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Pilgrimages

(Middle English, pilgrime, Old French, pelegrin, derived from Latin peregrinum, supposed origin, per and ager –with idea of wandering over a distance).

Pilgrimages may be defined as journeys made to some place with the purpose of venerating it, or in order to ask there for supernatural aid, or to discharge some religious obligation.

ORIGIN

The idea of a pilgrimage has been traced back by some (Littledale in "Encycl. Brit.", 1885, XIX, 90; "New Internat. Encyc.", New York, 1910, XVI, 20, etc.) to the primitive notion of local deities, that is, that the divine beings who controlled the movements of men and nature could exercise that control only over certain definite forces or within set boundaries. Thus the river gods had no power over those who kept away from the river, nor could the wind deities exercise any influence over those who lived in deserts or clearings or on the bare mountain-side. Similarly there were gods of the hills and gods of the plains who could only work out their designs, could only favour or destroy men within their own locality ( 1 Kings 20:23 ). Hence, when some man belonging to a mountain tribe found himself in the plain and was in need of divine help, he made a pilgrimage back again to the hills to petition it from his gods. It is therefore the broken tribesmen who originate pilgrimages.

Without denying the force of this argument as suggesting or extending the custom, for it has been admitted as plausible by distinguished Catholics (cf. Lagrange, "Etudes sur les relig. sémit., VIII, Paris, 1905, 295, 301), we may adhere to a less arbitrary solution by seeking its cause in the instinctive notion of the human heart. For pilgrimages properly so called are made to the places where the gods or heroes were born or wrought some great action or died, or to the shrines where the deity had already signified it to be his pleasure to work wonders. Once theophanies are localized, pilgrimages necessarily follow. The Incarnation was bound inevitably to draw men across Europe to visit the Holy Places, for the custom itself arises spontaneously from the heart. It is found in all religions. The Egyptians journeyed to Sekket's shrine at Bubastis or to Ammon's oracle at Thebes ; the Greeks sought for counsel from Apollo at Delphi and for cures from Asclepius at Epidaurus; the Mexicans gathered at the huge temple of Quetzal; the Peruvians massed in sun-worship at Cuzco and the Bolivians in Titicaca. But it is evident that the religions which centered round a single character, be he god or prophet, would be the most famous for their pilgrimages, not for any reason of tribal returns to a central district where alone the deity has power, but rather owing to the perfectly natural wish to visit spots made holy by the birth, life, or death of the god or prophet. Hence Buddhism and Mohammedanism are especially famous in inculcating this method of devotion. Huge gatherings of people intermittently all the year round venerate Kapilavastu where Gaukama Buddha began his life, Benares where he opened his sacred mission, Kasinagara where he died; and Mecca and Medina have become almost bywords in English as the goals of long aspirations, so famous are they for their connexion with the prophet of Islam.

Granting then this instinctive movement of human nature, we should expect to find that in Christianity God would Himself satisfy the craving He had first Himself created. The story of His appearance on earth in bodily form when He "dwelt amongst us" could not but be treasured up by His followers, and each city and site mentioned became a matter of grateful memory to them. Then again the more famous of His disciples, whom we designate as saints, themselves began to appeal to the devotion of their fellows, and round the acts of their lives soon clustered a whole cycle of venerated shrines. Especially would this be felt in the case of the martyrs ; for their passion and death stamped more dramatically still the exact locality of their triumph. Moreover, it seems reasonable to suppose that yet another influence worked to the same end. There sprang up in the early Church a curious privilege, accorded to dying martyrs, of granting the remission of canonical penances. No doubt it began through a generous acceptance of the relation of St. Stephen to St. Paul. But certain it is that at an early date this custom had become so highly organized that there was a libellus, or warrant of reconciliation, a set form for the readmittance of sinners to Christian fellowship (Batiffol, "Etudes d'hist. et de théol. posit.", I, Paris, 1906, 112- 20). Surely then it is not fanciful to see how from this came a further development. Not only had the martyrs in their last moments this power of absolving from ecclesiastical penalties, but even after their deaths, their tombs and the scenes of their martyrdom were considered to be capable also–if devoutly venerated –of removing the taints and penalties of sin. Accordingly it came to be looked upon as a purifying act to visit the bodies of the saints and above all the places where Christ Himself had set the supreme example of a teaching sealed with blood.

Again it may be noted how, when the penitential system of the Church, which grouped itself round the sacrament of the confessional, had been authoritatively and legally organized, pilgrimages were set down as adequate punishments inflicted for certain crimes. The hardships of the journey, the penitential garb worn, the mendicity it entailed made a pilgrimage a real and efficient penance (Beazley, "Dawn of Modern Geography ", II, 139; Furnival, "The Stacions of Rome and the Pilgrim's Sea Voyage", London, 1867, 47). To quote a late text, the following is one of the canons enacted under King Edgar (959-75): "It is a deep penitence that a layman lay aside his weapons and travel far barefoot and nowhere pass a second night and fast and watch much and pray fervently, by day and by night and willingly undergo fatigue and be so squalid that iron come not on hair or on nail" (Thorpe, "Ancient Laws", London, 1840, 411-2; cf. 44, 410, etc.). Another witness to the real difficulties of the wayfaring palmer may be cited from "Syr Isenbras", an early English ballad:–

"They bare with them no maner of thynge
That was worth a farthynge
     Cattell, golde, ne fe;
But mekely they asked theyre meate
Where that they myght it gette.
     For Saynct Charyte."

(Uterson, "Early Popular Poetry", I, London, 1817, 83). And the Earl of Arundel of a later date obtained absolution for poaching on the bishop's preserves at Hoghton Chace only on condition of a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Richard of Chichester ("Archæologia", XLV, 176; cf. Chaucer, "Works", ed. Morris, III, 266). And these are but late descriptions of a practice of penance which stretches back beyond the legislation of Edgar and the organization of St. Theodore to the sub-Apostolic age. Finally a last influence that made the pilgrimage so popular a form of devotion was the fact that it contributed very largely to ease the soul of some of its vague restlessness in an age when conditions of life tended to cramp men down to certain localities. It began to be looked upon as a real help to the establishment of a perfectly controlled character. It took its place in the medieval manuals of psychology. So John de Burg in 1385 (Pupilla oculi, fol. LXII), "contra acediam, opera laboriosa bona ut sint peregrinationes ad loca sancta."

HISTORY IN GENERAL

In a letter written towards the end of the fourth century by Sts. Paula and Eustochium to the Roman matron Marcella, urging her to follow them out to the Holy Places, they insist on the universality of the custom of these pilgrimages to Palestine:–"Whosoever is noblest in Gaul comes hither. And Britain though divided from us yet hastens from her land of sunset to these shrines known to her only through the Scriptures." They go on to enumerate the various nationalities that crowded round these holy places, Armenians, Persians, Indians, Ethiopians, and many others (P. L., XXII; Ep. xlvi, 489-900). But it is of greater interest to note how they claim for this custom a continuity from Apostolic days. From the Ascension to their time, bishops, martyrs, doctors, and troops of people, say they, had flocked to see the sacred stones of Bethlehem and of wherever else the Lord had trod (489). It has been suggested that this is an exaggeration, and certainly we can offer no proof of any such uninterrupted practice. Yet when the first examples begin to appear they are represented to us without a word of astonishment or a note of novelty, as though people were already fully accustomed to like adventures. Thus in Eusebius, "History" (tr. Crusé, London, 1868, VI, xi, 215), it is remarked of Bishop Alexander that "he performed a journey from Cappadocia to Jerusalem in consequence of a vow and the celebrity of the place." And the date given is also worthy of notice, A. D. 217. Then again there is the story of the two travellers of Placentia, John and Antoninus the Elder (Acta SS., July, II, 18), which took place about 303-4. Of course with the conversion of Constantine and the visit to Jerusalem of the Empress St. Helena the pilgrimages to the Holy Land became very much more frequent. The story of the finding of the Cross is too well known to be here repeated (cf. P. L., XXVII, 1125), but its influence was unmistakable. The first church of the Resurrection was built by Eustathius the Priest (loc. cit., 1164). But the flow of pilgrimages began in vigour four years after St. Helena's visit (Acta SS., June, III, 176; Sept., III, 56). Then the organization of the Church that partly caused and partly resulted from the Council of Nicæa continued the same custom.

In 333 was the famous Bordeaux Pilgrimage ("Palestine Pilgrim Text Society ", London, 1887, preface and notes by Stewart). It was the first of a whole series of pilgrimages that have left interesting and detailed accounts of the route, the peoples through which they passed, the sites identified with those mentioned in the Gospels. Another was the still better-known "Peregrinatio Silviæ" (ed. Barnard, London, 1891, Pal. Pilg. Text Soc.; cf. "Rev. des quest. hist." 1903, 367, etc.). Moreover, the whole movement was enormously increased by the language and action of St. Jerome whose personality at the close of the fourth century dominated East and West. Slightly earlier St. John Chrysostom emphasized the efficacy in arousing devotion of visiting even the "lifeless spots" where the saints had lived (In Phil., 702-3, in P. G., LXII). And his personal love of St. Paul would have unfailingly driven him to Rome to see the tomb of the Apostles, but for the burden of his episcopal office. He says ("In Ephes. hom. 8, ii, 57, in P. G., LXII), "If I were freed from my labours and my body were in sound health I would eagerly make a pilgrimage merely to see the chains that had held him captive and the prison where he lay." While in another passage of extraordinary eloquence he expresses his longing to gaze on the dust of the great Apostle, the dust of the lips that had thundered, of the hands that had been fettered, of the eyes that had seen the Master; even as he speaks he is dazzled by the splendour of the metropolis of the world lit up by the glorious tombs of the twin prince Apostles (In Rom. hom. 32, iii, 678, etc., in P. G., LX). Nor in this is he advocating a new practice, for he mentions without comment how many people hurried across the seas to Arabia to see and venerate the dunghill of Job (Ad pop. Antioch. hom. 5, 69, in P. G., XLIX). St. Jerome was cramped by no such official duties as had kept St. Chrysostom to his diocese. His conversion, following on the famous vision of his judgment, turned him from his studies of pagan classics to the pages of Holy Writ , and, uniting with his untiring energy and thoroughness, pushed him on to Palestine to devote himself to the Scriptures in the land where they had been written. Once there the actual Gospel scenes appealed with supreme freshness to him, and on his second return from Rome his enthusiasm fired several Roman matrons to accompany him and share his labours and his devotions. Monasteries and convents were built and a Latin colony was established which in later times was to revolutionize Europe by inaugurating the Crusades.

From the Holy Land the circle widens to Rome, as a centre of pilgrimages. St. Chrysostom, as has been shown, expressed his vehement desire to visit it. And in the early church histories of Eusebius, Zosimus, Socrates, and others, notices are frequent of the journeyings of celebrated princes and bishops of the City of the Seven Hills. Of course the Saxon kings and royal families have made this a familiar thing to us. The "Ecclesiastical History" of St. Bede is crowded with references to princes and princesses who laid aside their royal diadems in order to visit the shrine of the Apostles ; and the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" after his death takes up the same refrain. Then from Rome again the shrines of local saints begin to attract their votaries. In the letter already cited in which Paula and Eustochium invite Marcella to Palestine they argue from the already established custom of visiting the shrines of the martyrs : "Martyrum ubique sepulchra veneramur" (Ep. xlvi, 488, in P. L., XXII). St. Augustine endeavours to settle a dispute by sending both litigants on a pilgrimage to the tomb of St. Felix of Nola, in order that the saint may somehow or other make some sign as to which party was telling the truth. He candidly admits that he knows of no such miracle having been performed in Africa, but argues to it from the analogy of Milan where God had made known His pleasure through the relics of Sts. Gervasius and Protasius (Ep. lxxvii, 269, in P. L., XXXIII). Indeed, the very idea of relics, which existed as early as the earliest of the catacombs, teaches the essential worth of pilgrimages, i.e., of the journeying to visit places hallowed by events in the lives of heroes or of gods who walked in the guise of men (St. Aug., "De civ. Dei", XXII, 769, in P. L., XXXVIII).

At first a mere question of individual travelling, a short period was sufficient to develop into pilgrimages properly organized companies. Even the "Peregrinatio Silviæ" shows how they were being systematized. The initiators were clerics who prepared the whole route beforehand and mapped out the cities of call. The bodies of troops were got together to protect the pilgrims. Moreover, Christian almsgiving invented a method of participation in the merits of a pilgrimage for those unable actually to take part in them; it established hospices along the line (Ordericus Vitalis, "Hist. eccles.", ed. Le Prévost, Suc. hist. France, II, 64, 53; Toulmin Smith, "English Guilds ", passim ). The conversion of the Hungarians amplified this system of halts along the road; of St. Stephen, for example, we read that "he made the way very safe for all and thus allowed by his benevolence a countless multitude both of noble and common people to start for Jerusalem " ( Glaber, "Chron.", III, C. I. Mon. Germ. Hist., VII, 62). Thus these pious journeys gradually harden down and become fixed and definite. They are allowed for by laws civil and ecclesiastical. Wars are fought to insure their safety, crusades are begun in their defence, pilgrims are everywhere granted free access in times alike of peace and war. By the "Consuetudines" of the canons of Hereford cathedral we see that legislation was found to be necessary. No canon was to make more than one pilgrimage beyond the seas in his own lifetime. But each year three weeks were allowed to enable any that would to visit shrines within the kingdom. To go abroad to the tomb of St. Denis, seven weeks of absence was considered legal, eight weeks to the body of St. Edmund at Pontigny, sixteen weeks to Rome, or to St. James at Compostella, and a year to Jerusalem (Archæol., XXXI, 251-2 notes).

Again in another way pilgrimages were being regarded as part of normal life. In the registers of the Inquisition at Carcassone (Waterton, "Pictas Mariana Britannica", 112) we find the four following places noted as being the centres of the greater pilgrimages to be imposed as penances for the graver crimes, the tomb of the Apostles at Rome, the shrine of St. James at Compostella, St. Thomas's body at Canterbury, and the relics of the Three Kings at Cologne. Naturally with all this there was a great deal of corruption. Even from the earliest times the Fathers perceived how liable such devotions were to degenerate into an abuse. St. John Chrysostom, so ardent in his praise of pilgrimages, found it necessary to explain that there was "need for none to cross the seas or fare upon a long journey; let each of us at home invoke God earnestly and He will hear our prayer " (Ad pop. Antioch, hom. iii, 2, 49, in P. G., XLIX; cf. hom. iv, 6, 68). St. Gregory Nazianzen is even stronger in his condemnation. He has a short letter in which he speaks of those who regard it as an essential part of piety to visit Jerusalem and see the traces of the Passion of Christ. This, he says, the Master has never commanded, though the custom is not therefore without merit. But still he knows that in many cases the journey has proved a scandal and caused serious harm. He witnesses, therefore, both to the custom and the abuse, evidently thinking that the latter outweighed the former (Ep. ii, 1009, in P. G., XLVI). So again St. Jerome writes to Paulinus (Ep. lxviii in P. L., XXII) to explain, in an echo of Cicero's phrase, that it is not the fact of living in Jerusalem, but of living there well, that is worthy of praise (579); he instances countless saints who never set foot in the Holy Land; and dares not tie down to one small portion of the Earth Him whom Heaven itself is unable to contain. He ends with a sentence that is by now famous, "et de Hierusolymis et de Britannia æqualiter patet aula cœlestis" (581).

Another well-quoted passage comes from a letter of St. Augustine in which he expounds in happy paradox that not by journeying but by loving we draw nigh unto God. To Him who is everywhere present and everywhere entire we approach not by our feet but by our hearts (Ep. clv, 672, in P. L. XXXII). For certainly pilgrimages were not always undertaken for the best of motives. Glaber (ed. Prou, Paris, 1886, 107) thinks it necessary to note of Lethbald that he was far from being one of those who were led to Jerusalem simply from vanity, that they might have wonderful stories to tell, when they came back. Thus, as the centuries pass, we find human nature the same in its complexity of motives. Its noblest actions are found to be often caused by petty spites or vanity or overvaulting ambition ; and even when begun in good faith as a source of devotion, the practices of piety at times are degraded into causes of vice. So the author of the "Imitation of Christ' raises his voice against overmuch pilgrimage-making: "Who wander much are but little hallowed." Now too the words of the fifteenth-century English Dominican, John Bromyard ("Summa Prædicantium", Tit. Feria n. 6, fol. 191, Lyons, 1522):–"There are some who keep their pilgrimages and festivals not for God but for the devil. They who sin more freely when away from home or who go on pilgrimage to succeed in inordinate and foolish love –those who spend their time on the road in evil and uncharitable conversation may indeed say peregrinamur a Domino –they make their pilgrimage away from God and to the devil."

But the most splenetic scorn is to be found in the pages of that master of satire, Erasmus. His "Religious Pilgrimage" ("Colloquies" ed. Johnson, London, 1878, 11, 1-37) is a terrible indictment of the abuses of his day. Exaggerated no doubt in its expressions, yet revealing a sufficient modicum of real evil, it is a graphic picture from the hand of an intelligent observer. There is evident sign that pilgrimages were losing in popularity, not merely because the charity of many was growing cold, but because of the excessive credulity of the guardians of the shrines, their overwrought insistence on the necessity of pilgrimage-making, and the fact that many who journeyed from shrine to shrine neglected their domestic duties. These three evils are quaintly expressed in the above mentioned dialogue, with a liberty of speech that makes one astonished at Rome's toleration in the sixteenth century. With all these abuses Erasmus saw how the spoiler would have ready to hand excuses for suppressing the whole system and plundering the most attractive treasures. The wealth might well be put, he suggested, to other uses; but the idea of a pilgrimage contained in it nothing opposed to the enlightened opinions of this prophet of "sweet reasonableness". "If any shall do it of their own free choice from a great affection to piety, I think they deserve to be left to their own freedom" (op. cit., 35). This was evidently the opinion also of Henry VIII , for, though in the Injunctions of 1536 and 1538 pilgrimages were to be discouraged, yet both in the bishop's book (The Institution of the Christian Man, 1537) and the king's book (The Necessary Doctrine and Erudition of the Christian Man, 1543), it is laid down that the abuse and not the custom is reprehensible. What they really attack is the fashion of "putting differences between image and image, trusting more in one than in another" (cf. Gairdner, "Lollardy and the Reformation ", II, London, 1908, IV, ii, 330, etc.). All this shows how alive Christendom has been to evils which Reformers are forever denouncing as inseparable from Catholicism. It admits the danger but does not allow it to prejudice the good use ("Diayloge of Syr Thomas More", London,1529). Before dealing with each pilgrimage in particular one further remark should be made. Though not properly included under a list of abuses, a custom must be noted of going in search of shrines utterly at haphazard and without any definite notion of where the journey was to end (Waterton, "Pict. Mar. Britt.", London, 1879, III, 107; "Anglo-Sax. Chron.", tr. Thorpe in R. S., London, 1861, II, 69; Beazley, "Dawn of Mod. Geog.", London, 1897-1906, I, 174-5; Tobl. Bibl. Geog. Pal. 26, ed. of 1876).

HISTORY IN PARTICULAR

It will be necessary to mention and note briefly the chief places of Catholic pilgrimage, in early days, in the Middle ages, and in modern times.

Aachen, Rhenish Prussia .–This celebrated city owes its fame as a centre of pilgrimage to the extraordinary list of precious relics which it contains. Of their authenticity there is no need here to speak, but they include among a host of others, the swaddling clothes of the child Jesus, the loin-cloth which Our Lord wore on the Cross, the cloth on which the Baptist's head lay after his execution, and the Blessed Virgin's cloak. These relics are exposed to public veneration every seven years. The number of pilgrims in 1881 was 158,968 (Champagnac, "Dict. des pèlerinages", Paris, 1859, I, 78).

Alet, Limoux, France, contains a shrine of the Blessed Virgindating traditionally from the twelfth century. The principal feast is celebrated on 8 September, when there is still a great concourse of pilgrims from the neighbourhood of Toulouse. It is the centre of a confraternity of the Immaculate Heart of Mary founded for the conversion of sinners, the members of which exceed several thousands (Champagnac, II, 89).

Ambronay, Burgundy, France, an ancient shrine of the Blessed Virgin, dating back to the seventh century. It is still a centre of pilgrimage.

Amorgos, or Morgo , in the Greek Archipelago, has a quaint picture of the Blessed Virginpainted on wood, which is reputed to have been profaned and broken at Cyprus and then miraculously rejoined in its present shrine. Near by is enacted the pretended miracle of the Urne, so celebrated in the Archipelago (Champagnac, I, 129).

Ancona, Italy.–The Cathedral of St. Cyriacus contains a shrine of the Blessed Virgin which became famous only in 1796. On 25 June of that year, the eyes of the Madonna were seen filled with tears, which was later interpreted to have prefigured the calamities that fell on Pius VI and the Church in Italy owing to Napoleon. The picture was solemnly crowned by Pius VII on 13 May, 1814, under the title "Regina Sanctorum Omnium" (Champagnac, I, 133; Anon., "Pèlerinages aux sanct. de la mère de Dieu", Paris, 1840).

Anges, Seine-et-Oise, France.–The present chapel only dates from 1808; but the pilgrimage is really ancient. In connexion with the shrine is a spring of miraculous water (Champagnac, I, 146).

Arcachon, Gironde, France.–It is curious among the shrines of the Blessed Virgin as containing an alabaster statue of the thirteenth century. Pius IX granted to this statue the honour of coronation in 1870, since which time pilgrimages to it have greatly increased in number and in frequency.

Ardilliers, Saumur, France.–A chapel of the Blessed Virgin founded on the site of an ancient monastery. It has been visited by famous French pilgrims such as Anne of Austria, Louis XIII, Henrietta Maria, etc. The sacristy was built by Cesare, Duke of Vendôme, and in 1634 Cardinal Richelieu added a chapel (Champagnac, I, 169).

Argenteuil, Seine-et-Oise, France, is one of the places which boasts of possessing the Holy Coat of Jesus Christ . Its abbey was also well known as having had as abbess the famous Héloïse. Whatever may be thought of the authenticity of the relic, the antiquity of pilgrimages drawn to its veneration dates from its presentation to St. Louis in 1247. From the pilgrimage of Queen Blanche in 1255 till our own day there has been an almost uninterrupted flow of visitors. The present châsse was the gift of the Duchess of Guise in 1680 (Champagnac, I, 171-223).

Aubervilles, Seine, France, an ancient place of pilgrimage from Paris. It is mentioned in the Calendars of that diocese under the title of Notre-Dame-des- Vertus, and its feast was celebrated annually on the second Tuesday in May. An early list of miraculous cures performed under the invocation of this Madonna was printed at Paris in 1617 (Champagnac, I, 246).

Auriesville, Montgomery Co., New York, U. S. A., is the centre of one of the great pilgrimages of the New World. It is the scene of martyrdom of three Jesuit missionaries by Mohawk Indians; but the chapel erected on the spot has been dedicated to Our Lady of Martyrs, presumably because the cause of the beatification of the three fathers is as yet uncompleted. 15 August is the chief day of pilgrimage; but the practice of visiting Auriesville increases yearly in frequency, and lasts intermittently throughout the whole summer (Wynne, "A Shrine in the Mohawk Valley", New York, 1905; Gerard in "The Month", March, 1874, 306).

Bailleul-le-Soc, Oise, France, possesses a chapel dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, dating from the reign of Louis XIV. It has received no episcopal authorization, and in fact was condemned by the Bishop of Beauvais, Mgr de Saint-Aignan, 24 February, 1716. This was in consequence of the pilgrimage which sprang up, of visiting a well of medicinal waters. Owing to its health-giving properties, it was called Saine-Fontaine, but, by the superstition of the people, who at once invented a legend to account for it, this was quickly changed to Sainte-Fontaine . It is still a place of veneration; and pilgrims go to drink the waters of the so-called holy well (Champagnac, I, 264).

Bétharram, Basses-Pyrénées, France, one of the oldest shrines in all France, the very name of which dates from the Saracenic occupation of the country. A legend puts back the foundation into the fourth century, but this is certainly several hundred years too early. In much more recent times a calvary, with various stations, has been erected and has brought back the flow of pilgrims. The Basque population round about knows it as one of its most sacred centres (Champagnac, I, 302-11).

Boher, near Leith Abbey, King's Co., Ireland, contains the relics of St. Manchan, probably the abbot who died in 664. The present shrine is of twelfth- century work and is very well preserved considering its great age and the various calamities through which it has passed. Pilgrimages to it are organized from time to time, but on no very considerable scale (Wall, "Shrines of British Saints", 83-7).

Bonaria, Sardinia, is celebrated for its statue of Our Lady of Mercy. It is of Italian workmanship, probably about 1370, and came miraculously to Bomaria, floating on the waters. Every Saturday local pilgrimages were organized; but today it is rather as an object of devotion to the fisherfolk that the shrine is popular (Champagnac, I, 1130-1).

Boulogne, France, has the remains of a famous statue that has been a centre of pilgrimage for many centuries. The early history of the shrine is lost in the legends of the seventh century. But whatever was the origin of its foundation there has always been a close connexion between this particular shrine and the seafaring population on both sides of the Channel. In medieval France the pilgrimage to it was looked upon as so recognized a form of devotion that not a few judicial sentences are recorded as having been commuted into visits to Notre-Dame-de-Boulogne-sur-mer. Besides several French monarchs, Henry III visited the shrine in 1255, the Black Prince and John of Gaunt in 1360, and later Charles the Bold of Burgundy. So, too, in 1814 Louis XVIII gave thanks for his restoration before this same statue. The devotion of Our Lady of Boulogne has been in France and England increased by the official recognition of the Archconfraternity of Our Lady of Compassion, established at this shrine, the object of which is to pray for the return of the English people to the Faith (Champagnac, I, 342-62; Hales in "Academy", 22 April, 1882, 287).

Bruges, Belgium, has its famous relic of the Holy Blood which is the centre of much pilgrimage. This was brought from Palestine by Thierry of Alsace on his return from the Second Crusade. From 7 April, 1150, this relic has been venerated with much devotion. The annual pilgrimage, attended by the Flemish nobility in their quaint robes and thousands of pilgrims from other parts of Christendom, takes place on the Monday following the first Sunday in May, when the relic is carried in procession. But every Friday the relic is less solemnly exposed for the veneration of the faithful (Smith, "Bruges", London, 1901, passim; cf. "Tablet", LXXXIII, 817).

Buglose, Landes, France, was for long popular as a place of pilgrimage to a statue of the Blessed Virgin ; but it is perhaps as much visited now as the birthplace of St. Vincent de Paul . The house where he was born and where he spent his boyhood is still shown (Champagnac, I, 374-90).

Canterbury, Kent, England, was in medieval times the most famous of English shrines. First as the birthplace of Saxon Christianity and as holding the tomb of St. Augustine; secondly as the scene of the martyrdom of St. Thomas Becket, it fitly represented the ecclesiastical centre of England. But even from beyond the island, men and women trooped to the shrine of the "blissful martyr ", especially at the great pardons or jubilees of the feast every fifty years from 1220 to 1520; his death caused his own city to become, what Winchester had been till then, the spiritual centre of England (Belloc, "The Old Road", London, 1904, 43). The spell of his name in his defence of the spirituality lay so strongly on the country that Henry VIII had to make a personal attack on the dead saint before he could hope to arrogate himself full ecclesiastical authority. The poetry of Chaucer, the wealth of England, the crown jewels of France, and marble from ruins of ancient Carthage (a papal gift) had glorified the shrine of St. Thomas beyond compare; and the pilgrim signs (see below) which are continually being discovered all over England and even across the Channel ("Guide to Mediæval Room, British Museum", London, 1907, 69-71) emphasize the popularity of this pilgrimage. The precise time of the year for visiting Canterbury seems difficult to determine (Belloc, ibid., 54), for Chaucer says spring, the Continental traditions imply winter, and the chief gatherings of which we have any record point to the summer. It was probably determined by the feasts of the saint and the seasons of the year. Thle place of the martyrdom has once more become a centre of devotion mainly through the action of the Guild of Ransom (Wall, "Shrines", 152-171; Belloc, op. cit.; Danks, "Canterbury", London, 1910).

Carmel, Palestine, has been for centuries a sacred mountain, both for the Hebrew people and for Christians. The Mohammedans also regard it with devotion, and from the eighteenth century onwards have joined with Christians and Jews in celebrating the feast of Elias in the mountain that bears his name.

Ceylon may be mentioned as possessing a curious place of pilgrimage, Adam Peak. On the summit of this mountain is a certain impression which the Mohammedans assert to be the footprint of Adam, the Brahmins that of Rama, the Buddhists that of Buddha, the Chinese that of Fu, and the Christians of India that of St. Thomas the Apostle (Champagnac, I, 446).

Chartres is in many respects the most wonderful sanctuary in Europe dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, as it boasts of an uninterrupted tradition from the times of the druids who dedicated there a statue of virgini parituræ . This wonder statue is said to have been still existing in 1793, but to have been destroyed during the Revolution. Moreover, to enhance the sacredness of the place a relic was preserved, presented by Charlemagne, viz., the chemise or veil of the Blessed Virgin. Whatever may be the history or authenticity of the relic itself, it certainly is of great antiquity and resembles the veils now worn by women in the East. A third scource of devotion is the present stone image of the Blessed Virgin inaugurated with great pomp in 1857. The pilgrimages to this shrine at Chartres have naturally been frequent and of long continuance. Amongst others who have taken part in these visits of devotion were popes, kings of France and England, saints like Bernard of Clairvaux, Anselm of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, Vincent de Paul, and Francis de Sales, and the hapless Mary Queen of Scots. There is, moreover, an annual procession to the shrine on 15 March (Champagnac, I, 452-60; Northcote, "Sanct. of the Madonna", London, 1868, IV, 169-77; Chabarmes, "Hist. de N.-D. de Chartres ", Chartres, 1873).

Chichester, Sussex, England, had in its cathedral the tomb of St. Richard, its renowned bishop. The throng of pilgrims to this shrine, made famous by the devotion of Edward I, was so great that the body was dismembered so as to make three separate stations. Even then, in 1478, Bishop Storey had to draw up stringent rules so that the crowd should approach in a more seemly manner. Each parish was to enter at the west door in the prescribed order, of which notice had to be given by the parish priests in their churches on the Sunday preceding the feast. Besides 3 April, another pilgrimage was made on Whit-Saturday (Wall, 126-31).

Cologne, Rhenish Germany, as a city of pilgrimage centres round the shrine of the Three Kings. The relics are reputed to have been brought by St. Helena to Constantinople, to have been transferred thence to Milan, and evidently in the twelfth century to have been carried in triumph by Frederick Barbarossa to Cologne. The present châsse is considered the most remarkable example extant of the medieval goldsmith's art. Though of old reckoned as one of the four greater pilgrimages, it seems to have lost the power of attracting huge crowds out of devotion; though many, no doubt, are drawn to it by its splendour (Champagnac, I, 482).

Compostella, Spain, has long been famous as containing the shrine of St. James the Greater (q.v., where the authenticity of the relics etc. is discussed at some length). In some senses this was the most renowned medieval pilgrimage; and the custom of those who bore back with them from Galicia scallop shells as proofs of their journey gradually extended to every form of pilgrimage. The old feast-day of St. James (5 August) is still celebrated by the boys of London with their grottos of oyster shells. The earliest records of visits paid to this shrine date from the eighth century; and even in recent years the custom has been enthusiastically observed (cf. Rymer, "Fœdera", London, 1710, XI, 371, 376, etc.).

Concepción, Chile, has a pilgrimage to a shrine of the Blessed Virgin that is perhaps unique, a rock-drawn figure of the Mother of God . It was discovered by a child in the eighteenth century and was for long popular among the Chilians.

Cordova, Spain, possesses a curious Madonna which was originally venerated at Villa Viciosa in Portugal. Because of the neglect into which it had fallen, a pious shepherd carried it off to Cordova, whence the Portuguese endeavoured several times to recover it, being frustrated each time by a miraculous intervention (Champagnac, I, 525).

Cracow, Poland, is said to possess a miraculous statue of the Blessed Virgin brought to it by St. Hyacinth, to which in times past pilgrimages were often made (Acta SS., Aug., III, 317-41).

Croyland, Lincolnshire, England, was the centre of much pilgrimage at the shrine of St. Guthlac, due principally to the devotion of King Wiglaf of Mercia (Wall, 116-8).

Czenstochowa, Poland, is the most famous of Polish shrines dedicated to the Mother of God, where a picture painted on cypress wood and attributed to St. Luke is publicly venerated. This is reputed to be the richest sanctuary in the world. A copy of the picture has been set up in a chapel of St. Roch's church by the Poles in Paris (Champagnac, I, 540).

Downpatrick, County Down, Ireland, is the most sacred city of Ireland in that the bodies of Ireland's highest saints were there interred.

"In the town of Down, buried in one grave
Bridget, Patrick, and the pious Columba."

Nothing need be said here about the relics of these saints ; it is sufficient merely to hint at the pilgrimages that made this a centre of devotion (Wall, 31-2).

Drumlane, Ireland, was at one time celebrated as containing the relics of S. Moedoc in the famous Breac Moedoc. This shrine was in the custody of the local priest till 1846, when it was borrowed and sold to a Dublin jeweller, from whom in turn it was bought by Dr. Petrie. It is now in the museum of the Royal Irish Academy (Wall, 80-3).

Dumfermline, Fife, Scotland, was the resort of countless pilgrims, for in the abbey was the shrine of St. Margaret. She was long regarded as the most popular of Scottish saints and her tomb was the most revered in all that kingdom. Out of devotion to her, Dumfermline succeeded Iona as being the burial place of the kings (Wall, 48-50).

Durham, England, possessed many relics which drew to it the devotion of many visitors. But its two chief shrines were those of St. Cuthbert and St. Bede. The former was enclosed in a gorgeous reliquary, which was put in its finished state by John, Lord Nevill of Raby, in 1372. Some idea may be had of the number of pilgrims from the amount put by the poorer ones into the money-box that stood close by. The year 1385-6 yielded £63 17s. 8d. which would be equivalent in our money to £1277 13s. 4d. A dispute rages round the present relics of St. Cuthbert , and there is also some uncertainty about the body of St. Bede (Wall, 176-107, 110-6).

Edmundsbury, Suffolk, England, sheltered in its abbey church the shrine of St. Edmund, king and martyr. Many royal pilgrims from King Canute to Henry VI knelt and made offerings at the tomb of the saint ; and the common people crowded there in great numbers because of the extraordinary miracles worked by the holy martyr (Wall, 216-23; Mackinlay, "St. Edmund King and Martyr ", London, 1893; Snead-Cox, "Life of Cardinal Vaughan", London, 1910, II, 287-94).

Einsiedeln, Schwyz, Switzerland, has been a place of pilgrimage since Leo VIII in 954. The reason of this devotion is a miraculous statue of the Blessed Virgin brought by St. Meinrad from Zurich. The saint was murdered in 861 by robbers who coveted the rich offerings which already at that early date were left by the pilgrims. The prin

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Pápago Indians

An important tribe of Shoshonean linguistic stock, speaking a dialect of the Pima language and ...

Pázmány, Peter

A famous Hungarian ecclesiastic of the seventeenth century; died 19 March, 1637. He was born of ...

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Pérez de Hita, Ginés

Spanish writer, born at Murcia. Little is known of his life except that he lived during the ...

Périgueux

(PETROCORICENSIS) Comprises the Department of Dordogne and is suffragan to the Archbishopric of ...

Pétau, Denis

(DIONYSIUS PETAVIUS) One of the most distinguished theologians of the seventeenth century, ...

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Pacandus

Titular see, recorded under "Pacanden." Among the titular sees in the official list of the Curia ...

Pacca, Bartolommeo

Cardinal, scholar, and statesman, b. at Benevento, 27 Dec., 1756; d. at Rome, 19 Feb., 1844; ...

Pachomius, Saint

Died about 346. The main facts of his life will be found in MONASTICISM (Section II: Eastern ...

Pachtler, George Michael

Controversial and educational writer, b. at Mergentheim, Wurtemberg, 14 Sept., 1825; d. at ...

Pacificus

A disciple of St. Francis of Assisi, born probably near Ascoli, Italy, in the second half of ...

Pacificus of Ceredano, Blessed

(Also known as Pacificus of Novara, or Novariensis ). Born 1420 at Cerano, in the Diocese ...

Pacificus of San Severino, Saint

Born at San Severino, in the parents died soon after his confirmation when three years old; he ...

Pacioli, Lucas

(Paciuolo.) Mathematician, born at Borgo San Sepolco, Tuscany, toward the middle of the ...

Paderborn

(Paderbornensis) Suffragan diocese of Cologne, includes: the District of Minden, ...

Padilla, Juan de

Friar Minor, protomartyr of the United States of America , member of the Andalusian province, ...

Padua

(Patavina) Diocese in northern Italy. The city is situated on a fertile plain and is ...

Padua, University of

The University of Padua dates, according to some anonymous chronicles (Muratori, "Rer. Ital. ...

Paganism

Paganism, in the broadest sense includes all religions other than the true one revealed by God, ...

Pagano, Mario

Jurisconsult and man of letters, born in Brienza, Province of Salerno, 8 Dec., 1748; died at ...

Page, Venerable Anthony

English martyr, born at Harrow-on-the-Hill, Middlesex, 1571; died at York, 20 or 30 April, 1593. ...

Pagi, Antoine

French ecclesiastical historian. Born 31 March, 1624, at Rognes in the Department of ...

Pagi, François

French ecclesiastical historian, nephew of Antoine Pagi. Born 7 September, 1654, at Lambesc in ...

Pagnino, Santes

(Or XANTES) A Dominican, born 1470 at Lucca, Tuscany ; died 24 Aug., 1541, at Lyons, one of ...

Painting, Religious

Painting has always been associated with the life of the Church. From the time of the ...

Pakawá Indians

(Also written Pacoá) One of a group of cognate tribes, hence designated the ...

Palæography

( palaia , "ancient", graphe , "writing") The art of deciphering ancient writing in ...

Palæontology

( logos ton palaion onton ) Palæ ontology, or the science of fossils, deals with ...

Palafox y Mendoza, Juan de

Bishop of La Puebla de Los Angeles, b. at Fitero in Navarre, 24 June, 1600; d. at Osma in ...

Palasor, Venerable Thomas

( Or Palliser). English martyr, born at Ellerton-upon-Swale, parish of Catterick, North ...

Palatinate, Rhenish

( German Rheinpfalz ). A former German electorate. It derives its name from the title of a ...

Palatini

( Latin palatium , palace) The designation, primarily, of certain high officials in the ...

Palawan

Prefecture Apostolic in the Philippine Islands ; comprises Palawan, Cuyo, Culion, Twahig, and ...

Palencia

(PALENTINA) This Diocese comprises the civil provinces of Palencia, Santander, Valladolid, ...

Paleopolis

(Palæopolis) A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. The history of this ...

Paleotti, Gabriele

Cardinal and Archbishop of Bologna. Born at Bologna, 4 October, 1522; died at Rome, 22 July, ...

Palermo

Archdiocese of Palermo (Panormitana), in Sicily. The city is built on an inlet of the ...

Palermo, University of

The Convent of St. Dominic of Palermo may be considered the nucleus of the future University of ...

Palestrina

(PBÆNESTINENSIS) The town of Palestrina, in the province of Rome, central Italy, is the ...

Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da

The greatest composer of liturgical music of all time, born at Palestrina (ancient ...

Paley, Frederick Apthorp

Classical scholar, born at Easingwold near York, 14 Jan., 1815; died at Bournemouth, 9 December, ...

Pall

A heavy, black cloth, spread over the coffin in the church at a funeral, or over the catafalque ...

Pall, Funeral

A black cloth usually spread over the coffin while the obsequies are performed for a deceased ...

Palladio, Andrea

Italian architect, born at Vicenza 1508; died at Venice, 19 August, 1580. There is a tradition ...

Palladius

( Palladios ) Born in Galatia, 368; died probably before 431. The identity of the author of ...

Palladius, Saint

First bishop sent by Pope Celestine to Ireland (431). The chronicle of the contemporary St. ...

Pallavicino, Pietro Sforza

A cardinal, born 28 Nov., 1607; died 5 June, 1667. Descended from the line of Parma of the ...

Pallium

Form and Use of the Modern Pallium The modern pallium is a circular band about two inches wide, ...

Pallotti, Vincent Mary

The founder of the Pious Society of Missions , born at Rome, 21 April, 1798 [other sources say ...

Palm in Christian Symbolism

In pre-Christian times the palm was regarded as a symbol of victory (Aulus Gellius, "Noct. Att.", ...

Palm Sunday

The sixth and last Sunday of Lent and beginning of Holy Week, a Sunday of the highest rank, ...

Palma Vecchio

(JACOPO NIGRETI) Born at Serinalta near Bergamo, about 1480; d. at Venice, 30 July 1528. ...

Palmer, William

Born at Mixbury, Oxfordshire, 12 July, 1811; died at Rome, 4 April, 1879; the elder brother of ...

Palmieri, Domenico

A theologian, born at Piacenza, Italy, 4 July, 1829; died in Rome, 29 May, 1909. He studied in ...

Palmieri, Luigi

Physicist and meteorologist, b. at Faicchio, Benevento, Italy, 22 April, 1807; d. in Naples, 9 ...

Palmyra

Titular metropolitan see in Phoenicia Secunda. Solomon ( 1 Kings 9:18 ) built Palmira (A. V. ...

Palou, Francisco

A Friar Minor, born at Palma, Island of Majorca, about 1722; died in 1789 or 1790. He entered the ...

Paltus

A titular see and suffragan of Seleucia Pieria in Syria Prima. The town was founded by a ...

Paludanus, Peter

(PETRUS DE PALUDE) A theologian and archbishop, born in the County of Bresse, Savoy, about ...

Pamelius

(Jacques de Joigny De Pamele). Belgian theologian, born at Bruges, Flanders, 13 May, 1536; ...

Pamiers

(APAMÆA) A Diocese comprising the Department of Ariège, and suffragan of ...

Pammachius, Saint

Roman senator, d. about 409. In youth he frequented the schools of rehetoric with St. Jerome. In ...

Pamphilus of Cæsarea, Saint

Martyred 309. Eusebius's life of Pamphilus is lost, but from his "Martyrs of Palestine" we ...

Pamplona

(PAMPILONENSIS) This Diocese comprises almost all of Navarre and part of Guipuzcoa. This ...

Panama

Located in Central America, occupies the Isthmus of Panama, or Darien, which extends east and west ...

Pancratius and Domitilla, Nereus and Achilleus, Saints

The commemoration of these four Roman saints is made by the Church on 12 May, in common, and ...

Pandects

(PANDECTÆ, or DIGESTA) This part of Justinian's compilation was his most important ...

Pandulph

A papal legate and Bishop of Norwich, died at Rome, 16 Sept., 1226. He is commonly but ...

Panemotichus

A titular see of Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perge. Panemotichus coined money during the ...

Pange Lingua Gloriosi

The opening words of two hymns celebrating respectively the Passion and the Blessed Sacrament. ...

Panigarola, Francesco

A preacher and controversialist, Bishop of Asti, born at Milan, 6 Feb., 1548; died at Asti, 31 ...

Pannartz, Arnold

See also KONRAD SWEYNHEIM . Both printers; Pannartz died about 1476, Sweinheim in 1477. ...

Pano Indians

A former important mission tribe on the middle Ucayali River, Peru, being the principal of a group ...

Panopolis

A titular see, suffragan of Antinoe in Thebais Prima; the ancient Apu or Khimmin which the ...

Panpsychism

(Greek pan , all; psyche , soul ) Panpsychism is a philosophical theory which holds ...

Pantænus

Head of the Catechetical School of Alexandria about 180 ( Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", V, x), still ...

Pantaleon, Saint

Martyr, died about 305. According to legend he was the son of a rich pagan, Eustorgius of ...

Pantheism

(From Greek pan , all; theos , god). The view according to which God and the world are ...

Panvinio, Onofrio

Historian and archaeologist, born at Verona, 23 February, 1530; died at Palermo, 7 April, 1568. ...

Panzani, Gregorio

Bishop of Mileto, died early in 1662. He was a secular priest of Arezzo, having left the ...

Paoli, Venerable Angelo

Born at Argigliano, Tuscany, 1 Sept., 1642; died at Rome, 17 January, 1720. The son of Angelo ...

Papacy, The

This term is employed in an ecclesiastical and in an historical signification. In the former of ...

Papal Arbitration

An institution almost coeval with the papacy itself. The principle of arbitration presupposes ...

Papal Elections

For current procedures regarding the election of the pope, see Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic ...

Papal Mint

The right to coin money being a sovereign prerogative, there can be no papal coins of earlier ...

Papal Rescripts

( Latin re-scribere , "to write back") Rescripts are responses of the pope or a Sacred ...

Papal States

( Italian Lo Stato della Chiese ) Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years ...

Paphnutius

I The most celebrated personage of this name was bishop of a city in the Upper Thebaid in the ...

Paphos

A titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. There were two towns of this name, Old Paphos ...

Papias, Saint

Bishop of Hierapolis (close to Laodicea and Coloss Colossae aelig; in the valley of the ...

Papiensis, Bernardus

An Italian canonist of the thirteenth century; died 18 Sept., 1213. He was born at Pavia, ...

Papini, Nicholas

An historian, born at San Giovanni Valdarno, between Florence and Arezzo, about 1751; died at ...

Parætonium

Parætonium, a titular see of Lybia Secunda or Inferior (i.e. Marmarica), suffragan of ...

Paré, Ambroise

French surgeon, born at Bourg-Hersent, near Laval, department of Maine, 1517; died 20 ...

Parœcopolis

A titular see of Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. It is mentioned by Ptolemy (III, 13, ...

Para du Phanjas, François

Writer, b. at the castle of Phanja Champsaur, Basses-Alpes, 1724; d. at Paris, 1797. After his ...

Parables

The word parable (Hebrew mashal ; Syrian mathla , Greek parabole ) signifies in general ...

Parabolani

paraboloi, parabalanoi The members of a brotherhood who in the Early Church voluntarily ...

Paracelsus, Theophrastus

Celebrated physician and reformer of therapeutics, b. at the Sihlbrücke, near Einsiedeln, ...

Paraclete

Paraclete, Comforter (L. Consolator ; Greek parakletos ), an appellation of the Holy Ghost. ...

Paradise, Terrestrial

( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

Paraguay

One of the inland republics of South America, separated from Spain and constituted as an ...

Parahyba

(PARAHYBENESIS) Located in the State of Parahyba, Brazil, suffragan of Bahia, founded 27 ...

Paralipomenon, Books of

( Paraleipomenon ; Libri Paralipomenon ). Two books of the Bible containing a summary of ...

Parallelism

The balance of verse with verse, an essential and characteristic feature in Hebrew poetry. Either ...

Parallelism, Psycho-Physical

A doctrine which states that the relation between mental processes, on the one hand, and ...

Paralus

A titular see, suffragan of Cabasa in Ægyptus Secunda. One of the seven mouths of the ...

Paraná

(PARANENSIS) Suffragan of Buenos Aires, in Argentina until recently, comprised two civil ...

Parasceve

(Gr. paraskevé ); seems to have supplanted the older term prosábbaton , used ...

Paray-le-Monial

A town of five thousand inhabitants in the Department of Sâone-Loire, Diocese of Autun , ...

Pardies, Ignace-Gaston

French scientist, b. at Pau, 5 Sept., 1636; d. of fever contracted whilst ministering to the ...

Pardons of Brittany

Pardon, from the Latin perdonare , — assimilated in form to donum , a gift, middle ...

Paredes, Blessed Mary Anne de

Born at Quito, Ecuador, 31 Oct. 1618; died at Quito, 26 May, 1645. On both sides of her family ...

Pareja, Francisco

Missionary, probably born at Auñon in the Diocese of Toledo, Spain, date unknown; died ...

Parents

( Latin parere , to beget) I. DUTIES OF PARENTS TOWARDS THEIR CHILDREN In the old pagan ...

Parenzo-Pola

(PARENTINA-POLENSIS) The little town of Parenzo is picturesquely situated on a promontory ...

Parini, Giuseppe

Italian poet, born at Bosisio, 23 May, 1729; died at Milan, 15 Aug., 1799. Parini was early ...

Paris

ARCHDIOCESE OF PARIS (PARIBIENSIS) See also UNIVERSITY OF PARIS . Paris comprises the ...

Paris Commune, Martyrs of the

The secular priests and the religious who were murdered in Paris, in May 1871, on account of ...

Paris, Alexis-Paulin

Philologist, born at Avenay, Marne, France, 25 March, 1800; died 13 Feb., 1881. Having finished ...

Paris, Gaston-Bruno-Paulin

A French philologist, son of Paulin, born at Avenay (Marne), 9 August, 1839; died at Cannes, 6 ...

Paris, Matthew

Benedictine monk and chronicler, b. about 1200; d. 1259. There seems no reason to infer from the ...

Paris, University of

See also ARCHDIOCESE OF PARIS . Origin and Early Organization Three schools were especially ...

Parish

(Latin par&ligcia, parochia , Greek paroikia , a group of neighbouring dwellings). I. ...

Parium

Titular see, suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespontus. The Acts of the martyr St. Onesiphorus ...

Park, Abbey of the

Located half a mile south of Louvain, Belgium, founded in 1129 by Duke Godfrey, surnamed ...

Parkinson, Anthony

An historian, born in England, 1667; died there 30 January, 1728. In 1692 he was appointed ...

Parlais

A titular see of Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. As a Roman colony it was called Julia Augusta ...

Parlatore, Filippo

Italian botanist, b. at Palermo, 8 Aug., 1816; d. at Florence, 9 Sept., 1877, a devout and ...

Parma

Located in central Italy. The city is situated on the river of the same name, an affluent of the ...

Parmentier, Antoine-Augustin

An agriculturist, born at Montdidier, 17 August, 1737; died in Paris, 13 Dec., 1813. Left an orphan ...

Parmigiano, Il

(THE PARMESAN) The current name of FRANCESCO MAZZUOLA, MAZZOLA, MAZZUOLI, or MAZZOLI, Italian ...

Parnassus

A titular see in Cappadocia Secunda, suffragan of Mocessus. Situated between Ancyra and ...

Parochial Mass

The parish is established to provide the parishioners with the helps of religion, especially ...

Parochial Missions, Catholic

This term is used to designate certain special exertions of the Church's pastoral agencies, ...

Parrenin, Dominique

Born at Russey, near Besançon, 1 Sept., 1665; died at Pekin, 29 Sept., 1741. He entered ...

Parsis

(PARSEES). A small community in India, adherents of the Zoroastrian religion and originally ...

Particular Judgment

A. Dogma of Particular Judgment The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that ...

Partnership

Partnership, an unincorporated association of two or more persons, known as partners, having for ...

Paruta, Paolo

Venetian historian and statesman, born at Venice, 14 May, 1540; died there, 6 Dec., 1598. Of a ...

Pascal Baylon, Saint

Born at Torre-Hermosa, in the Kingdom of Aragon, 24 May, 1540, on the Feast of Pentecost, called ...

Pascal, Blaise

Born at Clermont-Ferrand, 19 June 1623; died in Paris, 19 August 1662. He was the son of Etienne ...

Pasch

Jews of all classes and ways of thinking look forward to the Passover holidays with the same ...

Paschal Candle

The blessing of the "paschal candle ", which is a column of wax of exceptional size, usually ...

Paschal I, Pope

(817-824) The date of his birth is unknown; he died in April, May, or June, 824. He was the ...

Paschal II, Pope

(RAINERIUS). Succeeded Urban II, and reigned from 13 Aug., 1099, till he died at Rome, 21 ...

Paschal III (Antipope)

(GUIDO OF CREMA) The second antipope in the time of Alexander III. He was elected in 1164 ...

Paschal Lamb

A lamb which the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as a part of the ...

Paschal Tide

I. LITURGICAL ASPECT The fifty days from Easter Sunday to Pentecost are called by the older ...

Paschasius Radbertus, Saint

Theologian, b. at Soissons, 786; d. in the Monastery of Corbie, c. 860 (the date 865 is ...

Paschasius, Saint

A deacon of the Roman Church about 500; died after 511. Almost all that is known of Paschasius ...

Passaglia, Carlo

Born at Lucca, 9 May, 1812; died at Turin, 12 March, 1887. He entered the Society of Jesus in ...

Passau

(PASSAVIENSIS) Located in Bavaria, suffragan of Munich-Freising, including within its ...

Passerat, Joseph, Venerable

Born 30 April, 1772, at Joinville, France ; died 30 October, 1858. The difficulties he had to ...

Passignano, Domenico

(known as IL CRESTI, or IL PASSIGNANO, Cresti being his family name) A Venetian painter, ...

Passion Music

Precisely when, in the development of the liturgy, the history of the Passion of Our Lord ...

Passion of Christ, Commemoration of the

A feast kept on the Tuesday after Sexagesima. Its object is the devout remembrance and honour ...

Passion of Jesus Christ

See also THE PASSION OF CHRIST IN THE GOSPELS . The sufferings of Our Lord, which culminated ...

Passion of Jesus Christ in the Four Gospels

See also DEVOTION TO THE PASSION OF CHRIST . We have in the Gospels four separate accounts ...

Passion Offices

The recitation of these offices, called also Of the Instruments of the Passion, was first granted ...

Passion Plays

The modern drama does not originate in the ancient, but in the religious plays of the Middle ...

Passion Sunday

The fifth Sunday of Lent, a Sunday of the first class, not permitting the celebration of any ...

Passionei, Domenico

A cardinal, theologian, born at Fossombrone, 2 Dec., 1682; died 5 July, 1761. Educated in the ...

Passionists

The full title of the Passionist institute is: The Congregation of Discalced Clerks of the Most ...

Passions

By passions we are to understand here motions of the sensitive appetite in man which tend ...

Passiontide

The two weeks between Passion Sunday and Easter. The last week is Holy Week, while the first ...

Passos

(Or, more fully, Santos Passos ) The Portuguese name locally used to designate certain ...

Passover

Jews of all classes and ways of thinking look forward to the Passover holidays with the same ...

Pasteur, Louis

Chemist, founder of physio-chemistry, father of bacteriology, inventor of bio-therapeutics; born ...

Pasto, Diocese of

(PASTENSIS, PASTOPOLITANA). A Colombian see, suffragan of Popayan, from which it was separated ...

Pastor

This term denotes a priest who has the cure of souls ( cura animarum ), that is, who is ...

Pastoral Epistles (Timothy and Titus)

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

Pastoral Staff

(Or PASTORAL STAFF). The crosier is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops ...

Pastoral Theology

Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...

Pastoureaux, Crusade of the

One of the most curious of the popular movements inspired by a desire to deliver the Holy Land. ...

Patagonia

Patagonia is the name given to the southernmost extremity of South America. Its boundary on the ...

Patara

Titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra, formerly a large cornmercial town, opposite Rhodes. ...

Paten

The eucharistic vessel known as the paten is a small shallow plate or disc of precious metal upon ...

Patenson, Venerable William

Venerable William Patenson, English martyr , born in Yorkshire or Durham ; died at Tyburn, 22 ...

Pater Noster

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

Pathology, Mental

This subject will be considered under the following headings: I. Localization of Mental ...

Patmore, Coventry

One of the major poets of the nineteenth century, in spite of the small bulk of his verse, born at ...

Patmos

A small volcanic island in the Ægean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor, to the south of Samos ...

Patras

A metropolitan see in Achaia. It was one of the twelve ancient cities of Achaia, built near ...

Patriarch

The word patriarch as applied to Biblical personages comes from the Septuagint version, where ...

Patriarch and Patriarchate

Names of the highest ecclesiastical dignitaries after the pope, and of the territory they rule. ...

Patrician Brothers

(Or BROTHERS OF SAINT PATRICK). This Brotherhood was founded by the Right Rev. Dr. Daniel ...

Patrick's Purgatory, Saint

Lough Derg, Ireland. This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal, in the Diocese of Clogher, dates ...

Patrick, Saint

Apostle of Ireland, born at Kilpatrick, near Dumbarton, in Scotland, in the year 387; died at ...

Patrizi, Francis Xavier

Jesuit exegete, b. at Rome, 19 June, 1797; d. there 23 April, 1881. He was the eldest son and ...

Patrology

Patrology, the study of the writings of the Fathers of the Church, has more commonly been known ...

Patron and Patronage

I By the right of patronage ( ius patronatus ) is understood a determinate sum of rights ...

Patron Saints

A patron is one who has been assigned by a venerable tradition, or chosen by election, as a ...

Patronage of Our Lady, Feast of the

It was first permitted by Decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, 6 May, 1679, for all the ...

Patti, Diocese of

(PACTENSIS) Patti, in the Province of Messina (Sicily), on the western shore of the gulf of ...

Paul and John, Saints

Martyred at Rome on 26 June. The year of their martyrdom is uncertain according to their ...

Paul I, Pope

(757-67) Date of birth unknown; died at Rome, 28 June, 767. He was a brother of Stephen II. ...

Paul II, Pope

(PIETRO BARBO) Born at Venice, 1417; elected 30 August, 1464; died 26 July, 1471; son of ...

Paul III, Pope

(A LESSANDRO F ARNESE ). Born at Rome or Canino, 29 Feb., 1468; elected, 12 Oct., 1534; ...

Paul IV, Pope

(G IOVANNI P IETRO C ARAFFA ). Born near Benevento, 28 June, 1476; elected 23 May, ...

Paul of Burgos

(PAUL DE SANTA MARIA; Jewish name, SOLOMON HA-LEVI) A Spanish archbishop, lord chancellor and ...

Paul of Middelburg

A scientist and bishop, born in 1446 at Middelburg, the ancient capital of the province of ...

Paul of Samosata

Bishop of Antioch. Several synods, probably three, were held against him about 264-66. St. ...

Paul of the Cross, Saint

Paul Francis Daneii, born at Ovada, Genoa, Italy, 3 January, 1694; died in Rome, 18 October, 1775. ...

Paul the Deacon

(Paulus Diaconus; also called Casinensis, Levita, and Warnefridi). Historian, born at ...

Paul the Hermit, Saint

There are three important versions of the Life of St. Paul: (1) the Latin version ( H ) of St. ...

Paul the Simple, Saint

The story of Paul, as Palladius heard it from men who had known St. Anthony, was as follows: ...

Paul V, Pope

(CAMILLO BORGHESE). Born at Rome, 17 Sept., 1550; elected 16 May, 1605; died 28 Jan., 1621. ...

Paul, Saint

I. PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS A. Apocryphal Acts of St. Paul Professor Schmidt has published a ...

Paul-without-the-Walls, Saint

( San Paolo fuori le mura ). An abbey nullius. As early as 200 the burial place of the ...

Paula, Saint

Born in Rome, 347; died at Bethlehem, 404. She belonged to one of the first families of Rome. ...

Pauli, Johannes

Born about 1455; died after 1530 in the monastery at Thann in Alsace. What little is known of ...

Paulicians

A dualistic heretical sect, derived originally from Manichaeism. The origin of the name ...

Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo

(PHILIP WESDIN). Missionary and Orientalist, b. at Hoff in Lower Austria, 25 Apr., 1748; d. ...

Paulinus II, Saint

Born at Premariacco, near Cividale, Italy, about 730-40; died 802. Born probably of a Roman ...

Paulinus of Pella

Christian poet of the fifth century; b. at Pella in Macedonia, but of a Bordelaise family. He ...

Paulinus, Saint

Archbishop of York, died at Rochester, 10 October, 644. He was a Roman monk in St. Andrew's ...

Paulinus, Saint

(Pontius Meropius Anicius Paulinus). Born at Bordeaux about 354; died 22 June, 431. He ...

Paulist Fathers

Otherwise known as the "Paulist Fathers" A community of priests for giving missions and ...

Paulists

From the time that the abode and virtues of St. Paul the first hermit were revealed to St. ...

Paulus Diaconus

(Paulus Diaconus; also called Casinensis, Levita, and Warnefridi). Historian, born at ...

Paulus Venetus

Theologian of the Hermits of the Order of Saint Augustine, born according to the chroniclers of ...

Pavia

(PAPIA) Located in Lombardy, Northern Italy. It is situated in a fertile plain; the city is ...

Pavia, University of

Pavia was, even in Roman times, a literary centre (Ennodius); as the capital of the Lombard ...

Pavillon, Nicolas

Bishop of Alet, b. at Paris 1597; d. at Alet, 1677. He joined the community of St-Lazare, ...

Pax

(Osculatorium, Tabula Pacis, Lapis Pacis). A tablet to be kissed. The primitive usage in the ...

Pax in the Liturgy

Pax vobis (or vobiscum ), like the other liturgical salutations (e.g. Dominus vobiscum ), ...

Payeras, Mariano

Born 10 Oct., 1769, at Inca, Island of Majorca; died 28 April, 1823. He received the habit of St. ...

Payne, Blessed John

Born in the Diocese of Peterborough ; died at Chelmsford, 2 April, 1582. He went to Douai in ...

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Pe 170

Peña, Francisco

(PEGNA) A canonist, born at Villaroya de los Pinares, near Saragossa, about 1540; died at ...

Peñalver y Cardenas, Luis Ignatius

Bishop of New Orleans, Archbishop of Guatemala, son of a wealthy and noble family ; born ...

Peace Congresses

I. EARLY HISTORY The genesis of the idea of a meeting of representatives of different nations ...

Peace of the Church

This is the designation usually applied to the condition of the Church after the publication at ...

Peasants, War of the (1524-25)

A revolt of the peasants of southern and central Germany, the causes of which are disputed as a ...

Peba Indians

(Or Peva ) The principal of a small group of cognate tribes, comprising the Peba proper, ...

Pecham, John

(PECCHAM) Archbishop of Canterbury, born about 1240; died 6 December, 1292. His birthplace ...

Pecock, Reginald

(PEACOCK) Bishop of Chichester, born in North Wales about 1395; died at Thorney Abbey about ...

Pectoral

("Pectoral of judgment"). The original meaning of the Hebrew term has been lost, and little ...

Pectorale

( Crux Pectoralis ). The name of the cross used by the pope, cardinals, bishops, abbots, ...

Pectorius of Autun

The name with which the important document frequently known as the Inscription of Autun ...

Pednelissus

(Petnelissus). A titular see in Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perge. In ancient times ...

Pedro de Cordova

Born at Cordova, Andalusia, Spain, about 1460; died on the Island of Santo Domingo, 1525. He ...

Pelagia

The name of several saints. The old Syrian martyrology gives the feast of a St. Pelagia of ...

Pelagius and Pelagianism

Pelagianism received its name from Pelagius and designates a heresy of the fifth century, which ...

Pelagius I, Pope

Date of birth unknown; died 3 March, 561, was a Roman of noble family ; his father, John, seems ...

Pelagius II, Pope

The date of whose birth is unknown, seemingly a native of Rome, but of Gothic descent, as his ...

Pelargus, Ambrose

Theologian, born at Nidda, Hesse, about 1488; died at Trier, 1557. Stork (Greek Pelargon , ...

Pelisson-Fontanier, Paul

French writer, born at Béziers in 1624 of Protestant parents ; died at Versailles, 7 ...

Pella

A titular see and suffragan of Scythopolis in Palaestina Secunda. According to Stephanus ...

Pelletier, Pierre-Joseph

Born in Paris, 22 March, 1788; died there, 19 July, 1842. His father, Bertrand Pelletier, a ...

Pellico, Silvio

Italian author and patriot, born at Saluzzio, Italy, 24 June, 1788; died at Turin 31 Jan., ...

Pellissier, Guillaume

(PELLICIER) Born at Melgueil in Languedoc, about 1490; died at the castle of Montferraud, ...

Pelotas

(PELOTASENSIS) Located in Brazil, suffragan to Porto Alegre. By a decree of Pius X, dated ...

Pelouze, Théophile-Jules

Scientist, b. at Valognes, La Manche, 26 Feb., 1807; d. in Paris, 31 May or 1 June, 1867. He began ...

Peltrie, Madeleine de la

née CHAUVIGNY A French noblewoman, and foundress, born at Caen, 1603; died at Quebec, ...

Pelusium

A titular metropolitan see of Augustamnica Prima in Egypt, mentioned in Ezech., xxx, 15 sq., ...

Pembroke

(PEMBROKIENSIS) A suffragan of Ottawa, in Canada. The town of Pembroke has a beautiful ...

Penal Laws

This article treats of the penal legislation affecting Catholics in English-speaking countries ...

Penance (as a Virtue)

Penance ( poenitentia ) designates (1) a virtue ; (2) a sacrament of the New Law; (3) a ...

Penance, Sacrament of

Penance is a sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins ...

Pendleton, Henry

Controversialist, born at Manchester ; died in London, September, 1557; educated at Brasenose ...

Penelakut Indians

A small tribe of Salishan stock, speaking a dialect of the Cowichan language and occupying a ...

Penitentes, Los Hermanos

(The Penitent Brothers), a society of flagellants existing among the Spanish of New Mexico and ...

Penitential Canons

Rules laid down by councils or bishops concerning the penances to be done for various sins. ...

Penitential Orders

A general name for religious congregations whose members are bound to perform extraordinary works ...

Penitents, Confraternities of

Congregations, with statutes prescribing various penitential works, such as fasting, the use of ...

Penne and Atri, Diocese of

(Pennensis et Atriensis). Penne is a city in the Province of Teramo, in the Abruzzi, central ...

Pennsylvania

One of the thirteen original United States of America , lies between 39° 43' and 42° 15' ...

Penobscot Indians

The principal tribe of the famous Abnaki confederacy of Maine, and the only one still keeping its ...

Pension, Ecclesiastical

The right to a certain sum of money to be paid yearly out of the revenues of a church or ...

Pentacomia

A titular see of Palestine, suffragan of Areopolis or Rabbah. It was never a residential see; ...

Pentapolis

The word, occurring in Wisdom, x, 6, designates the region where stood the five cities ( pente, ...

Pentateuch

Pentateuch , in Greek pentateuchos , is the name of the first five books of the Old ...

Pentecost

A feast of the universal Church which commemorates the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the ...

Pentecost (Jewish Feast)

The second in importance of the great Jewish feasts. The term, adopted from the ...

Peoria

(PEORIENSIS). Diocese comprising that part of Central Illinois south of the Counties of ...

Peoria Indians

A principal tribe of the confederated Illinois Indians (q.v.) having their chief residence, in the ...

Pepin the Short

Mayor of the Palace of the whole Frankish kingdom (both Austrasia and Neustria), and later King ...

Peppergrass, Paul

Novelist, lecturer, and priest, well known under the assumed name of "Paul Peppergrass", born in ...

Perboyre, Blessed Jean-Gabriel

Missionary and martyr, born at Puech, Diocese of Cahors, France, 6 January, 1802; martyred at ...

Percy, Blessed Thomas

Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...

Percy, John

( alias JOHN FISHER) Born at Holmeside, Durham, 27 Sep., 1569; died at London, 3 Dec., ...

Peregrinus

The canons of Priscillian, prefixed to the Epistles of St. Paul in many (chiefly Spanish) ...

Pereira, Benedict

(PEREYRA, PERERA, PERERIUS) Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, born about 1535, at Ruzafa, ...

Perez, Juan

Died before 1513. At one time he held the office of contador or accountant to the Queen of ...

Perfection, Christian and Religious

A thing is perfect in which nothing is wanting of its nature, purpose, or end. It may be perfect ...

Pergamus

A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus. This city was situated on the banks of the Selinus. It was ...

Perge

Titular metropolitan see in Pamphylia Secunda. Perge, one of the chief cities of Pamphylia, was ...

Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista

Born at Naples, 3 Jan., 1710; d. 16 March, 1736, at Pozzuoli, near Naples. This young man of ...

Pericui Indians

A rude and savage tribe, of unknown linguistic affinity, formerly occupying the extreme southern ...

Periodi

(P ETRI ) The name under which the Pseudo-Clementine writings are quoted by Epiphanius, ...

Periodical Literature, Catholic

The invention of printing, besides exerting a great influence on literature in general and on ...

Perjury

(Latin per , through and jurare , to swear) Perjury is the crime of taking a false oath. ...

Permaneder, Franz Michael

Canonist, b. at Traunstein, Bavaria, 12 Aug., 1794; d. at Ratisbon, 10 Oct., 1862. He studied ...

Pernter, Joseph Maria

Scientist, b. at Neumark, Tyrol, 15 March, 1848; d. at Arco, 20 Dec., 1908. He entered the ...

Perpetua and Felicitas, Saints

Martyrs, suffered at Carthage, 7 March 203, together with three companions, Revocatus, Saturus, ...

Perpetual Adoration

A term broadly used to designate the practically uninterrupted adoration of the Blessed ...

Perpetual Adoration, Religious of

(Belgium) A congregation with simple vows, founded at Brussels, 1857, by Anna de Meeus, ...

Perpetual Adoration, Religious of the

A contemplative religious congregation, founded in 1526 by Sister Elizabeth Zwirer (d. 1546), at ...

Perpetual Adoration, Sisters of the

(Quimper, France ). An institute of nuns devoted to perpetual adoration of the Blessed ...

Perpetual Adorers of the Blessed Sacrament

(Sacramentines.) Anton Le Quien, b. in Paris, 23 Feb., 1601, the founder of the first order ...

Perpetual Help, Our Lady of

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

Perpetual Help, Our Lady of, Sisters of

A congregation founded in the parish of St. Damien, Bellechasse, P.Q., Canada, 28 August, 1892, ...

Perpetual Succour, Our Lady of

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

Perpetuus, Saint

Eighth Bishop of Tours, d. 1 January, or 8 December, 490, or 8 April, 491. He was a member of ...

Perpignan, Diocese of

(Perpinianum.) Comprises the Department of Pyrénées Orientales; created by the ...

Perpignan, University of

Peter IV of Aragon (1327-87), having conquered (1344) the town of Perpignan and reunited to his ...

Perraud, Adolphe

Cardinal and academician; b. at Lyons, France, 7 Feb., 1828; d. 18 Feb., 1906. He had a ...

Perrault, Charles

Writer, b. in Paris, 12 Jan., 1628; d. 16 May, 1703. His first literary attempts were a parody of ...

Perrault, Claude

Born at Paris, 1613; died there, 1688. He built the main eastern façade of the Louvre, ...

Perreyve, Henri

Born at Paris, 11 April, 1831; died there 18 June, 1865. His father was professor at the ...

Perrone, Giovanni

Jesuit theologian, b. at Chieri, Italy, 11 March, 1794; d. at Rome, 28 Aug., 1876. After studying ...

Perry, Stephen Joseph

Born in London, August, 1833; d. 27 Dec. 1889. He belonged to a well-known Catholic family. His ...

Persecution

GENERAL Persecution may be defined in general as the unlawful coercion of another's liberty or ...

Persecutions, Coptic

(ACCORDING TO GREEK AND LATIN SOURCES) During the first two centuries the Church of Alexandria ...

Perseverance, Final

( Perseverantia finalis ). Final perseverance is the preservation of the state of grace till ...

Persia

The history, religion, and civilization of Persia are offshoots from those of Media. Both Medes ...

Persian Rite

Also known as the Chaldean, Assyrian, or Persian Rite. History and Origin This rite is used by ...

Persico, Ignatius

A cardinal, born 30 Jan., 1823, at Naples, Italy ; died 7 Dec., 1896. He entered the Capuchin ...

Person

The Latin word persona was originally used to denote the mask worn by an actor. From this it ...

Person, Ecclesiastical

In its etymological sense this expression signifies every person who forms a part of the external ...

Personality

It is proposed in this article to give an account: (1) of the physical constituents of ...

Persons, Robert

(Also, but less correctly, P ARSONS ) Jesuit, b., at Nether Stowey, Somerset, 24 June, 1546; ...

Perth

(PERTHENSIS) Located in Western Australia, suffragan to Adelaide; bounded on the north by ...

Pertinax, Publius Helvius

Roman Emperor (31 Dec., 192), b. at Alba Pompeia, in Luguria, 1 August, 126; d. at Rome 28 ...

Peru

A republic on the west coast of South America, founded in 1821 after the war of independence, ...

Perugia

(PERUSINA) Located in Umbria, Central Italy. The city is situated on a hill on the right of ...

Perugia, University of

One of the "free" universities of Italy, was erected into a studium generale on 8 Sept., 1308, ...

Perugino

(PIETRO VANNUCCI) An Italian painter, founder of the Umbrian school, born at Città ...

Peruzzi, Baldassare

An architect and painter, born at Siena, 7 March, 1481; died at Rome, 6 Jan., 1537. He derived ...

Pesaro

(PESAURENSIS) Located in central Italy. The city is situated at the mouth of the river ...

Pescennius Niger

Emperor of Rome (193-194). He was a native of central Italy, and during the reigns of Marcus ...

Pesch, Tilman

A Jesuit philosopher, b. at Cologne, 1 Feb., 1836; d. at Valkenberg, Holland, 18 Oct., 1899. He ...

Pescia

(PISCIENSIS) Diocese in Tuscany, Italy, on the Rivers Pescia Maggiore and Pescia Minore, ...

Pessimism

I. A TEMPER OF MIND In popular language the term pessimist is applied to persons who ...

Pessinus

( Pessinous .) A titular see of Galatia Secunda. Pessinonte, on the southern slope of Mt. ...

Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, one of the greatest pioneers of modern education, born at Zurich, ...

Peter Baptist, Saint, and Twenty-Five Companions

Died at Nagasaki, 5 Feb., 1597. In 1593 while negotiations were pending between the Emperor of ...

Peter Canisius, Blessed

(Kannees, Kanys, probably also De Hondt). Born at Nimwegen in the Netherlands, 8 May, 1521; ...

Peter Cantor

Theologian, b. probably at Gisberoi near Beauvais, France ; d. at Long Pont Abbey, 22 Sept., ...

Peter Cellensis

(PETER DE LA CELLE). Bishop of Chartres, b. of noble parentage in Champagne; d. at Chartres, ...

Peter Chrysologus, Saint

Born at Imola, 406; died there, 450. His biography, first written by Agnellus (Liber pontificalis ...

Peter Claver, Saint

The son of a Catalonian farmer, was born at Verdu, in 1581; he died 8 September, 1654. He ...

Peter Comestor

Theological writer, b. at Troyes, date unknown; d. at Paris about 1178. He was first attached ...

Peter Damian, Saint

(Or Damiani). Doctor of the Church, Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia, b. at Ravenna "five years ...

Peter de Blois

A statesman and theologian, born at Blois about 1130; died about 1203. He appears to have ...

Peter de Honestis

Born at Ravenna about 1049; died, 29 March, 1119. Among his ancestors was the great St. Romuald, ...

Peter de Regalado, Saint

(REGALATUS) A Friar Minor and reformer, born at Valladolid, 1390; died at Aguilera, 30 ...

Peter de Vinea

(DE VINEIS, DELLA VIGNA) Born at Capua about 1190; died 1249. Peter's legal learning and the ...

Peter Faber, Saint

Born 13 April, 1506, at Villaret, Savoy ; died 1 Aug., 1546, in Rome. As a child he tended his ...

Peter Fourier, Saint

Known as LE BON PÈRE DE MATTAINCOURT, born at Mirecourt, Lorraine, 30 Nov., 1565 died at ...

Peter Fullo

Intruding Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch ; d. 488. He received the Greek surname Gnapheus ...

Peter Gonzalez, Saint

Popularly known as St. Elmo, b. in 1190 at Astorga, Spain ; d. 15 April, 1246, at Tuy. He was ...

Peter Igneus, Blessed

(Peter Aldobrandini.) An Italian monk of the Benedictine congregation of the ...

Peter Lombard

Theologian, b. at Novara (or perhaps Lumello), Italy, about 1100; d. about 1160-64. He studied ...

Peter Mongus

( moggos , "stammerer", or "hoarse".) Intruded Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria (d. ...

Peter Nolasco, Saint

Born at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, near Castelnaudary, France, in 1189 (or 1182); died at ...

Peter of Alcántara, Saint

Born at Alcántara, Spain, 1499; died 18 Oct., 1562. His father, Peter Garavita, was the ...

Peter of Alexandria, Saint

Became Bishop of Alexandria in 300; martyred Nov., 311. According to Philip of Sidetes he ...

Peter of Aquila

(SCOTELLUS). Friar Minor , theologian and bishop, b. at Aquila in the Abruzzi, Italy, towards ...

Peter of Arbues, Saint

(Correctly, PETER ARBUES). Born in 1441 (or 1442); died 17 Sept., 1485. His father, a ...

Peter of Auvergne

A philosopher and theologian ; died after 1310. He was a canon of Paris ; some biographers ...

Peter of Bergamo

(ALMADURA) A theologian, date of birth unknown; died at Placentia, in 1482. He entered the ...

Peter of Montboissier, Blessed

(Better known as PETER THE VENERABLE). Born in Auvergne, about 1092; died at Cluny, 25 ...

Peter of Poitiers

A French scholastic theologian, born at Poitiers or in its neighbourhood about 1130; died in ...

Peter of Sebaste, Saint

Bishop, b. about 340; d. 391. He belonged to the richly blest family of Basil and Emmelia of ...

Peter of Verona, Saint

Born at Verona, 1206; died near Milan, 6 April, 1252. His parents were adherents of the ...

Peter Snow, Venerable

English martyr, suffered at York, 15 June, 1598. He was born at or near Ripon and arrived at the ...

Peter the Hermit

Born at Amiens about 1050; d. at the monastery of Neufmoutier (Liège), in 1115. His ...

Peter Urseolus, Saint

(Orseolo) Born at Rivo alto, Province of Udina, 928; at Cuxa, 10 January, 987 (997 is less ...

Peter, Basilica of Saint

TOPOGRAPHY The present Church of St. Peter stands upon the site where at the beginning of the ...

Peter, Chair of

Under this head will be treated: I. The annual Feast of the Chair of Peter ( Cathedra Petri ) at ...

Peter, Saint

The life of St. Peter may be conveniently considered under the following heads: I. Until the ...

Peter, Saint, Epistles of

These two epistles will be treated under the following heads: I. Authenticity; II. Recipients, ...

Peter, Sarah

Philanthropist, b. at Chillicothe, Ohio, U.S.A. 10 May, 1800; d. at Cincinnati, 6 Feb., 1877. Her ...

Peter, Tomb of Saint

The history of the relics of the Apostles Peter and Paul is one which is involved in ...

Peter-Louis-Marie Chanel, Saint

The print version of the C ATHOLIC E NCYCLOPEDIA contains two articles on this saint. We ...

Peterborough

(PETERBOROUGHENSIS) Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada, comprises the Counties of ...

Peterspence

Peterspence, otherwise known to the Anglo-Saxons as "Romescot", is the name traditionally given to ...

Peterssen, Gerlac

(GERLACUS PETRI) Born at Deventer, 1377 or 1378; died 18 Nov., 1411. He entered the ...

Petinessus

(PITNISUS) A titular see in Galatia Secunda (Salutaris). This city is mentioned by Strabo, ...

Petit-Didier, Matthieu

A Benedictine theologian and ecclesiastical historian, born at Saint-Nicolas-du-Port in ...

Petitions to the Holy See

I. MODE OF PETITIONING Faculties, indults, dispensations, and other favours, the granting of ...

Petra

Titular metropolitan see of Palæstina Tertia. Under the name of Sela (the rock) this ...

Petrarch, Francesco

Italian poet and humanist, b. at Arezzo, 20 July, 1304; d. at Arquá, 19 July, 1374. His ...

Petre, Family of

The Petres are one of those staunch and constant families, which have played a great part in the ...

Petrobrusians

Heretics of the twelfth century so named from their founder Peter of Bruys. Our information ...

Petronilla, Saint

Virgin, probably martyred at Rome at the end of the first century. Almost all the sixth- and ...

Petronius, Saint

Bishop of Bologna, date of birth unknown; died before 450. The only certain historical ...

Petropolis

(Petropolitanensis). Diocese in the Province of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, erected 11 Feb., ...

Petrus Alfonsus

A converted Jew and controversialist, born at Huesca, in the former Kingdom of Aragon, 1062; ...

Petrus Bernardinus

Florentine heretic ; born at Florence about 1475; died 1502. His parents were common folk, and ...

Petrus de Natalibus

Bishop; author of a collection of lives of the saints; date of birth unknown; d. between 1400 and ...

Petrus Diaconus

The name of several men of note in ecclesiastical history and literature. (1) One of the ...

Petun Nation

One of the three great divisions of the Huron Indians, the other two being the Hurons proper, and ...

Peuerbach, George von

(Also Peurbach, Purbach, Purbachius) Austrian astronomer, b. at Peuerbach near Linz, 30 May, ...

Peutinger, Conrad

An antiquarian and humanist, born at Augsburg, 14 Oct., 1465; died 28 Dec., 1547. As a young ...

Peyto, William

(P ETO, P ETOW ). Cardinal ; d. 1558 or 1559. Though his parentage was long unknown, it is ...

Pez

(1) BERNHARD An historian, born 22 February, 1683, at Ybbs near Melk ; died 27 March, 1735, at ...

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Pf 5

Pfanner, Franz

An abbot, born at Langen, Vorarlberg, Austria, 1825; died at Emmaus, South Africa, 24 May, ...

Pfefferkorn, Johannes

A baptized Jew, b. probably at Nuremberg, 1469; d. at Cologne, between 1521 and 1524. In 1505, ...

Pfister, Adolf

An educationist, born at Hechingen in Hohenzollern, 26 Sept., 1810; died at Ober-Dischingen in ...

Pflug, Julius Von

The last Catholic Bishop of Naumburg-Zeitz, born at Eythra, near Leipzig, 1499; died at Zeits, ...

Pforta

A former Cistercian monastery (1137-1540), near Naumburg on the Saale in the Prussian province ...

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Ph 44

Phœnicia

Phœnicia is a narrow strip of land, about one hundred and fifty miles long and thirty miles ...

Phacusa

A titular see and suffragan of Pelusium, in Augustamnica Prima. Ptolemy (IV, v, 24) makes it ...

Pharao

(Prah, Par‘o, or, after a vowel, Phar‘o ; Greek Pharaó ; Latin Pharao). ...

Pharbætus

Titular see and suffragan of Leontopolis, in Augustamnica Secunda. This name is merely the ...

Pharisees

A politico-religious sect or faction among the adherents of later Judaism, that came into ...

Pharsalus

Titular see and suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. The city is mentioned for the first time after ...

Phaselis

Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. The city was a Doric colony on the Pamphylian Gulf. ...

Phasga

(A.V. Pisgah ). Whether the word in Hebrew is a proper or a common noun is not clear; ...

Phenomenalism

Phenomenalism ( phainomenon ) literally means any system of thought that has to do with ...

Philadelphia (Lydia)

A titular see in Lydia, suffragan of Sardes. The city was founded by Philadelphus, King of ...

Philadelphia (Pennsylvania)

(PHILADELPHIENSIS) A diocese established in 1808; made an archdiocese, 12 Feb., 1875, ...

Philanthropinism

The system of education educed from the ideas of Rousseau and of the German "Enlightenment", ...

Philastrius, Saint

Bishop of Brescia, died before 397. He was one of the bishops present at a synod held in ...

Philemon

A citizen of Coloss Colossæ, to whom St. Paul addressed a private letter, unique in the ...

Philip II

King of Spain, only son of the Emperor Charles V, and Isabella of Portugal, b. at Valladolid, 21 ...

Philip II (Augustus)

King of France, born 22 or 25 August, 1165; died at Mantes, 14 July, 1223, son of Louis VII ...

Philip IV

Surnamed Le Bel (the Fair) King of France, b. at Fontainebleau, 1268; d. there, 29 Nov., 1314; ...

Philip of Jesus, Saint

Born in Mexico, date unknown; died at Nagasaki early in February, 1597. Though unusually ...

Philip of the Blessed Trinity

(ESPRIT JULIEN). Discalced Carmelite, theologian, born at Malaucene, near Avignon, 1603; died ...

Philip Romolo Neri, Saint

THE APOSTLE OF ROME. Born at Florence, Italy, 22 July, 1515; died 27 May, 1595. Philip's ...

Philip the Apostle, Saint

Like the brothers, Peter and Andrew, Philip was a native of Bethsaida on Lake Genesareth ( John ...

Philip the Arabian

(Philippus) Emperor of Rome (244-249), the son of an Arab sheik, born in Bosra. He rose ...

Philippi

(Greek Phílippoi , Latin Philippi ). Philippi was a Macedonian town, on the ...

Philippi

A titular metropolitan see in Macedonia. As early as the sixth century B. C. we learn of a ...

Philippians, Epistle to the

I. HISTORICAL CIRCUMSTANCES, OCCASION, AND CHARACTER ( See also PHILIPPI ). The Philippians, ...

Philippine Islands

Situation and Area The Philippine Islands lie between 116° 40' and 126° and 34' E. long., ...

Philippopolis

A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Secunda. The city was founded by Philip of Macedon in 342 ...

Philippopolis

Titular see in Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. Its bishop, Hormisdas, was present at the Council ...

Philips, Peter

(Also known as PETRUS PHILIPPUS, PIETRO PHILLIPO.) Born in England about 1560; date and place ...

Philistines

( Septuagint phylistieim in the Pentateuch and Josue, elsewhere allophyloi , ...

Phillip, Robert

Priest, d. at Paris, 4 Jan., 1647. He was descended from the Scottish family of Phillip of ...

Phillips, George

A canonist, born at Königsberg, 6 Sept., 1804; died at Vienna, 6 September, 1872, was the son ...

Philo Judæus

Born about 25 B.C. . His family, of a sacerdotal line, was one of the most powerful of the ...

Philomelium

A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. According to ancient writers Philomelium was ...

Philomena, Saint

On 25 May, 1802, during the quest for the graves of Roman martyrs in the Catacomb of Priscilla, ...

Philosophy

I. Definition of Philosophy . II. Division of Philosophy . III. The Principal Systematic ...

Philoxenus

(AKHSENAYA) OF MABBOGH. Born at Tahal, in the Persian province of Beth-Garmai in the second ...

Phocæa

A titular see in Asia, suffragan of Ephesus. The town of Phocæa was founded in the ...

Photinus

A heretic of the fourth century, a Galatian and deacon to Marcellus, Metropolitan of Ancyra ...

Photius of Constantinople

Photius of Constantinople, chief author of the great schism between East and West, was b. at ...

Phylacteries

( Phulachterion — safeguard, amulet, or charm). The word occurs only once in the New ...

Physics, History of

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. A Glance at Ancient Physics; II. ...

Physiocrats

( physis , nature, kratein , rule) A school of writers on political and economic ...

Physiologus

An early Christian work of a popular theological type, describing animals real or fabulous ...

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Pi 89

Piacenza

DIOCESE OF PIACENZA (PLACENTINENSIS) Piacenza is a diocese in Emilia, central Italy. The city ...

Pianô Carpine, Giovanni da

Born at Pian di Carpine (now called della Magione), near Perugia, Umbria, 1182; died probably in ...

Pianciani, Giambattista

Scientist, b. at Spoleto, 27 Oct., 1784; d. at Rome, 23 March, 1862. He entered the Society of ...

Piatto Cardinalizio

An allowance granted by the pope to cardinals residing in curia or otherwise employed by ...

Piatus of Mons

(Secular name, JEAN-JOSEPH LOISEAUX), b. 5 Aug., 1815; d. in the Monastery of Ste. Claire, ...

Piauhy

(DE PIAUHY, PIAHUNENSIS) Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Belem do Para, in the State of ...

Piazza Armerina

(PLATIENSIS) Located in the province of Caltanissetta, Sicily. The city of Piazza Armerina is ...

Piazzi, Giuseppe

Astronomer, b. at Ponte in Valtellina, 16 July, 1746; d. at Naples, 22 July, 1826. He took the ...

Pibush, John

English martyr, born at Thirsk, Yorkshire; died at St Thomas's Waterings, Camberwell, 18 February, ...

Picard, Jean

Astronomer, b. at La Flêche, 21 July, 1620; d. at Paris, 12 Oct., 1682. He was a priest ...

Piccolomini, Alessandro

Littérateur, philosopher, astronomer, b. 13 June, 1508; d. 12 March, 1578. He passed his ...

Piccolomini-Ammannati, Jacopo

A cardinal, born in the Villa Basilica near Lucca, 1422; died at San Lorenzo near Bolsena, 10 ...

Pichler

A renowned Austrian family of gem-cutters who lived and died in Italy. ANTONIO (JOHANN ...

Pichler, Vitus

Distinguished canonist and controversial writer, b. at Grosberghofen, 24 May, 1670; d. at Munich, ...

Pickering, Ven. Thomas

Lay brother and martyr, a member of an old Westmoreland family, b. c. 1621; executed at Tyburn, ...

Piconio, Bernadine a

(HENRI BERNARDINE DE PICQUIGNY) Born at Picquigny, Picardy, 1633; died in Paris, 8 December, ...

Picquet, François

A celebrated Sulpician missionary in Canada, b. at Bourg, Bresse, France, 4 Dec., 1708; d. at ...

Picture Bibles

In the Middle Ages the Church made use of pictures as a means of instruction, to supplement ...

Pie Pelicane, Jesu, Domine

The sixth quatrain of Adoro Te Devote , sometimes used as a separate hymn at Benediction of ...

Pie, Louis-Edouard-Désiré

Cardinal, born at Pontgouin, Diocese of Chartres, 1815; died at Angoulême, 1880. He studied ...

Pieck, Saint Nicholas

(Also spelled PICK). Friar Minor and martyr, b. at Gorkum, Holland, 29 August, 1534; d. at ...

Piedmont

( Italian Piemonte ). A part compartimento of northern Italy, bounded on the north by ...

Piel, Peter

A pioneer in the movement for reform of church music, b. at Kessewick, near Bonn, 12 Aug., 1835; ...

Pierius

A priest and probably head master of the catechetical school at Alexandria conjointly with ...

Pierre de Castelnau, Blessed

Born in the Diocese of Montpellier , Languedoc, now Department of Hérault, France ; died ...

Pierre de Maricourt

Surnamed PETER THE PILGRIM ( Petrus Peregrinus ) A physician of the Middle Ages. Under the ...

Pierron, Jean

A missionary, born at Dun-sur-Meuse, France, 28 Sept., 1631; date and place of death unknown. He ...

Pierson, Philippe

Born at Ath, Hainaut (Belgium), 4 January, 1642; died at Lorette, Quebec, 1688. At the age of ...

Pietism

Pietism is a movement within the ranks of Protestantism, originating in the reaction against the ...

Pighius, Albert

A theologian, mathematician, and astronomer, born at Kampen, Overyssel, Holland, about 1490; ...

Pignatelli, Venerable Giuseppe Maria

Born 27 December, 1737, in Saragossa, Spain ; died 11 November, 1811. His family was of ...

Pike, William

Martyr, born in Dorsetshire; died at Dorchester, dec., 1591. He was a joiner, and lived at West ...

Pilar, Nuestra Señora del

"Our Lady of the Pillar", a celebrated church and shrine, at Saragossa, Spain, containing a ...

Pilate, Pontius

After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ...

Pilchard, Venerable Thomas

( Or PILCHER). Martyr, born at Battle, Sussex, 1557; died at Dorchester, 21 March 1586-7. ...

Pileolus

( zucca , head). The small, round skullcap of the ecclesiastic. The official name is ...

Pilgrimage of Grace

The name given to the religious rising in the north of England, 1536. The cause of this great ...

Pilgrimages

(Middle English, pilgrime, Old French, pelegrin, derived from Latin peregrinum, supposed ...

Piligrim

Bishop of Passau, date of birth unknown; died 20 May, 991. He was educated at the ...

Pillar of Cloud/Fire

(P ILLAR OF F IRE ). A cloud which accompanied the Israelites during their wandering. It ...

Pima Indians

An important tribe of Southern Arizona, centering along the middle Gila and its affluent, the ...

Pinar del Rio

(Pinetensis ad Flumen) Located in Cuba, erected by the Brief "Actum præclare" of Leo ...

Pinara

A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Pinara was one of the chief cities of the Lycian ...

Pindemonte, Ippolito

An Italian poet of noble birth, born at Verona, 13 Nov., 1753; died there, 18 Nov., 1828. He ...

Pineda, John de

Born in Seville, 1558; died there, 27 Jan., 1637. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1572, ...

Pinerolo

(PINEROLIENSIS) Located in the province of Turin, in Piedmont, Northern Italy, suffragan of ...

Pingré, Alexandre Guy

Born in Paris 11 September, 1711; died 1 May, 1796. He was educated in Senlis at the college ...

Pinna da Encarnaçao, Mattheus

A writer and theologian, born at Rio de Janeiro, 23 Aug., 1687; died there, 18 Dec., 1764. On 3 ...

Pinto, Fernão Mendes

A Portuguese traveller, born at Montemor-o-Velho near Coimbra, c. 1509; died at Almada near ...

Pinturicchio

(BERNARDINO DI BETTO, surnamed PINTURICCHIO) Born at Verona, about 1454; died at Siena, 11 ...

Pinzón, Martín Alonso

Spanish navigator and companion of Columbus on his first voyage to the New World, b. at Palos ...

Piombo, Sebastiano del

More correctly known as S EBASTIANO L UCIANI . Venetian portrait painter, b. at Venice, ...

Pionius, Saint

Martyred at Smyrna, 12 March, 250. Pionius, with Sabina and Asclepiades, was arrested on 23 ...

Pious Fund of the Californias, The

(Fondo Piadoso de las Californias) The Pious Fund of the Californias had its origin, in 1697, ...

Pious Society of Missions, The

Founded by Ven. Vincent Mary Pallotti in 1835. The members of the society are generally called ...

Piranesi, Giambattista

An Italian etcher and engraver, b. at Venice, 1720; d. in Rome, 9 Nov., 1778. His uncle ...

Pirhing, Ernricus

Born at Sigarthin, near Passau, 1606; died between 1678 and 1681. At the age of twenty-two he ...

Pirkheimer

Charitas Pirkheimer Abbess of the Convent of St. Clara, of the Poor Clares, in Nuremberg, and ...

Piro Indians

A tribe of considerable importance, ranging by water for a distance of three hundred miles along ...

Pisa

ARCHDIOCESE OF PISA (PISÆ) Archdiocese in Tuscany, central Italy. The city is situated ...

Pisa, Council of

Preliminaries. The great Schism of the West had lasted thirty years (since 1378), and none of ...

Pisa, University of

In the eleventh century there were many jurisconsults at Pisa who lectured on law ; prominent ...

Pisano, Andrea

Or ANDREA DA PISA (the name by which Andrea da Pontadera is known). An Italian sculptor and ...

Pisano, Niccola

Architect and sculptor, b. at Pisa about 1205-07; d. there, 1278. He was the father of modern ...

Piscataway Indians

A tribe of Algonquian linguistic stock formerly occupying the peninsula of lower Maryland ...

Piscina

(Latin from piscis, a fish, fish-pond, pool or basin, called also sacrarium, thalassicon, or ...

Pise, Charles Constantine

Priest, poet, and prose writer, b. at Annapolis, Maryland, 22 Nov., 1801; d. at Brooklyn, New ...

Pisidia

A country in the southwestern part of Asia Minor, between the high Phrygian tableland and the ...

Pistoia and Prato

(PISTORIENSIS ET PRATENSIS) Located in the Province of Florence. The city of Pistoia is ...

Pistoia, Synod of

Held 18 to 28 September, 1786, by Scipio de’ Ricci, Bishop of Pistoia and Prato. It marks ...

Pistorius, Johann

A controversialist and historian, born at Nidda in Hesse, 14 February, 1546; died at Freiburg, 18 ...

Pithou, Pierre

A writer, born at Troyes, 1 Nov. 1539; died at Nogent-sur-Seine, 1 Nov., 1596. His father, a ...

Pitoni, Joseph

A musician, born at Rieti, Perugia, Italy, 18 March, 1657; died at Rome, 1 Feb., 1743, and ...

Pitra, Jean-Baptiste-François

Cardinal, famous archeologist and theologian, b. 1 August, 1812, at Champforgeuil in the ...

Pitts, John

Born at Alton, Hampshire, 1560; died at Liverdun, Lorraine, 17 Oct., 1616. He was educated at ...

Pittsburgh

DIOCESE OF PITTSBURG/PITTSBURGH (PITTSBURGENSIS). Suffragan of Philadelphia, in the United ...

Pityus

A titular see in Pontus Polemoniacus, suffragan of Neocæsarea. Pityus was a large and ...

Pius I, Pope Saint

Date of birth unknown; pope from about 140 to about 154. According to the earliest list of the ...

Pius II, Pope

(Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini). Born at Corsignano, near Siena, 18 Oct., 1405; elected 19 ...

Pius III, Pope

(Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini). B. at Siena, 29 May, 1439; elected 22 Sept., 1503; d. in ...

Pius IV, Pope

(Giovanni Angelo Medici). B. 31 March, 1499, at Milan ; elected 26 December, 1559; d. in ...

Pius IX, Pope

(G IOVANNI M ARIA M ASTAI -F ERRETTI ). Pope from 1846-78; born at Sinigaglia, 13 May, ...

Pius V, Pope Saint

(MICHELE GHISLERI). Born at Bosco, near Alexandria, Lombardy, 17 Jan., 1504 elected 7 Jan., ...

Pius VI, Pope

(G IOVANNI A NGELICO B RASCHI ). Born at Cesena, 27 December, 1717; elected 15 ...

Pius VII, Pope

(B ARNABA C HIARAMONTI ). Born at Cesena in the Pontifical States, 14 August, 1740; ...

Pius VIII, Pope

(Francesco Xaverio Castiglione). B. at Cingoli, 20 Nov., 1761; elected 31 March, 1829; d. 1 ...

Pius X, Pope Saint

(Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto). Born 2 June, 1835, at Riese, Province of Treviso, in Venice. His ...

Piusverein

The name given to Catholic associations in various countries of Europe. I. THE PIUS ...

Pizarro, Francisco

Born in Trujillo, Estremadura, Spain, probably in 1471; died at Lima, Peru, 26 June, 1541. He ...

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Pl 27

Placidus, Saint

St. Placidus, disciple of St. Benedict, the son of the patrician Tertullus, was brought as a ...

Plagues of Egypt

Ten calamities inflicted on the Egyptians to overcome Pharao's obstinacy and force him to let ...

Plain Chant

By plain chant we understand the church music of the early Middle Ages, before the advent of ...

Plantaganet, Henry Beaufort

Cardinal, Bishop of Winchester, born c. 1377; died at Westminster, 11 April, 1447. He was the ...

Plantin, Christophe

Book-binder and publisher of Antwerp, b. 1514, at or near Tours ( France ); d. 1 July, 1589, at ...

Plants in the Bible

When Moses spoke to the people about the Land of Promise, he described it as a "land of hills ...

Plasencia

(PLACENTINA) Plasencia comprises the civil provinces of Cáceres, Salamanca, and ...

Plateau, Joseph-Antoine

Belgian physicist, b. at Brussels, 14 Oct., 1801; d. at Ghent, 15 Sept., 1883. His father, a ...

Platina, Bartolomeo

Originally named S ACCHI, b. at Piadena, near Mantua, in 1421; d. at Rome, 1481. He first ...

Plato and Platonism

I. LIFE OF PLATO Plato ( Platon , "the broad shouldered") was born at Athens in 428 or 427 ...

Play, Pierre-Guillaume-Frédéric Le

A French economist, born at La Rivière (Calvados), 11 April, 1806; died at Paris, 5 ...

Plegmund

Archbishop of Canterbury, died 2 August, 914. He was a Mercian, and spent his early life near ...

Plenarium

A book of formulae and texts. Plenarium or Plenarius ( Liber ) is any book that contains ...

Plenary Council

A canonical term applied to various kinds of ecclesiastical synods. The word itself, derived from ...

Plessis, Joseph-Octave

Bishop of Quebec, born at Montreal, 3 March, 1763; died at Quebec, 4 Dec., 1822. He studied ...

Plethon, Georgius Gemistus

Born in Constantinople about 1355, died in the Peloponnesus, 1450. Out of veneration for Plato ...

Plock

(PLOCENSIS) Located in Russian Poland, suffragan of Warsaw, includes the district of Plock ...

Plowden, Charles

Born at Plowden Hall, Shropshire, 1743; died at Jougne, Doubs, France, 13 June, 1821. He was ...

Plowden, Edmund

Born 1517-8; died in London, 6 Feb., 1584-5. Son of Humphrey Plowden of Plowden Hall, Shropshire, ...

Plowden, Francis

Son of William Plowden of Plowden Hall, b. at Shropshire, 8 June, 1749; d. at Paris, 4 Jan., ...

Plowden, Robert

Elder brother of Charles, born 27 January, 1740; died at Wappenbury, 27 June, 1823. He entered ...

Plowden, Thomas

( Alias Salisbury). Born in Oxfordshire, England, 1594; died in London, 13 Feb., 1664; ...

Plowden, Thomas Percy

Born at Shiplake, Oxfordshire, England, 1672; died at Watten, 21 Sept., 1745; joined the Society ...

Plumier, Charles

(botanical abbreviation, Plum .) A French botanist, born at Marseilles, 20 April, 1646; ...

Plunket, Blessed Oliver

[ Editor's Note: St. Oliver Plunkett was canonized by Pope Paul VI on October 10, 1975.] ...

Pluscarden Priory

Founded in 1230 by Alexander III , King of Scotland, six miles from Elgin, Morayshire, for ...

Plymouth

(PLYMUTHENSIS, PLYMUTHÆ) Plymouth consists of the County of Dorset, which formed a ...

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Pn 1

Pneumatomachi (Macedonians)

(Macedonians) A heretical sect which flourished in the countries adjacent to the Hellespont ...

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Po 120

Poetry, Hebrew, of the Old Testament

Since the Bible is divinely inspired, and thus becomes the "written word" of God, many devout ...

Poggio Bracciolini, Giovanni Francesco

An Italian humanist and historian; born at Terranuova, near Arezzo, in 1380; died at Florence, ...

Poggio Mirteto

DIOCESE OF POGGIO MIRTETO (MANDELENSIS) Diocese in the province of Perugia, central Italy. The ...

Pogla

( ta Pogla ) Titular see in Pamphylia Secunda. Pogla is mentioned only by Ptolemy, V, 5, ...

Poitiers

D IOCESE OF P OITIERS (P ICTAVENSIS ) The Diocese of Poitiers includes the Departments of ...

Poland

I. GEOGRAPHY The western part of the Sarmatian Plain together with the northern slopes of the ...

Polding, John Bede

Archbishop of Sydney, born at Liverpool, 18 Oct., 1794; died at Sydney, 16 March, 1877. In 1805 ...

Pole, Blessed Margaret

Countess of Salisbury, martyr ; b. at Castle Farley, near Bath, 14 August, 1473; martyred at ...

Pole, Reginald

Cardinal, b. at Stourton Castle, Staffordshire, England, in March, 1500; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...

Polemonium

Titular see in Pontus Polemoniacus, suffragan of Neocæsarea. At the mouth of the Sidenus, ...

Poleni, Giovanni

Marquess, physicist, and antiquarian; b. at Venice, 23 Aug., 1683; d. at Padua, 14 Nov., 1761; ...

Poles in the United States

Causes of Immigration There is good foundation for the tradition that a Pole, John of Kolno (a ...

Policastro

DIOCESE OF POLICASTRO (POLICASTRENSIS) Diocese in the province of Salerno, Southern Italy. The ...

Polignac, Melchior de

Cardinal, diplomatist, and writer, b. of an ancient family of Auvergne, at Le Puy, France, 11 ...

Polish Literature

The subject will be divided, for convenience of treatment, into historical periods. First ...

Politi, Lancelot

(In religion AMBROSIUS CATHARINUS) Born at Siena, 1483; died at Naples, 1553. At sixteen he ...

Politian

(ANGIOLO DE 'AMBROSINI DA MONTE PULCIANO) An Italian Humanist, born at Monte Pulciano in 1454; ...

Political Economy, Science of

S CIENCE OF P OLITICAL E CONOMY (E CONOMICS ). I. DEFINITIONS Political economy (Greek, ...

Pollajuolo, Antonio and Piero Benci

Antonio and Piero Benci Pollajuolo derived their surname, according to Florentine custom, from ...

Polo, Marco

Traveller; born at Venice in 1251; died there in 1324. His father Nicolo and his uncle Matteo, ...

Polybotus

A titular see in Phrygia Salutaris, suffragan of Synnada. This town is mentioned only in the ...

Polycarp, Saint

Martyr (A.D. 69-155). Our chief sources of information concerning St. Polycarp are: (1) the ...

Polycarpus

The title of a canonical collection in eight books composed in Italy by Cardinal Gregorius. It is ...

Polyglot Bibles

The first Bible which may be considered a Polyglot is that edited at Alcalá (in Latin ...

Polystylum

A titular see of Macedonia Secunda, suffragan of Philippi. When Philippi was made a ...

Polytheism

The belief in, and consequent worship of, many gods. See the various articles on national ...

Pomaria

A titular see in Mauretania Cæsarea. It is north of Tlemcen (capital of an arrondissement ...

Pombal, Marquis de

S EBASTIâO J OSÉ DE C ARVALHO E M ELLO The son of a country gentleman of ...

Pomerania

A Prussian province on the Baltic Sea situated on both banks of the River Oder, divided into ...

Pompeiopolis

A titular see in Paphlagonia. The ancient name of the town is unknown; it may have been ...

Pomponazzi, Pietro

(POMPONATIUS, also known as PERETTO on account of his small stature) A philosopher and ...

Ponce de León, Juan

Explorer, born at San Servas in the province of Campos, 1460; died in Cuba, 1521. He was ...

Ponce, John

A philosopher and theologian, born at Cork, 1603, died at Paris, 1670. At an early age he went ...

Poncet, Joseph Anthony de la Rivière

Missionary; b. at Paris, 17 May, 1610; d. at Martinique, 18 June, 1675. He entered the Jesuit ...

Pondicherry

(PONDICHERIANA OR PUDICHERIANA) Located in India, it is bounded on the east by the Bay of ...

Pontefract Priory

Located in Yorkshire, England, a Cluniac monastery dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, founded ...

Pontian, Pope Saint

Dates of birth and death unknown. The "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, 145) gives Rome ...

Pontifical Colleges

In earlier times there existed in Europe outside of the city of Rome a large number of ...

Pontifical Decorations

Pontifical decorations are the titles of nobility, orders of Christian knighthood and other ...

Pontifical Mass

Pontifical Mass is the solemn Mass celebrated by a bishop with the ceremonies prescribed in the ...

Pontificale

( Pontificale Romanum ). A liturgical book which contains the rites for the performance ...

Pontificalia

(PONTIFICALS). The collective name given for convenience sake to those insignia of the ...

Pontigny, Abbey of

Second daughter of Cîteaux, was situated on the banks of the Serain, present Diocese of ...

Pontius Carbonell

Born at Barcelona, c. ú died c. 1320. Pontius and Carbonell are names frequently met with ...

Pontius Pilate

After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ...

Pontus

In ancient times, Pontus was the name of the north-eastern province of Asia Minor , a long ...

Pools in Scripture

In the English Bibles, the word "pool" stands for three Hebrew words: (1) 'agam means properly ...

Poona

(PUNENSIS) Diocese in India, comprises that portion of the Bombay Presidency which lies on ...

Poor Brothers of St. Francis Seraphicus

A congregation of lay brothers of the Third Order of St. Francis, instituted for charitable ...

Poor Catholics

( Pauperes Catholici ) A religious mendicant order, organized in 1208, to reunite the ...

Poor Child Jesus, Sisters of the

A congregation founded at Aachen in 1844 for the support and education of poor, orphan, and ...

Poor Clares

(POOR LADIES, SISTERS OF ST. CLARE) The Second Order of St. Francis. The subject will be treated ...

Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ

A community founded by Catherine Kasper, a native of Dernbach, Germany. She was born 26 May, 1820, ...

Poor Handmaids of the Mother of God

A religious congregation founded in 1808 by Mother Mary Magdalen Taylor in conjunction with ...

Poor Laws

Poor Laws are those legal enactments which have been made at various periods of the world's ...

Poor, Care of, by the Church

I. OBJECTS, HISTORY, AND ORGANIZATION A. The care of the poor is a branch of charity. In the ...

Poor, Little Sisters of the

An active, unenclosed religious congregation founded at St Servan, Brittany, 1839, through the ...

Poor, Sisters of the, of St. Francis

A Congregation, founded by the Venerable Mother Frances Schervier at Aachen in the year 1845, ...

Popayán

(POPAYANENSIS) Popayán lies approximately between 1º 20' and 3º 2' north ...

Pope, Alexander

Poet, son of Alexander Pope and his second wife, Edith Turner, b. in London, England, 22 May, ...

Pope, The

( Ecclesiastical Latin papa from Greek papas , a variant of pappas father, in classical ...

Popes, Chronological Lists of the

See also POPE, LIST OF POPES, PAPAL ELECTIONS, ELECTION OF THE POPE. The historical lists ...

Popes, Election of the

For current procedures regarding the election of the pope, see Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic ...

Popes, List of

See also POPE, PAPAL ELECTIONS, ELECTION OF THE POPE. St. Peter (32-67) St. Linus (67-76) ...

Poppo, Saint

Abbot, born 977; died at Marchiennes, 25 January, 1048. He belonged to a noble family of ...

Popular Devotions

Devotion, in the language of ascetical writers, denotes a certain ardour of affection in the ...

Population, Theories of

Down to the end of the eighteenth century, very little attention was given to the relation between ...

Porch (or Vestibule, in Architecture)

A hall projecting in front of the façade of a church, found from the fifth century both ...

Pordenone, Giovanni Antonio

Italian painter, b. at Pordenone, 1483; d. at Ferrara, January, 1539. He is occasionally referred ...

Pordenone, Ordric of

A Franciscan missionary of a Czech family named Mattiussi, born at Villanova near Pordenone, ...

Pormort, Ven. Thomas

English martyr, b. at Hull about 1559; d. at St. Paul's Churchyard, 20 Feb., 1592. He was probably ...

Porphyreon

Titular see, suffragan of Tyre in Phoenicia Prima. It is described in the "Notitia Episcopatuum" ...

Porphyrius, Saint

Bishop of Gaza in Palestine, b. at Thessalonica about 347; d. at Gaza, 26 February, 420. ...

Porrecta, Serafino

Family name Capponi, called a Porrecta from the place of birth, theologian, b. 1536; d. at Bologna, ...

Port Augusta

(PORTAUGUSTANA) This diocese is a suffragan of Adelaide, South Australia, created in ...

Port Louis

(PORTUS LUDOVICI) This diocese comprises the islands of Mauritius, Rodriguez, Chagos, and ...

Port of Spain

(PORTUS HISPANIÆ) An archiepiscopal and metropolitan see, including the Islands of ...

Port Victoria

(PORTUS VICTORIÆ SEYCHELLARUM.) Port Victoria comprises the Seychelles Islands in the ...

Port-au-Prince

(PORTUS PRINCIPIS) This archdiocese comprises the western part of the Republic of Haiti. Its ...

Port-Royal

A celebrated Benedictine abbey which profoundly influenced the religious and literary life of ...

Porta, Carlo

Poet, b. at Milan in 1775; d. there 5 January, 1821; educated by the Jesuits at Monza and ...

Porta, Giacomo della

Architect and sculptor, b. at Porlizza on Lake Lugano 1541; d. 1604. He was a pupil of ...

Portable Altar

A portable altar consists of a solid piece of natural stone which must be sufficiently hard to ...

Portalegre

Suffragan diocese of Lisbon, Portugal, established by Pope Julius III in 1550. Its first ...

Porter

(Also called DOORKEEPER. From ostiarius , Latin ostium , a door.) Porter denoted among ...

Porter, George

Archbishop of Bombay, b. 1825 at Exeter, England ; d. at Bombay, 28 September, 1889. Of ...

Portiuncula

(PORZIONCULA or PORZIUNCOLA). A town and parish situated about three-quarters of a mile from ...

Portland

Diocese in the State of Maine ; suffragan of Boston ; established by Pius IX, 8 Dec., 1854. ...

Porto Alegre

(PORTALEGRENSIS) Located in Eastern Brazil. Porto Alegre, the capital and chief port of the ...

Porto Alegre

(PORTALEGREN) Porto Alegre comprises the southern part of the State of Minas Geraes, and part ...

Porto and Santa-Rufina

(PORTUENSIS ET SANCTÆ RUFINÆ) This diocese was formed from the union of two ...

Porto Rico

(PUERTO RICO) The smallest and most easterly of the Greater Antilles, rectangular in shape, ...

Portoviejo

(PORTUS VETERIS). A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Quito, Republic of Ecuador. It was ...

Portraits of the Apostles

The earliest fresco representing Christ surrounded by the Apostles dates from the beginning of ...

Portsmouth

(PORTUS MAGNUS, or PORTEMUTHENSIS) This diocese was created by a Brief of Leo XIII , ...

Portugal

I. GEOGRAPHY AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Portugal is situated on the west of the Iberian ...

Portuguese East Africa

Portuguese East Africa consists of the Province of Mozambique. Portuguese activity on that ...

Portuguese Literature

The Portuguese language was developed gradually from the lingua rustica spoken in the countries ...

Portuguese West Africa

The name usually given to the Province of Angola. It has a coast line of 1015 miles from the ...

Positivism

Positivism is a system of philosophical and religious doctrines elaborated by Auguste Comte. As ...

Possenti, Blessed Gabriel

Passionist student; renowned for sanctity and miracles ; born at Assisi, 1 March, 1838; died ...

Possession, Demonical

( See also DEMONOLOGY, DEMONIACS, EXORCISM, EXORCIST.) Man is in various ways subject to the ...

Possevinus, Antonius

Theologian and papal envoy, b. at Mantua in 1533 or 1534; d. at Ferrara, 26 Feb., 1611. At ...

Possidius, Saint

Bishop of Calama in Numidia, author of a short life of St. Augustine and of an indiculus or ...

Postcommunion

The Communion act finishes the essential Eucharistic service. Justin Martyr (I Apol., lxv-lxvi) ...

Postgate, Nicholas

English martyr, b. at Kirkdale House, Egton, Yorkshire, in 1596 or 1597; d. at York, 7 August, ...

Postulant

Postulancy is a preliminary stage to the novitiate existing from the institution of monasticism. ...

Postulation

( Latin postulare, to request) A postulation is a petition presented to a competent ...

Potawatomi Indians

An important tribe of Algonquin linguistic stock, closely related dialectically to the Ojibwa ...

Pothier, Robert Joseph

A celebrated French lawyer, b. at Orléans, 9 January, 1699; d. there, 2 March, 1772. His ...

Pouget, Jean-François-Albert du

Marquis de Nadaillac, b. in 1817; d. at Rougemont, Cloyes, 1 October, 1904; the scion of an old ...

Pounde, Thomas

Lay brother, b. at Beaumond (or Belmony), Farlington, Hampshire, 29 May, 1538; d. there, 26 Feb., ...

Poussin, Nicolas

French painter, b. at Les Andelys near Rouen in 1594; d. at Rome, 19 November, 1666. His early ...

Poverty

I. THE MORAL DOCTRINE OF POVERTY Jesus Christ did not condemn the possession of worldly goods, or ...

Poverty and Pauperism

See also CARE OF THE POOR BY THE CHURCH In a legal and technical sense, pauperism denotes the ...

Powel, Philip

( alias M ORGAN, alias P ROSSER ) Martyr, b. at Tralon, Brecknockshire, 2 Feb., 1594; d. ...

Powell, Blessed Edward

With Blessed Thomas Abel there suffered Edward Powell, priest and martyr, b. in Wales about ...

Poynter, William

Born 20 May, 1762, at Petersfield, Hants; died 26 Nov., 1827, in London. He was educated at the ...

Pozzo, Andreas

(P UTEUS ) Italian painter and architect of the Baroque period, b. at Trent, 1642; d. at ...

Pozzuoli

(PUTEOLANA) The city of Pozzuoli in the province of Naples, southern Italy, on the gulf of ...

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Pr 155

Prémare, Joseph Henri Marie de

Joseph Henri Marie de Prémare, missionary and sinologist, born at Cherbourg, 17 July, 1666; ...

Prémontré, Abbey of

Located about twelve miles west of Laon, Department of Aisne, France ; founded by St. Norbert. ...

Prüm

A former Benedictine abbey in Lorraine, now in the Diocese of Trier, founded by a Frankish ...

Prades, Jean-Martin de

A theologian, born about 1720 at Castelsarrasin ( Diocese of Montauban ), died in 1782 at ...

Prado, Jerome de

Exegete, b. at Baeza in Spain, 1547; d. at Rome, 13 Jan., 1595. He entered the Society of ...

Praelatus Nullius

(i.e. Dioceseos) A prelate who exercises quasi-episcopal jurisdiction in a territory not ...

Pragmatic Sanction

( pragmatica sanctio , lex , jussio , also pragmatica or pragmaticum ) Pragmatic ...

Pragmatism

Pragmatism, as a tendency in philosophy, signifies the insistence on usefulness or practical ...

Prague

(PRAGENSIS). An archdiocese in Bohemia. From about the middle of the sixth century Slavonic ...

Prague, University of

The University of Prague was founded by Charles IV with the consent of the Estates on the model ...

Praxeas

An early anti- Montanist, is known to us only by Tertullian's book "Adversus Praxean". His name ...

Praxedes and Pudentiana

Martyrs of an unknown era. The seventh-century itineraries to the graves of the Roman martyrs ...

Pray Brethren

The exhortation (" Pray brethren that my sacrifice and yours be acceptable to God the Father ...

Pray, George

Abbot, canon, librarian of the University library of Buda, and important Hungarian historian, b. ...

Prayer

(Greek euchesthai , Latin precari , French prier , to plead, to beg, to ask earnestly). ...

Prayer of Christ, Feast of the

This feast occurs on the Tuesday after Septuagesima (double major). Its object is to ...

Prayer of Quiet

The Prayer of Quiet is regarded by all writers on mystical theology as one of the degrees of ...

Prayer, Lord's

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

Prayer-Books

By "prayer-books" usage generally understands a collection of forms of prayer intended for ...

Prayers for the Dead

This subject will be treated under the following three heads: I. General Statement and Proof of ...

Preacher Apostolic

A dignitary of the pontifical household. As a regular function, under special Regulations, this ...

Preachers, Order of

As the Order of the Friars Preachers is the principal part of the entire Order of St. Dominic, we ...

Preadamites

The supposed inhabitants of the earth prior to Adam. Strictly speaking, the expression ought to be ...

Prebend

The right of a member of a chapter to his share in the revenues of the cathedral ; also the ...

Precaria

( Preces , prayers ). A precaria is a contract granting to a petitioner the use and ...

Precedence

( Latin præcedere , to go before another). Precedence signifies the right to enjoy ...

Precentor

(Latin Præcentor , from præ , before- cantor singer). A word describing ...

Precept

( Precept: From the Latin præceptum from præcipere , to command). Precept , ...

Precious Blood

The blood of our Divine Saviour. Jesus, at the Last Supper, ascribes to it the same life-giving ...

Precious Blood, Archconfraternity of the Most

Confraternities which made it their special object to venerate the Blood of Christ first arose in ...

Precious Blood, Congregation of the Most

An association of secular priests living in community, whose principal aim is to give missions ...

Precious Blood, Congregations of the

I. BERNADINES OF THE PRECIOUS BLOOD A congregation of nuns, no longer in existence, founded by ...

Precious Blood, Feast of the Most

For many dioceses there are two days to which the Office of the Precious Blood has been ...

Precipiano, Humbert-Guillaume de, Count

Born at Besançon, 1626; died at Brussels, 7 June, 1711. Having studied the classics at ...

Preconization

(Latin præconizare , to publish, from præco , herald, public crier) This word ...

Predestinarianism

Predestinarianism is a heresy not unfrequently met with in the course of the centuries which ...

Predestination

Predestination ( Latin prœ , destinare ), taken in its widest meaning, is every Divine ...

Preface

( Latin Præfatio ). The first part of the Eucharistic prayers ( Anaphora or Canon) in ...

Prefect Apostolic

( Latin prœfectus, one put over or in charge of something) During the last few ...

Prefecture Apostolic (Supplemental List)

(SUPPLEMENTAL LIST) An account is here given of the prefectures Apostolic that have been ...

Prelate

Real Prelate, the incumbent of a prelature, i.e., of an ecclesiastical office with special and ...

Premonstratensian Canons

(C ANONICI R EGULARES P RÆMONSTRATENSES ). Founded in 1120 by St. Norbert at ...

Presbyterianism

Presbyterianism in a wide sense is the system of church government by representative assemblies ...

Presbytery

The part of the church reserved for the higher clergy was known in antiquity by various names, ...

Prescription

(Latin prœ , before, and scribere , to write, in later legal Latin involving the idea ...

Prescription in Civil Jurisprudence

Prescription "in some form and under some name" is said to have existed as a part of the municipal ...

Presence of God

Doctrinal All solid devotion and devotional practices must be founded upon the truths of ...

Presence, Real

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

Presentation Brothers

In the early part of the nineteenth century when the Penal Laws were relaxed, and the ban which ...

Presentation of Mary, Congregation of the

This congregation, devoted to the education of young girls, was founded in 1796 at Theuyts, ...

Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the

The Protoevangel of James, the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, the Gospel of the Nativity of Mary, and ...

Presentation, Feast of the

Also called: Purification of the Blessed Virgin (Greek Hypapante ), Feast of the Presentation of ...

Presentation, Order of the

An Order founded at Cork, Ireland, by Nano (Honoria) Nagle (see below). In 1775 she entered with ...

Presentation, Religious Congregations of the

(1) Daughters of the Presentation , founded in 1627 by Nicolas Sanguin (b. 1580; d. 1653), ...

Presentation, Right of

Out of gratitude for the foundation or endowment of churches and benefices, the Church grants ...

Prester John

Name of a legendary Eastern priest and king. FIRST STAGE The mythical journey to Rome of a ...

Preston, Thomas

( Alias R OGER W IDDRINGTON ). Benedictine, d. in the Clink prison, 5 April, 1640. He ...

Preston, Thomas Scott

The Vicar-General of New York, prothonotary Apostolic, chancellor, distinguished convert, ...

Presumption

(Latin praesumere , "to take before", "to take for granted"). Presumption is here ...

Presumption

(IN CANON LAW) A term signifying a reasonable conjecture concerning something doubtful, drawn ...

Pretorium

This name is derived from the Latin prætorium, in later Greek tò ...

Pride

Pride is the excessive love of one's own excellence. It is ordinarily accounted one of the seven ...

Priene

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. The foundation of the town of Priene dates ...

Priest

This word (etymologically "elder", from presbyteros , presbyter ) has taken the meaning of ...

Priest, Assistant

The assistant priest ( presbyter assistens , anciently called capellanus ) is the first and ...

Priest, High

The high-priest in the Old Testament is called by various names: the priest ( Numbers 3:6 ); ...

Priesthood

The word priest (Germ. Priester ; Fr. prêtre ; Ital. prete ) is derived from the ...

Priestly Perseverance, Association of

A sacerdotal association founded in 1868 at Vienna, and at first confined to that Archdiocese. ...

Priests' Communion League

An association of priests established at Rome on 20 July, 1906, in the Church of San ...

Priests' Eucharistic League

I. Object The Priests' Eucharistic League (Confraternitas sacerdotalis adorationis Sanctissimi ...

Priests, Confraternities of

Three confraternities of priests -- the Apostolic Union, the Priests' Eucharistic League, ...

Primacy

(Latin primatus, primus , first). The supreme episcopal jurisdiction of the pope as ...

Primadicci, James

(Or Primadizzi.) Born at Bologna; died in the same city in 1460. As early as the year 1426 he ...

Primate

(Lat. primas, from primus, "first"). In the Western Church a primate is a bishop ...

Prime

I. THE NAME The name Prime ( prima hora ) belongs with those of Terce, Sext, None, to the ...

Primer, The

The common English name for a book of devotions which from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century ...

Primicerius

(Etymologically primus in cera , sc. in tabula cerata , the first in a list of a class of ...

Primus and Felician, Saints

Suffered martyrdom about 304 in the Diocletian persecution. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" ...

Prince Albert, Diocese of

A suffragan see of St. Boniface, Manitoba, in the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Originally ...

Prior

A monastic superior. In the Rule of St. Benedict the term prior occurs several times, but ...

Prioress

(Priorissa, Praeposita). A superioress in a monastic community for women. The term prioress ...

Priory

A monastery whose superior is a prior. The Dominicans, Augustinian Hermits, Carthusians, ...

Prisca, Saint

She was a martyr of the Roman Church, whose dates are unknown. The name Prisca or Priscilla ...

Priscianus

Latin grammarian, born at Caesarea (Mauretania) , taught at Constantinople under Anastatius I ...

Priscilla and Aquila

( Or Prisca.) Jewish tentmakers, who left Rome (Aquila was a native of Pontus ) in the ...

Priscillianism

This heresy originated in Spain in the fourth century and was derived from the Gnostic - ...

Prisons

I. IN ANCIENT TIMES Many jurisconsults and Scriptural interpreters include imprisonment among ...

Prisons, Ecclesiastical

It is plain from many decrees in the "Corpus Juris Canonici" that the Church has claimed and ...

Privilege

( Latin, privilegium , like priva lex ) Privilege is a permanent concession made by a ...

Privileged Altar

An altar is said to be privileged when, in addition to the ordinary fruits of the Eucharistic ...

Privileges, Ecclesiastical

Ecclesiastical privileges are exceptions to the Law made in favour of the clergy or in favour ...

Proba, Faltonia

A Christian poetess of the fourth century. The name Faltonia is doubtful and is apparently due ...

Probabilism

Probabilism is the moral system which holds that, when there is question solely of the ...

Probus, Marcus Aurelius

Roman Emperor, 276-82, raised to the throne by the army in Syria to succeed Tacitus. Of humble ...

Probus, Tarachus, and Andronicus, Saints

Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...

Processional Cross

A processional cross is simply a crucifix which is carried at the head of a procession, and ...

Processional, Roman

Strictly speaking it might be said that the Processional has no recognized place in the Roman ...

Processions

Processions, an element in all ceremonial, are to be found, as we should expect, in almost every ...

Processus and Martinian, Saints

The dates of these martyrs are unknown. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" (ed. De ...

Proclus, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople. Saint Proclus died in 446 or 447. Proclus came to the fore in the ...

Proconnesus

(PRŒCONNESUS) A titular see in Hellespont. Proconnesus was the name of an island ...

Procopius of Caesarea

Byzantine historian, b. in the latter years of the fifth century at Caesarea in Palestine , d. ...

Procter, Adelaide Anne

Poetess and philanthropist, b. in London, England, 30 October, 1825; d. in London, 2 February, ...

Procurator

A person who manages the affairs of another by virtue of a charge received from him. There are ...

Profession, Religious

HISTORICAL VIEW Profession may be considered either as a declaration openly made, or as a state ...

Promise, Divine

The term promise in Holy Writ both in its nominal and verbal form embraces not only promises ...

Promotor Fidei

(P ROMOTER OF THE F AITH ). An official of the Roman Congregation of Rites. The office ...

Promulgation

( Latin promulgare, to make known, to post in public). I. PROMULGATION IN GENERAL This is the ...

Proof

Proof is the establishment of a disputed or controverted matter by lawful means or arguments. ...

Propaganda, Sacred Congregation of

The Sacred Congregation de Propaganda Fide , whose official title is "sacra congregatio ...

Propagation of the Faith, The Society for the

This society is an international association for the assistance by prayers and alms of ...

Property

I. NOTION OF PROPERTY The proprietor or owner of a thing, in the current acceptation of the word, ...

Property, Ecclesiastical

Abstract Right of Ownership That the Church has the right to acquire and possess temporal ...

Property, Ecclesiastical, in the United States

The Third Plenary Council of Baltimore decreed (tit. IX, cap. i, n. 264): "We must hold, ...

Prophecy

As the term is used in mystical theology , it applies both to the prophecies of canonical ...

Prophecy, Prophet, and Prophetess

I. IN THE OLD TESTAMENT A. Introduction Yahweh had forbidden Israel all kinds of oracles in ...

Proprium

The Proprium de tempore and the Proprium Sanctorum form in the present liturgy the two ...

Proschko, Franz Isidor

A well-known Austrian author, born at Hohenfurt, Bohemia, 2 April, 1816; died at Vienna, 6 ...

Prose or Sequence

I. DEFINITION AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION The Sequence ( Sequentia )–or, more accurately as ...

Proselyte

( proselytos , stranger or newcomer; Vulgate, advena ). The English term "proselyte" ...

Proske, Karl

Born at Grobing in Upper Silesia, 11 Feb., 1794; died 20 Dec., 1861. He took his degree as Doctor ...

Prosper of Aquitaine, Tiro

The first sure date in the life of Prosper is that of his letter to St. Augustine written ...

Protasius and Gervasius, Saints

Martyrs of Milan, probably in the second century, patrons of the city of Milan and of ...

Protector, Altar

A cover made of cloth, baize or velvet which is placed on the table of the altar, during the ...

Protectorate of Missions

The right of protection exercised by a Christian power in an infidel country with regard to ...

Protectories

The institutions for the shelter and training of the young, designed to afford neglected or ...

Protestant Episcopal Church

The history of this religious organization divides itself naturally into two portions: the period ...

Protestantism

The subject will be treated under the following heads, viz.: I. Origin of the Name. II. ...

Prothonotary Apostolic

A member of the highest college of prelates in the Roman Curia, and also of the honorary ...

Protocol

The formula used at the beginning of public acts drawn up by notaries, e.g., mention of the reign, ...

Protopope

A priest of higher rank in the Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches, corresponding in ...

Protus and Hyacinth, Saints

Martyrs during the persecution of Valerian (257-9). The day of their annual commemoration is ...

Prout, Father

The name by which the Rev. Francis Sylvester Mahony (O'Mahony), author of "The Bells of ...

Provancher, Léon Abel

Naturalist, b. 10 March, 1820, in the parish of Béconcourt, Nicolet county, Province of ...

Proverbs, Book of

One of the Sapiential writings of the Old Testament placed in the Hebrew Bible among the ...

Providence, Congregations of (I)

Founded at Paris, by Madame Polaillon (Marie de Lumague), a devout widow. In 1643 Madame ...

Providence, Congregations of (II)

(St. Mary-of-the-Woods) Among the teaching religious orders that originated in France at ...

Providence, Congregations of (III)

SISTERS OF CHARITY The Sisters of xxyyyk.htm">Providence, known also as Sisters of ...

Providence, Congregations of (IV)

Founded at Turin in 1834 by the Marchesa Julia Falletti de Barolo for the care of children and ...

Providence, Congregations of (V)

SISTERS OF THE INSTITUTE OF CHARITY An offshoot from the Sisters of xxyyyk.htm">Providence, ...

Providence, Diocese of

(PROVIDENTIENSIS) Co-extensive with the State of Rhode Island . When erected (17 Feb., 1872) ...

Providence, Divine

( Latin, Providentia ; Greek, pronoia ). Providence in general, or foresight, is a ...

Province, Ecclesiastical

The name given to an ecclesiastical administrative district under the jurisdiction of an ...

Provincial

An officer acting under the superior general of a religious order, and exercising a general ...

Provincial Council

A deliberative assembly of the bishops of an ecclesiastical province, summoned and presided ...

Provision, Canonical

Canonical Provision is a term signifying regular induction into a benefice, comprising three ...

Provisors, Statute of

The English statute usually so designated is the 25th of Edward III, St. 4 (1350-1), otherwise ...

Provost

(Latin, prœpositus; French, prévôt; German, Probst ) Anciently (St. ...

Prudence

(Latin prudentia , contracted from providentia , seeing ahead). One of the four ...

Prudentius

(GALINDO) A Bishop of Troyes, born in Spain ; died at Troyes on 6 April, 861; celebrated ...

Prudentius, Aurelius Clemens

A Christian poet, born in the Tarraconensis, Northern Spain, 348; died probably in Spain, ...

Prusias ad Hypium

Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in the Honoriad. Memnon, the historian, says that Prusias ...

Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia at the present time covers 134,616 square miles and includes about 64.8 ...

Przemysl

(PREMISLIENSIS) Latin see in Galicia, suffragan of Lemberg. After conquering Halicz and ...

Przemysl, Sambor, and Sanok

(PREMISLIENSIS, SAMBORIENSIS, ET SANOCHIENSIS) A Græco-Ruthenian Uniat diocese of ...

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Ps 7

Psalms

The Psalter, or Book of Psalms, is the first book of the "Writings" ( Kethubhim or Hagiographa ...

Psalms, Alphabetic

Alphabetic psalms are so called because their successive verses, or successive parallel series, ...

Psalterium

The Psalterium, or Book of the Psalms, only concerns us here in so far as it was transcribed ...

Psaume, Nicholas

(also PSAULME, PREAUME, Latin PSALMÆUS) Bishop of Verdun, born at Chaumont-sur-Aire in ...

Psellus, Michael

( Michael ho Psellos ), Byzantine statesman, scholar, and author, born apparently at ...

Psychology

(Greek psyche, logos ; Latin psychologia; French psychologie; German Seelenkunde ) In ...

Psychotherapy

(from the Greek psyche , "mind", and therapeuo , "I cure") Psychotherapy is that ...

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Pt 3

Ptolemais

Ptolemais, a titular see in Egypt, metropolis of Thebais Secunda. Ptolemais owes its name to ...

Ptolemais

(SAINT-JEAN D'ACRE) Ptolemais, a titular metropolis in Phoenicia Prima, or Maritima. The ...

Ptolemy the Gnostic

A heretic of the second century and personal disciple of Valentinus. He was probably still ...

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Pu 31

Public Authority

Civil Authority is the moral power of command, supported (when need be) by physical coercion, ...

Public Honesty (Decency)

A diriment matrimonial impediment consisting in a relationship, which arises from a valid ...

Publican

Publican , in the Gospels, is derived from the publicanus of the Vulgate, and signifies a ...

Pueblo Indians

NAME From the Spanish word meaning "village" or "town". A term used collectively to designate ...

Puget, Pierre

A painter, sculptor, architect, and naval constructor, born at Marseilles, 31 Oct., 1622; died ...

Pugh, George Ellis

A jurist and statesman, born at Cincinnati, Ohio., 28 November, 1822; died there, 19 July, 1876. ...

Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmore

Architect and archeologist, born in London, 1 March, 1812; died at Ramsgate, 14 September, 1852; ...

Puiseux, Victor-Alexandre

French mathematician and astronomer, b. 16 April, 1820, at Argenteuil (Seine-et-Oise); d. 9 ...

Pulaski, Casimir

Patriot and soldier, b. at Winiary, Poland, 4 March, 1748; d. on the Wasp, in the harbour of ...

Pulati

(The Diocese of Pulati: Pulatensis or Polatinensis ). The ancient Pulati in Albania no ...

Pulcheria, Saint

Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire, eldest daughter of the Emperor Arcadius, b. 19 Jan., 399; d. ...

Pulci, Luigi

An Italian poet, born at Florence, 15 Aug., 1432; died at Padua in 1484. The Pulci gave many ...

Pullen, Robert

(POLENIUS, PULLAN, PULLEIN, PULLENUS, PULLY, LA POULE) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Died 1147 (?). ...

Pullus, Robert

(PULLEN, PULLAN, PULLY.) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Cardinal, English philosopher and ...

Pulpit

( Latin pulpitum , a stage or scaffold) An elevated stand to preach on. To elucidate the ...

Punishment, Capital

The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime. The ...

Puno

DIOCESE OF PUNO (PUNIENSIS) Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lima in Peru. Its jurisdiction ...

Purcell, John Baptist

Archbishop of Cincinnati, born at Mallow, Ireland, 26 Feb., 1800; died at the convent of the ...

Purgative Way

The word state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers. It may be ...

Purgatorial Societies

Pious associations or confraternities in the Catholic Church, which have as their purpose to ...

Purgatory

The subject is treated under these heads: I. Catholic Doctrine II. Errors III. Proofs IV. Duration ...

Purgatory, St. Patrick's

Lough Derg, Ireland. This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal, in the Diocese of Clogher, dates ...

Purim

(P HURIM ). The origin of the name is disputed: some derive it from the Persian pure ...

Puritans

One of the chief difficulties in studying the various movements loosely spoken of as Puritanism is ...

Pusey and Puseyism

Edward Bouverie Pusey, born at Pusey House, Berkshire, 22 Aug., 1800; died at Ascot Priory, ...

Pustet

The name of a family of well-known Catholic publishers. The original home of the Pustets was ...

Putative Marriage

Putative (Latin, putativus supposed) signifies that which is commonly thought, reputed, or ...

Puteanus, Erycius

(ERRIJCK DE PUT) Born at Venloo, in Dutch Limbourg, 4 Nov., 1574; died at Louvain, 17 Sept., ...

Putzer, Joseph

Theologian and canonist, b. at Rodaneck, Tyrol, 4 March, 1836; d. at Ilchester, Md., 15 May, ...

Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre

French painter, b. at Lyons, 14 Dec., 1824; d. at Paris, 24 Oct., 1898. Through his father ...

Puyallup Indians

An important tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, formerly holding the territory along the river of ...

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Py 4

Pyrker, Johann Ladislaus von Oberwart

(FELSÖ-EÖR) He was born at Langh near Stuhlweissenburg, Hungary, 2 Nov., 1772; died ...

Pyrrhonism

Pyrrhonism is a system of scepticism, the founder of which was Pyrrho, a Greek philosopher, ...

Pythagoras and Pythagoreanism

Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher and mathematician and founder of the Pythagorean school, ...

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