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A Canadian territory lying north of the Province of Quebec, detached (1876) from the Great Labrador peninsula. Ungava, whose area (354,961 sq. m.) surpasses that of Quebec (351,873 sq. m.), was annexed to the latter province (1912) by the Federal Government. It is bounded on the west by Hudson's Straits, comprising Ungava Bay, on the north-east and east by Labrador proper, on the south by the Province of Quebec, on the west by Hudson and James' Bays. This land was visited by the Basques, by Cabot (1493), Weymouth (1602), Hudson (1610), and by the Jesuits Dablon (1661) and Albanel (1672), on their journey by land to Hudson Bay. During the last century the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, Babel (1866 and 1870) and Lacasse (1875), evangelized the Indians of the interior. The Moravian Brothers began proselytizing the Esquimaux in 1770. Ungava now depends spiritually on the Vicariate Apostolic of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Its immense forest and mineral resources, fertile soil, and unparalleled hydraulic power reveal a bright prospect for colonization and industry. Railway lines are in preparation between Quebec and Western Canada and Hudson Bay. The census of 1901 gave a population of 5113 souls, comprising the aborigines (Esquimaux on the coast, Montagnais and Nascaupis in the interior) and whites.
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