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Ostensorium (Monstrance)

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(From ostendere , "to show").

Ostensorium means, in accordance with its etymology, a vessel designed for the more convenient exhibition of some object of piety. Both the name ostensorium and the kindred word monstrance ( monstrancia , from monstrare ) were originally applied to all kinds of vessels of goldsmith's or silversmith's work in which glass, crystal, etc. were so employed as to allow the contents to be readily distinguished, whether the object thus honoured were the Sacred Host itself or only the relic of some saint. Modern usage, at any rate so far as the English language is concerned, has limited both terms to vessels intended for the exposition of the Blessed Sacrament, and it is in this sense only that we use ostensorium here.

It is plain that the introduction of ostensoria must have been posterior to the period at which the practice of exposing the Blessed Sacrament or carrying it in procession first became familiar in the Church. This (as may be seen from the articles BENEDICTION OF THE BLESSED SACRAMENT, CORPUS CHRISTI, and EXPOSITION OF THE BLESSED SACRAMENT) cannot be assigned to an earlier date than the thirteenth century. At the same time, Lanfranc's constitutions for the monks of Christ Church, Canterbury (c. 1070), direct that in the Palm Sunday procession two priests vested in albs should carry a portable shrine (feretrum) "in which also the Body of the Lord ought to be deposited". Although there is here no suggestion that the Host should be exposed to view but rather the contrary, still we find that this English custom led, in at least one instance, to the construction of an elaborately decorated shrine for the carrying of the Blessed Sacrament on this special occasion. Simon, Abbot of St. Albans (1166-83), presented to the abbey a costly ark-shaped vessel adorned with enamels representing scenes of the Passion, which was to be used on Palm Sunday "that the faithful might see with what honour the most holy Body of Christ should be treated which at this season offered itself to be scourged, crucified and buried " ("Gesta Abbatum", Rolls Series, I, 191-92). That this, however, was in any proper sense an ostensorium in which the Host was exposed to view is not stated and cannot be assumed. At the same time it is highly probable that such ostensoria in the strict sense began to be constructed in the thirteenth century, and there are some vessels still in existence -- for example, an octagonal monstrance at Bari, bearing: the words "Hic Corpus Domini" -- which may very well belong to that date.

A large number of medieval ostensoria have been figured by Cahier and Martin (Mélanges Archéologiques, I and VII) and by other authorities, and though it is often difficult to distinguish between simple reliquaries and vessels intended for the exposition of the Blessed Sacrament , a certain line of development may be traced in the evolution of these latter. Father Cahier suggests with some probability (Mélanges, VII, 271) that while at first the ciborium itself was employed for carrying the Blessed Sacrament in processions, etc., the sides of the cup of the ciborium were at first prolonged by a cylinder of crystal or glass, and the ordinary cover superimposed. Such a vessel might have served for either purpose, viz., either for giving Communion or for carrying the Host visibly in procession. Soon, however, the practice of exposition became sufficiently common to seem to require an ostensorium for that express object, and for this the upright cylindrical vessel of crystal was at first retained, often with supports of an architectural character and with tabernacle work, niches, and statues. In the central cylinder a large Host was placed, being kept upright by being held in a lunette constructed for the purpose. Many medieval monstrances of this type are still in existence. Soon, however, it became clear that the ostensorium could be better adapted to the object of drawing all eyes to the Sacred Host itself by making the transparent portion of the vessel just of the size required, and surrounded, like the sun, with rays. Monstrances of this shape, dating from the fifteenth century, are also not uncommon, and for several hundred years past this has been by far the commonest form in practical use.

Of course the adoption of ostensoria for processions of the Blessed Sacrament was a gradual process, and, if we may trust the miniatures found in the liturgical books of the Middle Ages, the Sacred Host was often carried on such occasions in a closed ciborium. An early example of a special vessel constructed for this purpose is a gift made by Archbishop Robert Courtney, an Englishman by birth, who died in 1324, to his cathedral church of Reims. He bequeathed with other ornaments "a golden cross set with precious stones and having a crystal in the middle, in which is placed the Body of Christ, and is carried in procession upon the feast of the most holy Sacrament." In a curious instance mentioned by Bergner (Handbuchd. Kirch. Kunstaltert mer in Deutschland, 356) a casket constructed in 1205 at Augsburg, to hold a miraculous Host from which blood had trickled, had an aperture bored in it more than a century later to allow the Host to be seen. Very probably a similar plan was sometimes adopted with vessels which are more strictly Eucharistic. Early medieval inventories often allow us to form an idea, of the rapid extension of the use of monstrances. In the inventories of the thirteenth century they are seldom or never mentioned, but in the fifteenth century they have become a feature in all larger churches. Thus at St. Paul's, London, in 1245 and 1298 we find no mention of anything like an ostensorium, but in 1402 we have record of the "cross of crystal to put the Body of Christ in and to carry it upon the feast of Corpus Christi and at Easter ". At Durham we hear of "a goodly shrine ordained to be carried on Corpus Christi day in procession, and called ' Corpus Christi Shrine', all finely gilded, a goodly thing; to behold, and on the height of the said shrine was a four-square box all of crystal wherein was enclosed the Holy Sacrament of the Altar, and it was carried the same day with iiij priests " (Rites of Durham, c. lvi). But in the greater English churches a preference seems to have been shown connected no doubt with the ceremonial of the Easter sepulchre, for a form of monstrance which reproduced the figure of Our Lord, the Sacred Host being inserted behind a crystal door in the breast. This, at any rate, was case, i.e. in the Lincoln, Salisbury, and other famous cathedrals. These statues, however, for the exposition of the Blessed Eucharist seem to have been of comparatively late date. On the continent, and more particularly in Spain, a fashion seems to have been introduced in the sixteenth century of constructing ostensoria of enormous size, standing six, seven, or even, feet in height, and weighing many hundreds pounds. Of course it was necessary that in such cases the shrine in which the Blessed Sacrament was more immediately contained should be detachable, so that it could be used for giving benediction. The great monstrance of the cathedral of Toledo, which is more than twelve feet high, and the construction of which occupied in all more than 100 years, is adorned with 260 statuettes, one of the largest of which is said to be made of the gold brought by Columbus from the New World.

In the language of the older liturgical manuals ostensorium is not infrequently called tabernaculum, and it is under that name that a special blessing is provided for it in the "Pontificale Romanum". Several other designations are also in use, of which the commonest in perhaps custodia, though this is also a specially applied to the sort of transparent pyx in which Sacred Host is immediately secured. In Scotland, before the reformation, an ostensorium was commonly called a "eucharist", in England a "monstre or "monstral". The orb and rays of a monstrance should at least be of silver or silver gilt, and it is recommended that it should be surmounted by a cross.

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Ontario

Ontario, the most populous and wealthy province of Canada, has an area of 140,000,000 acres, ...
Ontologism

Ontologism

(from on, ontos , being, and logos , science) Ontologism is an ideological system which ...
Ontology

Ontology

( on, ontos , being, and logos , science, the science or philosophy of being). I. ...
Oostacker, Shrine of

Shrine of Oostacker

A miraculous shrine of the Blessed Virgin, and place of pilgrimage from Belgium, Holland, and ...
Opening Prayer (in the Mass)

Collect

The name now used only for short prayers before the Epistle in the Mass, which occur again at ...
Ophir

Ophir

Ophir, in the Bible , designates a people and a country. The people, for whom a Semitic ...
Oporto

Oporto

(Portucalensis) Diocese in Portugal ; comprising 26 civil concelhos of the districts of ...
Oppenordt, Gilles-Marie

Gilles-Marie Oppenordt

(Oppenord) Born in Paris, 1672; died there, 1742; a celebrated rococo artist, known as "the ...
Oppido Mamertina

Oppido Mamertina

Diocese ; suffragan of Reggio Calabria, Italy, famous for its prolonged resistance to Roger ...
Optatus, Saint

St. Optatus

Bishop of Milevis, in Numidia, in the fourth century. He was a convert, as we gather from St. ...
Optimism

Optimism

Optimism (Latin optimus , best) may be understood as a metaphysical theory, or as an emotional ...
Option, Right of

Right of Option

In canon law an option is a way of obtaining a benefice or a title, by the choice of the new ...
Oracle

Oracle

( oraculum; orare , to speak). A Divine communication given at a special place through ...
Oran

Oran

(ORANENSIS). Diocese in Algiers, separated from the Archdiocese of Algiers, 26 July, 1866, to ...
Orange Free State

Orange Free State

The Orange Free State, one of the four provinces of the Union of South Africa, lies between ...
Orange River

Orange River, South Africa

(also the PREFECTURE APOSTOLIC OF GREAT NAMAQUALAND) Located in South Africa. The vicariate was ...
Orange, Councils of

Councils of Orange

Two councils were held at Orange (Arausio), a town in the present department of Vaucluse in ...
Orans

Orans

(Orante) Among the subjects depicted in the art of the Roman catacombs one of those most ...
Orate Fratres

Orate Fratres

The exhortation (" Pray brethren that my sacrifice and yours be acceptable to God the Father ...
Oratorio

Oratorio

As at present understood, an Oratorio is a musical composition for solo voices, chorus, orchestra, ...
Oratory

Oratory

(Latin oratorium , from orare , to pray ) As a general term, Oratory signifies a place ...
Oratory of Saint Philip Neri, The

The Oratory of Saint Philip Neri

Under this head are included the Italian, Spanish, English, and other communities, which follow ...
Oratory, French Congregation of the

French Congregation of the Oratory

Founded in Paris at the beginning of the seventeenth century by Cardinal Pierre de ...
Orbellis, Nicolas d'

Nicolas d'Orbellis

Franciscan theologian and philosopher, Scotist ; born about 1400; died at Rome, 1475. He seems ...
Orcagna

Orcagna

(The conventional name in art history of A NDREA DI C IONE , also called A RCAGNUOLO or A ...
Orcistus

Orcistus

Titular see in Galatia Secunda. It is only mentioned in Peutinger's "Table". An inscription of ...
Ordeals

Ordeals

( Iudicium Dei ; Anglo-Saxon, ordâl ; German Urteil ). Ordeals were a means of ...
Ordericus Vitalis

Ordericus Vitalis

Historian, b. 1075; d. about 1143. He was the son of an English mother and a French priest who ...
Orders, Holy

Holy Orders

Order is the appropriate disposition of things equal and unequal, by giving each its proper place ...
Orders, The Military

The Military Orders

Including under this term every kind of brotherhood of knights, secular as well as religious, ...
Ordinariate

Ordinariate

(From Ordinary ). This term is used in speaking collectively of all the various organs ...
Ordinary

Ordinary

( Latin ordinarius , i. e., judex ) An Ordinary in ecclesiastical language, denotes any ...
Ordines Romani

Ordines Romani

The word Ordo commonly meant, in the Middle Ages, a ritual book containing directions for ...
Oregon

Oregon

One of the Pacific Coast States, seventh in size among the states of the Union (1910). It received ...
Oregon City

Oregon City

(OREGONOPOLITAN). Includes that part of the state of Oregon west of the Cascade Mountains, ...
Oremus

Oremus

Invitation to pray, said before collects and other short prayers and occurring continually in ...
Orense

Orense

(AURIENSIS) A suffragan of Compostela, includes nearly all of the civil Province of Orense, ...
Oresme, Nicole

Nicole Oresme

Philosopher, economist, mathematician, and physicist, one of the principal founders of modern ...
Organ

Organ

(Greek organon , "an instrument") A musical instrument which consists of one or several sets ...
Organic Articles, The

The Organic Articles

A name given to a law regulating public worship, comprising 77 articles relative to Catholicism, ...
Oria

Oria

(URITANA) Oria, in the Province of Lecce [now the Province of Brindisi -- Ed. ], Apulia, ...
Oriani, Barnaba

Barnaba Oriani

Italian Barnabite and astronomer, b. at Carignano, near Milan, 17 July, 1752; d. at Milan, 12 ...
Oriental Study and Research

Oriental Study and Research

In the broadest sense of the term, Oriental study comprises the scientific investigation and ...
Orientation of Churches

Orientation of Churches

According to Tertullian the Christians of his time were, by some who concerned themselves with ...
Orientius

Orientius

Christian Latin poet of the fifth century. He wrote an elegiac poem ( Commonitorium ) of 1036 ...
Oriflamme

Oriflamme

In verses 3093-5 of the "Chanson de Roland" (eleventh century) the oriflamme is mentioned as a ...
Origen and Origenism

Origen and Origenism

I. LIFE AND WORK OF ORIGEN A. BIOGRAPHY Origen, most modest of writers, hardly ever alludes to ...
Original Sin

Original Sin

I. Meaning II. Principal Adversaries III. Original Sin in ScriptureIV. Original Sin in ...
Orihuela

Orihuela

DIOCESE OF ORIHUELA (ORIOLENSIS, ORIOLANA). The Diocese of Orihuela comprises all the civil ...
Oriol, Saint Joseph

Saint Joseph Oriol

Priest, "Thaumaturgus of Barcelona", b. at Barcelona, 23 November, 1650; d. there, 23 March, ...
Oristano

Oristano

Diocese of Oristano (Arborensis) in Sardinia. Oristano was the capital of the giudicatura ...
Orkneys

Orkneys

A group of islands situated between 58° 41' and 59° 24' N. lat. and 2° 22' and 3° ...
Orléans

Orleans

(AURELIANUM) This Diocese comprises the Department of Loiret, suffragan of Paris since 1622, ...
Orléans, Councils of

Councils of Orleans

Six national councils were held at Orléans in the Merovingian period. I. — At the ...
Orlandini, Niccolò

Niccolo Orlandini

Born at Florence, 1554; died 1606 at Rome, 17 May. He entered the Jesuit novitiate 7 Nov., ...
Orley, Barent Van

Barent van Orley

(Bernard) Painter, b. at Brussels, about 1491; d. there 6 January, 1542. He studied under ...
Orme, Philibert de l'

Philibert de l'Orme

An architect, born about 1512; died 1570. His style, classical and of the more severe Italian ...
Oropus

Oropus

Titular see, suffragan of Anazarbus in Cilicia Secunda. It never really depended on Anazarbus ...
Orosius, Paulus

Paulus Orosius

Historian and Christian apologist ; b. probably at Bracara, now Braga, in Portugal, between 380 ...
Orphans and Orphanages

Orphans and Orphanages

The death of one or both parents makes the child of the very poor a ward of the community. The ...
Orsi, Giuseppe Agostino

Giuseppe Agostino Orsi

A cardinal, theologian, and ecclesiastical historian, born at Florence, 9 May, 1692, of an ...
Orsini

Orsini

One of the most ancient and distinguished families of the Roman nobility, whose members often ...
Orsisius

Orsisius

( Arsisios , Oresiesis-Heru-sa Ast) Egyptian monk of the fourth century; was a disciple ...
Ortelius, Abraham

Abraham Ortelius

(OERTEL) A cartographer, geographer, and archeologist, born in Antwerp, 4 April, 1527; died ...
Orthodox Church

Orthodox Church

The technical name for the body of Christians who use the Byzantine Rite in various languages ...
Orthodoxy

Orthodoxy

Orthodoxy ( orthodoxeia ) signifies right belief or purity of faith. Right belief is not ...
Orthodoxy, Feast of

Feast of Orthodoxy

(or SUNDAY) The first Sunday of the Great Forty days ( Lent ) in the Byzantine Calendar ...
Orthosias

Orthosias

A titular see of Phœnicia Prima, suffragan of Tyre. The city is mentioned for the first ...
Ortolano Ferrarese

Ortolano Ferrarese

Painter of the Ferrara School, b. in Ferrara, about 1490; d. about 1525. His real name was ...
Orval

Orval

(Aurea Vallis, Gueldenthal). Formerly a Cistercian abbey in Belgian Luxemburg, Diocese of ...
Orvieto

Orvieto

DIOCESE OF ORVIETO (URBEVETANA) Diocese in Central Italy. The city stands on a rugged mass of ...
Ory, Matthieu

Matthieu Ory

Inquisitor and theologian, b. at La Caune, 1492; d. at Paris, 1557. Entering the Dominican ...
Osaka

Osaka

(Osachensis). Osaka ( Oye , great river; saka , cliff), one of the three municipal ...
Osbald

Osbald

King of Northumbria, d. 799. Symeon of Durham (Historia Regum) tells us that when Ecfwald, a ...
Osbaldeston, Edward, Venerable

Ven. Edward Osbaldeston

English martyr, b. about 1560; hanged, drawn, and quartered at York, 16 November, 1594. Son of ...
Osbern

Osbern

Hagiographer, sometimes confused with Osbert de Clare alias Osbern de Westminster, b. at ...
Oscott (St. Mary's College)

Oscott (St. Mary's College)

In 1793, a number of the Catholic nobility and gentry of England formed a committee for the ...
Osee

Osee

NAME AND COUNTRY Osee (Hôsheá‘– Salvation ), son of Beeri, was one of ...
Osimo

Osimo

DIOCESE OF OSIMO (AUXIMANA). Diocese in the Province of Ascoli Piceno, Italy. Osimo was ...
Oslo, Ancient See of

Ancient See of Oslo

(ASLOIA, ASLOENSIS.) Oslo occupied part of the site of Christiania (founded 1624). After the ...
Osma

Osma

(OXOMENSIS) The Diocese borders Burgos and Logroño on the north, Soria and Saragossa ...
Osmund, Saint

St. Osmund

Bishop of Salisbury, died 1099; his feast is kept on 4 December. Osmund held an exalted ...
Osnabrück

Osnabrueck

(OSNABRUGENSIS) This diocese, directly subject to the Holy See, comprises, in the Prussian ...
Ossat, Arnaud d'

Arnaud d'Ossat

French cardinal, diplomat, and writer, b. at Larroque-Magnoac (Gascony), 20 July, 1537; d. at ...
Ossory, Diocese of

Ossory

(Ossoriensis.) In the Province of Leinster, Ireland, is bounded on the south by the Suir, on ...
Ostensorium

Ostensorium

(From ostendere , "to show"). Ostensorium means, in accordance with its etymology, a ...
Ostia and Velletri

Ostia and Velletri

SUBURBICARIAN DIOCESE OF OSTIA AND VELLETRI (OSTIENSIS ET VELITERNENSIS). Near Rome, central ...
Ostiensis

Ostiensis

Surname of LEO MARSICANUS, Benedictine chronicler, b. about 1045; d. 22 May, 1115, 1116, or ...
Ostracine

Ostracine

Titular see and suffragan of Pelusium in Augustamnica prima. Pliny (Hist. naturalis, V, xiv) ...
Ostraka, Christian

Christian Ostraka

Inscriptions on clay, wood, metal, and other hard materials. Like papyri, they are valuable ...
Ostrogoths

Ostrogoths

One of the two chief tribes of the Goths, a Germanic people. Their traditions relate that the ...
Oswald, Saint

St. Oswald

Archbishop of York, d. on 29 February, 992. Of Danish parentage, Oswald was brought up by his ...
Oswald, Saint

St. Oswald

King and martyr ; b., probably, 605; d. 5 Aug., 642; the second of seven brothers, sons of ...
Oswin, Saint

St. Oswin

King and martyr, murdered at Gilling, near Richmond, Yorkshire, England, on 20 August, 651, ...
Otfried of Weissenburg

Otfried of Weissenburg

He is the oldest German poet known by name, author of the "Evangelienbuch", a rhymed version of ...
Othlo

Othlo

(OTLOH) A Benedictine monk of St. Emmeran's, Ratisbon, born 1013 in the Diocese of ...
Othmar, Saint

St. Othmar

(Audomar.) Died 16 Nov., 759, on the island of Werd in the Rhine, near Echnez, Switzerland. ...
Otho, Marcus Salvius

Marcus Salvius Otho

Roman emperor, successor, after Galba, of Nero, b. in Rome, of an ancient Etruscan family ...
Otranto

Otranto

ARCHDIOCESE OF OTRANTO (HYDRUNTINA). Otranto is a city of the Province of Lecce, Apulia, ...
Ottawa, Archdiocese of

Ottawa

Archdiocese of Ottawa (Ottawiensis). The Archdiocese of Ottawa, in Canada, originally ...
Ottawa, University of

University of Ottawa

Conducted by the Oblates of Mary Immaculate ; founded in 1848. It was incorporated in 1849 under ...
Otto I, the Great

Otto I (The Great)

Roman emperor and German king, b. in 912; d. at Memleben, 7 May, 973; son of Henry I and his ...
Otto II

Otto II

King of the Germans and Emperor of Rome, son of Otto I and Adelaide, b. 955; d. in Rome, 7 ...
Otto III

Otto III

German king and Roman emperor, b. 980; d. at Paterno, 24 Jan., 1002. At the age of three he was ...
Otto IV

Otto IV

German king and Roman emperor, b. at Argentau (Dept. of Orne), c. 1182; d. 19 May, 1218; son of ...
Otto of Freising

Otto of Freising

Bishop and historian, b. between 1111 and 1114, d. at Morimond, Champagne, France, 22 ...
Otto of Passau

Otto of Passau

All we know of him is in the preface of his work, in which he calls himself a member of the ...
Otto of St. Blasien

Otto of Blasien

Chronicler, b. about the middle of the twelfth century; d. 23 July, 1223, at St. Blasien in the ...
Otto, Saint

Saint Otto

Bishop of Bamberg, b. about 1060; d. 30 June, 1139. He belonged to the noble, though not ...
Ottobeuren

Ottobeuren

(OTTOBURA, MONASTERIUM OTTOBURANUM) Formerly a Benedictine abbey, now a priory, near ...
Ouen, Saint

St. Ouen

(OWEN; DADON, Latin Audaenus ). Archbishop of Rouen, b. at Sancy, near Soissons about ...
Our Father, The

Lord's Prayer

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...
Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd

Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd

The aim of this institute is to provide a shelter for girls and women of dissolute habits, who ...
Our Lady of Good Counsel, Feast of

Feast of Our Lady of Good Counsel

Records dating from the reign of Paul II (1464-71) relate that the picture of Our Lady, at ...
Our Lady of Perpetual Help

Our Lady of Perpetual Succour (Our Lady of Perpetual Help)

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...
Our Lady of Perpetual Succour

Our Lady of Perpetual Succour (Our Lady of Perpetual Help)

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...
Our Lady of the Fields, Brothers of

Brothers of Our Lady of the Fields

A Canadian congregation founded in 1902 at St-Damien de Buckland in the Diocese of Quebec by ...
Our Lady of the Snow

Our Lady of the Snow

("Dedicatio Sanctæ Mariæ ad Nives"). A feast celebrated on 5 August to ...
Our Lady, Help of Christians, Feast of

Feast of Our Lady, Help of Christians

The invocation Auxilium Christianorum (Help of Christians ) originated in the sixteenth ...
Overbeck, Friedrich

Friedrich Overbeck

Convert and painter of religious subjects, b. at Lübeck, 3 July, 1789; d. at Rome, 12 ...
Overberg, Bernhard Heinrich

Bernhard Heinrich Overberg

A German ecclesiastic and educator, born 1 May, 1754; died 9 November, 1826. Of poor parents in ...
Overpopulation, Theories of

Overpopulation Theories

Down to the end of the eighteenth century, very little attention was given to the relation between ...
Oviedo

Oviedo

(OVETENSIS) This diocese comprises the civil province of the same name (the ancient Kingdom ...
Owen, Saint

St. Ouen

(OWEN; DADON, Latin Audaenus ). Archbishop of Rouen, b. at Sancy, near Soissons about ...
Owen, Saint Nicholas

St. Nicholas Owen

A Jesuit lay-brother, martyred in 1606. There is no record of his parentage, birthplace, date ...
Oxenford, John

John Oxenford

Dramatist, critic, translator, and song-writer, b. in London, 12 Aug., 1812; d. there 21 Feb., ...
Oxenham, Henry Nutcombe

Henry Nutcombe Oxenham

An English controversialist and poet, born at Harrow, 15 Nov., 1829; died at Kensington, 23 ...
Oxford

Oxford

Oxford, one of the most ancient cities in England, grew up under the shadow of a convent, said to ...
Oxford Movement, The

The Oxford Movement (1833-1845)

The Oxford Movement may be looked upon in two distinct lights. "The conception which lay at its ...
Oxford, University of

University of Oxford

I. ORIGIN AND HISTORY The most extraordinary myths have at various times prevailed as to the ...
Oxyrynchus

Oxyrynchus

Titular archdiocese of Heptanomos in Egypt. It was the capital of the district of its name, the ...
Ozanam, Antoine-Frédéric

Antoine-Frederic Ozanam

Great grand-nephew of Jacques Ozanam . Born at Milan, 23 April, 1813; died at Marseilles, 8 ...
Ozanam, Jacques

Jacques Ozanam

A French mathematician, born at Bouligneux (Ain), 1640; died in Paris, 3 April, 1717. He came of a ...
Ozias

Ozias

" Yahweh is my strength", name of six Israelites mentioned in the Bible . (1) Ozias, King ...

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