis Xavier, Saint

    St. Francis Xavier

    Born in the Castle of Xavier near Sanguesa, in Navarre, 7 April, 1506; died on the Island of ...
    Francis, Rule of Saint

    Rule of Saint Francis

    As known, St. Francis founded three orders and gave each of them a special rule. Here only the ...
    Franciscan Crown

    Franciscan Crown

    ( Or Seraphic Rosary.) A Rosary consisting of seven decades in commemoration of the seven ...
    Franciscan Order

    Franciscan Order

    A term commonly used to designate the members of the various foundations of religious, whether men ...
    Franck, Kasper

    Kasper Franck

    A theologian and controversialist; b. at Ortrand, Saxony, 2 Nov., 1543; d. at Ingolstadt, 12 ...
    Franco, Giovanni Battista

    Giovanni Battista Franco

    (Frequently known as IL SEMOLIE) Italian historical painter and etcher, b. at Udine in ...
    Frank, Michael Sigismund

    Michael Sigismund Frank

    Catholic artist and rediscoverer of the lost art of glass-painting; b. 1 June, 1770, at ...
    Frankenberg

    Graf von Frankenberg

    JOHANN HEINRICH, GRAF VON FRANKENBERG. Archbishop of Mechlin (Malines), Primate of ...
    Frankfort, Council of

    Council of Frankfort

    Convened in the summer of 794, by the grace of God, authority of the pope, and command of ...
    Frankfort-on-the-Main

    Frankfort-on-the-Main

    Frankfort-on-the-Main, formerly the scene of the election and coronation of the German emperors, ...
    Franks, The

    The Franks

    The Franks were a confederation formed in Western Germany of a certain number of ancient ...
    Franzelin, Johann Baptist

    Johann Baptist Franzelin

    Cardinal and theologian ; b. at Aldein, in the Tyrol, 15 April, 1816; d. at Rome, 11 Dec., ...
    Frascati

    Frascati

    DIOCESE OF FRASCATI (TUSCULANA). One of the six suburbicarian (i.e. neighbouring) dioceses ...
    Frassen, Claude

    Claude Frassen

    A celebrated Scotist theologian and philosopher of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. near ...
    Fraternal Correction

    Fraternal Correction

    Fraternal correction is here taken to mean the admonishing of one's neighbor by a private ...
    Fraticelli

    Fraticelli

    (Or F RATRICELLI ) A name given to various heretical sects which appeared in the fourteenth ...
    Fraud

    Fraud

    In the common acceptation of the word, an act or course of deception deliberately practised with ...
    Fraunhofer, Joseph von

    Joseph von Fraunhofer

    Optician, b. at Straubing, Bavaria, 6 March, 1787; d. at Munich, 7 June, 1826. He was the tenth ...
    Frayssinous, Denis de

    Denis de Frayssinous

    1765-1841, Bishop of Hermopolis in partibus infidelium , is celebrated chiefly for his ...
    Fredegarius

    Fredegarius

    The name used since the sixteenth designate the supposed author of an anonymous historical ...
    Fredegis of Tours

    Fredegis of Tours

    (Fridugisus or Fredegisus). A ninth-century monk, teacher, and writer. Fredegis was an ...
    Frederick I (Barbarossa)

    Frederick I

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Frederick of Swabia (d. 1147) and Judith, daughter of Henry ...
    Frederick II

    Frederick II

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry VI and Constance of Sicily; born 26 Dec., 1194; died ...
    Fredoli, Berenger

    Berenger Fredoli

    Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati ; b. at Vérune, France, c. ú d. at Avignon, 11 June, ...
    Free Church of Scotland

    Free Church of Scotland

    (Known since 1900 as the UNITED FREE CHURCH) An ecclesiastical organization in Scotland ...
    Free Will

    Free Will

    RELATION OF THE QUESTION TO DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY HISTORY Free Will in Ancient ...
    Free-Thinkers

    Free-Thinkers

    Those who, abandoning the religious truths and moral dictates of the Christian Revelation, and ...
    Freeman, Ven. William

    Ven. William Freeman

    A priest and martyr, b. at Manthorp near York, c. 1558; d. at Warwick, 13 August, 1595. His ...
    Freemasonry

    Masonry (Freemasonry)

    The subject is treated under the following heads: I. Name and Definition;II. Origin and Early ...
    Fregoso, Federigo

    Federigo Fregoso

    Cardinal ; b. at Genoa, about 1480; d. 22 July, 1541; belonged to the Fregosi, one of the four ...
    Freiburg

    Freiburg

    City, archdiocese, and university in the Archduchy of Baden, Germany . THE CITY Freiburg in ...
    Fremin, James

    James Fremin

    Jesuit missionary to the American Indians ; b. at Reims, 12 March, 1628; d. at Quebec, 2 July, ...
    French Academy, The

    The French Academy

    The French Academy was founded by Cardinal de Richelieu in 1635. For several years a number of ...
    French Catholics in the United States

    French Catholics in the United States

    The first Bishop of Burlington, the Right Reverend Louis de Goesbriand, in a letter dated 11 ...
    French Concordat of 1801, The

    Concordat of 1801

    This name is given to the convention of the 26th Messidor, year IX (July 16, 1802), whereby Pope ...
    French Literature

    French Literature

    Origin and Foundations of the French Language When the Romans became masters of Gaul, they imposed ...
    French Revolution

    French Revolution

    The last thirty years have given us a new version of the history of the French Revolution, the ...
    French, Nicholas

    Nicholas French

    Bishop of Ferns, Ireland, b. at Ballytory, Co. Wexford, in 1604, his parents being John ...
    Freppel, Charles-Emile

    Charles-Emile Freppel

    Born at Ober-Ehnheim, Alsace, 1 June, 1827; died at Paris, 22 Dec., 1891. He was Bishop of ...
    Frequent Communion

    Frequent Communion

    Without specifying how often the faithful should communicate, Christ simply bids us eat His Flesh ...
    Fresnel, Augustin-Jean

    Augustin-Jean Fresnel

    Physicist; b. at Broglie near Bernay, Normandy, 10 May, 1788; d. at Ville d'Avray, near Paris, ...
    Friar

    Friar

    [From Lat. frater , through O. Fr. fredre, frere, M. E. frere; It. frate (as prefix ...
    Friars Minor, Order of

    Order of Friars Minor

    (Also known as FRANCISCANS.) This subject may be conveniently considered under the following ...
    Fribourg, University of

    University of Fribourg

    From the sixteenth century, the foundation of a Catholic university in Switzerland had often ...
    Fridelli, Xavier Ehrenbert

    Xavier Ehrenbert Fridelli

    (Properly FRIEDEL.) Jesuit missioner and cartographer, b. at Linz, Austria, 11 March, 1673; ...
    Frideswide, Saint

    St. Frideswide

    (FRIDESWIDA, FREDESWIDA, French FRÉVISSE, Old English FRIS). Virgin, patroness of ...
    Fridolin, Saint

    St. Fridolin

    Missionary, founder of the Monastery of Säckingen, Baden (sixth century). In accordance with ...
    Friedrich von Hausen

    Friedrich von Hausen

    (HUSEN) Medieval German poet, one of the earliest of the minnesingers; date of birth ...
    Friends of God

    Friends of God

    ( German G OTTESFREUNDE ). An association of pious persons, both ecclesiastical and lay, ...
    Friends, Society of

    Society of Friends (Quakers)

    The official designation of an Anglo - American religious sect originally styling themselves ...
    Frigolet, Abbey of

    Abbey of Frigolet

    The monastery of St. Michael was founded, about 960, at Frigolet, by Conrad the Pacific, King ...
    Fringes (in Scripture)

    Fringes

    This word is used to denote a special kind of trimming, consisting of loose threads of wool, silk, ...
    Fritz, Samuel

    Samuel Fritz

    A Jesuit missionary of the eighteenth century noted for his exploration of the Amazon River and ...
    Froissart, Jean

    Jean Froissart

    French historian and poet, b. at Valenciennes, about 1337, d. at sentence -->Chimay early ...
    Fromentin, Eugène

    Eugene Fromentin

    French writer and artist; b. at La Rochelle, 24 October, 1820; d. at Saint-Maurice, near La ...
    Frontal, Altar

    Altar Frontal

    The frontal ( antipendium, pallium altaris ) is an appendage which covers the entire front of ...
    Frontenac, Louis de Baude

    Count Louis de Buade Frontenac

    A governor of New France, b. at Paris, 1622; d. at Quebec, 28 Nov., 1698. His father was captain ...
    Frowin, Blessed

    Bl. Frowin

    Benedictine abbot, d. 11 March, 1178. Of the early life of Frowin nothing is known, save that he ...
    Fructuosus of Braga, Saint

    St. Fructuosus of Braga

    An Archbishop, d. 16 April, c. 665. He was the son of a Gothic general, and studied in Palencia. ...
    Fructuosus of Tarragona, Saint

    St. Fructuosus of Tarragona

    A bishop and martyr ; d. 21 January, 259. During the night of 16 January, he, together with ...
    Fuchs, Johann Nepomuk von

    Johann Nepomuk Fuchs

    A chemist and mineralogist, b. at Mattenzell, near Bremberg, Lower Bavaria, 15 May, 1774; d. at ...
    Fulbert of Chartres

    Fulbert of Chartres

    Bishop, b. between 952 and 962; d. 10 April, 1028 or 1029. Mabillon and others think that he was ...
    Fulcran, Saint

    St. Fulcran

    Bishop of Lodève; d. 13 February, 1006. According to the biography which Bernard Guidonis, ...
    Fulda

    Fulda

    DIOCESE OF FULDA (FULDENSIS). This diocese of the German Empire takes its name from the ...
    Fulgentius Ferrandus

    Fulgentius Ferrandus

    A canonist and theologian of the African Church in the first half of the sixth century. He was ...
    Fulgentius, Saint

    St. Fulgentius

    A Bishop of Ecija (Astigi), in Spain, at the beginning of the seventh century. Like his brothers ...
    Fulgentius, Saint

    Saint Fulgentius

    (FABIUS CLAUDIUS GORDIANUS FULGENTIUS). Born 468, died 533. Bishop of Ruspe in the province ...
    Fullerton, Lady Georgiana Charlotte

    Lady Georgiana Charlotte Fullerton

    Novelist; born 23 September, 1812, in Staffordshire, died 19 January, 1885, at Bournemouth. She ...
    Fullo, Peter

    Peter Fullo

    Intruding Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch ; d. 488. He received the Greek surname Gnapheus ...
    Fumo, Bartolommeo

    Bartolommeo Fumo

    A theologian, b. at Villon near Piacenza ; d. 1545. At an early age he entered the Dominican ...
    Funchal

    Funchal

    (FUNCHALENSIS.) Diocese in the Madeira Islands. Both in neo-Latin and in Portuguese the name ...
    Fundamental Articles

    Fundamental Articles

    This term was employed by Protestant theologians to distinguish the essential parts of the ...
    Funeral Dues

    Funeral Dues

    The canonical perquisites of a parish priest receivable on the occasion of the funeral of any of ...
    Funeral Pall

    Funeral Pall

    A black cloth usually spread over the coffin while the obsequies are performed for a deceased ...
    Funk, Franz Xaver von

    Franz Xaver von Funk

    Church historian, b. in the small market town of Abtsgemünd in Würtemberg, 12 October, ...
    Furness Abbey

    Furness Abbey

    Situated in the north of Lancashire about five miles from the town of Ulverston. Originally a ...
    Furni

    Furni

    A titular see in Proconsular Africa, where two towns of this name are known to have existed. One ...
    Furniss, John

    John Furniss

    A well-known children's missioner, born near Sheffield, England, 19 June, 1809; at Clapham, ...
    Fursey, Saint

    St. Fursey

    An Abbot of Lagny, near Paris, d. 16 Jan., about 650. He was the son of Fintan, son of Finloga, ...
    Fussola

    Fussola

    A titular see in Numidia. It was a fortified town, inhabited for the most part by Donatists ...
    Fust, John

    John Fust

    ( Or FAUST.) A partner of Gutenberg in promoting the art of printing, d. at Paris about ...
    Fytch, William Benedict

    William Benedict Fytch

    An English Franciscan friar ot the Capuchin Reform, whose family name was Filch; b. at ...

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