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The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy

By this name is designated the European monarchy whose dominions have for their main life-distributing artery the River Danube, in its course from Engelhartszell, near Passau, to Orsova. South of the Danube lie the Austrian Alpine provinces and the provinces of Carinthia and Carnola; north of the Danube are the Carpathian and Sudetic provinces.

AREA AND POPULATION

The monarchy as a whole has an area of about 262,577 square miles (680,887 square kilometres), and a population of about 48,592,000. This gives it the second place in population, among the political divisions of Europe. The average density of its population is, approximately, 185 to the square mile. The monarchy holds sway over: (a) the kingdoms and provinces represented in the Austrian Parliament, or Reichsrat, which have together an area of 115,695 sq. m. (300,008 sq. km.) and a population of 26,969,812; (b) the provinces of the Hungarian Crown which have a total area of 127,204 sq. m. (329,851 sq. km.) and a population of 19,985,465; (c) Bosnia and Herzegovina, with an area of 19,678 sq. m. (51,028 sq. km.) and a population of 1,737,000, occupied and administered by Austria-Hungary, though still theoretically a part of the Ottoman Empire . These populations include a great variety of races. In the Austrian territory there are: Germans, 9,171,000; Czechs, 5,955,000; Poles, 4,259,000; Ruthenians, 3,376,000; Slovenes, 1,193,000; Italians and Ladinians, 727,000. In Hungary the population is composed of: Magyars, 9,180,000; Rumanians, 2,867,000; Germans, 2,138,000; Slovaks, 2,055,000; Croats, 1,734,000; Serbs, 1,079,000; Ruthenians, 443,000. The inhabitants of Bosnia and Herzegovina are Servo-Croatians.

The capitals of the three main divisions are: Austria: Vienna, with 1,675,000 inhabitants; Hungary, Budapest, with 732,000 inhabitants; Bosnia and Herzegovina , Serajevo, with 38,000 inhabitants. The only strip of coast land in Austria-Hungary lies on the Adriatic and has a length of 1,366 miles (2,200 km.). The countries which border on Austria-Hungary are: Italy, Switzerland, the principality of Liechtenstein, Bavaria, Saxony, Prussia, Russia, Rumania, Servia, Turkey, and Montenegro.

CHURCH HISTORY

The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was created by the union of the Germanic, Slavonic, and Hungarian provinces which now lie within its territory. This union took place in 1526. Upon the death of Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia at the battle of Mohács, in that year. Bohemia and Hungary were united to the Austrian possessions of Ferdinand I, of the Hapsburg family. This union was in accordance with the law of succession as well as the result of a free choice. Up to 1536 each of these three divisions of the present empire had its own separate religious history.

A. Early Christianity

The Romans in the time of Augustus took possession of those provinces of the present Austria-Hungary which lie south of the Danube. In the course of time they built roads, founded cities, turned the territory into Roman provinces, and here and there converted the inhabitants to Christianity. The cities of Aquileia and Salona, episcopal sees from the middle of the first century, were centres of Christianity for Noricum and Pannonia. In the year 294 five Christian workmen were thrown from the marble bridges of Sirmium (Mitrowitz) into the Save and drowned. During the persecution of the Christians under the Emperor Diocletian, in 304, the soldier Florianus was thrown into the Ems at Lauriacum (Lorch). The house of Augustinian canons, at St. Florian, in Upper Austria, now stands on the spot where the body of this saint was buried. A tradition gives the same date for the martyrdom of the two bishops Victorinus of Petovia (Pettau in Southern Styria ) and Quirinus of Siscia, who met death where the Kulpa empties into the Save. Even at this period Christianity must have had a large number of adherents in these districts, for already an established organization is found here. The bishops of Noricum were under the control of the Patriarch of Aquileia, while Pannonia was subject to the Metropolitan of Sirmium.

The last representative of Christian culture among the Roman inhabitants of the Danube district is St. Severinus. The story of his life, by his pupil Eugippius, is the only written document we have for the history of the Danubian provinces during the last years of the Roman occupation. Severinus settled near the present city of Vienna, built a monastery for himself and his companions, and led so austere a life that even in winter, when the Danube was frozen, he walked up and down over the ice barefoot. His journeys upon the frozen river were errands of consolation to the despairing provincials, who saw themselves threatened on all sides by bands of marauding barbarians. In these journeys Severinus travelled as far as Castra Batava (Passau), and inland from the river up to Juvavum (Salzburg). God had granted him the gift of prophecy. When Odovakar (Odoacer), King of the Heruli, set out on his march against Rome, he came to the saint and asked for his blessing. Severinus spoke prophetically: "Go forward, my son. To-day thou art still clad in the worthless skins of animals, but soon shalt thou make gifts from the treasures of Italy." After Odovakar had overthrown the Roman Empire of the West, and had made himself master of Italy, he sent and invited Severinus to ask from him some favour. Severinus only asked the pardon of one who had been condemned to banishment. The Alamannic king, Gibold, also visited him in Castra Batava, and the saint begged as a personal grace that the king cease from ravaging the Roman territory. His usual salutation was "Sit nomen Domini benedictum", corresponding to our "Praise be to Jesus ". When Severinus lay dying the sobs of his disciples prevented their praying ; he himself began to recite the last psalm, and with the closing words of this psalm, "Omnis spiritus laudet Dominum", he passed away (482). Six years later the Romans withdrew from this region, taking the body of the saint with them, and returned to Italy. Here he was buried with suitable honour in the castle of Luculanum, near Naples.

B. The Middle Ages

During the period of migrations which followed the fall of the Roman Empire, Austria was the fighting-ground of the barbaric hordes which poured through it. Vindobona disappeared from the face of the earth; Pannonia was entirely laid waste by the Avars, a people related to the Huns. The same fate befell Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola, desolated by the Slovenes, who now took possession of those provinces. The land lying on the upper Drave has since borne the name of "Pustertal" (from the Slovenic pust, "waste"). The Croats and Serbs seized the country south of the Save. The Croats are the first-born sons of the Church among the Slavs. They were converted about the year 650, by Roman priests. The Bajuvari (Bavarians), a people from the West, spread themselves over the whole of Upper Austria. St. Rupert, Bishop of Worms, baptized the Bavarian duke, Theodo, at Regensburg (Ratisbon) and became the Apostle of the Austrian Bajuvarii. He travelled and preached nearly as far as Lauriacum, settled in Salzburg, and there erected a see and founded the monastery of St. Peter (c. 700). St. Peter's is the oldest Benedictine monastery which has had a continuous existence down to our own times, Monte Cassino having been repeatedly destroyed and deserted. The Benedictine cloister for women, Nonnberg, founded by Rupert's niece Ehrentraut, is also still standing. The Bavarian Duke Tassilo founded the Benedictine monasteries of Mondsee (748) and Kremsmünster (777). The Bishops of Salzburg brought the Christian Faith and German customs to the Slavs. A quarrel broke out, however, between the Carinthians and the Patriarch of Aquileia. Charlemagne raised the Carinthian see of Salzburg to an archbishopric in 798, settled the dispute with Aquileia by making the Drave the dividing line of the two provinces, and in 803 established the border territories known as the Mark of Friuli and the East Mark.

Moravia was won to Christianity by two brothers, Methodius and Constantine, Greek monks from Thessalonica, known in history as the Apostles of the Slavs. Constantine invented the Glagolitic alphabet, translated the Bible into Slavic, and composed the liturgy in that language. But, as Salzburg and Passau had claim to the region in which the brothers worked, complaint was made against them by the German ecclesiastics. Pope Hadrian II, however, authorized the liturgy in the Slavic language. Constantine remained at Rome in a monastery and took the name of Cyril, while Methodius, after many fruitful labours as Archbishop of Pannonia and Moravia, died 6 April, 885, at Vehlehrad, on the River March. The Apostles of the Slavs are now (pursuant to a decree of Leo XIII ) commemorated throughout the Catholic Church on the 5th day of July. The Latin Liturgy was reintroduced in Moravia by Swatopluk, the successor of Duke Ratislaus, and soon after his death the Magyars overthrew the empire of Great Moravia (906). When Moravia is again heard of in history (founding of the bishopric of Olmütz, 1063), it is a province of Bohemia.

Christianity was introduced into Bohemia from Moravia. Of the Slavic tribes which at the end of the fifth century controlled the interior of Bohemia and drove the Germans to the outskirts of the country, the Czechs of Prague were the most important division. In A. D. 871 their prince, Borziwoy, and his wife, Ludmilla, consented to receive baptism from St. Methodius. From this time on the history of Bohemia is an account of the struggles between two contending parties, the Christian-Germanic and the National Heathen. At the instigation of the National Heathen party the saintly Duke Wenzel (Wenceslaus) I was murdered by his brother, Boleslaw I. But even Boleslaw had to rule according to the wishes of the Christian-Germanic party, and his son Boleslaw II founded the Bishopric of Prague (973). The new see was placed under the Archbishop of Mainz, and its first bishop was the Saxon Dithmar. His successor, St. Adalbert (Wojtech), met a martyr's death (967) at the hands of the heathen Slavs of Prussia, whom he sought to bring to the truth. The Benedictine Order came into Bohemia with the founding of the monastery of Borevnov by Boleslaw II, and Boleslaw's sister, Milada, was the first abbess of St. George, the Benedictine cloister for women in Prague. Duke Bretislaw seized Gnesen and brought the body of St. Adalbert in triumph to Prague. Dabrowka, the daughter of Boleslaw I, married the Polish Duke Mieczyslaw, and the latter was baptized in 966. The son of Mieczyslaw laid the foundation of an enduring church-organization by forming the four bishoprics of Posen, Kolberg, Breslau, and Cracow, and placing them under the Archbishopric of Gnesen, which had been established in the year 1000.

The Magyars, a people from the Ural-Altai region, moved forward in 895 into the Avarian Wilderness on the Theiss. Attempts to convert them were made by the court of Byzantium as well as by St. Wolfgang, a monk of Maria Einsiedeln, by Piligrim, Bishop of Passau, who, as successor of the Bishops of Lorch, wished to be Metropolitan of all Pannonia, and by Adalbert of Prague. Thus it was brought about that the Magyar ruler Géza, great grandson of Arpad, and his wife Sarolta were favourably inclined to Christianity. The real Apostle of the Magyars, however, was Géza's great son, St. Stephen . Stephen received a Christian education and was baptized by St. Adalbert . Upon the occasion of his marriage with Gisela, sister of the future emperor, St. Henry II , Stephen vowed to give his people the blessings of Christianity. One of the most important measures taken by him for the security of the new faith was the founding at Gran of an archbishopric with ten subordinate sees. As Stephen's patron saint in battle had been St. Martin, he founded the Benedictine monastery of Martinsberg. He also founded hospices for the reception of Hungarian pilgrims at Ravenna, Rome, and Jerusalem. Astriens, the Abbot of Martinsberg, obtained for him, from the pope, the title of king. Sylvester II sent Stephen a crown of gold and, according to a tradition (which, however, is not well founded) a Bull which decreed to the Kings of Hungary the privilege of the "Apostolic Majesty". Having a great devotion to the Blessed Virgin, Stephen caused himself to be crowned on the festival of the Assumption, the 15th day of August, in the year 1000, and church historians have given to Hungary the title of "Mary's Realm" ( Regnum Marianum ).

The gradual advance of Christianity in Austria towards the east is shown in the shifting of the abode of the early rulers of the Babenberg (Bamberg) line from Melk, on the Kahlenberg, to Vienna. One of this family, Leopold I, the Illustrious, had already founded at Melk an establishment of secular canons. These were replaced in 1089 by twelve Benedictine monks from Lambach. At the time when Leopold's youngest son, Adalbert I, the Victorious, was margrave, three youths left this region to go to Paris to study. While on their way, they were obliged to spend a night in the open and fell to speaking of the future. Each wished to become a bishop, and each vowed that, if ever a bishop, he would found a monastery. One, Gebhard, became Archbishop of Salzburg and founded Admont and the Diocese of Gurk ; another, Adalbero, Bishop of Würzburg, founded the monastery of Lambach; while the third, St. Altmann of Passau, founded Göttweig for twelve canons under the Rule of St. Augustine . The canons at Göttweig were replaced after the lapse of ten years by Benedictines from St. Blasien in the Black Forest. All three of these bishops remained true to Gregory VII in the controversy of investitures. The Crusades began during the reign of the Margrave Leopold II, the Saint, and many of the crusading armies traversed Austria. Leopold's mother, Ida, took part in a pilgrimage of which Thieno, Archbishop of Salzburg, was the leader. The archbishop met the death of a martyr, and Ida was made a prisoner. Leopold erected a church on the Kahlenberg and founded the monasteries Klosterneuburg and Heiligenkreuz. His wife, Agnes, widow of the Hohenstaufen Duke Frederick, bore him eighteen children. Their third son, Otto, studied at Paris, entered the Cistercian monastery of Morimond, became Bishop of Freising, and wrote a chronicle, "De Duabus Civitatibus", and a second work, "Libri Duo de Gestis Friderici I". By reason of these two works he is the most noted German historian of the Middle Ages .

After a hard struggle, the saintly King Ladislaus (d. 1095) succeeded in regulating the ecclesiastical and civil affairs of Hungary. He founded the Bishopric of Grosswardein, and summoned the dignitaries of the Church and the State to a diet at Szabolcs. This diet is often called a synod, on account of the many decisions arrived at in church matters. The priests were ordered to observe celibacy strictly, the laity were commanded to keep Sunday and feastdays and to abstain from immorality. Ladislaus conquered Croatia, whose duke, Zwonimir, had received from a legate of Gregory VII at Salona (1076) a banner, sword, crown, and sceptre, with the title of king, in return for which he had sworn fealty to the pope.

Henry II, Jasomirgott, was the first Duke of Austria. He built a residence for himself at Vienna ( Am Hof ), in which was the Pancraz chapel, and founded the Schottenkloster for Benedictine monks from St. Jacob's at Regensburg. Octavian Wolzner, an architect from Cracow, erected for the new duke the church of St. Stephen, to which the parish of St. Peter was added. Leopold V, the Virtuous, son of Henry II, took part in the Third Crusade and fought so bravely that, as we are told, his armour was stained blood red, and only the part under the sword belt remained white. However, Richard the Lionhearted tore down the Austrian banner at the storming of Ascalon and the enraged duke went home at once. While on his way to England, Richard was seized at Erdberg, and held a prisoner by the duke at Dürrenstein. Crusaders being under the protection of the pope, Celestine III put Leopold V under the ban. To this the duke paid no attention; but when he fell with his horse, at Graz, broke a leg, and found himself near death, his conscience smote him; he sent for Albert III, Archbishop of Salzburg, who was in the neighbourhood, and received absolution from him. Frederick I, the eldest son of Leopold V, ruled only six years and died while on a crusade. The reign of his brother, Leopold VI, the Glorious, was a brilliant one. He too went on a crusade and endeavoured first to capture Damietta, the key to Jerusalem, but was obliged to return home without having accomplished anything. He married a Byzantine princess and formed relations with men of Greek learning and culture. The duke built a new castle for himself (Schweizerhof) and the church of St. Michael . The church was intended for the benefit of the duke's attendants, retainers, servants, and the townspeople who settled around the castle. The scheme to form a bishopric at Vienna was not carried out, but Eberhard II of Salzburg founded bishoprics at Seckau and Lavant, for Styria and Carinthia. Leopold's son and successor, Frederick II, the last of the Babenberg line, was knighted with much religious pomp at the feast of the Purification of the Virgin, 1232, in the castle church. Bishop Gebhard of Passau celebrated Mass and gave the consecrated sword to the duke, two hundred young nobles receiving knighthood at the same time. After the ceremony the young duke rode at the head of the newly made knights to Penzing, where jousts were held.

Within a short space of time the national dynasties of the countries under discussion died out in the male lines: the Babenberg Dynasty (Austria) in 1246, the Arpadian (Hungary) in 1301, and the Premyslian (Bohemia) in 1306. In 1282 the German Emperor, Rudolph of Hapsburg, gave Austria in fief to his son Albrecht. To Austria and Styria the dukes of the Hapsburg line soon added Carinthia, Carniola, the Tyrol, and the Mark of the Wends. The rulers of this line are deserving of great praise for their aid in developing church life in these territories. Albrecht I founded the court ( Hofburg ) chapel in his castle; Duke Rudolph IV in 1359 laid the corner-stone of the Gothic reconstruction of the church of St. Stephen. A hundred and fifty years elapsed before the great tower of the church was completed. With the consent of the pope the same duke founded the University of Vienna in 1365. The university was modelled on the one at Paris and possessed great privileges (freedom from taxation, right of administering justice ). When part of the Council of Basle separated from Eugenius IV and set up Felix V as antipope, the theological faculty of the university, of which at that time the celebrated Thomas Ebendorffer of Haselbach was a member, sided with the antipope. But the papal legate, John Carvajal, and Æneas Sylvius Piccolomini, the emperor's governmental secretary, prevailed upon Frederick III to espouse the cause of Eugenius and to sign the Concordat of Vienna (1448). The concordat provided that the annates and the confirmation dues should be restored to the pope, that the pope should have the right to appoint to the canonries in the uneven months, and that the filling of ecclesiastical vacancies at Rome should be reserved to him. The concordat was gradually accepted by all of the German rulers, and up to the present time the relations between the German Church and the papacy are regulated by its provisions. In 1452 Frederick was crowned emperor at Rome, being the last emperor to be crowned in that city. In his reign the Bishoprics of Laibach (1462), Vienna, and Wiener-Neustadt (both the latter in 1469) were founded. During this period a great many monastic houses were founded in Austria, especially by the more recently established orders: Carthusian houses were founded at Mauerbach, Gaming, Agsbach; Franciscan at Vienna, Klosterneuburg, St. Pölten, Maria Enzersdorf, Pupping; Dominican at Graz and Retz.

Under the Luxembourg line Bohemia attained a high degree of material and spiritual prosperity. Charles IV, before his reign began, succeeded in having Prague raised to an archbishopric (1344), and in this way made the country ecclesiastically independent of Germany. Charles had been a student at Paris, and immediately upon ascending the throne he founded the University of Prague (1348), the first university on German soil. Master Matthias of Anras and Peter Parler from Schwäbisch-Gmund began the erection of the stately Cathedral of St. Vitus which is now nearing completion. Parlor also erected the Teynkirche (Teyn church) in Prague, and the church of St. Barbara in Kutzenberg, while Matthias of Anras built the fortress-castle of Karlstein. The crown jewels of Bohemia were preserved in the sumptuous chapel at Karlstein. But Bohemia had a sudden fall from the height it had attained. King Wenzel (Wenceslaus), son of Charles IV, had no control of his temper, and began a quarrel with the archbishop. The archbishop's vicar-general, John of Pomuk (St. John Nepomucene), refused to tell what he had heard in confession. He was first tortured and then, gagged and bound, was thrown at night into the River Moldau. At this time the first signs appeared in Bohemia of a religious agitation which was destined to bring the greatest sorrow both to Bohemia and to the adjoining countries. Jerome of Prague had become acquainted with the writings of Wyclif at Oxford. He returned home, bringing the teachings of Wyclif with him, and communicated them to his friend Hus. Hus came from Husinetz near Prachatitz. He was the child of a peasant, and had become professor of philosophy at the University of Prague, preacher in the Bohemian language at the Bethlehem chapel, and confessor to Queen Sophia. A complaint was brought in the university against Hus on account of his teaching. Of the four "Nations" (Saxons, Bavarians, Poles, and Bohemians ), which had votes in the affairs of the university, only the Bohemians voted for Hus. Hus then turned a personal into a national affair. King Wenzel issued a command that henceforth the Bohemians should have three votes, and the other "Nations" only one vote. Upon this 5,000 students and the German professors withdrew and founded the University of Leipzig. The university was now simply a national one, and Hus without interference taught the following doctrines: the church consists only of the elect ; no man is temporal ruler, no man is a bishop, if he be in mortal sin ; the papal dignity is an outcome of the imperial power; obedience to the church is the invention of men. Hus was suspended by Archbishop Zbinko; he appealed to the pope ( Alexander V ) and then to Jesus Christ. John XXIII placed Hus under the ban, Prague under an interdict, and called the Council of Constance. The Emperor Sigismund gave Hus a safe-conduct which protected him from acts of violence on the part of the indignant Germans through whose territory he must pass, but not from the verdict of the council. Hus was repeatedly examined before the council, but would not retract his opinions; the members of the council, therefore, unanimously condemned his errors and delivered him to the secular power, by which, in accordance with the law of the land at the time, he was condemned to death at the stake (1415). Jerome of Prague suffered the same death the next year. While at Constance Hus sanctioned the receiving of the sacrament in both kinds which had been introduced by Master Jacob of Miez (Calixtines). As a former monk, John of Selau, was leading a procession a stone was thrown at him from a window of the town hall. The throng, led by the knight John Zizka of Trocnov, attacked the town hall and threw the judge, the burgomaster, and several members of the town council out of the window into the street, where they were killed by the fall. This is known in history as the "First Defenestration of Prague". King Wenzel was so excited by the episode that he was struck with apoplexy and died. The Hussite wars caused fearful devastation not only in Bohemia, but in the adjacent countries as well. Fortunately, the Hussites divided into the more moderate Calixtines, under John of Rokyzana, and the "Taborites", so called from the city and mountain which they named Tabor. The Taborites were led by John Zizka and Procopius the Great, who was also called the "Shaven" ( Iloly ) because he had been a monk. After Zizka's death the extreme radicals took the name of "Orphans" because no one was worthy to take Zizka's place. They were finally conquered, and an agreement, called the Compactata (Treaty of Iglau) based on the Four Articles of Prague, was made with the moderate party (1436). The Compacta provided: that in Bohemia everyone who demanded it should receive Holy Communmion under both kinds; mortal sins should be punished, but only by legal authorities; the Word of God should be freely expounded by clergy appointed for the purpose; ecclesiastics should manage their property according to the rules of the church. After this, Hussitism lived on in the " Bohemian Brethren ", who elected a bishop at Lhota near Reichenau (1467), and were finally carried into the current of the Reformation.

In Hungary Christian culture flourished during the reign of the House of Anjou. Louis the Great founded universities at Altofen and Funfkirchen, and built the fine cathedral at Kaschau. When Constantinople was captured by the Turks (29 May, 1453), a cry of horror resounded throughout Europe, and the pope sent forth John Capistran to preach a crusade. The saintly monk came with an immense following from Italy to Germany, Bohemia, and Hungary. He preached in the open, as the churches could not hold his hearers. A stone pulpit with a statue of the saintly Capistran stands on the east side of St. Stephen'sCathedral, Vienna. A hundred thousand people crowded the square and the roofs of the houses to hear him. This was the more remarkable because Capistran preached in Latin. Yet all who saw and heard him were moved to their innermost souls. The Turks, in 1456, tried to capture Belgrad, the key to Hungary. The papal legate, John Carvajal, and John Capistran raised a crusading army with which John Hunyady was able to defeat, at Belgrad, a Turkish army much more numerous. This was called the "Battle of the Three Johns". Hunyady and Capistran died shortly afterwards from camp fever. Hunyady's son had been educated by John Vitez, Bishop of Grosswardein, afterwards Archbishop of Gran. This prelate instilled such a love of learning into his pupil that when the latter ascended the throne as Matthias Corvinus, he gathered learned men about him, re-established the decayed university at Ofen, and founded a new university at Pressburg. Thirty copyists were kept busy at Ofen transcribing the Greek and Latin classics. The volumes, which were beautifully illuminated anbd handsomely bound, were known as Corvinian books.

C. Modern Times

If in analyzing church history Christian antiquity is taken to represent the period of the life and labours fo the Church among the peoples influenced by Greek and Roman civilization, and the Middle Ages the period of the Church's life and labours among the Germans and the nations which came into contact with them, then the modern period of history must be taken as that in which the influence of the Church began to extend throughout the whole world. Modern times would, according to this theory, begin with the discovery of the New World. But if the beginning of the modern era is made, as it usually is, to coincide with the Reformation, then it is further marked by the rise of that monarchy which was formed by the union of the Austrian, Slavonian, and Hungarian provinces under the Hapsburgs in 1526.

Ferdinand of Hapsburg, the ruler of the German-Austrian crown provinces, had married, at Linz, Anna of Hungary and Bohemia. When Anna's brother, Louis II, was killed in the desperate battle of Mohács (1526), Ferdinand of Austria succeeded by right of inheritance and election as King of Bohemia and Hungary. The new doctrine taught at Wittenberg was soon brought into the Austrian provinces. Miners were the first to spread the new teaching. Noble families frequently sent their sons to German universities, and even to Wittenberg, and these students often returned with Protestant ideas, and even brought Protestant preachers with them. The constant danger from the Turks in Austria was exceedingly opportune for the new religious movement. One of the first preachers of the new doctrine in Vienna was Paul of Spretten (Speratus), a Swabian, who had been driven out of Salzburg on account of his Lutheran views. The new doctrine entered Hungary and Transylvania through merchants who brought Lutheran books with them, and it took hold, more especially, among the German population of the Zipser region and among the Saxons of Transylvania. Mátyás Biro, known as Devay, from the place of his origin, Deva in Transylvania, has been called "the Luther of Hungary ". Most of the Hungarian bishops had falleen at the battle of Mohács, and the subsequent disputes concerning the succession to the throne distracted the monarchy. For these reasons the new doctrines spread rapidly, and Devay was able to bring over to it such noble families as the Batthyany and Bocskay. It was then that Calvinism began to be called in Hungary Magyar hit (Hungarian faith ), Lutheranism Nemes hit (German faith ), and Catholicism Igaz hit (Right faith ). Equal success accompanied the preaching of John Gross of Cronstadt in Transylvania, despite the efforts of Georgy Utyeszenich to check him. Utyeszenich (also called, after his mother, Marinuzzi) was prior of the Pauline monastery at Szenstochov near Cracow, and governed Transylvania as guardian of John Sigismund Zápolyas. Gross added Honter to his name in memory of his deliverance by an elder bush (in the Transylvanian dialect hontert ) from death by drowning. In order to secure the crown for her son, John Sigismund Zápolyas, his mother, Isabella, was obliged to sanction the decisions of the diet which met at Thorenburg (Torda) near Klausenburg. These granted to adherents of the Augsburg Confession equal rights with the Catholics. In Bohemia and Moravia Lutheranism first found adherents among the Germans and especially among the sect of the Utraquists. Just as the Hapsburg Dynasty showed itself at this period to be the shield of Christianity against the advance of Islam, so also it proved itself by its constancy and zeal to be the support of the Faith against the religious innovations. Pope Pius IV conceded the cup to the laity in the Archdioceses of Gran and Prague, a concession, however, withdrawn by St. Pius V . Ferdinand I sought in many ways to be of aid: by his mandates, by the inspection of convents and parishes, by his care in selecting competent ecclesiastics, by the introduction of the newly established Society of Jesus, and by proposals which were sent to the Council of Trent in support of reforms. The mandates of Ferdinand were of little use, but the inspections and the enforcement of the decisions of the Council of Trent had effect. The Bishops of Vienna, Fabri (Heigerlein), and Frederick Nausea (a Latinization of Gran ; Nausia, horror, disgust) were unusual men. With unflagging zeal both preached on Sundays and feast days in the Cathedral of St. Stephen and took part in the religious movement by the publication of theological pamphlets. Nausea's sermons are characterized in a rude rhyme of the day:–

Viel tausend Menschen standen da Es predigt Bischof Nausea, Wie er denn pflegt zu aller Zeit Sein' Schäflein zgebn selbst die Weid.

"Many thousands gather where Bishop Nausea preaches, and himself, as his wont is, feeds his flock".–In the Austrian provinces the Jesuits were the most important factor in the defence of the Faith and the elevation of Christian life. Ferdinand I obtained from St. Ignatius the founding of a Jesuit college in Vienna. The first two Jesuits came to Vienna in 1551. They were followed, the next year, by St. Peter Canisius, the first German member of the order, were assigned the abandoned Carmelite monastery Am Hof, obtained two chairs in the theological faculty, and founded a gymnasium with a theological seminary attached. St. Peter Canisius was named court preacher, and for a time was administrator of the Diocese of Vienna. He still influences the present day through his "Summa Doctrinæ Christianæ"; an abridgment of which, called the catechism of Canisius, is still in use. A few year later the Jesuits founded at Prague a gymnasium, a theological school, and a university for philosophical and theological studies, which in contradistinction to the "Carolinum" was called the "Clementinum". They also founded schools at Innsbruck and at Tyrnau. The tutor and court preacher of Maximilian II, Ferdinand's eldest son, was Sebastian Pfauser, a man of Protestant tendencies. It was feared that Maximilian would embrace the new creed, but the papal nuncio, Bishop Hosius of Ermland, pointed out to him those inconsistencies in the Protestant doctrine which prove its falsity. Maximilian II gave permission to lords and knights to follow the Augsburg Confession in their own castles, cities, and villages. David Chytræus of Rostock drew up for the Protestants a form of church service. In Bohemia the Evangelicals united with the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren, and called the new agreement the "Bohemian Confession". They had a consistory of fifteen to which the Evangelical clergy were subordinate. Maximilian's position in the part of Hungary controlled by them was a difficult one, because rebels concealed their political schemes under the cloak of a struggle for relgious freedom. His brother Charles was master of the inner Austrian provinces, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, and Görz. He summoned the Jesuits to Graz and, in the religious pacification of Brück, granted the free exercise of religion at Graz, Klagenfurt, Laibach, and Judenburg. In return he demanded that the Protestants should leave him and his coreligionists undisturbed in their faith, rights, and estates; besides this the Lutheran preachers and teachers were obliged to leave the cities, market towns, and estates under the personal rule of the archduke. In order to counterbalance the endowed schools of the Styrian provinces the Archduke Charles founded the University of Graz (Carolina) in 1586. Charles's son Ferdinand (later the Emperor Ferdinand II ) was educated at Ingolstadt, and while there he declared, "I would rather give up land and people and go away in nothing but a shirt than sanction what might be injurious to religion". When he became ruler he appointed commissioners who cleared the land of these preachers (ranters). The bishops George Stobäus of Lavant and Martin Brenner of Seckau (the Hammer of the Heretics ) were at the head of these reformatory commissions. But no blood was shed in this counter-reformation.

At the distribution of provinces Archduke Ferdinand, husband of Philippina Welser, had received the Tyrol. The diet of 1570 decided the religious position of that province. The governor, Jacob of Pagrsbach, declared firmly that to grant the wishes of the Protestants would be contrary to the customs and ordinances of the land and, further, that it would be folly to rend religion, the strongest tie which binds hearts together. All classes agreed with him. Rudolph II, Maximilian's eldest son and successor, lived in the Hradschin at Prague, where he carried on his studies in alchemy and art. The Archduchy of Austria was ruled by his brother Ernst. Ernst was aided by Melchior Khlesl, who brought about the counter-reformation in Austria. Khlesl was the child of Protestant parents ; his father had been a baker in Vienna. He was converted by the court preacher,

More Volume: T 528

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Tænarum

Tænarum, a titular see in Greece, suffragan of Corinth. Tænarum, or Tænarus, ...

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Téllez, Gabriel

Spanish priest and poet, better known by his pseudonym of Tirso de Molina, b. at Madrid, c. ...

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Tübingen, University of

Located in Würtemberg ; founded by Count Eberhard im Bart on 3 July, 1477, after Pope ...

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Ta 91

Tabæ

Titular see in Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis ; according to Strabo (XII, 570, 576) it was ...

Tabasco

(TABASQUENSIS) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of the Archbishopric of ...

Tabb, John Bannister

An American poet and educator, born at "The Forest" near Richmond, 1845; died at Ellicott City, ...

Tabbora

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Tabbora or Talbora has been ...

Tabernacle

(TABERNACULUM). Tabernacle signified in the Middle Ages sometimes a ciborium-altar, a ...

Tabernacle

(Latin tabernaculum , tent). Tabernacle in Biblical parlance usually designates the ...

Tabernacle Lamp

In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should ...

Tabernacle Societies

The Association of Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament and of work for poor churches ...

Tabernacle Society

Notre Dame Convent, Philadelphia; a society of persons affiliated with the Association of ...

Tabernacles, Feast of

One of the three great feasts of the Hebrew liturgical calendar, even the greatest, according ...

Tabor, Mount

The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...

Tacana Indians

The collective designation for a group of tribes constituting the Tacanan linguistic stock in ...

Tacapæ

Titular see of Tripolitana in northern Africa. The official list of titular sees of the ...

Taché, Alexandre-Antonin

First Archbishop of St. Boniface, Manitoba, missionary, prelate, statesman, and writer of ...

Taché, Etienne-Pascal

Statesman, b. at St. Thomas (Montmagny, Province of Quebec ), 5 Sept., 1795, son of Charles, and ...

Tadama

A titular see in Mauretania Cæsariensis, of which nothing, is known. Its bishop David is ...

Taensa Indians

A tribe of Muskhogean stock and somewhat superior culture, living when first known on the west ...

Tahiti

Tahiti, the most important of the Society Islands, has an area of 600 square miles and a ...

Taigi, Ven. Anna Maria

( Maiden name Giannetti.) Venerable Servant of God, born at Siena, Italy, 29 May, 1769; ...

Tait Indians

( Te-it , "Those up river"). A collective term for those members of the Cowichan tribe, of ...

Takkali

(More proper Takhehi, plural Takhehlne). The hybrid name by which the Carrier Indians of the ...

Talbot, James

Fourth son of George Talbot and brother of the fourteenth Earl of Shrewsbury (b. 1726; d. ...

Talbot, John

English Catholic layman, b. 1535(?); d. 1607(?). Only son and heir of Sir John Talbot, of ...

Talbot, Peter

Archbishop of Dublin, 1669-1680; b. at Malahide, Dublin, in 1620. At an early age he entered ...

Talbot, Thomas Joseph

Born 14 February, 1727; died at Hotwells, near Bristol, 24 April, 1795. Brother of the fourteenth ...

Tallagaht, Monastery of

The name Tallaght (Irish Tamlachta ), derived from tam , plague, and lecht , stone ...

Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles-Maurice de

Prince of Benevento, Bishop of Autun, French minister and ambassador, born in Paris, 13 ...

Tallis, Thomas

English composer, born about 1514; died 23 November, 1585. He was a chorister at Saint ...

Talmud

1. DEFINITION Talmud was a post-Biblical substantive formation of Pi'el ("to teach"), and ...

Talon, Jean

First intendant in exercise of New France , b. at Châlons-sur-Marne, 1625, of Philippe ...

Talon, Nicolas

French Jesuit, historian, and ascetical writer, b. at Moulins, 31 August, 1605; d. at Paris, 29 ...

Talon, Pierre

A French-Canadian explorer, b. at Quebec, 1676, of Lucien and Isabelle Planteau; d. in France ...

Tamanac Indians

A formerly important tribe of Cariban linguistic stock occupying the territory about the Cuchivero ...

Tamassus

A titular see in Cyprus, suffragan of Salamis, was situated in the great central plain of the ...

Tamaulipas

(CIVTTATIS VICTORIÆ SIVE TAMAULIPENSIS) Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of ...

Tamburini, Michelangelo

Fourteenth General of the Society of Jesus , born at Modena, 27 Sept., 1648; died 28 Feb., ...

Tamburini, Thomas

Moral theologian, born at Caltanisetta in Sicily, 6 March, 1591; died at Palermo 10 October, ...

Tametsi

("ALTHOUGH") The first word of Chapter 1, Session 24 ( De Ref. Matr. ), of the Council of ...

Tamisier, Marie-Marthe-Baptistine

(Called by her intimates EMILIA) Initiator of international Eucharistic congresses, born at ...

Tanagra

A titular see in Hellas, suffragan of Corinth ; it was a town of Bœotia, in a fertile ...

Tancred

Prince of Antioch, born about 1072; died at Antioch, 12 Dec., 1112. He was the son of Marquess ...

Taney, Roger Brooke

(Pronounced Tawney ) Fifth chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, ...

Tanguay, Cyprien

Genealogist, born at Quebec, 1819; died 1902. After a course of classics and theology at Quebec ...

Tanis

A titular see, suffragan of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima, capital of the fourteenth district ...

Tanner, Adam

Controversialist, born at Innsbruck in 1571; died at Unken, 25 May, 1632. He entered the Society ...

Tanner, Conrad

Abbot of Einsiedeln, born at Arth in the Canton of Schwyz, 28 Dec., 1752; died 7 April, 1825. He ...

Tanner, Edmund

Bishop of Cork and Cloyne, Ireland, 1574-1579; born about 1526; died 1579. The statement in ...

Tanner, Matthias

Born at Pilsen in Bohemia, 28 Feb., 1630; died at Prague, 8 Feb., 1692. He entered the Society ...

Tantum Ergo

The opening words of the penultimate stanza of the Vesper hymn (see PANGE LINGUA GLORIOSI, II) ...

Tanucci, Bernardo

Marchese, Italian statesman, born at Stia in Tuscany, of poor family, in 1698 died at Naples, 29 ...

Taoism

(TAO-KIAO.) Taoism is the second of the three state religions ( San-kiao ) of China. ...

Taos Pueblo

An important town of the Pueblo group, inhabited by Indians speaking the Tigua language of ...

Taparelli, Aloysius

(D'AZEGLIO, christened PROSPERO) Philosopher and writer on sociological subjects, born at ...

Tapestry

A word of French origin naming a fabric in which the two processes of weaving and embroidering ...

Tapis, Esteban

Born at Santa Coloma de Farnes, Catalonia, Spain, 25 Aug., 1754; died 3 Nov., 1825. He entered ...

Tarabotti, Helena

Nun and authoress, b. at Venice, 1605; d. there 1652. Obliged by her father, who was descended ...

Tarachus, Probus, and Andronicus, Saints

Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...

Taranto

DIOCESE OF TARANTO (TARENTINA) Diocese in southern Italy, on a bay in the Gulf of Taranto. The ...

Tarapacá

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF TARAPACA (DE TARAPACA). Situated in Chile, bounded on the north by the ...

Tarasius, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople, date of birth unknown; died 25 February, 806. He was the son of the ...

Tarazona

DIOCESE OF TARAZONA (TURIASONENSIS) The Diocese of Tarazona comprises the Spanish provinces of ...

Tarbes

DIOCESE OF TARBES (TARBIA) The Diocese of Tarbes comprises the Department of the ...

Tarentaise

(TARANTASIENSIS) Tarentaise comprises the arrondissement of Moutiers in the Department of ...

Targum

Targum is the distinctive designation of the Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the Old ...

Tarisel, Pierre

Master-mason to the king, b. about 1442; d. in August, 1510. (In 1555 the title of architect was ...

Tarkin, Saint

(Talarican.) Bishop of Sodor (including the western islands of Scotland ), was probably of ...

Tarnow

DIOCESE OF TARNOW (TARNOVIENSIS). Diocese in western Galicia, Austria. The See of Posen, ...

Tarquini, Camillus

Cardinal, Jesuit canonist and archaeologist, b. at Marta in the diocese of Montefiascone, ...

Tarragona

ARCHDIOCESE OF TARRAGONA (TARRACONENSIS) Bounded on the north by Barcelona and Lérida, ...

Tarsicius, Saint

Martyr. The only positive information concerning this Roman martyr is found in the poem composed ...

Tarsus

A metropolitan see of Cilicia Prima. It appears to have been of Semitic origin and is ...

Tartaglia, Nicolò

(T ARTALEA ). Italian mathematician, b. at Brescia, c. 1500; d. at Venice, 13 December, ...

Tartini, Giuseppe

Violinist, composer, and theorist, b. at Pirano, Italy, 12 April, 1692; d. at Padua, 16 Feb., ...

Taschereau, Elzéar-Alexandre

Archbishop of Quebec and first Canadian cardinal, b. 17 February, 1820, at la Beauce, Province ...

Tassé, Joseph

Writer and journalist, born at Montreal, 23 Oct., 1848; died 17 Jan., 1895; son of Joseph, and ...

Tassach, Saint

Irish saint, born in the first decade of the fifth century; died about 497. He was one of St. ...

Tassin, René-Prosper

French historian, belonging to the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Lonlay, in ...

Tasso, Torquato

Italian poet, born at Sorrento near Naples in 1544; died at Rome, in 1595; son of Bernardo ...

Tassoni, Alessandro

Italian poet, born at Modena in 1565; died there in 1635. He spent his life in the service of ...

Tatian

A second-century apologist about whose antecedents and early history nothing can be affirmed ...

Tatwin, Saint

(TATUINI) Archbishop of Canterbury ; died 30 July, 734. A Mercian by birth, he became a ...

Taubaté

(DE TAUBATÉ) Diocese in Brazil, South America, established on 29 April, 1908, as a ...

Tauler, John

German Dominican, one of the greatest mystics and preachers of the Middle Ages, born at ...

Taunton, Ethelred

Writer, born at Rugeley, Staffordshire, England, 17 Oct., 1857; died in London, 9 May, 1907. He ...

Taverner, John

Composer, b. in the County of Norfolk, England, about 1475; d. at Boston, England, 1535 or 1536. ...

Tavistock Abbey

Tavistock Abbey, on the Tavy River in Devonshire, England, founded for Benedictine monks in ...

Tavium

A titular see in Galatia Prima, suffragan of Ancyra. Tavium, or Tavia, was the chief city of ...

Taxa Innocentiana

A Decree issued by Innocent XI, 1 Oct., 1678, regulating the fees that may be demanded or ...

Taxster, John de

(TAYSTER) John de Taxster, sometimes erroneously called Taxter or Taxston, was a ...

Taylor, Frances Margaret

(MOTHER M. MAGDALEN TAYLOR) Superior General, and foundress of the Poor Servants of the Mother ...

Taylor, Ven. Hugh

English martyr, born at Durham ; hanged, drawn, and quartered at York, 25 (not 26) November, ...

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Te 69

Te Deum, The

An abbreviated title commonly given both to the original Latin text and the translations of a ...

Te Lucis Ante Terminum

The hymn at Compline in the Roman Breviary. The authorship of St. Ambrose, for which Pimont ...

Tebaldeo, Antonio

Italian poet, born at Ferrara, in 1463; died in 1537. His family name (Tebaldi) he changed to ...

Tegernsee

Called Tegrinseo in 817, Tegernsee in 754. A celebrated Benedictine abbey of Bavaria that ...

Tehuantepec

(Tehuantepecensis) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of Oaxaca. Its area covers ...

Teilo, Saint

(Eliud.) "Archbishop" of Llandaff, born at Eccluis Gunniau, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died at ...

Tekakwitha, Blessed Kateri

(Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha/Takwita.) Known as the "Lily of the Mohawks", and the ...

Teleology

(From Greek telos , end, and logos , science). Teleology is seldom used according to its ...

Telepathy

( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...

Telese

(TELESINENSIS) Telese, a small town in the Province of Benevento, Southern Italy, is situated ...

Telesio, Bernardino

Italian humanist and philosopher born of a noble family at Cosenza, near Naples, 1508; died ...

Telesphorus of Cosenza

(THEOPHORUS, THEOLOPHORUS). A name assumed by one of the pseudo-prophets during the time of ...

Telesphorus, Pope Saint

(Lived about 125-136.) St. Telesphorus was the seventh Roman bishop in succession from the ...

Tell el-Amarna Tablets, The

The Tell el-Amarna Tablets are a collection of some 350 clay tablets found in 1887 amid the ruins ...

Tellier, Michel Le

Born 19 April, 1603; died at Paris, 30 Oct., 1685. He was commissioned by Cardinal Mazarin to ...

Telmessus

Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Telmessus (or incorrectly Telmissis) was a flourishing ...

Temiskaming

The Vicariate Apostolic of Temiskaming, suffragan of Ottawa, Canada, is bounded on the north by ...

Temnus

A titular see in Asia, a suffragan of Ephesus. Temnus was a little town of Æolia, near ...

Tempel, Wilhelm

(ERNEST LEBERECHT) German astronomer, b. 4 December, 1821, at (Nieder-) Cunnersdorf near ...

Temperance

(Latin temperare , to mingle in due proportions; to qualify). Temperance is here considered ...

Temperance Movements

EUROPE Reasons for a temperance movement exist to a greater or less degree in all the countries ...

Templars, The Knights

The Knights Templars were the earliest founders of the military orders, and are the type on which ...

Temple

The Latin form, templum , from which the English temple is derived, originally signified an ...

Temple of Jerusalem

The word "temple" is derived from the Latin templum , signifying an uncovered place affording a ...

Temple, Sisters of the

The Sisters of the Temple (whose full title is S ISTERS OF THE F INDING OF J ESUS IN THE T ...

Temptation

( Latin tentare , to try or test). Temptation is here taken to be an incitement to sin ...

Temptation of Christ

In the Catholic translation of the Bible , the word "temptation" is used in various senses, ...

Ten Commandments, The

Called also simply THE COMMANDMENTS, COMMANDMENTS OF GOD, or THE DECALOGUE (Gr. deka , ten, ...

Ten Thousand Martyrs, The

On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. On 18 March: ...

Tencin, Pierre-Guérin de

French statesman and cardinal, b. at Grenoble, 22 August, 1680; d. at Lyons, 2 March, 1758. ...

Tenebræ

Tenebræ is the name given to the service of Matins and Lauds belonging to the last three ...

Tenebrae Hearse

The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...

Tenedos

A titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades. The island, called in Turkish ...

Teneriffe

DIOCESE OF TENERIFFE (TENERIFENSIS). Suffragan of Seville, formerly called Nivariensis from ...

Teniers, David

The name of two eminent Flemish landscape painters ; the elder, born at Antwerp in 1582; ...

Tennessee

The State of Tennessee lies between 35° and 36°30' N. lat. and 81°37' and 90°38' ...

Tenney, William Jewett

An author, editor, born at Newport, Rhode Island, 1814; died at Newark, New Jersey, 20 Sept., ...

Tentyris

(TENTYRA) Seat of a titular suffragan see of Ptolemais in Thebaid Secunda. The city was ...

Tenure, Ecclesiastical

I. In the feudal system an ecclesiastical fief followed all the laws laid down for temporal ...

Teos

Titular see ; suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. A city of Caria situated on a peninsula ...

Tepic

DIOCESE OF TEPIC (TEPICENSIS) A diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the ...

Tepl

A Premonstratensian abbey in the western part of Bohemia, included in the Archdiocese of Prague ...

Teramo

Diocese in southern Italy. In the past the city was injured by earthquakes. It is situated at ...

Terce

The origin of Terce, like that of Sext and None, to which it bears a close relationship, dates ...

Terenuthis

Titular see, suffragan of Antinoë in Thebais Prima. Le Quien (Oriens christ., II, 611) ...

Teresa of Avila, Saint

Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada Born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at ...

Teresa of Lisieux, Saint

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed

Guillotined at the Place du Trône Renversé (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 ...

Terill, Anthony

English theologian, b. at Canford, Dorsetshire, in 1623; d. at Liège, 11 Oct., 1676. His ...

Termessus

A titular see, suffragan of Perge in Pamphylia Secunda. This is one of the most ancient cities ...

Termoli

(THERMULARUM) Located on the Italian coast of the Adriatic, having a small harbour near the ...

Ternan, Saint

Bishop of the Picts, flourished in the sixth century. Much obscurity attaches to his history, and ...

Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

(TERRACINENSIS, SETINENSIS ET PRIVERNENSIS) Located in the Province of Rome. The city of ...

Terrasson, André

A French preacher, born at Lyons in 1669; died at Paris, 25 April, 1723. He was the eldest son ...

Terrestrial Paradise

( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

Terrien, Jean-Baptiste

Dogmatic theologian, born at St-Laurent-des-Autels, Maine-et-Loire, 26 Aug., 1832; d. at ...

Tertiaries

(From the Latin tertiarius , the relative adjective of tertius , third ). Tertiaries, or ...

Tertullian

(Q UINTUS S EPTIMIUS F LORENS T ERTULLIANUS ). Ecclesiastical writer in the second and ...

Teruel

(TUROLENSIS) A suffragan of Saragossa, comprises the civil province of the same name, ...

Test-Oath, Missouri

In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...

Testament, New

I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...

Testament, Old

I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...

Testem Benevolentiae

An Apostolic Letter of Leo XIII addressed to Cardinal Gibbons, 22 January, 1899. It opens by ...

Tetzel, Johann

First public antagonist of Luther, b. at Pirna in Meissen, 1465; d. at Leipzig, 11 Aug., 1519. ...

Teuchira

A titular see in Libyan Pentapolis. Teuchira ( Teucheira ) neuter plural, was a city on the ...

Teutonic Order

A medieval military order modelled on the Hospitallers of St. John, which changed its residence ...

Tewdrig

(THEODORIC) A Welsh saint, son of King Ceithfalt of Morganwg or Southern Wales, flourished ...

Texas

S TATE OF T EXAS . The name, Texas, is probably derived from Tejas, the name of a ...

Textual Criticism

The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...

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Th 147

Thænæ

A titular see in Africa Byzacena. It is mentioned in numerous ancient geographical documents ...

Thébaud, Augustus

Jesuit educator and publicist, b. at Nantes, France, 20 Nov., 1807; d. at St. John's College, ...

Thénard, Louis-Jacques, Baron

Chemist, b. at Louptière, near Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube, France, on 4 May, 1777; d. at Paris, ...

Théophane Vénard

(JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...

Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

Thabor, Mount

The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...

Thabraca

A titular see of Numidia near the sea, between the Armua and the Tusca. Thabraca was the last ...

Thacia Montana

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. An inscription discovered in the ...

Thagaste

(TAGASTE) Thagaste, a titular see in Numidia, was a rather important municipality. It is ...

Thagora

(Tagora) Titular see in Numidia, mentioned by the "Rabula Peutingeriana", which calls it ...

Thais, Saint

(THAISIS or THAISIA). A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century. In the Greek menology her ...

Thalberg, Sigismond

Musical composer and pianist, b. at Geneva, 1812; d. at Posilipo, Italy, 27 April, 1871. The ...

Thalhofer, Valentin

German theologian, b. at Unterroth, near Ulm, 21 January, 1825; d. at the same place, 17 ...

Thangmar

(THANKMAR) Historian, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. probably at Hildesheim ...

Thanksgiving before and after Meals

The word grace , which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English ...

Thanksgiving Day

A civil holiday observed annually in the United States of America on the last Thursday in ...

Thapsus

A titular see in Byzacene Africa. It was a Phoenician market on the coast of Byzacium in ...

Thasos

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. The island of Thasos was anciently ...

Thaumaci

A titular see in Thessaly, suffragan of Larissa, commanding the defile of Coele at the ...

Thayer, John

Missionary, convert, first native of New England ordained to the priesthood, b. Boston, ...

Theatines

(CLERICS REGULAR) A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo ...

Theatre, The

Considering the tone of what is preserved to us of the works of the Greek tragedians and even of ...

Thebaid

The valley of the Nile, under Roman domination, was divided into four provinces: Lower and Upper ...

Thebes

(THEBAE) A metropolitan titular see of Achaia Secunda. The city was founded by the ...

Thebes

(THEBAE) Titular see of Thebais Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais, and the seat of a Coptic ...

Thecla, Saint

Benedictine Abbess of Kitzingen and Ochsenfurt; date of birth unknown; d. at Kitzingen about 790 ...

Thecla, Saints

I. Thecla of Iconium The reputed pupil of the Apostle Paul , who is the heroine of the ...

Theft

Theft is the secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other. ...

Thegan (Degan) of Treves

Chronicler, d. about 850. Very little is known of his life; all that is certain is that he was ...

Theiner, Augustin

Theologian and historian, b. at Breslau, 11 April, 1804; d. at Civitavecchia, 8 Aug., 1874. He was ...

Thelepte

A titular see in Byzacene. From an inscription we learn that it was a colony. An important ...

Themiscyra

A titular see, suffragan of Amasea in the Hellespont. There was a town of this name near the ...

Themisonium

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. Themisonium was a city of Phrygia, ...

Thennesus

A titular suffragan see of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima. Cassian (Collat., XI, 1-3) gives a ...

Theobald

(T EDBALD .) Archbishop of Canterbury ; d. 18 April, 1161. He was a Norman by descent and ...

Theobald, Saint

Born at Provins in the Province of Champagne, France, in 1017; died at Salanigo in Italy 30 June, ...

Theocracy

A form of civil government in which God himself is recognized as the head. The laws of the ...

Theodard, Saint

Archbishop of Narbonne, b. at Montauban about 840; d. at the same place 1 May, 893. He seems to ...

Theodicy

Etymologically considered theodicy ( théos díe ) signifies the justification of ...

Theodore I, Pope

Pope from 642 to 649; the date of his birth is unknown. He was a Greek of Jerusalem and the ...

Theodore II, Pope

Son of Photius. His pontificate lasted only twenty days; neither the date of his birth nor of his ...

Theodore of Amasea, Saint

Surnamed Tyro (Tiro), not because he was a young recruit, but because for a time he belonged to ...

Theodore of Gaza

A fifteenth-century Greek Humanist and translator of Aristotle, b. at Thessalonica early in ...

Theodore of Studium, Saint

A zealous champion of the veneration of images and the last geat representative of the unity ...

Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

Seventh Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Tarsus in Cilicia about 602; d. at Canterbury 19 ...

Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia

Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer; b. at Antioch about 350 (thus also ...

Theodoret

Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457. He says ...

Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

A Platonist philosopher of the twelfth century, b. in France at the beginning of the twelfth ...

Theodoric the Great

King of the Ostrogoths, born A.D. 454 (?); died 26 August, 526. He was an illegitimate son of ...

Theodorus and Theophanes, Saints

(Called Grapti , "written upon", graptoi ) Theodorus, b. about 775; d. about 842-43; ...

Theodorus Lector

A lector attached to the Church of St. Sophia of Constantinople in the early part of the sixth ...

Theodosiopolis

A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Prima. In the beginning the city was called Apros, or ...

Theodosius Florentini

Born at Münster, in the Grisons, Switzerland, 23 May, 1808; died at Heiden, in Appenzell, ...

Theodosius I

Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 ...

Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint

Martyr. On 18 May the Roman Martyrology says: "At Ancyra, in Galatia, the martyr Saint Theodotus ...

Theodulf

(Theodulfus, Theodulfe), Bishop of Orléans, a writer skilled in poetic forms and a ...

Theology of Christ (Christology)

Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ. In its full extent ...

Theology, Ascetical

Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of ...

Theology, Dogmatic

Dogmatic theology is that part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith ...

Theology, History of Dogmatic

The imposing edifice of Catholic theology has been reared not by individual nations and men, ...

Theology, Moral

Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...

Theology, Mystical

Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...

Theology, Pastoral

Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...

Theonas

Bishop of Alexandria from about 283 to 301 ( Eusebius, "Chronicle", Ann. Abr. 2299, St. Jerome's ...

Theophanes Kerameus

( Kerameus , potter). Archbishop of Rossano in Calabria (1129-52), a celebrated homiletic ...

Theophanes, Saint

Chronicler, born at Constantinople, about 758; died in Samothracia, probably 12 March, 817, on ...

Theophilanthropists

("Friends of God and Man") A deistic sect formed in France during the latter part of the ...

Theophilus

Bishop of Antioch. Eusebius in his "Chronicle" places the name of Theophilus against that of ...

Theophilus

Patriarch of Alexandria (385-412). Concerning the extraction and early life of Theophilus we ...

Theosophy

( Theosophia = "wisdom concerning God ") Theosophy is a term used in general to designate ...

Theotocopuli, Domenico

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

Thera (Santorin)

DIOCESE OF THERA (SANTORINO) Diocese in the Cyclades. About the year 2000 B.C., the ...

Thermae Basilicae

A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. The Greek "Notitiae episcopatuum" ...

Thermopylae

A titular see and suffragan of Athens in Achaia Prima. It is the name of a defile about 4 ...

Thessalonians, Epistles to the

Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul. This article will treat the Church of ...

Thessalonica

(SALONIKI) Titular metropolis in Macedonia. It was at first a village called Alia, situated ...

Theveste

Titular see of Numidia. The city seems to have had some importance even prior to Christianity. ...

Thibaris

Titular see in Byzacena ( Africa ), not mentioned by any ancient author. The official list of ...

Thibaut de Champagne

Thibaut IV, count of Champagne and King of Navarre, a French poet, b. 1201, at Troyes ; d. 8 ...

Thierry of Freburg

( Or Thierry of Saxony). A philosopher and physician of the Middle Ages, and a member of ...

Thiers, Louis-Adolphe

French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic, b. at Marseilles, ...

Thignica

A titular see in Numidia. The Roman Curia's official list of titular sees places Thignica in ...

Thijm, Joseph Albert Alberdingk

Born at Amsterdam, 8 July, 1820; d. there, 17 March, 1889. After finishing his studies in his ...

Thijm, Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk

Brother of Joseph Alberdingk Thijm , b. at Amsterdam, 21 Oct., 1827, d. at Louvain, 1 Feb., ...

Thimelby, Richard

( Alias ASHBY) Missionary priest, b. in Lincolnshire, England, 1614; d. at St. Omer's, ...

Third Orders

I. GENERAL Third Orders signify in general lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women ...

Thirty Years War

The Thirty Years War (1618-48), though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance ...

Thmuis

A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium ; a city of Lower Egypt, on the ...

Thomas á Jesu

(Diaz Sanchez de Avila). Discalced Carmelite, writer on mystical theology, born at Baeza, ...

Thomas à Kempis

Author of the "Imitation of Christ" , born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; ...

Thomas Abel, Blessed

(Also ABLE, or ABELL.) Priest and martyr, born about 1497; died 30 July, 1540. He was ...

Thomas Alfield, Venerable

(AUFIELD, ALPHILDE, HAWFIELD, OFFELDUS; alias BADGER). Priest, born at Gloucestershire; ...

Thomas Aquinas, Saint

Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church ( Angelicus Doctor ), patron of Catholic ...

Thomas Atkinson, Venerable

Martyred at York, 11 March, l6l6. He was born in the East Riding of Yorkshire, was ordained ...

Thomas Becket, Saint

Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, born at London, 21 December, 1118 (?); died at Canterbury, 29 ...

Thomas Belchiam, Venerable

A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537. He ...

Thomas Christians, Saint

An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent ...

Thomas Cottam, Blessed

Martyr, born 1549, in Lancashire; executed at Tyburn, 30 May, 1582. His parents, Laurence cottam ...

Thomas Ford, Blessed

Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...

Thomas Garnet, Saint

Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...

Thomas Johnson, Blessed

Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...

Thomas More, Saint

Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...

Thomas of Beckington

(BEKYNTON.) Bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Beckington, Somerset, about 1390; died at ...

Thomas of Bradwardine

(BRAGWARDIN, BRANDNARDINUS, BREDWARDYN, BRADWARDYN, DE BREDEWARDINA). Born about 1290; died in ...

Thomas of Cantimpré

Medieval writer, preacher, and theologian, born of noble parentage at Leuw St. Pierre near ...

Thomas of Celano

Friar Minor, poet, andhagiographical writer, born at Celano in the Province of the Abruzzi, about ...

Thomas of Dover

Martyr ; died 2 or 5 August, 1295. On the above date the French ravaged Dover with fire and ...

Thomas of Hereford

(THOMAS DE CANTELUPE). Born at Hambledon, Buckinghamshire, England, about 1218; died at ...

Thomas of Jesus

(THOMAS DE ANDRADA). Reformer and preacher, born at Lisbon, 1529; died at Sagena, Morocco, 17 ...

Thomas of Jorz

(Often but erroneously called JOYCE and frequently referred to as ANGLUS or ANGLICUS). ...

Thomas of Strasburg

A fourteenth-century scholastic of the Augustinian Order, born, according to some writers, at ...

Thomas of Villanova, Saint

Educator, philanthropist, born at Fuentellana, Spain, 1488; died at Valencia, 8 September, 1555. ...

Thomas Percy, Blessed

Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...

Thomas Sherwood, Blessed

Martyr, born in London, 1551; died at Tyburn, London, 7 February, 1578. His parents also ...

Thomas the Apostle, Saint

Little is recorded of St. Thomas the Apostle, nevertheless thanks to the fourth Gospel his ...

Thomas Thwing, Venerable

Martyr. Born at Heworth Hall, near York, in 1635; suffered at York, 23 Oct., 1680. His father was ...

Thomas Woodhouse, Blessed

Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...

Thomas, Charles L.A.

French composer, born at Metz, 5 August, 1811; died at Paris, 12 February, 1896. He gained the ...

Thomassin, Louis

Theologian and French Oratorian, b. at Aix-en-Provence 28 Aug., 1619; d. in Paris, 24 Dec., ...

Thomism

In a broad sense, Thomism is the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. ...

Thompson River Indians

(THOMPSON INDIANS). An important tribe of British Columbia of Salishan linguistic stock, also ...

Thompson, Blessed James

(Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...

Thompson, Edward Healy and Harriet Diana

The name of two English converts : (1) Edward Healy and (2) Harriet Diana. Edward Healy ...

Thompson, Francis

Poet, b. at Preston, Lancashire, 18 Dec., 1859; d. in London, 13 Nov., 1907. He came from the ...

Thompson, Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David

Jurist and first Catholic Premier of Canada, b. at Halifax, Nova Scotia , 10 Nov., 1844; d. ...

Thonissen, Jean-Joseph

Professor of law at the University of Louvain, minister in the Belgian Government, b. at ...

Thorlaksson, Arni

An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297. While a deacon, he visited ...

Thorney Abbey

(i.e. "the isle of thorns", anciently called ANCARIG). Thorney Abbey, in Cambridgeshire, ...

Thorns, Crown of

Although Our Saviour's Crown of Thorns is mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded ...

Thorns, Feast of the Crown of

The first feast in honour of the Crown of Thorns ( Festum susceptionis coronae Domini ) was ...

Thorpe, Venerable Robert

Priest and martyr, b. in Yorkshire; suffered at York, 15 May, 1591. He reached the English ...

Thou, Jacques-Auguste de

French historian, b. at Paris, 8 October, 1553; d. there, 7 May, 1617. The son of Christophe de ...

Thou, Nicolas de

Bishop of Chartres, uncle of the historian Jacques-Auguste de Thou, b. at Paris, 1528; d. at ...

Three Chapters

The Three chapters ( trîa kephálaia ) were propositions anathematizing : (1) the ...

Three Rivers

DIOCESE OF THREE RIVERS (TRIFLUVIANENSIS) Formed from the Archdiocese of Quebec , to which it ...

Throne

(Latin thronus, cathedra, sedes episcopalis ), the seat the bishop uses when not engaged at ...

Thuburbo Minus

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Thuburbo Minus is mentioned in ...

Thugga

Titular see of Numidia, perhaps the Numidian fortress of Tocai mentioned about 305 B.C. by ...

Thugut, Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula

Austrian statesman, born at Linz, 31 March, 1736; died at Vienna, 28 May, 1818. He was the son of ...

Thulis, Venerable John

English martyr, born at Up Holland, Lancashire, probably about 1568; suffered at Lancaster, 18 ...

Thun-Hohenstein, Count Leo

Austrian statesman, b. at the family castle of Tetschen in Bohemia, 7 April, 1811; d. at Vienna, ...

Thundering Legion

( Legio fulminata , or fulminea , not fulminatrix ). The story of the Thundering Legion ...

Thuringia

The name Thuringia is given to a large part of Central Germany, bounded on the west by the ...

Thurmayr, Johannes

(Called AVENTINUS from the place of his birth) Born at Abensberg, Bavaria, 4 July, 1477; died ...

Thyatira

A titular suffragan see of Sardes in Lydia. According to Stephanus Byzantius, the name was ...

Thynias

A titular see, suffragan of Nicomedia, in Bithynia Prima. It is an island situated in the Black ...

Thyräus, Hermann

German Jesuit, b. at Neuss on the Rhine, 1532; d. at Mainz, 26 October, 1591. He studied first ...

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Ti 45

Tiara

The papal crown, a costly covering for the head, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, ...

Tibaldi, Pellegrino

Known also as Pellegrino da Bologna and as Pellegrino Pellegrini; decorator, mural painter, and ...

Tiberias

Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda. The town of Tiberias was founded on ...

Tiberias, Sea of

So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1 ), otherwise known as "the sea of Galilee" ( Matthew 4:18 ; Mark ...

Tiberiopolis

Titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana. Tiberiopolis is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, 2, 25); Socrates ...

Tiberius

The second Roman emperor ( A. D. 14-37), b. 16 November, 42 B. C. , d. 16 March, A. D. 37. ...

Tibet

A vast plateau, about 463,320 square miles, about 1240 miles in its greatest length from east to ...

Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints

Roman martyrs, feast 11 August. The story is related in the legend of St. Sebastian that ...

Ticelia

Titular see, suffragan of Cyrene, in the Libya Pentapolis. Under this name it is not found in any ...

Tichborne, Ven. Nicholas

Martyr, b. at Hartley Mauditt, Hampshire; suffered at Tyburn, London, 24 Aug., 1601. He was a ...

Tichborne, Ven. Thomas

Born at Hartley, Hampshire, 1567; martyred at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1602. He was educated ...

Ticonius

(Also TYCONIUS, TYCHONIUS, etc.) An African Donatist writer of the fourth century who ...

Ticuna Indians

A tribe of Indians of some importance, constituting a distinct linguistic stock, inhabiting the ...

Tieffentaller, Joseph

Jesuit missionary and noted geographer in Hindustan, b. at Bozen in the Tyrol, 27 August, 1710; ...

Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Tiepolo Born in Venice in 1696; died at Madrid, 27 March, 1770. ...

Tierney, Mark Aloysius

Born at Brighton, Sept., 1795; died at Arundel, 19 Feb., 1862. After his early schooling with the ...

Tigris, Saint

Irish saint, sister of St. Patrick. Much obscurity attaches to her life, and she has been ...

Tillemont, Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de

French historian and priest, b. at Paris, 30 November, 1637; d. there, 10 January, 1698; he was ...

Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of

Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632. He was a member of a noble family of ...

Timbrias

A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. It is called Thymbrium in the official lists ...

Time

The problem of time is one of the most difficult and most keenly debated in the field of natural ...

Timothy and Symphorian, Saints

Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August. During the pontificate of Melchiades (311-13), ...

Timothy and Titus, Epistles to

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

Timucua Indians

A principal group or confederacy of Ancient Florida, notable for the successful missions ...

Tincker, Mary Agnes

Novelist, born at Ellsworth, Maine, 18 July, 1833; died at Boston, Massachusetts, 4 December, ...

Tingis

A titular see of Mauretania Tingitana (the official list of the Roman Curia places it in ...

Tinin

SEE OF TININ (KNIN). Located in Dalmatia ; suffragan to Kalocsa-Bacs. Knin is a town on ...

Tinos and Mykonos

DIOCESE OF TINOS AND MYKONOS (TINENSIS ET MYCONENSIS) A Latin diocese of the Cyclades, ...

Tintern Abbey

This abbey, in Monmouthshire, England [actually Wales -- Ed. ], was founded in 1131 by ...

Tintoretto, Il

(J ACOPO R OBUSTI ) Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594. His father was a ...

Tipasa

A titular see of Numidia. The Phoenician word signifies passage. Early in its history we find ...

Tiraboschi, Girolamo

Italian scholar, b. in the region of Bergamo, 1731; d. 3 June, 1794. At an early age he entered ...

Tiraspol

DIOCESE OF TIRASPOL (or CHERSONESE) (TIRASPOLENSIS; CHERSONENSIS) Diocese in Southern Russia ...

Tisio da Garofalo, Benvenuto

An Italian painter of the Ferrarese school ; b. in 1481 at Garofalo, whence, as was the ...

Tissot, James

(JOSEPH-JACQUES TISSOT) French draughtsman and painter, b. at Nantes, 15 Oct., 1836; d. at ...

Tithes

(Anglo-Saxon teotha , a tenth). Generally defined as "the tenth part of the increase arising ...

Tithes, Lay

Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...

Titian

(T IZIANO V ECELLI , called T ITIAN ). The greatest of Venetian painters, born at Pieve ...

Titopolis

(TITIOPOLIS) Titular see, suffragan of Seleucia Trachaea in Isauria. Le Quien (Oriens ...

Titulus

In pagan times titulus signified an inscription on stone, and later the stone which marked ...

Titus

Roman Emperor 79-81, b. 30 Dec., 41; d. 13 Sept., 81; son of the Emperor Vespasian, and from the ...

Titus and Timothy, Epistles to

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

Titus, Bishop of Bostra

Born about 362-371. Sozomen (Hist. eccl., III, xiv) names Titus among the great men of the time ...

Tius

(TIUM) Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in Honorias. According to Strabo (542, 545) the ...

Tivoli

DIOCESE OF TIVOLI (TIBURTINA) Diocese in the Province of Rome. The city in situated where the ...

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Tl 2

Tlaxcala

(TLAXCALENSIS) A former diocese of the colony of New Spain. It was the fifth diocese ...

Tlos

A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Tlos was one of the six cities forming the Lycian ...

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Toaldo, Giuseppe

Priest and physicist, b. at Pianezze, 1719; d. at Padua, 1797. In his fourteenth year he entered ...

Toba Indians

One of the few still unconquered savage tribes of the great Chaco wilderness of South America, and ...

Tobias

We shall first enumerate the various Biblical persons and then treat the book of this name. I. ...

Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de

(CHARLES-ALEXIS-HENRI-MAURICE-CLEREL DE TOCQUEVILLE) Writer and statesman, b. at Verneuil, ...

Todi

(T UDERTINA ). Diocese in Central Italy ; immediately dependent on the Holy See. The city ...

Tokio

(Tokiensis) Archdiocese comprising 21 provinces or 15 departments with a population of over ...

Toledo (Ohio)

(Toletana in America) A diocese in Ohio, U.S.A. formed out of the Diocese of Cleveland and ...

Toledo (Spain)

ARCHDIOCESE OF TOLEDO (TOLETANENSIS) Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost ...

Toledo, Francisco

Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, son of an actuary, b. at Córdova, 4 Oct., 1532; d. ...

Tolentino and Macerata

Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...

Toleration, History of

In any attempt to deal historically with the attitude of the Church towards religious toleration ...

Toleration, Religious

Toleration in general signifies patient forbearance in the presence of an evil which one is ...

Tolomei, John Baptist

A distinguished Jesuit theologian and cardinal, born of noble parentage, at Camberaia, between ...

Tomb

A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons, ...

Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...

Tomb, Altar

A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having ...

Tomi

A titular metropolitan see in the Province of Scythia, on the Black Sea. It was a Greek colony ...

Tommasi, Blessed Giuseppe Maria

A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...

Tongerloo, Abbey of

Located near Antwerp, Belgium, founded in 1128 in honour of the Blessed Virgin, by de ...

Tongiorgi, Salvator

Philosopher, born at Rome, Italy, 25 December, 1820; d. there, 12 November, 1865. At the age of ...

Tongues, Gift of

(Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...

Tonica Indians

(Or TUNICA). A small tribe constituting a distinct linguistic stock living, when first known ...

Tonkawa Indians

A tribal group or confederacy, of low culture status and constituting a distinct linguistic stock, ...

Tonsure

( Latin tondere , "to shear") A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized ...

Tootell, Hugh

Commonly known as Charles Dodd. Historian, b. in 1671 or 1672, at Durton-in-Broughton, ...

Torah

I. USE OF WORD Torah, (cf. Hiph. of ), signifies first "direction, instruction", as, for ...

Torbido, Francesco

Often called IL MORO (The Moor). Veronese painter and engraver, b. at Verona about 1486; ...

Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint

Archbishop of Lima ; b. at Mayorga, León, Spain, 1538; d. near Lima Peru, 23 March ...

Tornielli, Girolamo Francesco

Italian Jesuit, preacher and writer, b. at Cameri, 1 Febreuary, 1693, of a distinguished family ...

Torone

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. Torone was a colony of Chalcideans from ...

Toronto

(TORONTINA). Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada. When constituted a diocese, it ...

Torquemada, Tomás de

First Grand Inquisitor of Spain, born at Valladolid in 1420; died at Avila, 16 September, ...

Torres Naharro, Bartolemé de

Spanish poet and dramatist, b. at Torres, near Badajoz, towards the end of the fifteenth ...

Torres, Francisco

(TURRIANUS.) Hellenist and polemicist, born in Herrera, Palencia, about 1509; died at Rome, ...

Torricelli, Evangelista

Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 ...

Torrubia, José

Born towards the end of the seventeenth century at Granada, Spain ; died in 1768 in the ...

Tortona

DIOCESE OF TORTONA (DERTONENSIS) Diocese in Piedmont, Italy. The city is situated on the ...

Tortosa

DIOCESE OF TORTOSA (DERTHUSENSIS, DERTUSA). Located in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; ...

Toscanella and Viterbo

(VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...

Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo

Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer, b. at Florence in 1397; d. there, 10 May, 1482. ...

Tosephta

( Hebrew = addition, supplement ) Tosephta is the name of compilation of ...

Tostado, Alonso

(ALONSO TOSTATUS) Exegete, b. at Madrigal, Castile, about 1400; d. at Bonilla de la Sierra, ...

Tosti, Luigi

Benedictine historian, b. at Naples 13 Feb., 1811; d. at Monte Cassino, 24 Sept., 1897. His ...

Totemism

Totemism from ote , root ot , possessive form otem , in the Ojibway dialect of the ...

Totonac Indians

One of the smaller cultured nations of ancient Mexico, occupying at the time of the Spanish ...

Touchet, George Anselm

Born at Stalbridge, Dorset; died about 1689. He was second son of Mervyn, twelfth Lord Audley, ...

Toulouse

A RCHDIOCESE OF T OULOUSE (T OLOSENSIS ) Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne. As ...

Tournély, Honoré

Theologian, b. Antibes, Provence, 28 August, 1658; d. at Paris, 26 December 1729. His parents ...

Tournai

DIOCESE OF TOURNAI (Latin TURNACUM, TORNACUM; Flemish, DOORNIJK — TORNACENSIS) Diocese ...

Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de

French botanist, b. at Aix in Provence, 5 June, 1656; d. at Paris, 28 Dec., 1708. After his ...

Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de

Papal legate to India and China, cardinal, born of a noble Savoyard family at Turin, 21 ...

Touron, Antoine

Dominican biographer and historian, born at Graulhet, Tarn, France, on 5 September, 1686; died ...

Tours

(TURONENSIS.) Comprises the Department of Indre-et-Loire, and was re-established by the ...

Toustain, Charles-François

French Benedictine, and member of the Congregation of St-Maur, born at Repas in the Diocese of ...

Touttée, Antoine-Augustin

A French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. at Riom, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, ...

Tower of Babel

The "Tower of Babel" is the name of the building mentioned in Genesis 11:19 . History of the ...

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Tr 77

Tracy, Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de

Viceroy of New France, born in France, 1603, of noble parents ; died there in 1670. A soldier ...

Tradition and Living Magisterium

The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...

Traditionalism

A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude. ...

Traducianism

Traducianism ( tradux , a shoot or sprout, and more specifically a vine branch made to take root ...

Trajan

Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117. He ...

Trajanopolis

Titular metropolitan see of Rhodope. The city owes its foundation or restoration to Trajan. Le ...

Trajanopolis

A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. The only geographer who speaks ...

Tralles

A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. It was founded, it is said, by the Argians ...

Trani and Barletta

(T RANEN , et Barolen.) Diocese in Italy. The city of Trani is situated on the Adriatic in ...

Transcendentalism

The terms transcendent and transcendental are used in various senses, all of which, as a ...

Transept

A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica. It ...

Transfiguration

The Transfiguration of Christ is the culminating point of His public life, as His Baptism is ...

Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the

Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. ...

Transubstantiation

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

Transvaal

Vicariate apostolic ; lies between 23° 3' and 27° 30' S. lat., and 25° and 32° ...

Transylvania

(Also TRANSYLVANIENSIS or ERDELY). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Kalocsa Bács. The ...

Trapani

(TREPANENSIS). Diocese in Sicily, suffragan of Palermo. The city is the capital of a ...

Trapezopolis

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan to Laodicea. Trapezopolis was a town of Caria ...

Trappists

The common name by which the Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de ...

Trasilla and Emiliana, Saints

Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...

Treason, Accusations of

A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics ...

Trebizond

(TRAPEZUNTINA). An Armenian Catholic diocese. The city owes its ancient name to the fact that ...

Trebnitz

A former abbey of Cistercian nuns, situated north of Breslau in Silesia. It was founded in ...

Tredway, Lettice Mary

(Called "Lady" Tredway) Born 1595; died Oct., 1677; daughter of Sir Walter Tredway, of Buckley ...

Tregian, Francis

Confessor, b. in Cornwall, 1548; d. at Lisbon, 25 Sept., 1608. He was son of Thomas Tregian of ...

Tremithus

Titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. The city is mentioned by Ptolemy (Geog., V, xiii, ...

Trent

(TRIDENTUM; TRIDENTINA). Diocese ; suffragan of Salzburg. Trent became universally known ...

Trent, Council of

The nineteenth ecumenical council opened at Trent on 13 December, 1545, and closed there on 4 ...

Trenton

(T RENTONENSIS ). Diocese created 15 July, 1881, suffragan of New York, comprises Atlantic, ...

Tresham, Sir Thomas

Knight Bachelor (in or before 1524), Grand Prior of England in the Order of Knights ...

Treviso

(TARVISINA). Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The capital is surrounded by the River ...

Tribe, Jewish

( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...

Tricarico, Diocese of

(TRICARICENSIS.) Located in the Province of Potenza in the Basilicata (Southern Italy ), near ...

Tricassin, Charles Joseph

One of the greatest theologians of the Capuchin Order, b. at Troyes ; d. in 1681. There is but ...

Tricca

Titular see, suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. It was an ancient city of Thessaly, near the River ...

Trichinopoly, Diocese of

(TRICHINOPOLITAN.) Located in India, suffragan of Bombay, comprises the south east portion of ...

Trichur

(TRICHURENSIS.) Vicariate Apostolic in India, one of the three vicariates of the Syro-Malabar ...

Tricomia

Titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palaestina Prima. It is mentioned in George of Cyprus ...

Triduum

(Three days). A time frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices, whether ...

Trier

(TREVIRENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Cologne; includes in the Prussian province of the ...

Triesnecker, Francis a Paula

Astronomer, b. at Kirchberg on the Wagram, in Lower Austria, 2 April, 1745; d. at Vienna 29 ...

Triest-Capo d'Istria

(TERGESTINA ET JUSTINOPOLITANA.) Suffragan diocese of Görz-Gradiska ; exists as a ...

Trincomalee

(TRINCOMALIENSIS.) Located in Ceylon, suffragan of Colombo, was created in 1893 by a division ...

Trinità di Cava dei Tirrenti, Abbey of

Located in the Province of Salerno. It stands in a gorge of the Finestre Hills near Cava dei ...

Trinitarians, Order of

The redemption of captives has always been regarded in the Church as a work of mercy, as is ...

Trinity College

An institution for the higher education of Catholic women, located at Washington, D.C., and ...

Trinity Sunday

The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity. In the early ...

Trinity, The Blessed

This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...

Triple-Candlestick

A name given along with several others (e.g. reed, tricereo, arundo, triangulum, lumen Christi ...

Trissino, Giangiorgio

Italian poet and scholar, b. of a patrician family at Vicenza in 1478; d. at Rome, 8 ...

Tritheists

(TRITHEITES). Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity. (1) Those who are ...

Trithemius, John

A famous scholar and Benedictine abbot, b. at Trittenheim on the Moselle, 1 February, 1462; d. at ...

Trivento

(Triventensis) Diocese in southern Italy. The earliest bishop was St. Castus of an uncertain ...

Trivet, Nicholas

(Or "Trevet" as he himself wrote it) B. about 1258; d. 1328. He was the son of Thomas Trevet, a ...

Troas

A suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespont. The city was first called Sigia; it was enlarged and ...

Trocmades

(Trocmada) Titular see of Galatia Secunda, suffragan of Pessinus. No geographer or historian ...

Trokelowe, John de

(THROWLOW, or THORLOW) A monastic chronicler still living in 1330, but the dates of whose birth ...

Trondhjem, Ancient See of

(NIDAROS). In Norway it was the kings who introduced Christianity, which first became ...

Trope

Definition and Description Trope, in the liturgico-hymnological sense, is a collective name ...

Tropology, Scriptural

The theory and practice of interpreting the figurative meaning of Holy Writ. The literal meaning, ...

Troy, John Thomas

Archbishop of Dublin ; b. in the parish of Blanchardstown, near Dublin, 10 May, 1739; d. at ...

Troyes

(TRECENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Aube. Re-established in 1802 as a suffragan ...

Truce of God

The Truce of God is a temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God ...

Truchsess von Waldburg, Otto

Cardinal-Bishop of Augsburg (1543-73), b. at Castle Scheer in Swabia, 26 Feb., 1514; d. at ...

Trudo, Saint

(TRON, TROND, TRUDON, TRUTJEN, TRUYEN). Apostle of Hasbein in Brabant; d. 698 (693). Feast 23 ...

Trudpert, Saint

Missionary in Germany in the seventh century. He is generally called a Celtic monk from ...

True Cross, The

(AND REPRESENTATIONS OF IT AS OBJECTS OF DEVOTION). (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult ; (2) ...

Trueba, Antonio de

Spanish poet and folklorist, b. at Montellana, Biscay, in 1821; d. at Bilbao, 10 March, 1889. In ...

Trujillo

Diocese comprising the Departments of Lambayeque, Libertad, Pinra, and the Province of Tumbes, ...

Trullo, Council in

This particular council of Constantinople, held in 692 under Justinian II, is generally known as ...

Trumpets, Feast of

The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...

Trumwin, Saint

(TRIUMWINI, TRUMUINI). Died at Whitby, Yorkshire, England, after 686. He was consecrated by ...

Trustee System

I In the exercise of her inherent right of administering property, the Church often appoints ...

Trusts and Bequests

A trust has been defined, in its technical sense, as the right enforceable solely in equity to ...

Truth

Truth (Anglo-Saxon tréow, tryw, truth, preservation of a compact, from a Teutonic base ...

Truth Societies, Catholic

This article will treat of Catholic Truth Societies in the chronological order of their ...

Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...

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Ts 2

Tschiderer zu Gleifheim, Johann Nepomuk von

Bishop of Trent, b. at Bozen, 15 Feb., 1777; d. at Trent, 3 Dec., 1860. He sprang from a family ...

Tschupick, John Nepomuk

A celebrated preacher, b. at Vienna, 7 or 12 April, 1729; d. there, 20 July, 1784. He entered the ...

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Tu 27

Tuam

(TUAMENSIS). The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly ...

Tuam, School of

(Irish, Tuaim da Ghualann , or the "Mound of the two Shoulders"). The School of Tuam was ...

Tubunae

A titular see in Mauretania Caesariensis, according to the "Gerachia cattolica", or in Numidia ...

Tucson

(T UCSONENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe. It comprises the State of ...

Tucumán

(T UCUMANENSIS ). Suffragan to Buenos Aires, erected from the Diocese of Salta on 15 ...

Tudela

(TUTELÆ, TUTELENSIS). Diocese in Spain. The episcopal city has a population of 9213. ...

Tuguegarao

(TUGUEGARAONENSIS). Diocese in the Philippines ; situated in the north-eastern section of ...

Tulancingo

(D E T ULANCINGO ). Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of Mexico. Its area is ...

Tulasne, Louis-René

A noted botanist, b. at Azay-le-Rideau, Dept of Indre-et-Loire, France, 12 Sept., 1815; d. at ...

Tulle

(TUTELENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Corrèze. It was suppressed by the ...

Tunic

By tunic is understood in general a vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper ...

Tunis

French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa. About the twelfth century before Christ ...

Tunja

(T UNQUENENSIS ). Diocese established in 1880 as a suffragan of Bogotá, in the ...

Tunkers

( German tunken , to dip) A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite. ...

Tunstall, Cuthbert

Bishop of London, later of Durham, b. at Hackforth, Yorkshire, in 1474; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...

Tunstall, Venerable Thomas

Martyred at Norwich, 13 July, 1616. He was descended from the Tunstalls of Thurland, an ancient ...

Tunsted, Simon

English Minorite, b. at Norwich, year unknown; d. at Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369. Having joined the ...

Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques

Baron de L' Aulne, French minister, born at Parish, 10 May, 1727; died there, 20 March, 1781. ...

Turin

(Turino; Taurinensis) The City of Turin is the chief town of a civil province in Piedmont and ...

Turin, Shroud of

This name is primarily given to a relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that ...

Turin, University of

The University of Turin was founded in 1404, when the lectures at Piacenza and Pavia were ...

Turkestan

I. CHINESE TURKESTAN When Jenghiz Khan died (1227) his second son, Djagatai, had the greater part ...

Turkish Empire

Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the ...

Turnebus, Adrian

Philologist, b. at Andely in Normandy in 1512; d. in Paris, 12 June, 1565. The accounts of the ...

Turpin

Archbishop of Reims, date of birth uncertain; d. 2 Sept., 800. He was a monk of St. Denis ...

Tuscany

Tuscany, a division of central Italy, includes the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, ...

Tuy

(Tudensis.) Suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Santiago, comprises the civil provinces ...

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Tw 2

Twenge, Saint John

Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...

Twiketal of Croyland

(THURCYTEL, TURKETUL). Died July, 975. He was a cleric of royal descent, who is said to have ...

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Ty 7

Tyana

A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Prima. The city must first have been called Thoana, ...

Tychicus

A disciple of St. Paul and his constant companion. He was a native of the Roman province of ...

Tynemouth Priory

Tynemouth Priory, on the east coast of Northumberland, England, occupied the site of an earlier ...

Types in Scripture

Types, though denoted by the Greek word typoi , are not coextensive with the meaning of this ...

Tyrannicide

Tyrannicide literally is the killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a ...

Tyre

(TYRUS.) Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese. The city is called in Hebrew, Zor , ...

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