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Apocrypha

Overview

The scope of this article takes in those compositions which profess to have been written either by Biblical personages or men in intimate relations with them. Such known works as the Shepherd of Hermas, the Epistle of Barnabas, the Didache (Teaching) of the Twelve Apostles , and the Apostolic Canons and Constitutions, though formerly apocryphal, really belong to patristic literature, and are considered independently. It has been deemed better to classify the Biblical apocrypha according to their origin, instead of following the misleading division of the apocrypha of the Old and New Testaments. Broadly speaking, the apocrypha of Jewish origin are coextensive with what are styled of the Old Testament, and those of Christian origin with the apocrypha of the New Testament.

The subject will be treated as follows:

Name and Notion

Etymologically, the derivation of Apocrypha is very simple, being from the Greek apokryphos , hidden, and corresponding to the neuter plural of the adjective. The use of the singular, "Apocryphon", is both legitimate and convenient, when referring to a single work. When we would attempt to seize the literary sense attaching to the word, the task is not so easy. It has been employed in various ways by early patristic writers, who have sometimes entirely lost sight of the etymology. Thus it has the connotation "uncanonical" with some of them. St. Jerome evidently applied the term to all quasi-scriptural books which in his estimation lay outside the canon of the Bible , and the Protestant Reformers , following Jerome's catalogue of Old Testament Scriptures -- one which was at once erroneous and singular among the Fathers of the Church -- applied the title Apocrypha to the excess of the Catholic canon of the Old Testament over that of the Jews. Naturally, Catholics refuse to admit such a denomination, and we employ "deuterocanonical" to designate this literature, which non-Catholics conventionally and improperly know as the "Apocrypha". (See CANON OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.)

The original and proper sense of the term apocryphal as applied to the pretended sacred books was early obscured. But a clue to it may be recognized in the so-called Fourth Book of Esdras, which relates that Estrus (Era) by divine inspiration composed ninety-four books. Of these, twenty-four were restorations of the sacred literature of the Israelites which had perished in the Captivity; they were to be published openly, but the remaining were to be guarded in secret for the exclusive use of the wise (cf. Daniel 12:4, 9 , where the prophet is bidden to shut up and seal an inspired book until an appointed time ). Accordingly it may be accepted as highly probable that in its original meaning an apocryphal writing had no unfavorable import, but simply denoted a composition which claimed a sacred origin, and was supposed to have been hidden for generations, either absolutely, awaiting the due time of its revelation, or relatively, inasmuch as knowledge of it was confined to a limited esoteric circle. However, the name Apocrypha soon came to have an unfavourable signification which it still retains, comporting both want of genuineness and canonicity. These are the negative aspects of the modern application of the name; on its positive side it is properly employed only of a well defined class of literature, putting forth scriptural or quasi-scriptural pretensions, and which originated in part among the Hebrews during the two centuries preceding Christ and for a space after, and in part among Christians, both orthodox and heterodox, in the early centuries of our era.

I. APOCRYPHA OF JEWISH ORIGIN

Ancient literature, especially in the Orient, used methods much more free and elastic than those permitted by our modern and Occidental culture. Pseudographic composition was in vogue among the Jews in the two centuries before Christ and for some time later. The attribution of a great name of the distant past to a book by its real author, who thus effaced his own personality, was, in some cases at least, a mere literary fiction which deceived no one except the ignorant. This holds good for the so-called "Wisdom of Solomon", written in Greek and belonging to the Church's sacred canon. In other cases, where the assumed name did not stand as a symbol of a type of a certain kind of literature, the intention was not without a degree of at least objective literary dishonesty.

(1) Jewish Apocalypses

The most important and valuable of the extant Jewish apocrypha are those which have a large apocalyptic element; that is, which profess to contain visions and revelations of the unseen world and the Messianic future. Jewish apocalyptic literature is a theme which deserves and has increasingly received the attention of all interested in the development of the religious thought of Israel, that body of concepts and tendencies in which are fixed the roots of the great doctrinal principles of Christianity itself, just as its Divine Founder took His temporal generation from the stock of orthodox Judaism. The Jewish apocalypses furnish the completing links in the progress of Jewish theology and fill what would otherwise be a gap, though a small one, between the advanced stage marked by the deuterocanonical books and its full maturity in the time of Our Lord ; a maturity so relatively perfect that Jesus could suppose as existing in the popular consciousness, without teaching de novo , the doctrines of future retribution , the resurrection of the body , and the existence, nature, and office of angels. Jewish apocalyptic writing is an attempt to supply the place of prophecy, which had been dead for centuries, and it has its roots in the sacred oracles of Israel. Hebrew prophecy on its human side had its springs, its occasions, and immediate objects in the present; the prophets were inspired men who found matter for comfort as well as rebuke and warning in the actual conditions of Israel's theocratic life. But when ages had elapsed, and the glowing Messianic promises of the prophets had not been realized; when the Jewish people had chafed, not through two or three, but many generations, under the bitter yoke of foreign masters or the constantly repeated pressure of heathen states, reflecting and fervent spirits, finding no hope in the actual order of things, looked away from earth and fixed their vision on another and ideal world where God's justice would reign unthwarted, to the everlasting glory of Israel both as a nation and in its faithful individuals, and unto the utter destruction and endless torment of the Gentile oppressors and the unrighteous. Apocalyptic literature was both a message of comfort and an effort to solve the problems of the sufferings of the just and the apparent hopelessness of a fulfilment of the prophecies of Israel's sovereignty on earth. But the inevitable consequence of the apocalyptic distrust of everything present was its assumption of the guise of the remote and classic past; in other words, its pseudonymous character. Naturally basing itself upon the Pentateuch and the Prophets, it clothed itself fictitiously with the authority of a patriarch or prophet who was made to reveal the transcendent future. But in their effort to adjust this future to the history that lay within their ken the apocalyptic writers unfolded also a philosophy of the origin and progress of mundane things. A wider view of world-politics and a comprehensive cosmological speculation are among the distinctive traits of Jewish apocalyptic. The Book of Daniel is the one book of the Old Testament to which the non-inspired apocalypses bear the closest affinity, and it evidently furnished ideas to several of the latter. An apocalyptic element existing in the prophets, in Zacharias (i-vi), in Tobias (Tobias, xiii), can be traced back to the visions of Ezechiel which form the prototype of apocalyptic; all this had its influence upon the new literature. Messianism of course plays an important part in apocalyptic eschatology and the idea of the Messias in certain books received a very high development. But even when it is transcendent and mystic it is intensely, almost fanatically, national, and surrounded by fanciful and often extravagant accessories. It lacks the universal outlook of some of the prophets, especially the Deutero-Isaias, and is far from having a uniform and consistent physiognomy. Sometimes the Messianic realm is placed upon the transfigured earth, centering in a new Jerusalem ; in other works it is lifted into the Heavens; in some books the Messias is wanting or is apparently merely human, while the Parables of Henoch with their pre-existent Messias mark the highest point of development of the Messianic concept to be found in the whole range of Hebrew literature.

(a) The Book of Henoch (Ethiopic)

See the separate article under this title.

(b) Assumption of Moses

Origen, "De Principiis", III, ii, 1, names the Assumption of Moses -- Analepsis Mouseos -- as the book cited by the Epistle of Jude, 9, where there is an allusion to a dispute between Michael and Satan over the body of Moses. Aside from a few other brief references in patristic literature, nothing more was known of this apocryphon until the Latin manuscript containing a long portion of it was discovered by Ceriani in the Ambrosian Library, at Milan, and published by him in 1861. Its identity with the ancient work is established by a quotation from the latter in the Acts of the Nicene Council. The book purports to be a series of predictions delivered in written form to the safe-keeping of Josue (Joshua) by Moses when the latter, in view of his approaching death, appointed Josue as his successor. The ostensible purpose of these deliverances is to confirm the Mosaic laws and the admonitions in Deuteronomy. The entire history of Israel is outlined. In a vehement and glowing style the book delineates under its prophetic guise the impiety of Israel's Hasmonean rulers and Sadducean priests. The historical allusions come down to the reign of an insolent monarch who is plainly Herod the Great, and a powerful ruler who shall come from the West and subjugate the people -- a reference to the punitive expedition of Quintilius Varus, 4 B.C. But the Messias will intervene and execute Divine wrath upon the enemies of the nation, and a cataclysm of nature, which is depicted with truly apocalyptic sublimity, will forerun the beginning of the new era. Strangely there is no mention of a resurrection or a judgment of individuals. The book then returns to the doings of Moses and Josue. The manuscript breaks off abruptly at chapter xii, and the portion cited by Jude must have belonged to the lost conclusion. This apocalypse has with solid reasons been assigned to the early years after Herod's death, between 4 B.C. and A.D. 10. It is evident that neither of Herod's sons, Philip and Antipas, had yet reigned thirty-four years, since the writer, hazarding a prediction that proved false, says that the sons should enjoy shorter reigns than their father. Thus the latest possible date of composition is fixed at A.D. 30. The author was a Jew, and in all likelihood a Palestinian one. He belonged neither to the Pharisees of the type of Christ's epoch, nor to the Sadducees, since he excoriates both alike. He must have been either a Zealot, that is an ultra-Nationalist and Messianist, or a fervid Essene. He wrote in Hebrew or Aramaic. The Latin text is translated from a Greek version.

(c) Book of the Secrets of Henoch (Slavonic Henoch)

In 1892 attention was called to Slavonic manuscripts which on examination proved to contain another Henoch book differing entirely from the Ethiopic compilation. "The Book of the Secrets of Henoch " contains passages which satisfy allusions of Origen to which there is nothing corresponding in the Ethiopic Henoch. The same may be said about citations in the "Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs". Internal evidence shows that the new Henoch was composed by an Alexandrian Jew about the beginning of our Era, and in Greek. The work is sharply marked off from the older book by the absence of a Messias and the want of reference to a resurrection of the dead . It mingles many bizarre details concerning the celestial realm, the angels, and stars, with advanced ideas on man's destiny, moral excellence, and the punishment of sin. The patriarch is taken up through the seven heavens to the very throne of the Eternal. Some of the details throw interesting light on various obscure allusions in the Bible , such as the superimposed heavens, the presence of evil powers "in heavenly places", Ezechiel's strange creatures full of eyes.

(d) Fourth Book of Esdras

The personage serving as the screen of the real author of this book is Esdras (Ezra), the priest-scribe and leader among the Israelites who returned from Babylonia, to Jerusalem. The fact that two canonical books are associated with his name, together with a genuine literary power, a profoundly religious spirit pervading Fourth Esdras, and some Messianic points of contact with the Gospels combined to win for it an acceptance among Christians unequalled by any other apocryphon. Both Greek and Latin Fathers cite it as prophetical, while some, as Ambrose, were ardent admirers of it. Jerome alone is positively unfavourable. Notwithstanding this widespread reverence for it in early times, it is a remarkable fact that the book never got a foothold in the canon or liturgy of the Church. Nevertheless, all through the Middle Ages it maintained an intermediate position between canonical and merely human compositions, and even after the Council of Trent, together with Third Esdras, was placed in the appendix to the official edition of the Vulgate. Besides the original Greek text, which has not survived, the book has appeared in Latin, Syriac, Armenian, Ethiopic, and Arabic versions. The first and last two chapters of the Latin translation do not exist in the Oriental ones and have been added by a Christian hand. And yet there need be no hesitation in relegating the Fourth Book of Esdras to the ranks of the apocrypha. Not to insist on the allusion to the Book of Daniel in xii, 11, the date given in the first version (iii, 1) is erroneous, and the whole tenor and character of the work places it in the age of apocalyptic literature. The dominant critical dating assigns it to a Jew writing in the reign of Domitian, A.D. 81-96. Certainly it was composed some time before A.D. 218, since it is expressly quoted by Clement of Alexandria. The original text, iii-xiv, is of one piece and the work of a single author. The motive of the book is the problem lying heavily upon Jewish patriots after the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus. The outlook was most dark and the national life seemed utterly extinguished. In consequence, a sad and anxious spirit pervades the work, and the writer, using the guise of Esdras lamenting over the ruin of the first city and temple, insistently seeks to penetrate the reasons of God's apparent abandonment of His people and the non-fulfilment of His promises. The author would learn the future of his nation. His interest is centered in the latter; the universalism of the book is attenuated. The apocalypse is composed of seven visions. The Messianism of Fourth Esdras suffers from the discouragement of the era and is influenced by the changed conditions produced by the advent of Christianity. Its Messias is mortal, and his reign merely one of happiness upon earth. Likewise the eschatology labours with two conflicting elements: the redemption of all Israel and the small number of the elect. All mankind sinned with Adam. The Fourth Book of Esdras is sometimes called by non-Catholics Second Esdras, as they apply the Hebrew form, Ezra, to the canonical books.

(e) Apocalypse of Baruch

For a long time a Latin fragment, chapters lxxviii-lxxxvii, of this pseudograph had been known. In 1866 a complete Syriac text was discovered by Monsignor Ceriani, whose researches in the Ambrosian Library of Milan have so enriched the field of ancient literature. The Syriac is a translation from the Greek; the original was written in Hebrew. There is a close relation between this apocalypse and that of Fourth Esdras, but critics are divided over the question, which has influenced the other. The probabilities favour the hypothesis that the Baruch apocryphon is an imitation of that of Esdras and therefore later. The approximate dates assigned to it range between A.D. 50 and 117. The "Apocalypse of Baruch " is a somewhat artificial production, without the originality and force of Fourth Esdras. It deals in part with the same problems, viz., the sufferings of the theocratic people, and their ultimate triumph over their oppressors. When certain passages are freed from evident Christian interpolations, its Messianism in general is earthly, but in the latter part of the book the Messias's realm tends unmistakably towards a more spiritual conception. As in Fourth Esdras, sin is traced to the disobedience of Adam. Greater importance is attached to the law than in the related composition, and the points of contact with the New Testament are more striking. The author was a Pharisee, but one who, while adopting a distinctly Jewish view, was probably acquainted with the Christian Scriptures and freely laid them under contribution. Some recent students of the "Apocalypse of Baruch " have seen in it a composite work, but the majority of critics hold with better reason to its unity. The book is lengthy. It speaks in the person of Baruch, the secretary of Jeremias. It opens with a palpable error of chronology. Baruch announces the doom of the city and temple of Jerusalem of the Babylonian epoch. However, not the Chaldeans, but angels, will bring about the destruction. Another and pre-existent Holy City is reserved by God, since the world cannot exist without a Jerusalem. The artificiality and tediousness of the apocalypse are redeemed by a singular breadth of view and elevation of doctrine, with the limitation noted.

(f) The Apocalypse of Abraham

The Apocalypse of Abraham has recently been translated from Slavonic into German. It relates the circumstances of Abraham's conversions and the visions thereupon accorded him. His guide in the a celestial realms is Jael, an angel distinct from God, but possessing divine powers in certain regards. The work has affinities with Fourth Esdras and the "Apocalypse of Baruch ". The origin of evil is explained by man's free will. The Elect, or Messias, will gather the dispersed tribes, but God alone will punish the enemies of Israel. Particularism and the transcendence of the last cosmic stage are the notes of this apocalypse. Its data, however, are so vague that it is impossible to fix the time of its composition.

(g) The Apocalypse of Daniel

The Apocalypse of Daniel is the work of a Persian Jew of the twelfth century, and is unique in foretelling two Messiases: one, the son of Joseph (Christ), whose career ends in his failure and death; the other the son of David, who will liberate Israel and reign on earth gloriously.

(2) Legendary Apocrypha of Jewish Origin

(a) Book of Jubilees or Little Genesis

Epiphanius, Jerome, and others quote a work under the title "The Jubilees" or "The Little Genesis". St. Jerome testifies that the original was in Hebrew. It is cited by Byzantine authors down to the twelfth century. After that we hear no more of it until it was found in an Ethiopic manuscript in the last century. A considerable Latin fragment has also been recovered. The Book of the Jubilees is the narrative of Genesis amplified and embellished by a Jew of the Pharisee period. It professes to be a revelation given to Moses by the "Angel of the Face". There is a very systematic chronology according to the years, weeks of years, and jubilees. A patriarchal origin is ascribed to the great Jewish feasts. The angelology is highly developed, but the writer disbelieved in the resurrection of the body . The observance of the Law is insisted on. It is hard to fix either the date or the religious circle in which the work arose. Jerusalem and the Temple still stood, and the Book of Henoch is quoted. As for the lowest date, the book is employed by the Jewish portion of the "Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs". Estimates vary between 135 B.C. and A.D. 60. Among the lost Jewish apocrypha, the one worthy of special notice here is;

(b) The Book of Jannes and Mambres

2 Timothy 3:8 applies these names to the Egyptian magicians who reproduced some of the wonders wrought by Moses. The names are not found in the Old Testament. Origen remarks that St. Paul does not quote "from public writings but from a sacred book which is called Jannes and Mambres". The names were known to Pliny, and figure in the Talmudic traditions. Recently R. James in the "Journal of Theological Studies", 1901, II, 572-577, claims to have found a fragment of this lost apocryphon in Latin and Old English versions.

(c) Third Book of Esdras

This is also styled by non-Catholics the First Book of Esdras, since they give to the first canonical Esdrine writing the Hebrew form Ezra. Third Esdras is one of the three uncanonical books appended to the official edition of the Vulgate. It exists in two of the oldest codices of the Septuagint, viz., Vaticanus and Alexandrinus, where it precedes the canonical Esdras. The same is true of manuscripts of the Old Latin and other versions. Third Esdras enjoyed exceptional favour in the early ages of the Church, being quoted as Scripture with implicit faith by the leading Greek and Latin Fathers (See Cornely, Introductio Generalis, I, 201). St. Jerome, however, the great minimizer of sacred literature, rejected it as apocryphal, and thenceforward its standing was impaired. The book in fact is made up for the most part of materials taken from the inspired books of Paralipomenon, Esdras, and Nehemias, put together, however, in great chronological confusion. We must suppose that it was subsequent to the above Scriptures, since it was evidently composed in Greek and by an Alexandrian Jew. The only original part of the work is chapters iii-v, 6. This recounts a contest between three young Hebrews of the bodyguard of King Darius, each striving to formulate the wisest saying. The victory is awarded to Zorobabel (Zerubbabel), who defends Truth as the strongest force, and the audience shouts: "Great is Truth and powerful above all things!" ( Magna est veritas et proevalebit. ) The date of composition is not ascertainable except within very wide limits. These are on one side c. 300 B.C., the latest time assigned to Paralipomenon-Esdras-Nehemias, and on the other, c. A.D. 100, the era of Josephus, who employed Third Esdras. There is greater likelihood that the composition took place before our Era.

(d) Third Book of Machabees

Third Book of Machabees is the title given to a short narrative which is found in the Alexandrine codex of the Septuagint version and various private manuscripts. It gives an account of an attempted desecration of the Temple at Jerusalem by the Egyptian king, Ptolemy IV (Philopator) after his victory over Antiochus the Great at Raphia, 217 B.C., and the miraculous frustration of his endeavour to wreak vengeance upon the Egyptian Jews through a massacre with elephants. This apocryphon abounds in absurdities and psychological impossibilities, and is a very weak piece of fiction written in Greek by an Alexandrian Jew, and probably designed to encourage its countrymen in the midst of persecutions. It rests on no ascertainable historical fact, but apparently is an extravagant and varying version of the occurrence related by Josephus, "Against Apion", 1I, 5. The date cannot be determined. Since the book shows acquaintance with the Greek additions to Daniel, it cannot be earlier than the first century B.C., and could scarcely have found such favour among Christians if composed later than the first century after Christ. The Syrian Church was the first to give it a friendly reception, presumably on the strength of its mention in the Apostolic Constitutions. Later, Third Machabees was admitted into the canon of the Greek Church, but seems never to have been known to the Latins.

(3) Apocryphal Psalms and Prayers

(a) Psalms of Solomon

This is a collection of eighteen psalms composed in Hebrew, and, as is commonly agreed, by a Pharisee of Palestine, about the time of Pompey's capture of Jerusalem, 63 B.C. The collection makes no pretensions to authorship by Solomon, and therefore is not, strictly speaking, apocryphal. The name of the wise king became associated with it later and doubtless was the means of preserving it. The spirit of these psalms is one of great moral earnestness and righteousness, but it is the righteousness of the Pharisees, consisting in the observance of the legal traditions and ceremonial law. The Hasmonean dynasty and the Sadducees are denounced. A Messianic deliverer is looked for, but he is to be merely human. He will reign by holiness and justice, and not by the sword. Free will and the resurrection are taught. The Psalms of Solomon are of value in illustrating the religious views and attitudes of the Pharisees in the age of Our Lord. The manuscripts of the Septuagint contain at the end of the canonical Psalter a short psalm (cli), which, however, is "outside the number", i.e. of the Psalms. Its title reads: "This psalm was written by David himself in addition to the number, when he had fought with Goliath." It is based on various passages in the Old Testament , and there is no evidence that it was ever written in Hebrew.

(b) Prayer of Manasses (Manasseh)

A beautiful Penitential prayer put in the mouth of Manasses, King of Juda, who carried idolatrous abominations so far. The composition is based on II Paralipomenon, xxxiii, 11-13, which states that Manasses was carried captive to Babylon and there repented; while the same source (18) refers to his prayer as recorded in certain chronicles which are lost. Learned opinion differs as to whether the prayer which has come down to us was written in Hebrew or Greek. Several ancient manuscripts of the Septuagint contain it as an appendix to the Psalter. It is also incorporated in the ancient so-called Apostolic Constitutions. In editions of the Vulgate antedating the Council of Trent it was placed after the books of Paralipomenon. The Clementine Vulgate relegated it to the appendix, where it is still to be found in reprints of the standard text. The prayer breathes a Christian spirit, and it is not entirely certain that it is really of Jewish origin.

(4) Jewish Philosophy

(a) Fourth Book of Machabees

This is a short philosophical treatise on the supremacy of pious reason, that is reason regulated by divine law, which for the author is the Mosaic Law. In setting up reason as the master of human passion, the author was distinctly influenced by Stoic philosophy. From it also he derived his four cardinal virtues : prudence, righteousness (or justice ), fortitude, temperance ; phronesis, dikaiosyne, andreia, sophrosyne , and it was through Fourth Machabees that this category was appropriated by early Christian ascetical writers. The second part of the book exhibits the sufferings of Eleazar and the seven Machabean brothers as examples of the dominion of pious reason. The aim of the Hellenistic Jewish author was to inculcate devotion to the Law. He is unknown. The work was erroneously ascribed to Josephus by Eusebius and others. It appears to have been produced before the fall of Jerusalem, but its date is a matter of conjecture.

II. APOCRYPHA OF JEWISH ORIGIN WITH CHRISTIAN ACCRETIONS

(a) Sibylline Oracles

See the separate article under this title.

(b) Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. This is an extensive pseudograph, consisting of;

  • narrations in which each of the twelve sons of Jacob relates his life, embellished by Midrashic expansions of the Biblical data
  • exhortations by each patriarch to the practice of virtues, or the shunning of vices illustrated in his life
  • apocalyptic portions concerning the future of the twelve tribes, and the Messianic times
  • The body of the work is undoubtedly Judaic, but there are many interpolations of an unmistakably Christian origin, presenting in their ensemble a fairly full Christology, but one suspected of Docetism. Recent students of the Testaments assign with much probability the Jewish groundwork to the Hasmonean period, within the limits 135-63 B.C. Portions which extol the tribes of Levi and Juda are interpreted as an apology for the Hasmonean pontiff-kings. The remaining ten tribes are supposed to be yet in existence, and are urged to be faithful to the representatives of the priestly and royal power. In this defence of the Machabean dynasty, and by a writer with Pharisaic tendencies, probably a priest, the Testaments are unique in Jewish literature. True, there are passages in which the sacerdotal caste and the ruling tribes are unsparingly denounced, but these are evidently later insertions. The eschatology is rather advanced. The Messias is to spring from the tribe of Levi (elsewhere, however, from Juda ); he is to be the eternal High-Priest -- a unique feature of the book -- as well as the civil ruler of the nation. During his reign sin will gradually cease. The gates of paradise are to be opened and the Israelites and converted Gentiles will dwell there and eat of the tree of life. The Messianic kingdom is therefore to be an eternal one on earth, therein agreeing with the Ethiopic Henoch. The Testaments exist complete in Greek, Armenian, Latin, and Slavonic versions. Aramaic and Syriac fragments are preserved.

    (c) The Ascension of Isaias

    The Ascension of Isaias consists of two parts:

  • The Martyrdom of Isaias, in which it is told that the prophet was sawn in two by the order of the wicked King Manasses.
  • The Ascension proper.
  • This purports to be the description by Isaias of a vision in which he was rapt up through the seven heavens to the presence of the Trinity, and beheld the descent of the Son, "the Beloved", on His mission of redemption. He changes his form in passing through the inferior celestial circles. The prophet then sees the glorified Beloved reascending. The Martyrdom is a Jewish work, saving some rather large interpolations. The rest is by Christian hands or perhaps a single writer, who united his apocalypse with the Martyrdom. There are tokens that the Christian element is a product of Gnosticism, and that our work is the same with that much in favour among several heretical sects under the name of the "Anabaticon", or "Ascension of Isaias ". The Jewish portion is thought to have appeared in the first century of our era; the remainder, in the middle of the second. Justin, Tertullian, and Origen seem to have been acquainted with the Martyrdom; Sts. Jerome and Epiphanius are the earliest witnesses for the Ascension proper. The apocryphon exists in Greek, Ethiopic, and Slavonic manuscripts.

    (d) Minor Jewish -Christian Apocrypha

    Space will permit only an enumeration of unimportant specimens of apocryphal literature, extant in whole or part, and consisting of

    • Jewish originals recast or freely interpolated by Christians, viz., the "Apocalypses of Elias" (Elijah), "Sophonias" (Zephaniah), the "Paralipomenon of Baruch "; and
    • Christian compositions whose material was supplied by Jewish sources; the so-called "Apocalypse of Moses ", the "Apocalypse of Esdras ", the "Testament of Abraham ", the "Testament of the Three Patriarchs", the " Prayer of Joseph", the "Prayer of Aseneth", the "Marriage of Aseneth", (the wife of Joseph)
    Probably with this second class are to be included the "Testaments of Job" and "Zacharias", the "Adam Books", the "Book of Creation ", the "Story of Aphikia" (the wife of Jesus Sirach). These works as a rule appeared in the East, and in many cases show Gnostic tendencies. Further information about some of them will be found at the end of articles on the above personages.

    III. APOCRYPHA OF CHRISTIAN ORIGIN

    The term Christian here is used in a comprehensive sense and embraces works produced both by Catholics and heretics ; the latter are chiefly members of the various branches or schools of Gnosticism, which flourished in the second and third centuries. The Christian apocryphal writings in general imitate the books of the New Testament and therefore, with a few exceptions, fall under the description of Gospels, Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypses.

    (1) APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS

    The term apocryphal in connection with special Gospels must be understood as bearing no more unfavourable an import than "uncanonical". This applies to the Gospel of the Hebrews and in a less degree to that of the Egyptians, which in the main seem to have been either embodiments of primitive tradition, or a mere recasting of canonical Gospels with a few variations and amplifications. It is true, all the extant specimens of the apocryphal Gospels take the inspired evangelical documents as their starting-point. But the genuine Gospels are silent about long stretches of the life of Our Lord , the Blessed Virgin, and St. Joseph. Frequently they give but a tantalizing glimpse of some episode on which we would fain be more fully informed. This reserve of the Evangelists did not satisfy the pardonable curiosity of many Christians eager for details, and the severe and dignified simplicity of their narrative left unappeased imaginations seeking the sensational and the marvellous. When, therefore, enterprising spirits responded to this natural craving by pretended Gospels full of romantic fables and fantastic and striking details, their fabrications were eagerly read and largely accepted as true by common folk who were devoid of any critical faculty and who were predisposed to believe what so luxuriously fed their pious curiosity. Both Catholics and Gnostics were concerned in writing these fictions. The former had no other motive than that of a pious fraud, being sometimes moved by a real though misguided zeal, as witness the author of the Pseudo-Matthew: Amor Christi est cui satisfecimus. But the heretical apocryphists, while gratifying curiosity, composed spurious Gospels in order to trace backward their beliefs and peculiarities to Christ Himself. The Church and the Fathers were hostile even towards the narratives of orthodox authorship. It was not until the Middle Ages , when their true origin was forgotten even by most of the learned, that these apocryphal stories began to enter largely into sacred legends, such as the "Aurea Sacra", into miracle plays, Christian art, and poetry. A comparison of the least extravagant of these productions with the real Gospels reveals the chasm separating them. Though worthless historically, the apocryphal Gospels help us to better understand the religious conditions of the second and third centuries, and they are also of no little value as early witnesses of the canonicity of the writings of the four Evangelists. The quasi-evangelistic compositions concerning Christ which make no pretensions to be Gospels will be treated elsewhere. They are all of orthodox origin. (See AGRAPHA.)

    (a) Apocryphal Gospels of Catholic Origin

    The Protoevangelium Jacobi, or Infancy Gospel of James

    It purports to have been written by "James the brother of the Lord", i.e. the Apostle James the Less. It is based on the canonical Gospels which it expands with legendary and imaginative elements, which are sometimes puerile or fantastic. The birth, education, and marriage of the Blessed Virgin are described in the first eleven chapters and these are the source of various traditions current among the faithful. They are of value in indicating the veneration paid to Mary at a very early age. For instance it is the "Protoevangelium" which first tells that Mary was the miraculous offspring of Joachim and Anna, previously childless; that when three years old the child was taken to the Temple and dedicated to its service, in fulfilment of her parents' vow. When Mary was twelve Joseph is chosen by the high-priest as her spouse in obedience to a miraculous sign -- a dove coming out of his rod and resting on his head. The nativity is embellished in an unrestrained manner. Critics find that the "Protoevangelium" is a composite into which two or three documents enter. It was known to Origen under the name of the "Book of James". There are signs in St. Justin's works that he was acquainted with it, or at least with a parallel tradition. The work, therefore, has been ascribed to the second century. Portions of it show a familiarity with Jewish customs, and critics have surmised that the groundwork was composed by a Jewish - Christian. The "Protoevangelium" exists in ancient Greek and Syriac recensions. There are also Armenian and Latin translations.

    Gospel of St. Matthew

    This is a Latin composition of the fourth or fifth century. It pretends to have been written by St. Matthew and translated by St. Jerome. Pseudo-Matthew is in large part parallel to the "Protoevangelium Jacobi", being based on the latter or its sources. It differs in some particulars always in the direction of the more marvellous. Some of its data have replaced in popular belief parallel ones of the older pseudograph. Such is the age of fourteen in which Mary was betrothed to Joseph. A narrative of the flight into Egypt is adorned with poetic wonders. The dragons, lions, and other wild beasts of the desert adore the infant Jesus. At His word the palm-trees bow their heads that the Holy Family may pluck their fruit. The idols of Egypt are shattered when the Divine Child enters the land. The "Gospel of the Nativity of Mary" is a recast of the Pseudo-Matthew, but reaches only to the birth of Jesus. It is extant in a Latin manuscript of the tenth century.

    Arabic Gospel of the Infancy

    The Arabic is a translation of a lost Syriac original. The work is a compilation and refers expressly to the "Book of Joseph Caiphas, the High-Priest", the "Gospel of the Infancy", and the "Perfect Gospel". Some of its stories are derived from the Thomas Gospel, and others from a recension of the apocryphal Matthew. However there are miracles, said to have occurred in Egypt, not found related in any other Gospel, spurious or genuine, among them the healings of leprosy through the water in which Jesus had been washed, and the cures effected through the garments He had worn. These have become familiar in pious legend. So also has the episode of the robbers Titus and Dumachus, into whose hands the Holy Family fell. Titus bribes Dumachus not to molest them; the Infant foretells that thirty years thence the thieves will be crucified with Him, Titus on His right and Dumachus on His left and that the former will accompany Him into paradise. The apocryphon abounds in allusions to characters in the real Gospels. Lipsius opines that the work as we have it is a Catholic retouching of a Gnostic compilation. It is impossible to ascertain its date, but it was probably composed before the Mohammedan era. It is very popular with the Syrian Nestorians. An originally Arabic "History of Joseph the Carpenter" is published in Tischendorf's collection of apocrypha. It describes St. Joseph's death, related by Our Lord to His disciples. It is a tasteless and bombastic effort, and seems to date from about the fourth century.



    Gospel of Gamaliel



    Dr. A. Baumstark in the Revue Biblique (April, 1906, 253 sqq.), has given this name to a collection of Coptic fragments of a homogeneous character, which were supposed by another Coptic scholar, Reveillout, to form a portion of the "Gospel of the Twelve Apostles" (q.v. inf.). These fragments have been referred to a single Gospel also by Lacau, in "Fragments d'apocryphes coptes de la bibliothèque nationale" (Cairo, 1904). The narrative is in close dependence on St. John's Gospel. The author did not pose seriously as an evangelist, since he explicitly quotes from the fourth canonical Gospel. He places the relation in the mouth of Gamaliel of Acts, v, 34. Baumstark assigns it to the fifth century. The writer was evidently influenced by the "Acta Pilati".



    The Transitus Mariæ or Evangelium Joannis



    The Transitus Mariæ or Evangelium Joannis, which is written in the name of St. John the Apostle, and describes the death of Mary, enjoyed a wide popularity, as is attested by the various recensions in different languages which exist. The Greek has the superscription: "The Account of St. John the Theologian of the Falling Asleep of the Holy Mother of God". One of the Latin versions is prefaced by a spurious letter of Melito, Bishop of Sardis, explaining that the object of the work was to counteract a heretical composition of the same title and subject. There is a basis of truth in this statement as our apocryphon betrays tokens of being a Gnostic writing worked over in an orthodox interest. A "Transitus Mariæ" is numbered among the apocrypha by the official list of the "Decretum of Gelasius" of the fifth or sixth century. It is problematic, however, whether this is to be identified with our recast Transitus or not. Critics assign the latter to the end of the fourth or the beginning of the fifth century. The relation of the Transitus to the tradition of Mary's Assumption has not yet been adequately examined. However, there is warrant for saying that while the tradition existed substantially in portions of the Church at an early period, and thus prepared the way for the acceptance of mythical amplifications, still its later form and details were considerably influenced by the Transitus and kindred writings. Certainly the homilies of St. John Damascene, "In Dormitionem Mariæ", reveal evidence of this influence, e.g. the second homily, xii, xiii, xiv. Going further back, the "Encomium" of Modestus, Bishop of Jerusalem, in the seventh century (P.G., LXXXVI, 3311), and the Pseudo-Dionysius of the fifth (De divinis nominibus, iii), probably suppose an acquaintance with apocryphal narratives of the Death and Assumption of the Blessed Virgin. These narratives have a common groundwork, though varying considerably in minor circumstances. The Apostles are preternaturally transported from different quarters of the globe to the Virgin's deathbed, those who had died being resuscitated for the purpose. The "Departure" takes place at Jerusalem, though the Greek version places Mary first at Bethlehem. A Jew who ventures to touch the sacred body instantly loses both hands, which are restored through the mediation of the Apostles. Christ accompanied by a train of angels comes down to receive His mother's soul. The Apostles bear the body to Gethsemani and deposit it in a tomb, whence it is taken up alive to Heaven. (See ASSUMPTION; MARY.)

    Judaistic and heretical gospels



    Gospel according to the Hebrews



    Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Eusebius, and St. Epiphanius speak of a "Gospel according to the Hebrews" which was the sole one in use among the Palestinian Judeo-Christians, otherwise known as the Nazarenes. Jerome translated it from the Aramaic into Greek. It was evidently very ancient, and several of the above mentioned writers associate it with St. Matthew's Gospel, which it seems to have replaced in the Jewish-Christian community at an early date. The relation between the Gospel according to the Hebrews and our canonical Matthew Gospel is a matter of controversy. The surviving fragments prove that there were close literal resemblances. Harnack asserts that the Hebrew Gospel was entirely independent, the tradition it contained being parallel to that of Matthew. Zahn, while excluding any dependence on our Greek canonical Matthew, maintains one on the primitive Matthew, according to which its general contents were derived from the latter. This Gospel seems to have been read as canonical in some non-Palestinian churches; the Fathers who are acquainted with it refer to it with a certain amount of respect. Twenty-four fragments have been preserved by ecclesiastical writers. These indicate that it had a number of sections in common with the Synoptics, but also various narratives and sayings of Jesus, not found in the canonical Gospels. The surviving specimens lack the simplicity and dignity of the inspired writings; some even savour of the grotesque. We are warranted in saying that while this extra-canonical material probably has as its starting-point primitive tradition, it has been disfigured in the interests of a Judaizing Church. (See AGRAPHA.)



    Gospel According to the Egyptians



    It is by this title that Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Hippolytus, and Epiphanius describe an uncanonical work, which evidently was circulated in Egypt. All agree that it was employed by heretical sects -- for the most part Gnostics. The scanty citations which have been preserved in the Fathers indicate a tendency towards the Encratite condemnation of marriage, and a pantheistic Gnosticism. The Gospel according to the Egyptians did not replace the canonical records in the Alexandrian Church, as Harnack would have us believe, but it seems to have enjoyed a certain popularity in the country districts among the Coptic natives. It could scarcely have been composed later than the middle of the second century and it is not at all impossible that it retouched some primitive material not represented in the canonical Gospels.



    Gospel of St. Peter



    The existence of an apocryphal composition bearing this name in Christian antiquity had long been known by references to it in certain early patristic writers who intimate that it originated or was current among Christians of Docetic views. Much additional light has been thrown on this document by the discovery of a long fragment of it at Akhmîn in Upper Egypt, in the winter of 1886-87, by the French Archæological Mission. It is in Greek and written on a parchment codex at a date somewhere between the sixth and ninth century. The fragment narrates part of the Passion, the Burial, and Resurrection. It betrays a dependence, in some instances literal, on the four inspired Gospels, and is therefore a valuable additional testimony to their early acceptance. While the apocryphon has many points of contact with the genuine Gospels, it diverges curiously from them in details, and bears evidence of having treated them with much freedom. No marked heretical notes are found in the recovered fragment, but there are passages which are easily susceptible of a heterodox meaning. One of the few extra-canonical passages which may contain an authentic tradition is that which describes Christ as placed in mockery upon a throne by His tormentors. Pseudo-Peter is intermediate in character between the genuine Evangels and the purely legendary apocrypha. Its composition must be assigned to the first quarter or the middle of the second century of the Christian era. C. Schmidt thinks he has found traces of what is perhaps a second Gospel of Peter in some ancient papyri (Schmidt, Sitzungsberichte der königlichen preuss. Akademie zu Berlin, 1895; cf. Bardenhewer, Geschichte, I, 397, 399).



    Gospel of St. Philip



    Only one or two quotations remain of the Gospel of St. Philip mentioned by Epiphanius and Leontius of Byzantium; but these are enough to prove its Gnostic colouring.



    Gospel of St. Thomas



    There are two Greek and two Latin redactions of it, differing much from one another. A Syriac translation is also found. A Gospel of Thomas was known to many Fathers. The earliest to mention it is St. Hippolytus (155-235), who informs us that it was in use among the Naasenes, a sect of Syrian Gnostics, and cites a sentence which does not appear in our extant text. Origen relegates it to the heretical writings. St. Cyril of Jerusalem says it was employed by the Manichæans; Eusebius rejects it as heretical and spurious. It is clear that the original Pseudo-Thomas was of heterodox origin, and that it dates from the second century; the citations of Hippolytus establish that it was palpably Gnostic in tenor. But in the extant Thomas Gospel there is no formal or manifest Gnosticism. The prototype was evidently expurgated by a Catholic hand, who, however, did not succeed in eradicating all traces of its original taint. The apocryphon in all its present forms extravagantly magnifies the Divine aspect of the boy Jesus. In bold contrast to the Infancy narrative of St. Luke, where the Divinity is almost effaced, the author makes the Child a miracle-worker and intellectual prodigy, and in harmony with Docetism, leaves scarcely more than the appearance of humanity in Him. This pseudo-Gospel is unique among the apocrypha, inasmuch as it describes a part of the hidden life of Our Lord between the ages of five and twelve. But there is much that is fantastic and offensive in the pictures of the exploits of the boy Jesus. His youthful miracles are worked at times out of mere childish fancy, as when He formed clay pigeons, and at a clap of His hands they flew away as living birds; sometimes, from beneficence; but again from a kind of harsh retribution.



    Gospel of St. Bartholomew



    The so-called Decretum of Gelasius classes the Gospel of St. Bartholomew among the apocrypha. The earliest allusion to it is in St. Jerome's works. Recently scholars have brought to light fragments of it in old Coptic manuscripts. One of these Orientalists, Baumstark, would place its composition in the first part of the fourth century. A Gospel of Matthias is mentioned by Origen and Eusebius among the heretical literature along with the Peter and Thomas Gospels. Hippolytus states that the Basilidean Gnostics appealed to a "secret discourse" communicated to them by the Apostle Matthias who had received instruction privately from the Lord. Clement of Alexandria, who was credulous concerning apocryphal literature, quotes with respect several times the "Tradition of Matthias".



    Gospel of the Twelve Apostles



    A Gospel of the Twelve Apostles was known to Origen (third century). Other patristic notices give rise to some uncertainty whether the Gospel of the Twelve Apostles of antiquity was really distinct from that of the Hebrews. The greater probabilities oppose their identity. Recently the claim has been made by M. Reveillout, a Coptic scholar, that the lost Gospel has been in a considerable measure recovered in several Coptic fragments, all of which, he asserts, belong to the same document. But this position has been successfully combated by Dr. Baumstark in the in the "Revue Biblique" (April, 1906, 245 sqq.), who will allow at most a probability that certain brief sections appertain to a Gospel of the Twelve Apostles, written originally in Greek and current among Gnostic Ebionites as early as the second century. There exists a late and entirely orthodox Syriac "Gospel of the Twelve Apostles", published by J. Rendel Harris (Cambridge, 1900).



    Other Gospels



    It is enough to note the existence of other pseudo-Gospels, of which very little is known beside the names. There was a Gospel of St. Andrew, probably identical with the Gnostic "Acts of Andrew" (q.v., inf.); a Gospel of Barnabas, a Gospel of Thaddeus, a Gospel of Eve, and even one of Judas Iscariot, the last in use among the Gnostic sect of Cainites, and which glorified the traitor.

    Pilate literature and other apocrypha concerning Christ



    While Christianity was struggling against the forces of Roman paganism, there was a natural tendency to dwell upon the part which a representative of the Roman Empire played in the supreme events of Our Lord's life, and to shape the testimony of Pontius Pilate, the procurator of Judea, even at the cost of exaggeration and amplification, into a weapon of apologetic defence, making that official bear witness to the miracles, Crucifixion, and Resurrection of Christ. Hence arose a considerable apocryphal Pilate literature, of which the Gospel of Gamaliel really forms a part, and like this latter apocryphon, it is characterized by exaggerating Pilate's weak defence of Jesus into strong sympathy and practical belief in His divinity.



    Report of Pilate to the Emperor.



    In the apocryphal Acts of Peter and Paul there is embodied a letter purporting to have been sent by Pontius Pilate to the Emperor Claudius. This briefly relates the fatuous crime of the Jews in persecuting the Holy One promised to them by their God; enumerates His miracles and states that the Jews accused Jesus of being a magician. Pilate at the time believing this, delivered Him to them. After the Resurrection the soldiers whom the governor had placed at the tomb were bribed by the leaders to be silent, but nevertheless divulged the fact. The missive concludes with a warning against the mendacity of the Jews. This composition is clearly apocryphal though unexpectedly brief and restrained. It is natural, to attempt to trace a resemblance between this pseudograph and certain references of ecclesiastical writers to Acta or Gesta of Pilate. Tertullian (Apologia, xxi) after giving a sketch of the miracles and Passion of Christ, subjoins: "All these things Pilate . . . announced to Tiberius Cæsar." A comparison between this pericope and the Pseudo-Pilate report reveals a literary dependence between them, though the critics differ as to the priority of these documents. In chapters 35, 38, and 48 of Justin's Apologia, that Father appeals confidently as a proof of the miracles and Passion of Jesus to "Acts" or records of Pontius Pilate existing in the imperial archives. While it is possible that St. Justin may have heard of such a report, and even probable that the procurator transmitted some account of the events at Jerusalem to Rome, it is on the other hand admissible that Justin's assertion was based on nothing more than hypothesis. This is the opinion of the majority of the experts. During the persecutions under Maximin in the fourth century spurious anti-Christian Acts of Pilate were composed in Syria, as we learn from Eusebius. It is probable that the pseudographic letter was forged as an offset to these.



    Acta Pilati (Gospel of Nicodemus)



    See the separate article under this title.



    The Minor Pilate Apocrypha



    The minor Pilate apocrypha, the Anaphora Pilati, or "Relation of Pilate", is frequently found appended to the texts of the Acta. It presupposes the latter work, and could not have been composed before the middle of the fifth century. It is found in manuscripts combined with the Paradoseis or "Giving up of Pilate", which represents the oldest form of the legend dealing with Pilate's subsequent life. A still later fabrication is found in the Latin Epistola Pilati ad Tiberium. There exists a puerile correspondence consisting of a pretended Letter of Herod to Pilate and Letter of Pilate to Herod. They are found in Greek and Syriac in a manuscript of the sixth or seventh century. These pseudographs may be as old as the fifth century.



    The Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea



    The Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea -- furnishing imaginary details of the two thieves crucified with Christ, and the begging of the body from Pilate -- seems to have enjoyed popularity in the Middle Ages in the Byzantine East, judging from the number of Greek manuscripts which remain. The oldest of those published belongs to the twelfth century. The relation is appended to some Latin texts of the Acta Pilati, under the title "Historia Josephi". It may be read in English in Walker's and the Ante-Nicene Father.' collection of the apocrypha.



    The Legend of Abgar



    The oldest form of the Pseudo-Correspondence of Jesus and Abgar, King of Edessa, is found in Eusebius (Historia Ecclesiastica, I, xiii), who vouches that he himself translated it from the Syriac documents in the archives of Edessa, the metropolis of Eastern Syria. The two letters are accompanied by an introduction which probably is an excerpt from the same source. According to this, Abgar V, Toparch or King of Edessa, suffering from an incurable disease, and having heard the fame of Christ's miracles sends a courier to Jerusalem, bearing a letter to Jesus, in which he declared Him to be a god, or the son of a god, and invites Him to Edessa, justifying the request partly by his desire to be cured, partly by his wish to offer to Jesus an asylum against the malignant Jews. Our Lord replied as follows:



    Blessed are you because you have believed in Me without seeing Me. For it is written that those who have seen Me, will not believe Me; and that those who have not seen Me will believe and love Me. But as to your prayer that I come to you, it is necessary that I fulfil here all that for which I have been sent, and that after I have fulfilled it, that I be taken up to Him who has sent Me. But after my taking up I shall send you one of My disciples, who will heal your pains, and keep life for you and yours.



    Accordingly, after the Ascension, "Judas Thomas" an Apostle, despatches to Edessa Thaddeus, one of the seventy Disciples, who cures the King of his disease, and preaches Christ to the assembled people. This, adds Eusebius, happened in the year 340, i.e. of the Seleucid era; corresponding to A.D. 28-29. The pleasing story is repeated with variations in later sources. The "Teaching of Addai", a Syrian apocryphon (q.v. infra), reproduces the correspondence with additions.



    The authenticity of the alleged letter of Christ has always been strongly suspected when not absolutely denied. As early as the sixth century the Gelasian Decretum brands this correspondence as spurious. Its legendary environment and the fact that the Church at large did not hand down the pretended epistle from Our Lord as a sacred document is conclusive against it. As for the letter of Abgar, its genuineness was formerly favoured by many skilled in this literature, but since the discovery of the "Teaching of Addai", published in 1876, the presumption against the authentic character of Abgar's epistle, owing to the close resemblance of a portion to passages in the Gospels, has become an established certainty. Lipsius, a high authority, is of the opinion that the Abgar correspondence goes back to the reign of the first Christian ruler of Edessa, Abgar IX (179-216), and that it was elicited by a desire to force a link uniting that epoch with the time of Christ



    Letter of Lentulus



    A brief letter professing to be from Lentulus, or Publius Lentulus, as in some manuscripts, "President of the People of Jerusalem", addressed to "the Roman Senate and People", describes Our Lord's personal appearance. It is evidently spurious, both the office and name of the president of Jerusalem being grossly unhistorical. No ancient writer alludes to this production, which is found only in Latin manuscripts. It has been conjectured that it may have been composed in order to authenticate a pretended portrait of Jesus, during the Middle Ages. An English version is given in Cowper's Apocryphal Gospels and Other Doeuments Relating to Christ (New York, 6th ed., 1897).

    Apocryphal acts of the apostles



    The motive which first prompted the fabrication of spurious Acts of the Apostles was, in general, to give Apostolic support to heretical systems, especially those of the many sects which are comprised under the term Gnosticism. The darkness in which the New Testament leaves the missionary careers, and the ends of the greater number of the Apostles, and the meagre details handed down by ecclesiastical tradition, left an inviting field for the exercise of inventive imaginations, and offered an apt means for the insidious propagation of heresy. The Jewish-Christian Church, which early developed un-Catholic tendencies in the form of Ebionitism, seems first to have produced apocryphal histories of the Apostles, though of these we have very few remains outside the material in the voluminous Pseudo-Clement. The Gnostic Acts of Peter, Andrew, John, Thomas, and perhaps Matthew, date from the early portion of the third century or perhaps a little earlier. They abound in extravagant and highly coloured marvels, and were interspersed by long pretended discourses of the Apostles which served as vehicles for the Gnostic predications. Though the pastors of the Church and the learned repudiated these as patently heretical writings, they appealed to the fancy and satisfied the curiosity of the common people. Not only were they utilized by Manichæans in the East and Priscillianists in the West, but they found favour with many unenlightened Catholics. Since it was impossible to suppress their circulation entirely, they were rendered comparatively harmless by orthodox editing which expunged the palpable errors, especially in the discourses, leaving the miracle element to stand in its riotous exuberance. Hence most of the Gnostic Acts have come down to us with more or less of a Catholic purification, which, however, was in many cases so superficial as to leave unmistakable traces of their heterodox origin. The originally Gnostic apocryphal Acts were gathered into collections which bore the name of the periodoi (Circuits) or praxeis (Acts) of the Apostles, and to which was attached the name of a Leucius Charinus, who may have formed the compilation. The Gnostic Acts were of various authorship. Another collection was formed in the Frankish Church in the sixth century, probably by a monk. In this the Catholic Acts have been preserved; it is by no means uniform in its various manuscript representatives. By a misunderstanding, the authorship of the whole, under the title "Historia Certaminis Apostolorum", was ascribed to an Abdias, said to have been the first Bishop of Babylon and a disciple of the Apostles. The nucleus of this collection was formed by the Latin Passiones, or Martyrdoms, of those Apostles who had been neglected by the Gnostic Acts, viz., the two Jameses, Philip (Matthew?), Bartholomew, Simon, and Jude. The literature grew by accretions from heretical sources and eventually took in all the Apostles, including St. Paul. The motive of these non-heretical apocrypha was primarily to gratify the pious curiosity of the faithful regarding the Apostolic founders of the Church; sometimes local interests instigated their composition. After the model of the Gnostic Acts, which were of Oriental derivation, they abound in prodigies, and like those again, they take as their starting-point the traditional dispersion of the Twelve from Jerusalem. Regarding the historical value of these apocryphal narratives, it requires the most careful criticism to extricate from the mass of fable and legend any grains of historical truth. Even respecting the fields of the Apostolic missions, they are self-contradictory or confused. In general their details are scientifically worthless, unless confirmed by independent authorities, which rarely happens. Much of their apocryphal matter was taken up by the offices of the Apostles in the Latin breviaries and lectionaries, composed in the seventh and eighth centuries at an extremely uncritical period.

    Gnostic acts of the apostles



    Acts of St. Peter



    There exist a Greek and a Latin Martyrdom of Peter, the latter attributed to Pope Linus, which from patristic citations are recognized as the conclusion of an ancient Greek narrative entitled "Acts, or Circuits of St. Peter". Another manuscript, bearing the name "Actus Petri cum Simone", contains a superior translation with several passages from the original narrative preceding the Martyrdom. The work betrays certain tokens of Gnosticism, although it has been purged of its grossest features by a Catholic reviser. It describes the triumph of St. Peter over Simon Magus at Rome, and the Apostle's subsequent crucifixion. These Acts as we have them are of high antiquity, though it is impossible to always discern whether patristic writers are quoting from them or an earlier tradition. Undoubtedly Commodian (c. 250) employed our extant Acts of Peter.



    Acts of St. John



    The heretical character imputed to these by certain Fathers is fully confirmed by extant fragments, which show a gross Docetism, and an unbridled phantasy. Doubtless the author intermingled valuable Ephesian traditions with his fables. There are reasons of weight to regard the work as having been composed, together with the Acts of St. Peter, and probably those of St. Andrew, by a single person, in the latter half of the second century, under the name of a disciple of St. John, called Leucius. Clement of Alexandria was acquainted with the pseudograph. The Johannine Acts of the Pseudo-Prochorus (compare the canonical Acts 6:5) are a Catholic working-over of Gnostic material.



    Acts of St. Andrew



    Pseudographic Acts of St. Andrew are noted by several early ecclesiastical writers, as in circulation among Gnostic and Manichæan sects. The original form has perished except in a few patristic quotations. But we possess three individual Acts under different names, which prove to be orthodox recensions of an original comprehensive Gnostic whole. These are:



    1. "The Acts of Andrew and Matthias" (or Matthew as given by some authorities)

    2. "Acts of Peter and Andrew" (the original language of the above is Greek)

    3. "The Martyrdom of the Apostle Andrew" has come down in both Greek and Latin recensions. The Latin text is the original one, and cannot be earlier than the fifth century. It purports to be a relation of the heroic death of St. Andrew by eyewitnesses who are "presbyters and deacons of the Church of Achaia". It has enjoyed credit among historians in the past, but no reliance can be placed on its data.



    The Acts and Martyrdom of St. Matthew



    The Acts and Martyrdom of St. Matthew are in literary dependence on the Acts of St. Andrew (q.v., supra), and hence the reading "Matthew" may be an error for "Matthias", since evidently the companion of Peter and Andrew is intended. The work exists in Greek and a later Latin. There is also a Coptic-Ethiopic martyrdom legend of St. Matthew. (See ST. MATTHEW; APOSTLE; APOSTOLIC CHURCHES).



    Acts of St. Thomas



    No Apostolic apocryphon has reached us in a completeness equal to that of the Thomas Acts. They are found in Greek, Syriac, and Ethiopic recensions. Their Gnostic traits pierce through the Catholic re-touching; in fact, the contents show a conscious purpose to exalt the dualistic doctrine of abstention from conjugal intercourse. Scholars are much inclined to attribute the original to a Syrian origin and an author who was an adherent of Bardesanes. The signs point strongly to the third century as the era. The translation of the remains of St. Thomas to Edessa in 232 may have furnished the inspiration for the composition. The Acts relate the prodigies performed by the Apostle in India, and end with his martyrdom there. They are interspersed with some remarkable hymns; some of real literary beauty but with strong Gnostic colouring. Recent researches have revealed elements of truth in the historical setting of the narrative. The Acts of St. Thomas are mentioned by Epiphanius and Augustine as in use in different heretical circles. St. Ephrem of Syria refers to apocryphal Thomas Acts as in circulation among the Bardesanites (see ST. THOMAS).



    Acts of St. Bartholomew



    We possess a Greek Martrydom, dating in its present form from the fifth or sixth century; also a Latin "Passio Bartholomæi". Both are tainted with Nestorianism, and seem to have come from a single Bartholomew legend. The Greek text recounts the marvels by which the Apostle overthrew idolatry and converted a king and his subjects in "India". The whole is a legendary tissue. (See ST. BARTHOLOMEW, APOSTLE).

    Catholic apocryphal acts of the apostles



    Acts of Sts. Peter and Paul



    These are to be distinguished from the Gnostic Acts of Peter and the orthodox Acts of Paul. The manuscripts which represent the legend fall into two groups:



    * consisting of all but one of the Greek texts, containing an account of the journey of St. Paul to Rome, and the martyrdom of the two Apostles.

    * composed of one Greek manuscript and a great number of Latin ones, presenting the history of the passio only.



    Lipsius regards the journey section as a ninth-century addition; Bardenhewer will have it to belong to the original document. This section begins with Paul's departure from the island of Mileto, and is evidently based on the canonical narrative in Acts. The Jews have been aroused by the news of Paul's intended visit, and induce Nero to forbid it. Nevertheless the Apostle secretly enters Italy; his companion is mistaken for himself at Puteoli and beheaded. In retribution that city is swallowed up by the sea. Peter receives Paul at Rome with Joy. The preaching of the Apostles converts multitudes and even the Empress. Simon Magus traduces the Christian teachers, and there is a test of strength in miracles between that magician and the Apostles, which takes place in the presence of Nero, Simon essays a flight to heaven but falls in the Via Sacra and is dashed to pieces. Nevertheless, Nero is bent on the destruction of Peter and Paul. The latter is beheaded on the Ostian Way, and Peter is crucified at his request head downward. Before his death he relates to the people the "Quo Vadis?" story. Three men from the East carry off the Apostles' bodies but are overtaken. St. Peter is buried at "The place called the Vatican", and Paul on the Ostian Way. These Acts are the chief source for details of the martyrdom of the two great Apostles. They are also noteworthy as emphasizing the close concord between the Apostolic founders of the Roman Church. The date (A.D. 55) of composition is involved in obscurity. Lipsius finds traces of our Acts as early as Hippolytus (c. 235), but it is not clear that the Fathers adduced employed any written source for their references to the victory over Simon Magus and the work of the Apostles at Rome. Lipsius assigns the kernel of the Martyrdom to the second century; Bardenhewer refers the whole to the first half of the third. The Acts of Peter and Paul undoubtedly embody some genuine traditions. (See ST. PETER; ST. PAUL; SIMON MAGUS).



    Acts of St. Paul



    Origen and Eusebius expressly name the praxeis Paulou; Tertullian speaks of writings falsely attributed to Paul: "Quod si Pauli perperam inscripta legunt." He is cautioning his readers against the tale of Thecla preaching and baptizing herself. Hitherto it was supposed that he referred to the "Acts of Paul and Thecla". The "Acta Pauli", presumed to be a distinct composition, were deemed to have perished; but recently (1899) a Coptic papyrus manuscript, torn to shreds, was found in Egypt, and proves to contain approximately complete the identical Acts of Paul alluded to by a few ecclesiastical writers. This find has established the fact that the long-known Acts of Paul and Thecla and the apocryphal correspondence of St. Paul with the Corinthian Church, as well as the Martyrdom of St. Paul, are really only excerpts from the original Pauline Acts. The newly-discovered document contains material hitherto unknown as well as the above-noted sections, long extant. It begins with a pretended flight of St. Paul from Antioch of Pisidia, and ends with his martyrdom at Rome. The narrative rests on data in the canonical books of the New Testament, but it abounds in marvels and personages unhinted at there, and it disfigures traits of some of those actually mentioned in the Sacred Writings. The Acts of Paul, therefore, adds nothing trustworthy to our knowledge of the Apostle of the Gentiles. Fortunately the above-cited passage of Tertullian (De Baptismo, xvii) informs us of its authorship and aim. The African writer observes that the pseudo-history was the work of a priest of Asia Minor, who on the discovery of the fraud, was deposed from an ecclesiastical charge, and confessed that he forged the book out of love for St. Paul. Experts ascribe its composition to the second century. It was already known when Tertullian wrote, and during the first centuries enjoyed a considerable popularity, both East and West. In fact Eusebius classes it among the antilegomena, or works having locally quasi-canonical authority.



    Acts of Paul and Thecla



    The early detachment of these as well as the Martyrdom from the Acts of St. Paul may be accounted for by ecclesiastical use as festal lections. Despite Tertullian's remark regarding this pseudograph, it enjoyed an immense and persistent popularity through the patristic period and the Middle Ages. This favour is to be explained mainly by the romantic and spirited flavour of the narrative. Exceptional among the apocryphists, the author kept a curb upon his fertile imagination, and his production is distinguished by its simplicity, clearness, and vigour. It deals with the adventures of Thecla, a young woman of Iconium, who upon being converted by St. Paul's preaching, left her bridegroom and lived a life of virginity and missionary activity, becoming a companion of St. Paul, and preaching the Gospel. She is persecuted, but miraculously escapes from the fire and the savage beasts of the arena. The relief into which abstention from the marriage-bed is brought in these Acts makes it difficult to escape from the conclusion that they have been coloured by Encratite ideas. Nevertheless the thesis of Lipsius, supported by Corssen, that a Gnostic Grundschrift underlies our present document, is not accepted by Harnack, Zahn, Bardenhewer, and others. The apocryphon follows the New Testament data of St. Paul's missions very loosely and is full of unhistorical characters and events. For instance, the writer introduces a journey of the Apostles, to which there is nothing analogous in the Sacred Books. However, there are grains of historical material in the Thecla story. A Christian virgin of that name may well have been converted by St. Paul at Iconium, and suffered persecution. Gutschmid has discovered that a certain Queen Tryphena was an historical personage (Rheinisches Museum für Philologie, X, 1864). (See THECLA.)



    Acts of St. Philip



    The extant Greek fragments supply us with all but five (10-14) of the fifteen Acts composing the work. Of these 1-7 are a farrago of various legends, each, it would seem, with an independent history; 8-14 is a unit, which forms a parasitic growth on the ancient but somewhat confused traditions of the missionary activity of an Apostle Philip in Hierapolis of Phrygia. Zahn's view, that this document is the work of an ill-informed Catholic monk of the fourth century, is a satisfactory hypothesis. The largest fragment was first published by Batiffol in "Analecta Bollandiana", IX (Paris, 1890). A Coptic "Acts of Philip" is also to be noted. (See ST. PHILIP, APOSTLE)



    There are Latin, Coptic, Ethiopic, and Armenian histories of the missions and death of St. James the Greater, the son of Zebedee. Lipsius assigns the Latin to about the third century. Coptic and Armenian Acts and Martyrdom of St. James the Less depend mostly on the Hegesippus tradition, preserved by Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., IV, xxii).



    Acts of St. Matthew



    The Apostolic Acts of the Pseudo-Abdias contain a Latin "Passio Sancti Matthæi", which preserves an Abyssinian legend of St. Matthew, later than the Coptic Martyrdom noticed in connection with the Gnostic Acts of that saint. The correct historical setting indicates that the recension was the work of an Abyssinian of the sixth century, who wished to date the establishment of the Abyssinian Church (fourth century) back to the Apostolic times. However, the kernel of the narrative is drawn from older sources. The Abdias Passio places St. Matthew's martyrdom in Abyssinia. (See ST. MATTHEW, APOSTLE)



    Teaching of Addai (Thaddeus)



    In 1876 an ancient Syriac document, entitled "The Teaching of Addai, the Apostle", was published for the first time. It proved to closely parallel the Abgar material derived by Eusebius from the Edessa archives, and indeed purports to have been entrusted to those archives by its author, who gives his name as Labubna, the son of Senaak. It is full of legendary but interesting material describing the relations between Jesus and King Abgar of Edessa. Thaddeus,or Addai, one of the seventy disciples, is sent, after the Resurrection, in compliance with Christ's promise, to Abgar, heals the ruler and Christianizes Edessa with the most prompt and brilliant success. Notable is the story of the painting of Jesus made at the instance of Abgar's envoy to the former. Since the narrative of a Gaulish pilgrim who visited Edessa about 390 contains no allusion to such a picture, we may reasonably conclude that the Teaching of Addai is of later origin. Critics accept the period between 399-430. The Thaddeus legend has many ramifications and has undergone a number of variations. There is a Greek "Acts of Thaddeus", which identifies Addai with Thaddeus or Lebbæus, one of the Twelve. (See ABGAR; EDESSA).



    Acts of Simon and Jude



    A Latin Passio, which Lipsius attributes to the fourth or fifth century, narrates the miracles, conversions, and martyrdoms of these Apostles. It is found in the Abdias collection. The scene is Persia and Babylonia. It has been recognized that the historical setting of these Acts agrees remarkably with what is known of the conditions in the Parthian empire in the first century after Christ.



    The Acts of St. Barnabas



    The Acts of St. Barnabas appear to have been composed toward the end of the fifth century by a Cypriot. They are ascribed to St. Mark the Evangelist, and are historically worthless. They are extant in the original Greek and in a Latin version. The narrative is based upon the mutual relations and activities of Barnabas, Mark, and Paul, as recorded in the Acts of the Apostles.



    Gesta Matthiæ



    This is the latest of the pseudo-Acts, having been composed by a monk of Trèves, in the twelfth century, as a prelude to an account of the translation of the sacred relic, and the body of St. Matthias to that city, and their subsequent rediscoveries. It pretends to have derived the history of the Apostle's career from a Hebrew manuscript. (See ST. MATTHIAS, APOSTLE)

    Quasi-apostolic acts



    It must suffice to mention "Acts of St. Mark", of Alexandrian origin, and written in the fourth or fifth century; "Acts of St. Luke", Coptic, not earlier than end of fourth; "Acts of St. Timothy", composed by an Ephesian after 425; "Acts of St. Titus", of Cretan origin, between 400-700; "Acts of Kanthippe and Polyxena", connected with the legends about St. Paul and St. Andrew.

    Apocryphal doctrinal works



    Testamentum Domini Nostri Jesu



    It was known that a Syriac work of this name existed, and an extract was published in 1856. In 1899 Monsignor Rahmani, Patriarch of the United Syrians, published from a late manuscript the Syriac text, a Latin introduction and translation. The work is in two books. It begins with an apocalypse of the approaching day of Antichrist alleged to have been uttered by Our Lord after His Resurrection. Between this and the body of the work there is a very loose connection, as the main portion represents Christ as enacting, even to small details, laws for the governance and ritual of the Church. The writer places on Our Lord's lips descriptions of liturgical observances prevalent in his own and earlier periods. There are evident points of contact between the Testament and the ancient ecclesiastico-liturgical Canones Hippolyti, Apostolic Constitutions, and Apostolic Canons. Monsignor Rahmani assigns the Testament to the second century, and places the above works in the relation of dependence on it. But critics unanimously refuse to accord a high antiquity to the Testament, dating it in the fourth or fifth century, and inverting the dependence mentioned. On the ground that there is no indication of an acquaintance with the book outside the Orient, and that Arabic and Coptic recensions of it are known, Dr. A. Baumstark regards the work as a compilation originating in Monophysite circles, and current in the national Churches of that sect in Syria and Egypt. The apocalyptic opening has been found in a Latin manuscript of the eighth century, and published by M. R. James, "Apocrypha Anecdota" (Cambridge, 1893).



    The Preaching of Peter or Kerygma Petri.



    Clement of Alexandria repeatedly quotes from a kerygma Petrou, concerning whose credibility he obviously has no doubt. On the other hand, Eusebius classes it as apocryphal. A certain "Doctrine of Peter", mentioned by a later writer, was probably identical with the "Preaching". From the scanty remains of this work we can form but a very imperfect idea of it. It spoke in St. Peter's name and represented him above all as a teacher of the Gentiles. The doctrinal parts occur in a framework of an account of the missionary journeys. The pseudograph was probably suggested by the text, II Peter, i, 5. A work which was so well accredited in the days of Clement of Alexandria (c. 140-215), and which was known to the "Gnostic Heracleon" (c. 160-170), must have come from almost Apostolic antiquity. Scholars favour the first quarter of the second century. The fragments which remain betray no signs of heterodox origin. There is a Syriac "Preaching of Simon Peter in the City of Rome."



    Two Ways or Judicium Petri



    This is a moralizing treatise ascribed to St. Peter, and prefixed to the Didache. It is of Jewish-Christian origin, and probably was based on the so-called "Epistle of Barnabas".



    Preaching of Paul



    The only witness to this work is the treatise "De Rebaptismo" in the pseudo-Cyprian writings. According to this it represented Christ as confessing personal sins, and forced by His mother to receive baptism.

    Apocryphal epistles



    Pseudo-Epistles of the Blessed Virgin



    These are all composed in Latin and at late dates.



    * The Epistle of the Blessed Virgin to St. Ignatius Martyr fills but nine lines in the Fabricius edition of the apocrypha. It exhorts to faith and courage. There is a reply from Ignatius.

    * The Epistle to the Messanienses, i.e. the inhabitants of Messina, Sicily, is equally brief; it conveys an exhortation to faith, and a blessing.

    * The Epistle to the Florentines was expounded in a sermon of Savonarola, 25 October, 1495. We have no other testimony of it. It is four lines in length.



    Pseudo-Epistle of St. Peter to St. James the Less



    The Pseudo-Clementine homilies contain as a preface two letters, the first of which purports to be from Peter to James the Less, beseeching him to keep his (Peter's) preaching secret. (See CLEMENTINE PSEUDO-WRITINGS)



    Pseudo-Epistles of St. Paul; Correspondence with the Corinthians



    The ancient Syrian (Edessene) Church revered as canonical a Third Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians, which is accompanied by a letter from the pastors of that Church, to which it is an answer. But about the beginning of the fifth century the Syrian Church fell under the influence of the Greek, and in consequence the spurious letter gradually lost its canonical status. It was taken up by the neighbouring Armenians and for centuries has formed a part of the Armenian New Testament. Latin and Greek writers are completely silent about this pseudograph, although Greek and Latin copies have been found. It was obviously suggested by the lost genuine Pauline letter referred to in 1 Corinthians 5:9 and 7:1. It was composed by a Catholic presbyter about l60-170, and is a disguised attack on some of the leading errors of Gnosticism. This correspondence long had an independent circulation, but recently it has been proved that the document was incorporated into the Acts of St. Paul (q.v.).



    Pseudo-epistle to the Laodiceans



    In the genuine Epistle to the Colossians, Paul, after instructing them to send their Epistle to Laodicea, adds: "read that which is from the Laodiceans". This most probably regards a circular letter, the canonical "Ephesians"; but it has been held to be a lost letter to the Laodicean Christians. The apocryphal epistle is a transparent attempt to supply this supposed lost sacred document. It consists of twenty short lines and is mainly made of matter taken from Philippians and other Epistles, and pieced together without sequence or logical aim. Our apocryphon exists only in Latin and translations from the Latin, though it gives signs of a Greek original. It can hardly be the pseudo-Laodicean letter said by the Muratorian Fragment to have been invented by the heresiarch Marcion. Despite its insipid and suspicious character, this compilation was frequently copied in the Middle Ages, and enjoyed a certain degree of respect, although St. Jerome had written of it: ab omnibus exploditur. (See LAODICEA.) The Muratorian Fragmentist mentions together with a spurious epistle of Paul to the Laodiceans, one to the Alexandrians, which was forged under the auspices of Marcion. We have no other certain knowledge of this apocryphon.



    Pseudo-Correspondence of St. Paul and Seneca



    This consists of eight pretended letters from the Stoic philosopher Seneca, and six replies from St. Paul. They are identical with a correspondence alluded to by Jerome (de Viris Illustr., xii), who without passing judgment on their value, notes that they are read by many. These letters, therefore, could not have been composed after the second half of the fourth century. They are based on the earlytraditions of Seneca's leanings towards Christianity and the contemporary residence at Rome of Paul and the philosopher. We will merely note the existence of a spurious Letter of St. John, the Apostle, to a dropsical man, healing his disease, in the Acts of St. John by the pseudo-Prochorus; one of St. James, the Bishop of Jerusalem, to Quadratus, in Armenian (Vetter, Litterarische Rundschau, 1896).

    The Apocalypse of Mary



    The Apocalypse of Mary is of medieval origin, and is probably merely the outcome of an extravagant devotion. It describes the Blessed Mother's descent to Limbo, and exists in Greek manuscripts. It has been printed in the Tischendorf collection (Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti).



    Apocalypses of St. Peter



    The Muratorian Fragment, written at Rome in the latter part of the second century, names the apocalypses of John and Peter side by side as the only ones received in the Church, remarking that some do not acknowledge the latter. There is abundant evidence that the Petrine apocalypse was believed authentic in many quarters of the early Church, and enjoyed in a certain measure canonical authority. Clement of Alexandria always credulous with regard to apocrypha even honoured it with a commentary; Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., VI, xiv, 1), places it almost on an equality with the antilegomena or better class of disputed writings; Jerome rejects it flatly. Notwithstanding this, as late as the middle of the fifth century it was publicly read in some churches of Palestine. The few citations of patristic writers were unable to convey an idea of its contents, but fortunately a considerable fragment of this ancient document was discovered at Akhmîn, Egypt, together with the pseudo-Petrine Gospel in the language of the original, viz., Greek. A quotation of Clement of Alexandria from the recovered parts enables us to identify the manuscript with certainty as a portion of the apocalypse of antiquity. The passage relates to a vision granted by Christ to the Twelve on a mountain, exhibiting the glory of two departing brethren, the splendour of heaven, and a gruesome picture of hell. The language has a Jewish-Christian savour. The apocryphon is attributed by critics to the first quarter of the second century and is therefore one of the earliest specimens of non-canonical literature. There exist under the names Apocalypse of St. Peter, Apocalypse of St. Peter through Clement, Liber Clementis, various Arabic and Ethiopic recensions of an apocalypse which has nothing in common with the ancient Greek one.



    The Apocalypse of St. Paul



    A prefatory notice pretends that this work was found in a marble case under the house of Paul at Tarsus, in the reign of King Theodosius (A.D. 379-395), and upon intelligence conveyed by an angel. This indicates the date of the apocalypse's fabrication. It purports to reveal the secrets seen by the Apostle in his transport to the third heaven, alluded to in 2 Corinthians 12:2, and was composed in Greek. From this Pauline apocalypse must be distinguished a Gnostic work entitled the "Ascension of Paul", referred to by St. Epiphanius, but of which no remains have survived. There is a spurious "Apocalypse of John", of comparatively late origin. Regarding the so-called Apocalypse of St. Bartholomew see Gospel of St. Bartholomew.
    The apocrypha and the Church



    At a very early period orthodox writers and, presumably, ecclesiastical authorities found it necessary to distinguish between the genuine inspired books and a multitude of spurious rivals -- a fact which is a very important element in the formation of the Christian canon. Thus as early as about A.D. 170, the author of the descriptive Latin catalogue known as the "Muratorian Fragment" mentioned certain works as fictitious or contested. At the same time St. Irenæus called attention to the great mass of heretical pseudographic writings (inenarrabilis multitudo apocryphorum et perperam scripturarum, Adv., Hær., I, xx). Undoubtedly it was the large use heretical circles, especially the Gnostic sects, made of this insinuating literature which first called forth the animadversions of the official guardians of doctrinal purity. Even in the East, already the home of pseudographic literature, Origen (d. 254) exhibits caution regarding the books outside the canon (Comment. in Matth., serm. 28). St. Athanasius in 387 found it necessary to warn his flock by a pastoral epistle against Jewish and heretical apocrypha (P. G., XXVI, 1438). Another Greek Father, Epiphanius (312-403) in "Hæreses", 26, could complain that copies of Gnostic apocrypha were current in thousands. Yet it must be confessed that the early Fathers, and the Church, during the first three centuries, were more indulgent towards Jewish pseudographs circulating under venerable Old Testament names. The Book of Henoch and the Assumption of Moses had been cited by the canonical Epistle of Jude. Many Fathers admitted the inspiration of Fourth Esdras. Not to mention the Shepherd of Hermas, the Acts of St. Paul (at least in the Thecla portion) and the Apocalypse of St. Peter were highly revered at this and later periods. Yet, withal, no apocryphal work found official recognition in the Western Church. In 447 Pope Leo the Great wrote pointedly against the pseudo-apostolic writings, "which contained the germ of so many errors . . . they should not only be forbidden but completely suppressed and burned" (Epist. xv, 15). The so-called Decretum de recipiendis et non recipiendis libris" is attributed to Pope Gelasius (495), but in reality is a compilation dating from the beginning of the sixth century, and containing collections made earlier than Gelasius. It is an official document, the first of the kind we possess, and contained a list of 39 works besides those ascribed to Leucius, "disciple of the devil", all of which it condemns as apocryphal. From this catalogue it is evident that in the Latin Church by this time, apocrypha in general, including those of Catholic origin, had fallen under the ecclesiastical ban, always, however, with a preoccupation against the danger of heterodoxy. The Synod of Braga, in Spain, held in the year 563, anathematizes any one "who reads, approves, or defends the injurious fictions set in circulation by heretics". Although in the Middle Ages these condemnations were forgotten and many of the pseudographic writings enjoyed a high degree of favour among both clerics and the laity, still we find superior minds, such as Alcuin, St. Bernard, St. Thomas Aquinas, pointing out their want of authority. An echo of the ancient condemnations occurs in the work De Festis B.M.V. of Benedict XIV, declaring certain popular apocrypha to be impure sources of tradition.

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    Abortion, Physical Effects of

    Definition The expulsion of the human ovum occurring during the first three months of pregnancy, ...

    Abra de Raconis, Charles François d'

    A French bishop, born at the Château de Raconis in 1580 of a Calvinistic family ; died ...

    Abrabanel, Don Isaac

    (Also: Abravanel, Abarbanel). Jewish statesman, apologist and exegete, born in Lisbon ...

    Abraham

    The original form of the name, Abram , is apparently the Assyrian Abu-ramu . It is doubtful ...

    Abraham (in Liturgy)

    While of peculiar interest to the liturgiologist (especially in the classification of the ...

    Abraham a Sancta Clara

    A Discalced Augustinian friar, preacher, and author of popular books of devotion, b. at ...

    Abraham Ecchelensis

    A learned Maronite, born in Hekel, or Ecchel (hence his surname), a village on Mount Lebanon, in ...

    Abraham, The Bosom of

    In the Holy Bible , the expression "the Bosom of Abraham " is found only in two verses of St. ...

    Abrahamites

    (1) Syrian heretics of the ninth century. They were called Brachiniah by the Arabs, from the ...

    Abram, Nicholas

    Jesuit theologian, born in 1589, at Xaronval, in Lorraine; died 7 September, 1655. He taught ...

    Abrasax

    The study of Abrasax is, at first sight, as discouraging as it is possible to imagine. The name ...

    Absalom

    ( Abhshalom in Hebrew; Abessalom, Apsalomos in Greek). The name of several distinguished ...

    Absalon of Lund

    Also known as AXEL, a famous Danish prelate, b. in 1128, at Finnestoë in Seeland; d. 21 ...

    Absinthe

    ( Hebrew la'anah .) Wormwood, known for its repulsive bitterness ( Jeremiah 9:15 ; 23:15 ; ...

    Absolute, The

    A term employed in modern philosophy with various meanings, but applied generally speaking to ...

    Absolution

    ( Ab = from; solvere = to free) Absolution is the remission of sin, or of the punishment ...

    Abstemii

    An abstemius is one who cannot take wine without risk of vomiting. As, therefore, the ...

    Abstinence

    Inasmuch as abstinence signifies abstaining from food, the Bible narrative points to the first ...

    Abstinence, Physical Effects of

    The effects on the human system of abstinence from flesh meats divide themselves naturally and ...

    Abstraction

    ( Latin abs , from trahere , to draw). Abstraction is a process (or a faculty) by which the ...

    Abthain

    (Or ABTHANE). An English or Lowland Scotch form of the middle-Latin word abthania (Gaelic, ...

    Abucara, Theodore

    A bishop of Caria in Syria ; d., probably, in 770. In his anti-heretical dialogues (P.G., ...

    Abundius

    An Italian bishop, b. at Thessalonica early in the fifth century; d. 469. He was the fourth ...

    Abydus

    (ABYDOS). A titular see of Troas in Asia Minor , suffragan of Cyzicus in the ...

    Abyss

    (Greek abyssos ). Abyss is primarily and classically an adjective, meaning deep, very deep ...

    Abyssinia

    Geography Abyssinia, extending from the sixth to the fifteenth degree of north latitude, and ...

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    Ac 80

    Acacia

    (In Hebrew shíttah , plural shíttîm ; Theod. pyxos ; Vulgate, spina ...

    Acacians, The

    Known also as the HOMOEANS, an Arian sect which first emerged into distinctness as an ...

    Acacius

    Bishop of Beroea. Born in Syria c. 322; died c. 432. While still very young he became a monk ...

    Acacius

    Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine, disciple and biographer of Eusebius, the historian, whose ...

    Acacius

    Patriarch of Constantinople; Schismatic ; d. 489. When Acacius first appears in authentic ...

    Acacius, Saint

    Bishop of Melitene in the third century. The Greeks venerate him on different days, but ...

    Academies, Roman

    The Italian Renaissance at its apogee [from the close of the Western Schism (1418) to the ...

    Academy, The French

    The French Academy was founded by Cardinal de Richelieu in 1635. For several years a number of ...

    Acadia

    The precise location and extent of Acadia was a subject of constant dispute and consequent ...

    Acanthus

    A titular see of Macedonia, on the Strymonic Gulf, now known as Erisso. Its inhabitants were ...

    Acanthus

    A plant, indigenous to middle Europe, the leaf of which has served in all ages as an ornament, or ...

    Acathistus

    (Greek akathistos ; a privative, kathizo "sit"; i.e. not sitting; standing). The title ...

    Acca, Saint

    Bishop of Hexham, and patron of learning (c. 660-742). Acca was a Northumbrian by birth and ...

    Accaron

    ( Ekron ). The most northern of the five principal Philistine cities ( Joshua 13:3 ; 15:11 ...

    Accentus Ecclesiasticus

    The counterpart of concentus . In the ancient Church music all that portion of the liturgical ...

    Acceptance

    Acceptance, in canon law, the act by which one receives a thing with approbation or ...

    Acceptants

    Those Jansenists who accepted without any reserve or mental restriction the Bull Unigenitus ...

    Accession

    (From Latin accedere , to go to; hence, to be added to). Accession is a method of acquiring ...

    Accessus

    A term applied to the voting in conclave for the election of a pope, by which a cardinal ...

    Acciajuoli

    Name of three cardinals belonging to an illustrious Florentine family of this name. ANGELO, ...

    Accident

    [Latin accidere , to happen what happens to be in a subject; any contingent, or nonessential ...

    Acclamation

    ( Latin ad , to, clamare , to cry out). IN CIVIC LIFE The word acclamatio (in the plural, ...

    Acclamation (in Papal Elections)

    One of the forms of papal election . The method of electing the Roman Pontiff is contained in ...

    Accommodation, Biblical

    We shall consider (1) what is meant by biblical accommodation; (2) its use in Sacred Scripture; ...

    Accomplice

    A term generally employed to designate a partner in some form of evildoing. An accomplice is one ...

    Accursius, Francesco

    ( Italian Accorso ). (1)FRANCESCO ACCURSIUS (1182-1260) A celebrated Italian jurisconsult of ...

    Acephali

    A term applied to the Eutychians who withdrew from Peter Mongus, the Monophysite Patriarch of ...

    Acerenza

    (ACHERONTIA.) This archdiocese, in the provinces of Lecce and Potenza, Italy, has been ...

    Achéry, Lucas d'

    French Benedictine (Maurist), born 1609 at Saint Quentin in Picardy; died in the monastery of ...

    Achab

    ( 'A'h'abh, Achaab in Jeremiah 29:22 , 'Ehabh, Achiab ) Son of Amri and King of Israel, ...

    Achaia

    (Ægialeia). The name, before the Roman conquest in 146 B.C., of a strip of land between ...

    Achaicus

    A Corinthian Christian, who, together with Fortunatus and Stephanas, carried a letter from the ...

    Achaz

    (AHAZ). King of Juda, placed variously, 741-726 B.C., 744-728, 748-727, 724-709, 734-728. It ...

    Achiacharus

    Achiacharus is mentioned only once in the Vulgate version of Tobias ( 11:20 , under the form ...

    Achilleus and Nereus, Domitilla and Pancratius, Saints

    The commemoration of these four Roman saints is made by the Church on 12 May, in common, and ...

    Achimaas

    (1) Father of Achinoam, wife of Saul ( 1 Samuel 14:50 ). (2) Son of Sadoc, the priest. He was ...

    Achimelech

    (1) The priest of Nobe who extended hospitality to David during his flight from the court of ...

    Achitopel

    Achitopel was an able and honoured counsellor of David, who joined the rebellion of Absalom. ...

    Achonry

    (Gaelic, Achadh-Chonnaire , Connary's Field). In Ireland, suffragan to the Archdiocese of ...

    Achor Valley

    The scene of the death of the "troubler" Achan, with whom its name is associated ( Joshua 7:26 ). ...

    Achrida

    A titular see in Upper Albania, the famous metropolis and capital of the medieval kingdom of ...

    Achterfeldt, Johann Heinrich

    Theologian, b. at Wesel, 17 June, 1788; d. at Bonn, 11 May, 1877. He was appointed professor of ...

    Achtermann, Theodore William

    A German sculptor, was born in 1799, at Munster in Westphalia, of poor parents. After working on ...

    Aci-Reale, The Diocese of

    (JACA REGALIS). Located in the island of Sicily ; includes fourteen communes in the civil ...

    Acidalius, Valens

    ( German, Havekenthal ). Philologist, Latin poet, and convert to the Catholic Church, b. ...

    Ackermann, Leopold

    A Catholic professor of exegesis, b. in Vienna, 17 November, 1771; d. in the same city, 9 ...

    Acmonia

    A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, in Asia Minor, now known as Ahat-Keui. It is mentioned by ...

    Acoemetae

    (Greek akoimetai , from privative a and koiman , to rest). Sometimes, an appellation ...

    Acolouthia

    (From the Greek akoloutheo , to follow.) In ecclesiastical terminology signifies the ...

    Acolyte

    (Greek akolouthos ; Latin sequens, comes , a follower, an attendant). An acolyte is a ...

    Acosta, Joaquín

    A native of Colombia in South America, who served in the Colombian army and in 1834 attempted a ...

    Acosta, José de

    The son of well-to-do and respected parents, born at Medina del Campo in Spain, 1540; died at ...

    Acquapendente

    A diocese in Italy under the immediate jurisdiction of the Holy See, comprising seven towns ...

    Acquaviva

    Name of several Italian cardinals. FRANCESCO, b. 1665 at Naples, of the family of the ...

    Acquaviva

    Name of several Italian cardinals. FRANCESCO, b. 1665 at Naples, of the family of the ...

    Acquaviva, Claudius

    Fifth General of the Society of Jesus , born October, 1543; died 31 January, 1615. He was the ...

    Acqui

    A diocese suffragan of Turin, Italy, which contains ninety-three towns in the Province of ...

    Acre

    (SAINT-JEAN-D'ACRE). In Hebrew Accho , in the Books of MachabeesPtolemais , in Greek ...

    Acre

    (SAINT-JEAN D'ACRE) Ptolemais, a titular metropolis in Phoenicia Prima, or Maritima. The ...

    Acrostic

    ( Akros stichos , "at the end of a verse".) A poem the initial or final letters (syllables or ...

    Act of Settlement (Irish)

    In 1662 an act was passed by the Irish Parliament, the privileges of which were restored on the ...

    Acta Pilati

    (Or the Gospel of Nicodemus.) This work does not assume to have written by Pilate, but to have ...

    Acta Sanctæ Sedis

    A Roman monthly publication containing the principal public documents issued by the Pope, ...

    Acta Sanctorum Hiberniæ

    The abbreviated title of a celebrated work on the Irish saints by the Franciscan, John Colgan ...

    Acta Triadis Thaumaturgæ

    (THE ACTS OF A WONDER-WORKING TRIAD) The lives of St. Patrick, St. Brigid, and St. Columba; ...

    Acton, Charles Januarius

    An English cardinal, born at Naples, 6 March, 1803; died at Naples, 23 June, 1847. He was the ...

    Acton, John

    An English canonist, after 1329 canon of Lincoln; born 1350. His name is spelled variously, ...

    Acton, John Emerich Edward Dalberg, Baron Acton

    Baron Acton, Professor of Modern History at Cambridge, 1895-1902, born at Naples, 10 January, ...

    Acton, John Francis Edward

    Sixth Baronet of the name, son of a Shropshire physician, born at Besançon, 3 June, 1736; ...

    Acts of Roman Congregations

    A term used to designate the documents (called also decrees) issued by the Roman Congregations in ...

    Acts of the Apostles

    In the accepted order of the books of the New Testament the fifth book is called The Acts of the ...

    Acts of the Martyrs

    In a strict sense the Acts of the Martyrs are the official records of the trials of early ...

    Acts, Canonical

    According to the old Roman jurisprudence, acts are the registers ( acta ) in which were ...

    Acts, Human

    Acts are termed human when they are proper to man as man; when, on the contrary, they are ...

    Acts, Indifferent

    A human act may be considered in the abstract ( in specie ) or in the concrete ( in ...

    Actual Grace

    Grace ( gratia, Charis ), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual creatures ...

    Actus et Potentia

    A technical expression in scholastic phraseology. I. The terms actus and potentia were ...

    Actus primus

    A technical expression used in scholastic philosophy. Actus means determination, complement, ...

    Actus Purus

    A term employed in scholastic philosophy to express the absolute perfection of God. In all ...

    Acuas

    One of the first to spread Manicheism in the Christian Orient. He was probably a Mesopotamian, ...

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    Ad 88

    Ad Apostolicae Dignitatis Apicem

    Apostolic letter issued against Emperor Frederick II by Pope Innocent IV (1243-54), during the ...

    Ad Limina Apostolorum

    An ecclesiastical term meaning a pilgrimage to the sepulchres of St. Peter and St. Paul at ...

    Ad Limina Visit

    (Sc. Apostolorum ) The visit ad limina means, technically, the obligation incumbent on ...

    Ad Sanctam Beati Petri Sedem

    This letter was issued by Alexander VII , and is dated at Rome, 16 October, 1656, the second ...

    Ad Universalis Ecclesiae

    A papal constitution dealing with the conditions for admission to religious orders of men in ...

    Adalard, Saint

    Born c. 751; d. 2 January, 827. Bernard, son of Charles Martel and half-brother of Pepin, was ...

    Adalbert

    Archbishop of Hamburg - Bremen ; born about 1000; died 1072 at Goslar; son of Count Friedrich ...

    Adalbert I

    (Or ALBERT). Archbishop of Mainz (Mayence) 1111 to 1137. He was of the family of the Counts ...

    Adalbert, Saint

    Apostle of the Slavs, probably a native of Lorraine, d. 981. He was a German monk who was ...

    Adalbert, Saint

    Born 939 of a noble Bohemian family ; died 997. He assumed the name of the Archbishop Adalbert ...

    Adam

    The first man and the father of the human race. ETYMOLOGY AND USE OF WORD There is not a ...

    Adam in Early Christian Liturgy and Literature

    Adam's importance to the Fathers and to the authors of the many apocryphal writings of the ...

    Adam of Bremen

    A German historian and geographer of the eleventh century. The dates of his birth and death are ...

    Adam of Fulda

    Born about 1450, died after 1537, one of the most learned musicians of his age. He was a monk of ...

    Adam of Murimuth

    An English chronicler of about the middle of the fourteenth century. He was a canon of St. ...

    Adam of Perseigne

    A French Cistercian, Abbot of the monastery of Perseigne in the Diocese of Mans, b. about the ...

    Adam of St. Victor

    A prominent and prolific writer of Latin Hymns, born in the latter part of the twelfth century, ...

    Adam of Usk

    An English priest, canonist, and chronicler, born at Usk, in Monmouthshire, between 1360 and ...

    Adam Scotus

    (Or THE PREMONSTRATENSIAN). A theologian and Church historian of the latter part of the ...

    Adam, John

    A distinguished preacher and a strenuous opponent of Calvinists and Jansenists, born at Limoges ...

    Adam, Nicholas

    Linguist and writer, b. in Paris, 1716; d. 1792. He achieved distinction by a peculiar grammar of ...

    Adam, The Books of

    The Book of Adam, or "Contradiction of Adam and Eve", is a romance made up of Oriental fables. It ...

    Adami da Bolsena, Andrea

    An Italian musician b. at Bolsena, 1663; d. in Rome, 1742. Through the influence of Cardinal ...

    Adamites

    An obscure sect, dating perhaps from the second century, which professed to have regained Adam's ...

    Adamnan, Saint

    (Or Eunan). Abbot of Iona, born at Drumhome, County Donegal, Ireland, c. 624; died at the ...

    Adams, James

    Professor of humanities at St. Omers , born in England in 1737; died at Dublin, 6 December, ...

    Adams, Ven. John

    Priest, martyred at Tyburn, 8 October, 1586. He had been a Protestant minister, but being ...

    Adana

    A diocese of Armenian rite in Asia Minor (Asiatic Turkey). This ancient Phoenician colony ...

    Adar

    (1) A frontier town in the South of Chanaan ( Numbers 34:4 ; Joshua 15:3 ). It has not been ...

    Adauctus and Felix, Saints

    Martyrs at Rome, 303, under Diocletian and Maximian. The Acts, first published in Ado's ...

    Adda, Ferdinando d'

    Cardinal and Papal Legate, b. at Milan, 1649; d. at Rome, 1719. He was made Cardinal-Priest ...

    Addai, Doctrine of

    ( Latin Doctrina Addoei ). A Syriac document which relates the legend of the conversion ...

    Addas

    One of the three original disciples of Manes, who according to the Acts of Archelaus introduced ...

    Addeus and Maris, Liturgy of

    This is an Oriental liturgy, sometimes assigned to the Syrian group because it is written in the ...

    Addresses, Ecclesiastical

    It is from Italy that we derive rules as to what is fitting and customary in the matter of ...

    Adelaide, Archdiocese of

    Centred in Adelaide, capital of South Australia. It comprises all the territory of South ...

    Adelaide, Saint

    Abbess, born in the tenth century; died at Cologne, 5 February, 1015. She was daughter of ...

    Adelaide, Saint

    (ADELHEID). Born 931; died 16 December, 999, one of the conspicuous characters in the struggle ...

    Adelard of Bath

    A twelfth-century Scholastic philosopher, b. about 1100. Adelard was probably an Englishman by ...

    Adelham, John Placid

    (Or ADLAND). A Protestant minister, born in Wiltshire, who became a Catholic and joined ...

    Adelmann

    Bishop of Brescia in the eleventh century. Of unknown parentage and nationality, he was ...

    Adelophagi

    ( Adelos = secretly, and phalo = I eat). A sect mentioned by the anonymous author known ...

    Aden

    (ADANE). It comprises all Arabia, and is properly known as the Vicariate Apostolic of Arabia ...

    Adeodatus

    Son of St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo , b. 372; d. 388. St. Augustine was not converted to ...

    Adeodatus (II), Pope Saint

    (Reigned 672-676). A monk of the Roman cloister of St. Erasmus on the Coelian Hill. He was ...

    Adeodatus I, Pope Saint

    (Adeodatus I). Date of birth unknown; consecrated pope, 19 October (13 November), 615; d. 8 ...

    Adeste Fidelis

    A hymn used at Benediction at Christmastide in France and England since the close of the ...

    Adjuration

    (Latin adjurare , to swear; to affirm by oath ). An urgent demand made upon another to do ...

    Administrator

    The term Administrator in its general sense signifies a person who administers some common ...

    Administrator (of Ecclesiastical Property)

    One charged with the care of church property . Supreme administrative authority in regard to all ...

    Admonitions, Canonical

    A preliminary means used by the Church towards a suspected person, as a preventive of harm or a ...

    Admont

    A Benedictine abbey in Styria, Austro-Hungary, on the river Enns, about fifty miles south of ...

    Ado of Vienne, Saint

    Born about 800, in the diocese of Sens ; d. 16 December, 875. He was brought up at the ...

    Adonai

    Adonai (Hebrew meaning "lord, ruler") is a name bestowed upon God in the Old Testament. It is ...

    Adonias

    (Hebrew: Adoniyah, Adoniyahuh , Yahweh is Lord; Septuagint : Adonias .) Fourth son of ...

    Adoption

    IN THE OLD TESTAMENT Adoption, as defined in canon law, is foreign to the Bible . The incidents ...

    Adoption, Canonical

    In a legal sense, adoption is an act by which a person, with the cooperation of the public ...

    Adoption, Supernatural

    ( Latin adoptare , to choose.) Adoption is the gratuitous taking of a stranger as one's own ...

    Adoptionism

    Adoptionism, in a broad sense, a christological theory according to which Christ, as man, is the ...

    Adoration

    In the strict sense, an act of religion offered to God in acknowledgment of His supreme ...

    Adoration, Perpetual

    A term broadly used to designate the practically uninterrupted adoration of the Blessed ...

    Adorno, Francis

    A celebrated Italian preacher, b. 1531; d. at Genoa, 13 January, 1586. He was a member of the ...

    Adoro Te Devote

    ("I adore Thee devoutly"). A hymn sometimes styled Rhythmus , or Oratio, S. Thomæ ...

    Adria

    An Italian bishopric, suffragan to Venice, which comprises 55 towns in the Province of Rovigo, ...

    Adrian I, Pope

    From about 1 February, 772, till 25 December, 795; date of birth uncertain; d. 25 December, 795. ...

    Adrian II, Pope

    (Reigned 867-872.) After the death of St. Nicholas I , the Roman clergy and people ...

    Adrian III, Pope Saint

    Pope St. Adrian III, of Roman extraction, was elected in the beginning of the year 884, and ...

    Adrian IV, Pope

    Born 1100 (?); died 1 September, 1159. Very little is known about the birthplace, parentage, or ...

    Adrian of Canterbury, Saint

    An African by birth, died 710. He became Abbot of Nerida, a Benedictine monastery near ...

    Adrian of Castello

    Also called D E C ORNETO from his birthplace in Tuscany ; an Italian prelate distinguished ...

    Adrian V, Pope

    (OTTOBUONO FIESCHI). A Genoese, and nephew of Innocent IV. He was elected at Viterbo 12 July ...

    Adrian VI, Pope

    The last pontefice barbaro ( Guicciardini, XIV, v), and the only pope of modern times, except ...

    Adrianople

    A city of Turkey in Europe. According to legend, Orestes, son of Agamemnon, built this city at ...

    Adrichem, Christian Kruik van

    (Christianus Crucius Adrichomius). Catholic priest and theological writer, b. at Delft, 13 ...

    Adso

    Abbot of the Cluniac monastery of Moutier-en-Der, d. 992, on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem; one of ...

    Aduarte, Diego Francisco

    Missionary and historian, b. 1566, at Saragossa, in Spain ; d. at Nueva Segovia, in the ...

    Adullam

    (Hebrew Adhullam , Vulgate Odollam , but Adullam in Joshua 15:35 .) (1) A Chanaanite ...

    Adulteration of Food

    ( Latin adulterare , to pollute, to adulterate). This act is defined as the addition of any ...

    Adultery

    It is the purpose of this article to consider adultery with reference only to morality. The study ...

    Advent

    (Latin ad-venio , to come to). According to present [1907] usage, Advent is a period ...

    Adventists

    A group of six American Protestant sects which hold in common a belief in the near return of ...

    Advertisements, Book of

    A series of enactments concerning ecclesiastical matters, drawn up by Matthew Parker, ...

    Advocates of Roman Congregations

    Advocates of Roman Congregations are persons, ecclesiastical or lay, versed in canon and civil ...

    Advocates of St. Peter

    A body of jurists constituting a society whose statutes were confirmed by a brief of Leo ...

    Advocatus Diaboli

    ("Advocate of the Devil" or "Devil's Advocate"). A popular title given to one of the most ...

    Advocatus Ecclesiæ

    A name applied, in the Middle Ages , to certain lay persons , generally of noble birth, whose ...

    Advowson

    ( Latin, advocatio ; Old French, avoëson ). In English law the right of patronage ...

    Adytum

    (From adyton ; sc. a privative + dyo =enter). A secret chamber or place of retirement in ...

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    Ae 15

    Aedan of Ferns, Saint

    ( 'Aedh-og or Mo-Aedh-og ). Bishop and patron of Ferns, in Ireland, b. at Inisbrefny, near ...

    Aedh of Kildare

    King of Leinster, and an Irish saint, commemorated by Colgan under date of 4 January; but ...

    Aegidius of Assisi, Blessed

    One of the original companions of St. Francis. He is also known as Blessed Giles, and holds the ...

    Aegidius of Viterbo

    Cardinal, theologian, orator, humanist, and poet, born at Viterbo, Italy ; died at Rome, 12 ...

    Aelfred the Great

    ( Also Ælfred). King of the West-Saxons, born Wantage, Berkshire, England 849; died ...

    Aelfric, Abbot of Eynsham

    Also known as "the Grammarian", the author of the homilies in Anglo-Saxon, a translator of Holy ...

    Aelnoth

    Monk and biographer, of whom nothing is known except his Life of St. Canute the Martyr, written in ...

    Aelred, Saint

    Abbot of Rievaulx, homilist and historian (1109-66). St. Ælred, whose name is also written ...

    Aeneas of Gaza

    A Neo-Platonic philosopher, a convert to Christianity, who flourished towards the end of the ...

    Aengus, Saint (the Culdee)

    An Irish saint who flourished in the last quarter of the eighth century, and is held in ...

    Aenon

    (Greek Ainon ; Vulgate, Ænnon ; Douay, Ennon ). Mentioned in John 3:23 , as the ...

    Aeons

    The term appropriated by Gnostic heresiarchs to designate the series of spiritual powers evolved ...

    Aesthetics

    Æsthetics may be defined as a systematic training to right thinking and right feeling in ...

    Aeterni Patris

    The Apostolic Letter of Pius IX, by which he summoned the Vatican Council. It is dated Rome, ...

    Aeterni Patris (2nd)

    An encyclical letter of Pope Leo XIII (issued 4 August, 1879); not to be confused with the ...

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    Af 11

    Affinity (in Canon Law)

    A relationship arising from the carnal intercourse of a man and a woman, sufficient for the ...

    Affinity (in the Bible)

    Scripture recognizes affinity as an impediment to wedlock. This is evident from the ...

    Affirmation

    A solemn declaration accepted in legal procedure in lieu of the requisite oath. In England, ...

    Afflighem

    A Benedictine abbey near Alost in Brabant, Belgium. It was founded by a party of six knights ...

    Affre, Denis Auguste

    Archbishop of Paris, b. at St. Rome-de-Tam, in the Department of Tam, 27 September, 1793; d. in ...

    Afonzo de Albuquerque

    (Also D ALBOQUERQUE ; surnamed "T HE G REAT "). Died at Goa 16 December, 1515. He was ...

    Afra, Saint

    MARTYR. The city of Augusta Vindelicorum (the present Augsburg ) was situated in the northern ...

    Africa

    This name, which is of Phoenician origin, was at first given by the Romans to the territory ...

    African Church, Early

    The name, Early African Church, is given to the Christian communities inhabiting the region ...

    African Liturgy

    This liturgy was in use not only in the old Roman province of Africa of which Carthage was the ...

    African Synods

    There was no general council of the entire Church held at any time in North Africa. There ...

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    Ag 58

    Agabus

    Mentioned in Acts 11:28 , and 21:10 , as a prophet of the New Testament. Most probably both ...

    Agape

    The celebration of funeral feasts in honour of the dead dates back almost to the beginnings ...

    Agapetæ

    ( agapetai , beloved). In the first century of the Christian era, the Agapetae were virgins ...

    Agapetus

    A deacon of the church of Sancta Sophia at Constantinople (about 500), reputed tutor of ...

    Agapetus I, Pope Saint

    (Also AGAPITUS.) Reigned 535-536. Date of birth uncertain; died 22 April, 536. He was the son ...

    Agapetus II, Pope

    A Roman by birth, elected to the papacy 10 May, 946; he reigned, not ingloriously, for ten ...

    Agar, William Seth

    An English Canon, born at York, 25 December, 1815; died 23 August, 1872. He was educated at ...

    Agatha, Saint

    One of the most highly venerated virgin martyrs of Christian antiquity, put to death for her ...

    Agathangelus

    A supposed secretary of Tiridates II, King of Armenia, under whose name there has come down a ...

    Agathias

    A Byzantine historian and man of letters, born at Myrina in Asia Minor about 536; died at ...

    Agatho, Pope Saint

    Born towards the end of the sixth century in Sicily ; died in Rome, 681. It is generally ...

    Agaunum

    (Today ST. MAURICEEN-VALAIS). Agaunum, in the diocese of Sion, Switzerland, owes its fame to ...

    Agazzari, Agostini

    A musical composer, born 2 December 1578, of a noble family of Sienna; died probably 10 April, ...

    Agde, Council of

    Held in 506 at Agatha or Agde in Languedoc, under the presidency of St. Caesarius of Arles . ...

    Age of Reason

    The name given to that period of human life at which persons are deemed to begin to be morally ...

    Age, Canonical

    The word age , taken in its widest meaning, may be described as "a period of time ". The ...

    Agen, Diocese of

    (AGINNUM.) Comprises the Department of Lot and Garonne. It has been successively suffragan to ...

    Agents of Roman Congregations

    Persons whose business it is to look after the affairs of their patrons at the Roman Curia. The ...

    Aggeus

    Name and personal life Aggeus, the tenth among the minor prophets of the Old Testament, is ...

    Aggressor, Unjust

    According to the accepted teaching of theologians, it is lawful, in the defense of life or limb, ...

    Agiles, Raymond d'

    ( Or AGUILERS.) A chronicler and canon of Puy-en-Velay, France, toward the close of the ...

    Agilulfus, Saint

    Abbot of Stavelot, Bishop of Cologne and Martyr, 750. We know but little of this Saint. The ...

    Agios O Theos

    (O Holy God). The opening words in Greek of an invocation, or doxology, or hymn –for ...

    Agnelli, Fra. Guglielmo

    Sculptor and architect, b. at Pisa, probably in 1238; d. probably in 1313. He was a pupil of ...

    Agnelli, Giuseppe

    Chiefly known for his catechetical and devotional works, b. at Naples, 1621; d. in Rome, 17 ...

    Agnellus of Pisa, Blessed

    Friar Minor and founder of the English Franciscan Province, born at Pisa c. 1195, of the noble ...

    Agnellus, Andreas, of Ravenna

    Historian of that church, b. 805; the date of his death is unknown, but was probably about 846. ...

    Agnes of Assisi, Saint

    Younger sister of St. Clare and Abbess of the Poor Ladies, born at Assisi, 1197, or 1198; died ...

    Agnes of Bohemia, Blessed

    (Also called Agnes of Prague). Born at Prague in the year 1200; died probably in 1281. She was the ...

    Agnes of Montepulciano, Saint

    Born in the neighbourhood of Montepulciano in Tuscany about 1268; died there 1317. At the age ...

    Agnes of Prague, Blessed

    (Also called Agnes of Prague). Born at Prague in the year 1200; died probably in 1281. She was the ...

    Agnes of Rome, Saint and Martyr

    Of all the virgin martyrs of Rome none was held in such high honour by the primitive church, ...

    Agnesi, Maria Gaetana

    Born at Milan, 16 May, 1718; died at Milan, 9 January, 1799, an Italian woman of remarkable ...

    Agnetz

    (Latin, agnus , lamb), the Slavonic word for the square portion of bread cut from the first ...

    Agnoetae

    ( agnoetai ) from agnoeo , to be ignorant of) The name given to those who denied the ...

    Agnosticism

    A philosophical theory of the limitations of knowledge, professing doubt of or disbelief in some ...

    Agnus Dei

    The name Agnus Dei has been given to certain discs of wax impressed with the figure of a lamb ...

    Agnus Dei (in Liturgy)

    A name given to the formula recited thrice by the priest at Mass (except on Good Friday and ...

    Agonistici

    ( Agon ="struggle"). One of the names given by the Donatists to those of their followers who ...

    Agony of Christ

    (From agonia , a struggle; particularly, in profane literature, the physical struggle of ...

    Agony, Archconfraternity of Holy

    An association for giving special honour to the mental sufferings of Christ during His Agony ...

    Agostini, Paolo

    Born at Vallerano in 1593; died 1629, famous composer and pupil of the celebrated Nanini, whose ...

    Agostino Novello, Blessed

    (Matteo Di Termini), born in the first half of the thirteenth century, at Termini, a village of ...

    Agoult, Charles Consstance César Joseph Matthieu d'

    A French prelate, born at Grenoble, 1747; died at Paris, 1824. He studied at the Seminary of ...

    Agra

    Archdiocese ; it is situated in British India, and lies between 25°30' and 32' N. lat., and ...

    Agram

    (Also ZAGRAB; Latin Zagrabia ). Archiepiscopal see of the ancient kingdom of Croatia, in ...

    Agrapha

    A name first used, in 1776, by J.G. Körner, for the Sayings of Jesus that have come down to ...

    Agrarianism

    The Latin word agrarius was applied historically to laws or their partisans, favoring the ...

    Agreda, Maria de

    (Or, according to her conventual title, Maria of Jesus) A discalced Franciscan nun ; born ...

    Agria

    (ERLAU, EGER, JAGER). An archiepiscopal see of Hungary, founded in 1009, and made an ...

    Agricius, Saint

    Bishop of Trier (Trèves), in the fourth century (332 or 335). A local ninth-century ...

    Agricola, Alexander

    A celebrated composer of the fifteenth century, and pupil of Okeghem, was, according to some, of ...

    Agricola, George

    (BAUER, latinized into AGRICOLA). Physician, mineralogist, historian, and controversialist, b. ...

    Agricola, Rudolph

    A distinguished humanist of the earlier period, and a zealous promoter of the study of the ...

    Agrippa of Nettesheim, Heinrich Cornelius

    Born 14 September, 1486, at Cologne ; died at Grenoble or Lyons in 1534 or 1535. One of the ...

    Agrippinus

    Bishop of Carthage at the close of the second and beginning of the third century. During his ...

    Aguas Calientes

    (Lat. AQUAE CALIDAE). A Mexican see dependent on Guadalajara; erected by Leo XIII, Decree ...

    Aguirre, Joseph Saenz de

    Cardinal, and learned Spanish Benedictine ; born at Logro o, in Old Castile, 24 March, 1630; ...

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    Ah 2

    Ahicam

    ("My brother has risen"). A high court official under Josias and his two sons, who protected ...

    Ahriman and Ormuzd

    (More correctly ORMUZD AND AHRIMAN.) The modern Persian forms of Anro-Mainyus and Ahura ...

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    Ai 16

    Aiblinger, Johann Caspar

    Composer, born 23 February, 1779, at Wasserburg, Bavaria ; died at Munich, 6 May 1867. In his ...

    Aichinger, Gregor

    Organist and composer of sacred music , born probably at Ratisbon in 1565; died at Augsburg, ...

    Aidan of Lindisfarne, Saint

    An Irish monk who had studied under St. Senan, at Iniscathay (Scattery Island). He is placed as ...

    Aiguillon, Duchess of

    Marie de Vignerot de Pontcourlay, Marquise of Combalet and Duchesse d'Aiguillon; niece of ...

    Aikenhead, Mary

    Foundress of the Irish Sisters of Charity, born in Cork, 19 January, 1787; died in Dublin, 22 ...

    Ailbe, Saint

    Bishop of Emly in Munster ( Ireland ); d. about 527, or 541. It is very difficult to sift out ...

    Aileran, Saint

    An Irish saint, generally known as "Sapiens" (the Wise), one of the most distinguished professors ...

    Ailleboust, Family of d'

    (1) Louis d'Ailleboust Sieur de Coulanges, third Governor of Canada, date of birth unknown; ...

    Ailly, Pierre d'

    (PETRUS DE ALLACO). French theologian and philosopher, bishop and cardinal, born 1350 at ...

    Aimerich, Mateo

    A learned philologist, born at Bordil, in Spain, 1715; died at Ferrara, 1799. He entered the ...

    Aire

    (Abram). Comprises the territory of the Department of Landes. It was a suffragan of Auch ...

    Airoli, Giacomo Maria

    ( Also Ayroli). A Jesuit Orientalist and Scriptural commentator; born at Genoa, 1660; ...

    Aisle

    ( Latin ala ; Old Fr. aile ), sometimes written Isle, Yle, and Alley; in architecture one of ...

    Aistulph

    (Also Aistulf, Astulph, Astulf, and Astolph). King of the Lombards; died 756. He succeeded his ...

    Aix, Archdiocese of

    ( Aquae Sextiae ). Full title, the Archdiocese of Aix, Arles, and Embrun. Includes the ...

    Aix-en-Provence, Councils of

    Councils were held at Aix in 1112, 1374, 1409, 1585, 1612, 1838, and 1850. In that of 1612 the ...

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    Aj 1

    Ajaccio, Diocese of

    (ADJACENSIS). Comprises the island of Corsica. It was formerly a suffragan of the ...

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    Ak 3

    Akathistos

    (Greek akathistos ; a privative, kathizo "sit"; i.e. not sitting; standing). The title ...

    Akhmin

    A city of Upper Egypt, situated on the banks of the Nile. Of late years it has attained great ...

    Akominatos, Michael & Nicetas

    Michael (d. 1215) and Nicetas (d. 1206); also known as Choniates, from their native city, Chonia ...

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    Al 242

    Alabama

    The twenty-second State admitted into the Federal Union of America. It lies north of the Gulf of ...

    Alabanda

    A titular see of Caria in Asia Minor, supposed to be the present Arab-Hissar. A list of its ...

    Alabaster

    (Greek alabastros , -on ; Latin alabaster , -trum ; of uncertain origin). The ...

    Alagoas

    A South American diocese, in eastern Brazil, dependent on Bahia. By a decree of Leo XIII , ...

    Alagona, Pietro

    Theologian, born at Syracuse, 1549; died in Rome, 19 October, 1624. He entered the Society of ...

    Alain de l'Isle

    (Also called ALAIN OF LILLE, ALANUS AB INSULIS, or DE INSULIS, ALAIN VON RYSSEL etc.). Monk, ...

    Alalis

    (ALALIUS). A titular see of Phoenicia ( Palmyra ), whose episcopal list is known from 325 ...

    Alaman, Lucas

    A Mexican statesman and historian of great merit, b. at Guanajuato in Mexico, of Spanish parents, ...

    Alamanni, Niccolò

    A Roman antiquary of Greek origin, b. at Ancona, 12 January, 1583; d. in Rome, 1626. He was ...

    Alan of Tewkesbury

    A Benedictine abbot and writer, d. 1202. Alan is stated by Gervase of Canterbury, a ...

    Alan of Walsingham

    Died c. 1364; a celebrated architect, first heard of in 1314 as a junior monk at Ely, ...

    Alanus de Rupe

    ( Sometimes DE LA ROCHE). Born about 1428; died at Zwolle in Holland, 8 September, 1475. ...

    Alarcón, Pedro Antonio de

    Novelist and poet, b. at Guadix, Spain, in 1833; d. at Valdemoro, near Madrid, in 1891. After ...

    Alaska

    I. HISTORY The first definite knowledge of Alaska was acquired in 1741 through the expedition ...

    Alatri

    An Italian bishopric under the immediate jurisdiction of the Holy See, comprising seven towns ...

    Alb

    A white linen vestment with close fitting sleeves, reaching nearly to the ground and secured ...

    Alba Pompeia, Diocese of

    Comprises eighty towns in the province of Cuneo and two in the province of Alexandria, in Italy. ...

    Alban, Saint

    First martyr of Britain, suffered c. 304. The commonly received account of the martyrdom of ...

    Albanenses

    Manichæan heretics who lived in Albania, probably about the eighth century, but concerning ...

    Albani

    A distinguished Italian family, said to be descended from Albanian refugees of the fifteenth ...

    Albania

    The ancient Epirus and Illyria, is the most western land occupied by the Turks in Europe. Its ...

    Albano

    A suburban see, comprising seven towns in the Province of Rome. Albano (derived from Alba Longa ...

    Albany

    Diocese comprising the entire counties of Albany, Columbia, Delaware, Fulton, Greene, ...

    Albenga

    Diocese comprising seventy-nine towns in the province of Port Maurice and forty-five in the ...

    Albergati, Niccolo

    Cardinal and Bishop of Bologna, b. at Bologna in 1357; d. at Sienna, 9 May, 1443. He entered ...

    Alberic of Monte Cassino

    Died 1088; cardinal since 1057. He was (perhaps) a native of Trier, and became a Benedictine. ...

    Alberic of Ostia

    A Benedictine monk, and Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia from 1138-47. Born in 1080, at Beauvais in ...

    Albero de Montreuil

    Archbishop of Trier, b. near Toul, in Lorraine, about 1080; d. at Coblenz, 18 January, 1152. ...

    Alberoni, Giulio

    Cardinal and statesman; b. 30 May, 1664, at Firenzuola in the duchy of Parma ; d. 26 June, ...

    Albert Berdini of Sarteano, Blessed

    Franciscan Friar and missionary, born at Sarteano, in Tuscany, 1385; died at Milan, 15 August, ...

    Albert II, Archbishop of Magdeburg in Saxony

    (Albrecht II.) Eighteenth Archbishop of Magdeburg in Saxony, date of birth unknown; d. ...

    Albert of Aachen

    (ALBERTUS AQUENSIS). A chronicler of the First Crusade . His "Chronicon Hierosolymitanum de ...

    Albert of Brandenburg

    Cardinal and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, born 28 June, 1490; died 24 September, 1545. As ...

    Albert of Castile

    Historian, born about 1460; died 1522. He entered the Order of St. Dominic at an early age in ...

    Albert of Saxony

    (Albert of Helmstädt) Fourteenth-century philosopher ; nicknamed Albertus Parvus, ...

    Albert of Stade

    A chronicler of the thirteenth century. He was born before the close of the twelfth century. It is ...

    Albert, Bishop of Riga

    (ALBRECHT.) Bishop of Riga, Apostle of Livonia, d. 17 January, 1229. After the inhabitants of ...

    Albert, Blessed (Patriarch of Jerusalem)

    Patriarch of Jerusalem, one of the conspicuous ecclesiastics in the troubles between the Holy ...

    Albert, Saint

    Cardinal, Bishop of Liège, d. 1192 or 1193. He was a son of Godfrey III, Count of ...

    Alberta and Saskatchewan

    The twin provinces of the Canadian West, so called because they were formed on the same day (1 ...

    Alberti, Leandro

    Historian, born at Bologna in 1479; died same place, probably in 1552. In early youth he ...

    Alberti, Leone Battista

    Born 18 February, 1404; died April, 1472, a Florentine ecclesiastic and artist of the fifteenth ...

    Albertini, Nicolò

    (AUBERTINI) Medieval statesman, b. at Prato in Italy, c. ú d. at Avignon, 27 April, ...

    Albertrandi, John Baptist

    (Also called Jan Chrzciciel, or Christian.) A Polish Jesuit, of Italian extraction, born at ...

    Albertus Magnus, Saint

    Known as Albert the Great; scientist, philosopher, and theologian, born c. 1206; died at ...

    Albi (Albia), Archdiocese of

    Comprises the Department of the Tarn. An archiepiscopal see from 1678 up to the time of the ...

    Albi, Council of

    The Council of Albi was held in 1254 by St. Louis on his return from his unlucky Crusade, ...

    Albi, Juan de

    (Also, Alba ). A Spanish Carthusian of the Convent Val-Christ, near Segovia, date of birth ...

    Albicus, Sigismund

    Archbishop of Prague, a Moravian, born at Mährisch-Neustadt in 1347; died in Hungary, ...

    Albigenses

    (From Albi, Latin Albiga , the present capital of the Department of Tarn). A ...

    Albinus

    A scholarly English monk, pupil of Archbishop Theodore, and of Abbot Adrian of St. Peter's, ...

    Albrechtsberger, Johann G.

    Master of musical theory, and teacher of Hummel and Beethoven, b. at Klosterneuburg in Lower ...

    Albright Brethren, The

    (Known as the EVANGELICAL ASSOCIATION). "A body of American Christians chiefly of German ...

    Alcántara, Military Order of

    Alcántara, a town on the Tagus (here crossed by a bridge-- cantara , whence the name), is ...

    Alcalá, University of

    This university may be said to have had its inception in the thirteenth century, when Sancho IV, ...

    Alcedo, Antonio de

    Soldier, born at Quito ( Ecuador ), 1755, where his father was President of the Royal Audiencia ...

    Alchemy

    (From Arabic al , the, and Greek chemia or chemeia , which occurs first in an edict of ...

    Alciati, Andrea

    An Italian jurist, born at Alzano, near Milan, 8 May, 1492; died at Pavia, 12 June 1550. He ...

    Alcimus

    ( Alkimos , "brave," probably a Græcized form of the Hebrew Eliacim ). High-priest, ...

    Alcmund, Saint

    Bishop of Hexham ; died 781. Though we know practically nothing of the life of St. Alcmund, ...

    Alcock, John

    Bishop of Rochester, Worcester, and Ely, b. at Beverley, 1430; d. at Wisbeach Castle, 1 ...

    Alcoholism

    The term alcoholism is understood to include all the changes that may occur in the human ...

    Alcuin

    ( Alhwin, Alchoin ; Latin Albinus , also Flaccus ). An eminent educator, scholar, and ...

    Aldegundis, Saint

    Virgin and abbess (c. 639-684), variously written Adelgundis, Aldegonde, etc. She was nearly ...

    Aldersbach

    A former Cistercian Abbey in the valley of the Vils in Lower Bavaria. It was founded in 1127 ...

    Aldfrith

    A Northumbrian king, son of King Oswin; d. 14 December, 705. He succeeded his brother, Ecgfrith. ...

    Aldhelm, Saint

    Abbot of Malmesbury and Bishop of Sherborne, Latin poet and ecclesiastical writer (c. ...

    Aldric, Saint

    Bishop of Le Mans in the time of Louis le Debonnaire, born c. 800; died at Le Mans, 7 ...

    Aldrovandi, Ulissi

    Italian naturalist, b. at Bologna, 11 Sept., 1522; d. there 10 Nov., 1607. He was educated in ...

    Alea, Leonard

    A French polemical writer of the early years of the nineteenth century, b. in Paris, date ...

    Alegambe, Philippe

    A Jesuit historiographer, born in Brussels, 22 January, 1592; died in Rome, 6 September, ...

    Alegre, Francisco Xavier

    Historian, born at Vera Cruz, in Mexico, or New Spain, 12 November, 1729; died at Bologna, 16 ...

    Alemany, Joseph Sadoc

    First Archbishop of San Francisco, California, U.S.A. b. at Vich in Spain, 3 July, 1814; ...

    Alenio, Guilio

    Chinese missionary and scholar, born at Brescia, in Italy, in 1582; died at Fou-Tcheou, China, in ...

    Aleppo

    Armenian Rite Archdiocese in Syria. The city of Aleppo is situated in the plain that stretches ...

    Ales and Terralba

    Diocese made up of 42 communes in the province of Cagliari, Archbishopric of Oristano, Italy. ...

    Alessandria della Paglia

    Diocese in Piedmont, Italy, a suffragan of Vercelli. It was made a see in 1175 by Alexander ...

    Alessi, Galeazzo

    A famous Italian architect, b. 1500; d. 1572. He showed an inclination for mathematics and ...

    Alessio

    ( Lissus, Alexiensis ). Diocese in European Turkey, since 1886 suffragan of Scutari. It is ...

    Alexander (Name of Seven Men)

    (1) ALEXANDER THE GREAT King of Macedon, 336-323 B.C. He is mentioned in 1 Mach., i, 1-10; vi, 2. ...

    Alexander (Name of Several Early Bishops)

    ALEXANDER OF ANTIOCH Thirty-eighth bishop of that see (413-421), praised by Theodoret (Hist. ...

    Alexander Briant, Blessed

    English Jesuit and martyr, born in Somersetshire of a yeoman family about 1556; executed at ...

    Alexander I, Pope Saint

    St. Irenaeus of Lyons, writing in the latter quarter of the second century, reckons him as the ...

    Alexander II, Pope

    Reigned 1061-1073 As Anselm of Lucca, he had been recognized for a number of years as one of ...

    Alexander III, Pope

    Pope from 1159-81 (Orlando Bandinelli), born of a distinguished Sienese family ; died 3 August, ...

    Alexander IV, Pope

    Pope from 1254-61 (Rinaldo Conti), of the house of Segni, which had already given two illustrious ...

    Alexander Natalis

    (Or NOEL ALEXANDRE). A French historian and theologian, of the Order of St. Dominic, b. at ...

    Alexander of Abonoteichos

    The most notorious imposter of the second century of the Christian era. His life is fully ...

    Alexander of Hales

    Franciscan, theologian, and philosopher, one of the greatest of the scholastics, born at Hales, ...

    Alexander of Lycopolis

    The writer of a short treatise, in twenty-six chapters, against the Manichæans (PG., ...

    Alexander Sauli, Blessed

    Apostle of Corsica, b. at Milan, 1533, of an illustrious Lombard family ; d. at Pavia, 11 ...

    Alexander V

    Pietro Philarghi, born c. 1339, on the island of Crete (Candia), whence his appellation, Peter of ...

    Alexander VI, Pope

    Rodrigo Borgia, born at Xativa, near Valencia, in Spain, 1 January, 1431; died in Rome, 18 ...

    Alexander VII, Pope

    Fabio Chigi, born at Sienna, 13 February, 1599; elected 7 April, 1655; died at Rome, 22 May, ...

    Alexander VIII, Pope

    Pietro Ottoboni, born at Venice, April, 1610; elected 5 October, 1689; died at Rome, 1 February, ...

    Alexander, Saint (Bishop of Comana)

    St. Alexander, known as "The charcoal burner", was Bishop of Comana, in Pontus. Whether he was ...

    Alexander, Saint (Of Cappadocia and Jerusalem)

    St. Alexander, who died in chains after cruel torments in the persecution of Decius, was first ...

    Alexander, Saint (Patriarch of Alexandria)

    Patriarch of Alexandria, date of birth uncertain; died 17 April, 326. He is, apart from his ...

    Alexandre, Dom Jacques

    A learned Benedictine monk of the Congregation of St. Maur, b. at Orléans, France, 24 ...

    Alexandria

    An important seaport of Egypt, on the left bank of the Nile. It was founded by Alexander the ...

    Alexandria, Councils of

    In 231 a council of bishops and priests met at Alexandria, called by Bishop Demetrius for the ...

    Alexandria, The Church of

    The Church of Alexandria, founded according to the constant tradition of both East and West by ...

    Alexandria, The Diocese of

    Suffragan of Kingston, Ontario. It comprises the counties of Glengarry and Stormont, and was ...

    Alexandrian Library, The

    The Great Library of Alexandria, so called to distinguish it from the smaller or "daughter" ...

    Alexandrine Liturgy, The

    The tradition of the Church of Egypt traces its origin to the Evangelist St. Mark, the first ...

    Alexandrinus, Codex

    A most valuable Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, so named because it was ...

    Alexian Nuns

    Early in the fifteenth century religious women began to be affiliated to the Alexian Brotherhood. ...

    Alexians

    Or CELLITES. A religious institute or congregation, which had its origin at Mechlin, in ...

    Alexis Falconieri, Saint

    Born in Florence, 1200; died 17 February, 1310, at Mount Senario, near Florence. He was the son ...

    Alexius, Saint

    CONFESSOR. According to the most recent researches he was an Eastern saint whose veneration ...

    Alfield, Venerable Thomas

    (AUFIELD, ALPHILDE, HAWFIELD, OFFELDUS; alias BADGER). Priest, born at Gloucestershire; ...

    Alfieri, Count Vittorio

    The greatest tragic poet of Italy ; b. at Asti (Piedmont), 17 January, 1749; d. at Florence, 8 ...

    Alfieri, Pietro

    A priest and at one time a Camaldolese monk, b. at Rome, June, 1801; d. there 12 June, 1863. ...

    Alfonso de Zamora

    A converted Spanish Rabbi, baptized 1506; died 1531. He revised the Hebrew text for Ximenes's ...

    Alfonso of Burgos

    Born of a noble family, in the city of that name ; died at Palencia, 8 December, 1489. He was ...

    Alford, Michael

    A Jesuit missionary in England during the persecution, b. in London 1587; d. at St. Omers, ...

    Alfred the Great

    ( Also Ælfred). King of the West-Saxons, born Wantage, Berkshire, England 849; died ...

    Alfrida, Saint

    Virgin, and recluse, c. 795. This saint, whose name is variously written Elfthritha, ...

    Alfwold, Saint

    Bishop of Sherborne, in Dorsetshire; d. 1058. Alfwold, or Ælfwold, is a rather obscure ...

    Alger of Liége

    A learned French priest, b. at Liège, about 1055; d. at Cluny, 1132. He studied at ...

    Alghero

    An Italian diocese comprising twenty-two communes in the province of Sassari, and four in that ...

    Algiers

    (I COSIUM ) Archdiocese comprising the province of Algeria in French Africa. Its suffragans ...

    Algonquins

    The Indians known by this name were probably at one time the most numerous of all the North ...

    Alife

    A diocese made up of twelve communes in the province of Caserta, Archbishopric of Benevento, ...

    Alighieri, Dante

    Italian poet, born at Florence, 1265; died at Ravenna, Italy, 14 September, 1321. His own ...

    Alimentation

    Support or maintenance. Aliment in a broad sense means whatever is necessary to sustain human ...

    Alimony

    (Latin, alimonia , nutriment, from alere , to nourish) In the common legal sense of the ...

    Aliturgical Days

    This term, though not recognized by any English dictionary has lately come into use as a ...

    All Hallows College

    An institution devoted to the preparation of priests for the missions in English-speaking ...

    All Saints' Day

    [ The vigil of this feast is popularly called "Hallowe'en" or "Halloween".] Solemnity ...

    All Souls' Day

    The commemoration of all the faithful departed is celebrated by the Church on 2 November, or, if ...

    Allah

    The name of God in Arabic. It is a compound word from the article, 'al , and ilah , ...

    Allahabad

    Diocese ; suffragan of the Archdiocese of Agra, India ; is included between 28° and 30° ...

    Allard, Paul

    Archaeologist and historian, b. at Rouen 15 September, 1841, admitted to the bar and practised ...

    Allatius, Leo

    (Alacci). A learned Greek of the seventeenth century, b. on the island of Chios in 1586, and ...

    Allegranza, Joseph

    A Milanese Dominican who won distinction as a historian, archaeologist, and antiquary, b. 16 ...

    Allegri, Antonio

    Born in Correggio, a small Lombard town near Mantua, 1494; died 5 March, 1534. His name in ...

    Allegri, Gregorio

    A member of the same family which produced the painter Correggio, born at Rome c. 1580; died ...

    Alleluia

    The liturgical mystic expression is found in the Book of Tobias, xiii, 22; then in the ...

    Allemand, Jean

    A French priest and Orientalist, born 19 November, 1799; died 9 August, 1833. After his ...

    Allen, Edward Patrick

    Fifth Bishop of Mobile, Alabama, U.S. ; born at Lowell, Massachusetts, 17 March, 1853. He made ...

    Allen, Frances

    The first woman of New England birth to become a nun, born 13 November, 1784, at Sunderland, ...

    Allen, George

    Educator, born at Milton, Vermont, 17 December, 1808; died in Worcester, Massachusetts, 28 May, ...

    Allen, John

    (1476-1534) Archbishop of Dublin, canonist, and Chancellor of Ireland. He was educated at ...

    Allen, John

    Priest and martyr. He was executed at Tyburn in the beginning of the year 1538, because he ...

    Allen, William

    Cardinal ; b. England, 1522; d. Rome, 16 Oct., 1594. He was the third son of John Allen of ...

    Allerstein, August

    (Or Hallerstein). Jesuit missionary in China, born in Germany, died in China, probably about ...

    Alliance, Holy

    The Emperor Francis I of Austria, King Frederick William III of Prussia, and the Tsar Alexander I ...

    Allies, Thomas William

    An English writer b. 12 February, 1813; d. 17 June, 1903. He was one in whom the poetical vein ...

    Allioli, Joseph Franz

    Born at Sulzbach, 10 August, 1793; died at Augsburg, 22 May, 1873. He studied theology at ...

    Allison, William

    One of the English priests who were victims of the plots of 1679-80, and died a prisoner in ...

    Allocution

    Allocution is a solemn form of address or speech from the throne employed by the Pope on ...

    Allori

    (1) Angiolo di Cosimo Called I L B RONZINO , an exceptionally able painter and poet, b. at ...

    Allot, William

    A student of the University of Cambridge ; retired to Louvain on the accession of Elizabeth ...

    Allouez, Claude

    One of the most famous of the early Jesuit missionaries and explorers of what is now the western ...

    Alma

    A Hebrew signifying a "young woman ", unmarried as well as married, and thus distinct from ...

    Alma Redemptoris Mater

    (Kindly Mother of the Redeemer). The opening words of one of the four Antiphons sung at ...

    Almagro, Diego de

    D IEGO, THE E LDER Date and place of birth not satisfactorily established as yet, generally ...

    Almedha, Saint

    Virgin and martyr, flourished c. 490. According to Bishop Challoner (Britannia Saneta, London, ...

    Almeida, John

    A Jesuit missionary, born in London, of Catholic parents, 1571; died at Rio de Janeiro, 24 ...

    Almeria

    A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Granada in Spain. It is said to have been founded by ...

    Almici, Camillo

    A priest of the Congregation of the Oratory, born 2 November, 1714; died 30 December, 1779. He ...

    Almond, John

    Cistercian, Confessor of the Faith; died in Hull Castle, 18 April, 1585. His name has been ...

    Almond, John, Venerable

    English priest and martyr, born about 1577; died at Tyburn, 5 December, 1612. He passed his ...

    Almond, Oliver

    Priest and writer, born in the diocese of Oxford. He is believed by Foley to have been the ...

    Alms and Almsgiving

    (Greek eleemosyne , "pity," "mercy"). Any material favour done to assist the needy, and ...

    Alnoth, Saint

    Hermit and martyr ; died c. 700. We know very little of St. Alnoth. Neither does he appear to ...

    Alogi

    ( a privative and logos , "word"; sc. "Deniers of the Word"). St. Irenæus (Adv. ...

    Aloysius Gonzaga, Saint

    Born in the castle of Castiglione, 9 March, 1568; died 21 June, 1591. At eight he was placed in ...

    Alpha and Omega

    In Jewish Theology When God passed before the face of Moses on Sinai the great Law-giver of ...

    Alpha and Omega (in Scripture)

    Alpha and Omega are the first and the last letters, respectively, of the Greek alphabet. They ...

    Alphabet, Christian Use of the

    The Hebrew, Greek and Latin alphabets have been variously made use of in Christian liturgy. ...

    Alphege, Saint

    (Or ALPHEGE). Born 954; died 1012; also called Godwine, martyred Archbishop of Canterbury, ...

    Alphonsus Liguori, Saint

    Born at Marianella, near Naples, 27 September, 1696; died at Nocera de' Pagani, 1 August, 1787. ...

    Alphonsus Rodriguez, Saint

    (Also Alonso). Born at Segovia in Spain, 25 July, 1532; died at Majorca, 31 October, 1617. ...

    Alpini, Prospero

    Physician and botanist, born at Marostica, in the Republic of Venice, 23 November, 1553; died at ...

    Alsace-Lorraine

    The German Imperial Territory so known, and divided for State purposes into three civil districts. ...

    Altamirano, Diego Francisco

    Jesuit, b. at Madrid, 26 October, 1625; d. Lima, 22 December, 1715. He wrote "Historia de la ...

    Altamura and Acquaviva

    An exempt archipresbyterate in the province of Bari, in southern Italy. Altamura was ...

    Altar (in Liturgy)

    In the New Law the altar is the table on which the Eucharistic Sacrifice is offered. Mass may ...

    Altar Bell

    A small bell placed on the credence or in some other convenient place on the epistle side ...

    Altar Breadboxes

    These are made of wood, tin, britannia, silver, or other metal. In order that the breads may not ...

    Altar Breads

    Bread is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist. It ...

    Altar Candles

    For mystical reasons the Church prescribes that the candles used at Mass and at other ...

    Altar Candlesticks

    An altar-candlestick consists of five parts: the foot, the stem, the knob about the middle of the ...

    Altar Canopy

    The "Caeremoniale Episcoporum" (I, xii, 13), treating of the ornaments of the altar, says that ...

    Altar Cards

    To assist the memory of the celebrant at Mass in those prayers which he should know by heart, ...

    Altar Carpets

    The sanctuary and altar-steps of the high altar are ordinarily to be covered with carpets. If ...

    Altar Cavity

    This is a small square or oblong chamber in the body of the altar, in which are placed, according ...

    Altar Cloths

    The use of altar-cloths goes back to the early centuries of the Church. St. Optatus of Mileve ...

    Altar Crucifix

    The crucifix is the principal ornament of the altar. It is placed on the altar to recall to the ...

    Altar Curtain

    Formerly, in most basilicas, cathedrals, and large churches a large structure in the form of a ...

    Altar Frontal

    The frontal ( antipendium, pallium altaris ) is an appendage which covers the entire front of ...

    Altar Horns

    On the Jewish altar there were four projections, one at each corner, which were called the horns ...

    Altar Lamp

    In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should ...

    Altar Lanterns

    Lanterns are used in churches to protect the altar candles and lamp, if the latter for any ...

    Altar Ledge

    Originally the altar was made in the shape of an ordinary table, on which the crucifix and ...

    Altar Linens

    The altar-linens are the corporal, pall, purificator, and finger- towels. The Blessed Sacrament ...

    Altar of Our Lady

    From the beginning of Christianity special veneration was paid to the Mother of God, which in ...

    Altar of Repose

    (Sometimes called less properly sepulchre or tomb, more frequently repository). The altar ...

    Altar Protector

    A cover made of cloth, baize or velvet which is placed on the table of the altar, during the ...

    Altar Rail

    The railing which guards the sanctuary and separates the latter from the body of the church. It ...

    Altar Screen

    The Caerem. Episc (I, xii, n. 13) says that if the High Altar is attached to the wall (or is not ...

    Altar Side

    That part of the altar which faced the congregation, in contradistinction to the side at which ...

    Altar Steps

    In the beginning altars were not erected on steps. Those in the catacombs were constructed on the ...

    Altar Stole

    An ornament, having the shape of the ends of a stole, which in the Middle Ages was attached to ...

    Altar Stone

    A solid piece of natural stone, consecrated by a bishop, large enough to hold the Sacred Host ...

    Altar Tomb

    A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having ...

    Altar Vase

    Vase to hold flowers for the decoration of the altar. The Cæremoniale Episcoporum (I, xii, ...

    Altar Vessels

    The chalice is the cup in which the wine and water of the Eucharistic Sacrifice is contained. ...

    Altar Wine

    Wine is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist. For valid ...

    Altar, Double

    An altar having a double front constructed in such a manner that Mass may be celebrated on ...

    Altar, High

    (ALTARE SUMMUM or MAJUS.) The high altar is so called from the fact that it is the chief altar ...

    Altar, History of the Christian

    The Christian altar consists of an elevated surface, tabular in form, on which the Sacrifice of ...

    Altar, Portable

    A portable altar consists of a solid piece of natural stone which must be sufficiently hard to ...

    Altar, Privileged

    An altar is said to be privileged when, in addition to the ordinary fruits of the Eucharistic ...

    Altar, Stripping of an

    On Holy Thursday the celebrant, having removed the ciborium from the high altar, goes to the ...

    Altarage

    From the low Latin altaragium , which signified the revenue reserved for the chaplain ...

    Altarpiece

    A picture of some sacred subject painted on the wall or suspended in a frame behind the altar, ...

    Altars (in Scripture)

    The English word altar , if the commonly accepted etymology be adopted -- alta ara -- does ...

    Altars (in the Greek Churches)

    The word altar (sometimes spelled oltar ) is used in the Old Slavonic and Russian ...

    Altmann, Blessed

    The friend of Gregory VII and Anselm, conspicuous in the contest of the Guelphs and ...

    Alto, Saint

    Recluse and missionary in Bavaria, c. 750. Alto has been variously described as an Anglo-Saxon ...

    Alton

    The Diocese of Alton includes that part of Illinois lying south of the northern limits of the ...

    Altoona

    A suffragan see of the province of Philadelphia. The city of Altoona is situated on the eastern ...

    Altruism

    A term formed by Auguste Comte in 1851, on the Italian adjective altrui , and employed by him to ...

    Alumbrados

    (Alumbrados.) The name assumed by some false mystics who appeared in Spain in the sixteenth ...

    Alumnus

    (From Latin alo , "to nurse", or "feed"). Alumnus signifies in ecclesiastical usage, a ...

    Alunno, Niccolò

    (Real name Niccolò di Liberatore) Notable Umbrian painter in distemper, born c. 1430, ...

    Alva y Astorga, Pedro d'

    A Friar Minor of the Strict Observance, and a voluminous writer on theological subjects, ...

    Alva, The Duke of

    (FERNANDO ALVAREZ DE TOLEDO) Born 1508, of one of the most distinguished Castilian families, ...

    Alvarado, Alonzo de

    A Knight of Santiago, b. at Secadura de Trasmura, near Burgos, date unknown; d. 1559. He came to ...

    Alvarado, Fray Francisco de

    A native of Mexico, where he entered the Dominican order 25 July, 1574. He was vicar of ...

    Alvarado, Pedro de

    Of the companions of Cortez, and among the superior officers of his army, Pedro de Alvarado ...

    Alvarez de Paz

    A famous mystic of the Society of Jesus , born at Toledo in 1560; died at Potosi, 17 January, ...

    Alvarez, Balthazar

    A Spanish mystic, who was the spiritual director of St. Teresa, b. At Cervera, in Spain, in ...

    Alvarez, Diego

    Spanish theologian, b. At Medina de Rio-Seco, Old Castile, about 1550; d. At Trani, Kingdom of ...

    Alvarez, Manoel

    Educator, b. on the island of Madeira, 1526; d. at Evora, 30 December 1582. In 1546 he entered ...

    Alvarus Pelagius

    (ALVARO PELAYO.) Celebrated writer, b. in Spain about 1280; d. at Seville, 25 Jan., 1352. ...

    Alypius, Saint

    The bosom friend of St. Augustine, though younger than he, was, after studying under Augustine at ...

    Alzate, José Antonio

    Born at Ozumba, Mexico, in 1738; died in 1799. Alzate, who was a priest, was one of the most ...

    Alzog, Johann Baptist

    A Catholic church historian, born 29 June, 1808, at Ohlau in Silesia ; died 1 March, 1878, at ...

    × Close

    Am 83

    Ama

    ( Or Amma.) A Semitic term meaning mother, adopted by the Copts and the Greeks as a title of ...

    Amadeo, Giovanni Antonio

    ( Also spelled Omodeo). An Italian architect and sculptor, born near Pavia in 1447; died ...

    Amadia and Akra

    This double title designates two Catholic dioceses of the Chaldean Rite in Kurdistan, Turkey in ...

    Amalarius of Metz

    A liturgical writer, b. at Metz, in the last quarter of the eighth century; d. about 850. He was ...

    Amalberga, Saint

    St. Amalberga, otherwise Amelia, was related in some way to Pepin of Landen. Whether she was ...

    Amalberga, Saint

    A virgin, very much revered in Belgium, who is said to have been sought in marriage by Charles, ...

    Amalec

    (A MALECITES in Douay Version ; or A MALEK, A MALEKITES ). A people remembered chiefly ...

    Amalfi

    The Archdiocese of Amalfi, directly dependent on the Holy See, has its seat at Amalfi, not far ...

    Amalricians

    ( Latin, Almarici, Amauriani ). An heretical sect founded towards the end of the twelfth ...

    Amalricus Augerii

    A church-historian of the fourteenth century, and member of the Augustinian Order. He was a ...

    Amandus, Saint

    One of the great apostles of Flanders ; born near Nantes, in France, about the end of the ...

    Amasia

    (AMASEA.) A titular see and metropolis of Pontus in Asia Minor on the river Iris, now ...

    Amastris

    (Now AMASSERAH or SAMASTRO.) A titular see of Paphlagonia in Asia Minor, on a peninsula ...

    Amat, Thaddeus

    Second Bishop of Monterey and Los Angeles, California, U.S., b. 31 December, 1810, at ...

    Amathus

    Name of two titular sees, one in Syria, suffragan of Apameia, with an episcopal list known from ...

    Amazones, Diocese of

    (Or MANÃOS.) A South American diocese, dependent on San Salvador of Bahia. Amazonas, the ...

    Ambarach, Peter

    (Also called BENEDICTUS and BENEDETTI, these names being the equivalents of the Arabic ambarak ...

    Ambition

    The undue craving for honour. Anciently in Rome the candidates for office were accustomed to ...

    Ambo

    (Pl. Ambos, or Ambones.) A word of Greek origin, supposed to signify a mountain or elevation; ...

    Ambo (in the Russian and Greek Church)

    Its use has now practically disappeared in the Roman Rite and the only reminder of it in modern ...

    Amboise, George d'

    French cardinal, archbishop, and statesman, b. at Chaumont-sur-Loire in 1460; d. at Lyons, 25 ...

    Ambronay, Our Lady of

    A sanctuary of the Blessed Virgin at Ambronay, France, regarded as one of the two candles of ...

    Ambros, August Wilhelm

    Historian of music and art critic, one of the greatest in modern times, b. at Mauth, near Prague, ...

    Ambrose of Camaldoli, Saint

    An Italian theologian and writer, b. at Portico, near Florence, 16 September, 1386; d. 21 ...

    Ambrose of Sienna, Blessed

    Born at Sienna, 16 April, 1220, of the noble family of Sansedoni; d. at Sienna, in 1286. When ...

    Ambrose, Saint

    Bishop of Milan from 374 to 397; born probably 340, at Trier, Arles, or Lyons ; died 4 ...

    Ambrosian Basilica

    This basilica was erected at Milan by its great fourth-century bishop, St. Ambrose, and was ...

    Ambrosian Chant

    The question as to what constitutes Ambrosian chant in the sense of chant composed by St. ...

    Ambrosian Hymnography

    The names of St. Hilary of Poitiers (died 367), who is mentioned by St. Isidore of Seville as ...

    Ambrosian Library

    The Ambrosian Library is one of the famous libraries of the world, founded between 1603 and 1609 ...

    Ambrosian Liturgy and Rite

    The liturgy and Rite of the Church of Milan, which derives its name from St. Ambrose, Bishop of ...

    Ambrosians

    St. Ambrose cannot be counted among the founders of religious orders, although, like the great ...

    Ambrosiaster

    The name given to the author of a commentary on all the Epistles of St. Paul , with the ...

    Ambulatory

    A cloister, gallery, or alley; a sheltered place, straight or circular, for exercise in walking; ...

    Amelia

    The Diocese of Amelia comprises seven towns in the province of Perugia, Italy, and is under the ...

    Amelote, Denis

    Born at Saintes, 1609; died in Paris, 7 October, 1678. He was ordained in 1631, was a Doctor of ...

    Amen

    The word Amen is one of a small number of Hebrew words which have been imported unchanged into ...

    Amende Honorable

    An obsolete form of honorary satisfaction, customary in the Church in France as late as the ...

    Amerbach, Veit

    Born at Wembdinden in 1503; died at Ingolstadt, 13 Sept., 1557, humanist, convert from ...

    America

    America, also called the Western Continent or the New World, consists of three main divisions: ...

    America, Pre-Columbian Discovery of

    Of all the alleged discoveries of America before the time of Columbus, only the bold voyages of ...

    American College at Louvain, The

    An institution for the education of priests. Its official title is "The American College of the ...

    American College in Rome, The

    The American College in Rome, or to give the legal title, "The American College of the Roman ...

    American College in Rome, The South

    (Legal title, COLLEGIO PIO-LATINO-AMERICANO PONTIFICIO). The Rev. Ignatius Victor Eyzaguirre, ...

    American Protective Association, The

    Usually known as "the A.P.A.," a secret proscriptive society in the United States which became ...

    Amerigo Vespucci

    A famous Italian navigator, born at Florence, 9 March, 1451; died at Seville, 22 February, 1512. ...

    Amherst, Francis Kerril, D.D.

    Bishop of Northampton ; b. at London, 21 March, 1819; d. 21 August 1883. He was the eldest son ...

    Amias, Ven. John

    An English Martyr ; b. at Wakefield; d. at York, 16 March, 1589. He exercised the trade of a ...

    Amiatinus, Codex

    The most celebrated manuscript of the Latin Vulgate Bible, remarkable as the best witness to ...

    Amice

    A short linen cloth, square or oblong in shape and, like the other sacerdotal vestments, needing ...

    Amico, Antonio

    Canon of Palermo, and ecclesiastical historian of Syracuse and Messina, (d. 1641). He wrote ...

    Amico, Francesco

    One of the greatest theologians of his time, b. at Cosenza, in Naples, 2 April, 1578. He entered ...

    Amida

    (DIARBEKIR.) An Armenian Rite diocese located in Mesopotamia, Asiatic Turkey.- The ...

    Amiens, Diocese of

    (AMBIANUM). Comprises the department of Somme. It was a suffragan of the archdiocese of ...

    Amiot, Joseph Maria

    A missionary to China, born at Toulon, 8 February, 1718; died at Pekin, 8 or 9 October, 1793. He ...

    Amisus

    A titular see of Pontus in Asia Minor . It was a rich commercial centre under the kings of ...

    Ammen, Daniel

    American naval officer and author, b. in Brown County, Ohio, 15 May, 1820; d. in Washington, D.C., ...

    Ammon

    (Egyptian Amun or Amen , "the hidden one". Hebrew Amon , Greek Ammon ). The ...

    Ammon, Saint

    Sometimes called AMUN or AMUS, born about 350; an Egyptian who, forced into marriage when ...

    Ammonian Sections

    Divisions of the four Gospels indicated in the margin of nearly all Greek and Latin manuscripts ...

    Ammonites

    ORIGIN AND RACE The Ammonites were a race very closely allied to the Hebrews. One use of their ...

    Amorbach

    Former Benedictine abbey in Lower Franconia (Bavaria), about twenty-five miles south of ...

    Amorios

    (Also A MORIUM ), a titular see of Phrygia in Asia Minor, now known as Hergen Kaleh. It was a ...

    Amorrhites

    A name of doubtful origin and meaning, used to designate an ancient people often mentioned in ...

    Amort, Eusebius

    Philosopher and theologian, b. at Bibermuehle in Bavaria, 15 November, 1692; d. at Polling, 5 ...

    Amos

    I. NAME The third among the Minor Prophets of the Old Testament is called, in the Hebrew ...

    Amovibility

    A term applied to the condition of certain ecclesiastics in regard to their benefices or ...

    Amoy

    Located in China, created in 1883, and entrusted to the care of the Dominicans. It includes the ...

    Ampè, André-Marie

    Physicist and mathematician, b. 22 January, 1775, at Lyons, France ; d. at Marseilles, 10 ...

    Amphilochius of Iconium

    A Christian bishop of the fourth century, son of a Cappadocian family of distinction, b. ...

    Amphilochius of Sida

    (Or Side , located in Pamphylia.) A bishop of the first half of the fifth century, member ...

    Amphoræ

    Vessels generally made of clay, and furnished with ears or handles. Amphoræ were used for ...

    Ampleforth, The Abbey of

    Ampleforth, located in the county of Yorkshire, England, belongs to the English Congregation of ...

    Ampullæ

    Among the smaller objects discovered in the catacombs are a number of fragments of vessels ...

    Ampurias

    (or CASTELSARDO and TEMPIO) An Italian diocese in Sardinia, suffragan of Sassari. The Right ...

    Amra

    The name of certain ancient Irish elegies or panegyrics on native saints. The most famous of ...

    Amrah

    Central Syria has preserved for us an unequalled series of Christian monuments. From an early ...

    Amraphel

    King of Sennaar (Shinar), or Babylonia, one of the four Mesopotamian kings—the other three ...

    Amsterdam

    Amsterdam, the capital, and second residential city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, lies, in ...

    Amulet

    See also USE AND ABUSE OF AMULETS (Greek, phylakterion Latin, amuleta ). An object ...

    Amulets, Use and Abuse of

    The origin of the word amulet does not seem to have been definitely established. ( See ...

    Amyclae

    A titular see of Peloponnesus in Greece, in the ecclesiastical province of Hellas, a suffragan ...

    Amyot, Jacques

    Bishop of Auxerre, Grand Almoner of France, and man of letters, b. 30 October, 1513; d. 6 ...

    × Close

    An 213

    Anæsthesia

    (From Greek a , privative, and aisthesis , feeling). A term in medicine, and the allied ...

    Anabaptists

    (Greek ana , again, and baptizo , baptize ; rebaptizers). A violent and extremely ...

    Anacletus II

    The title which was taken by Cardinal Pietro Pierleone at the contested papal election of the ...

    Anacletus, Pope Saint

    The second successor of St. Peter . Whether he was the same as Cletus, who is also called ...

    Anagni

    The Diocese of Anagni An Italian diocese in the province of Rome under the immediate ...

    Analogy

    A philosophical term used to designate, first, a property of things; secondly, a process of ...

    Analysis

    Analysis ( ana ="up" or "back", and lyein , "to loose") means a separation; it is the taking ...

    Anaphora

    (Greek, ànaphorá, offering, sacrifice). A liturgical term in the Greek Rite. ...

    Anarchy

    ( a privative, and arche , rule) Anarchy means an absence of law. Sociologically it is ...

    Anastasia, Saint

    This martyr enjoys the distinction, unique in the Roman liturgy, of having a special ...

    Anastasiopolis

    Name of four ancient episcopal sees located respectively in Galatia (suffragan of Ancyra ), in ...

    Anastasius Bibliothecarius

    Librarian of the Roman Church, b. about 810; d. 879. He was a nephew of Bishop Arsenius of ...

    Anastasius I, Pope Saint

    A pontiff who is remembered chiefly for his condemnation of Origenism. A Roman by birth, he ...

    Anastasius II, Pope

    A native of Rome, elected 24 Nov., 496; d. 16 Nov., 498. His congratulatory letter to Clovis, on ...

    Anastasius III, Pope

    The one hundred and twenty-third occupant of the Holy See, elected September, 911; d. November, ...

    Anastasius IV, Pope

    Crowned 12 July, 1153; d. in Rome, 3 December of the following year. It was during his ...

    Anastasius Sinaita, Saint

    A Greek ecclesiastical writer, b. at Alexandria in the first half of the seventh century; d. ...

    Anastasius, Saint

    Bishop of Antioch, A.D. 559, distinguished for his learning and austerity of life; excited the ...

    Anastasius, Saint

    St. Anastasius, once a magician, became a convert of the Holy Cross and was martyred in 628. He ...

    Anathema

    (Greek anathema -- literally, placed on high, suspended, set aside). A term formerly ...

    Anathoth

    Possibly plural of Anath , a feminine Chaldean deity, worshiped in Chanaan [Enc. Bib. s.v. ...

    Anatolia, Saint

    St. Anatolia, Virgin and Martyr in the time of Decius, was put to death in the city of Thyrum, or ...

    Anatolia, Saint

    St. Anatolia, Virgin and Martyr in the time of Decius, was put to death in the city of Thyrum, or ...

    Anatolius, Saint

    Bishop of Laodicea in Syria, one of the foremost scholars of his day in the physical sciences ...

    Anatolius, Saint

    Patriarch of Constantinople in the time of Theodosius the Younger. The heretic Dioscurus had ...

    Anatomy

    (Greek, anatome ). Literally, cutting up, or dissection; now used to signify the science of ...

    Anazarbus

    A titular metropolitan see of Cilicia (Lesser Armenia), suffragan of Antioch, known also to the ...

    Anchieta, Joseph

    A famous Jesuit missionary, commonly known as the Apostle of Brazil, born on the Island of ...

    Anchor (as Symbol), The

    The anchor, because of the great importance in navigation, was regarded in ancient times as a ...

    Anchorites

    ( `anachoréo, I withdraw), also hermits ( èremîtai, desert -dwellers, ...

    Ancient of Days

    A name given to God by the Prophet Daniel (7:9, 7:13, 7:22), in which he contrasts His eternal ...

    Ancilla Dei

    In early Christian inscriptions the title ancilla Dei is often given to a deceased woman. ...

    Ancona and Umana

    An Italian diocese in the Archdiocese of Ancona, comprising ten towns in the province of Ancona. ...

    Ancona, Ciriaco d'

    An Italian antiquary whose family name was Pizzicolli, born at Ancona about 1391; died about ...

    Ancren Riwle

    Or R EGULA I NCLUSARUM. The name given to a thirteenth-century code of rules for the life of ...

    Ancyra

    The modern A NGORA , a titular see of Galatia in Asia Minor, suffragan of Laodicea. It was ...

    Ancyra, Councils of

    Three councils were held in the former capital of Galatia (now Angora) in Asia Minor, during the ...

    Andalusia

    This appellative is derived from the Al-Andulus , the name given by the Arabs to the portion ...

    Andechs

    A Benedictine monastery and famous place of pilgrimage on a hill about two miles east of the ...

    Anderdon, William Henry

    English Jesuit and writer, born in London, 26 December, 1816; died 28 July, 1890. After three ...

    Anderledy, Anthony Maria

    General of the Society of Jesus, b. in Berisal, Canton Valais, Switzerland, 3 June, 1819; d. at ...

    Anderson, Henry James

    Scientist and educator, b. in New York City, 6 February, 1799; d. at Lahore, India, 19 October, ...

    Anderson, Lionel Albert

    An English Dominican, b. about 1620; d. 21 October, 1710. The son of a Lincolnshire gentleman, he ...

    Anderson, Patrick

    A Scottish Jesuit, b. at Elgin in Morayshire in 1575; died in London, 24 September, 1624. he ...

    Anderton, James

    An English Catholic, b. 1557; d. 1618. He belonged to the well-known Catholic family of Lostock ...

    Anderton, Roger

    A Catholic layman, son of Christopher Anderton of Lostock, brother of James and uncle of Lawrence ...

    Anderton, Thomas

    An English Benedictine, b. in Lancashire in 1611; d. 9 October, 1671. He as the sixth son of ...

    Anderton, Venerable Robert

    English priest and martyr, b. in the Isle of Wight about 1560; d. 25 April, 1586. He ...

    Andlaw, Heinrich Bernhard, Freiherr von

    A famous Catholic statesman of the nineteenth century, b. 20 August, 1803, at Freiburg im ...

    Andlaw, Venerable William

    Martyred at York 4 July, 1597. He was born at Etton in Yorkshire of a well-known gentle family. ...

    André, Bernard

    (Andreas.) Native of Toulouse, Austin friar, poet laureate of England and chronographer of ...

    André, Yves Marie

    Mathematician, b. 22 May, 1675, at Chateaulin, in Lower Brittany; d. at Caen, 25 February, 1764. ...

    Andrés, Juan

    Littérateur and historian, b. at Planes, Valencia, Spain, in 1740; d. in Rome in 1817. ...

    Andrada de Payva, Diego

    A celebrated Portuguese theologian of the sixteenth century, b. at Coimbra 26 July 1528; d. 1 ...

    Andrada, Alonso

    Biographer and ascetic writer, b. at Toledo, Spain, 1590; d. at Madrid, 20 June, 1672. Before ...

    Andrada, Antonio de

    The pioneer missionary and explorer of Thibet in the seventeenth century, b. at Oleiros, ...

    Andrea Dotti, Blessed

    Born 1256, in Borgo San Sepolero, Tuscany, Italy ; d. there 31 August, 1315. He was of noble ...

    Andrea Pisano

    Or ANDREA DA PISA (the name by which Andrea da Pontadera is known). An Italian sculptor and ...

    Andrea, Giovanni d'

    Canonist, b. at Mugello, near Florence, about 1275; d. 1348. He was educated by his father and at ...

    Andreas of Caesarea

    Bishop of that see in Cappadocia, assigned by Krumbacher to the first half of the sixth ...

    Andreas of Ratisbon

    (Or REGENSBURG.) Historian of the later fourteenth and earlier fifteenth century. All that is ...

    Andreas, Saint

    (Sometimes called Andreas in English biography), theologian, homilist, hymnographer, b. at ...

    Andreis, Felix de

    First superior of the Congregation of the Mission ( Lazarists ) in the United States and ...

    Andres, Juan

    A Spanish canonist, born at Xativa, or San Felipe, in Valencia. Of Moorish extraction, he ...

    Andrew Avellino, Saint

    Born 1521 at Castronuovo, a small town in Sicily ; died 10 November, 1608. His baptismal name ...

    Andrew Bobola, Saint

    Martyr, born of an old and illustrious Polish family, in the Palatinate of Sandomir, 1590; ...

    Andrew Corsini, Saint

    Of the illustrious Corsini family ; born in Florence, in 1302; died 1373. Wild and dissolute in ...

    Andrew of Crete, Saint

    (Sometimes called Andreas in English biography), theologian, homilist, hymnographer, b. at ...

    Andrew of Lonjumeau

    Dominican missionary and papal ambassador, born in the diocese of Paris ; died c. 1253. He ...

    Andrew of Rhodes

    (Sometimes, of COLOSSUS) Theologian, d. 1440. He was Greek by birth, and born of schismatic ...

    Andrew the Scot, Saint

    Archdeacon of Fiesole, born probably at the beginning of the ninth century; died about 877. St. ...

    Andrew, Saint (Apostle and Martyr)

    The name "Andrew" (Gr., andreia , manhood, or valour), like other Greek names, appears to have ...

    Andrew, Saint (Martyr of Lampsacus)

    A martyr of the Faith in Lampsacus, a city of Mysia, in the persecution of Decius. He and two ...

    Andrews, William Eusebius

    Editor and author, born at Norwich, England, 6 December, 1773; died London, 7 April, 1837. His ...

    Andria, Diocese

    Comprises three towns in the Province of Bari and one in the Province of Potenza, Archdiocese of ...

    Andronicus, Probus, and Tarachus, Saints

    Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...

    Anemurium

    Now ESTENMURE, a titular see of Cilicia, situated in antiquity on a high bluff knob that marks ...

    Anerio, Felice

    An eminent Roman composer, b. c. 1560; d. c. 1630. From 1575 he was for four years a boy-soprano ...

    Anerio, Giovanni Francesco

    Born in Rome c. 1567; died c. 1620. He spent four years as a chorister at St. Peter's, under ...

    Anfossi, Filippo

    An Italian Dominican, b. at Taggia, in the province of Genoa ; d. in Rome, 14 May, 1825. Pius ...

    Ange de Saint Joseph

    French missionary friar of the Order of Discalced Carmelites, b. at Toulouse, 1636; d. at ...

    Ange de Sainte Rosalie

    French genealogist and friar of the house of the Petits-Pères of the Discalced ...

    Angel

    (Latin angelus ; Greek aggelos ; from the Hebrew for "one going" or "one sent"; messenger). ...

    Angel, Guardian

    ( See also FEAST OF THE GUARDIAN ANGELS .) That every individual soul has a guardian angel ...

    Angela Merici, Saint

    Foundress of the Ursulines, born 21 March, 1474, at Desenzano, a small town on the southwestern ...

    Angela of Foligno, Blessed

    Umbrian penitent and mystical writer. She was born at Foligno in Umbria, in 1248, of a rich ...

    Angeli, Francesco degli

    ( Also Angelis). Missionary to Ethiopia, born at Sorrento, Italy, 1567; died at Colela in ...

    Angeli, Girolamo degli

    An eminent pioneer missionary of Japan ; born at Castro-Giovanni, Sicily, 1567; died 4 December, ...

    Angelicals, The

    A congregation of women founded at Milan about 1530 by Countess Luigia Torelli of Guastalla ...

    Angelico, Fra

    A famous painter of the Florentine school, born near Castello di Vicchio in the province of ...

    Angelo Carletti di Chivasso, Blessed

    Moral theologian of the order of Friars Minor ; born at Chivasso in Piedmont, in 1411; and died ...

    Angelo Clareno da Cingoli

    One of the leaders of the so-called Spiritual Franciscans, b. at Fossombrone about 1247; d. at ...

    Angels of the Churches

    St. John in the Apocalypse is shown seven candlesticks and in their midst, the Son of Man ...

    Angels, Early Christian Representations of

    Angels were seldom represented in Christian art before Constantine. The oldest fresco in which ...

    Angelus

    PRESENT USAGE The Angelus is a short practice of devotion in honour of the Incarnation ...

    Angelus Bell

    The triple Hail Mary recited in the evening, which is the origin of our modern Angelus, was ...

    Angelus, Silesius

    (Johannes Scheffer) Convert, poet, controversialist, the son of a Lutheran Polish Nobleman, ...

    Anger

    The desire of vengeance. Its ethical rating depends upon the quality of the vengeance and the ...

    Angers

    (Andegavum) Comprises the territory embraced in the department of Maine and Loire. It was a ...

    Angers, University of

    The University of Angers is, probably, a development of the cathedral school of that city. Early ...

    Anges, Notre Dame de

    (OUR LADY OF THE ANGELS) A miraculous shrine near Lur, France, containing a crypt (Sainte ...

    Angilbert, Saint

    Abbot of Saint-Riquier, died 18 February, 814. Angilbert seems to have been brought up at the ...

    Angiolini, Francesco

    A noted scholar, b. at Piacenza, Italy, 1750; d. at Polotsk, 21 February, 1788. He entered the ...

    Anglesea, The Priory of

    The Priory of Anglesea, Cambridgeshire, England, was founded in honour of the Blessed Virgin ...

    Anglican Orders

    In the creed of the Catholic Church, Holy Order is one of the Seven Sacraments instituted by ...

    Anglicanism

    A term used to denote the religious belief and position of members of the established Church ...

    Anglin, Timothy Warren

    Canadian journalist and member of Parliament, born in the town of Cloankilty, County Cork, ...

    Anglo-Saxon Church, The

    I. ANGLO-SAXON OCCUPATION OF BRITAIN The word Anglo-Saxon is used as a collective name for ...

    Anglona-Tursi

    An Italian diocese comprising twenty-seven towns and three villages in the province of Potenza ...

    Angola and Congo

    Also known as SANTA CRUD DE REINO DE ANGOLA, and as SAO PAOLO DE LOANDA, diocese of Portuguese ...

    Angora

    Armenian rite diocese in Asia Minor (Asiatic Turkey). The Europeans now call Angora, and ...

    Angoulême

    (ENGOLIEIMA). Diocese ; comprises the Department of the Charente in France, and has always ...

    Angra

    The episcopal see of the Azores, suffragan of Lisbon, known as Angra do Heroismo, created in ...

    Angulo, Pedro

    Native of Burgos in Spain, came to America in 1524 as a soldier, but joined the Dominican ...

    Anhalt

    Vicariate Apostolic comprising the territory of the German Duchy of Anhalt, with an area of 860 ...

    Anicetus, Pope Saint

    The Roman Pontiff who succeeded Pius towards the year 157, and reigned till about 168. ...

    Anima Christi

    This well-known prayer dates its origin from the first half of the fourteenth century and was ...

    Anima, College and Church of the, in Rome

    S. Maria dell' Anima, the German national church and hospice in Rome, received its name, ...

    Animals in Christian Art

    In Christian art animal forms have always occupied a place of far greater importance than was ...

    Animals in the Bible

    The Bible makes no pretensions to science ; we must not therefore expect to meet in its pages ...

    Animals, Cruelty to

    Pagan antiquity The first ethical writers of pagan antiquity to advocate the duty of kindness ...

    Animism

    ( Latin, Anima, Soul) Animism is the doctrine or theory of the soul. In current language ...

    Animuccia, Giovanni

    An Italian composer, born at Florence about 1500; died 1571. He was a pupil of Claude Goudimel. ...

    Anise

    Anise ( Matthew 23:23 ) has been, since Wyclif, the rendering of anethon in the English ...

    Anna

    (Septuagint Anna ; some versions have Hannah which is nearer to the original Hebrew. The ...

    Anna Comnena

    Byzantine historian, eldest daughter of Alexius Comnenus, Emperor of Constantinople (1081-1118). ...

    Annals, Ecclesiastical

    The historical literature of the Middle Ages may be classed under three general heads: ...

    Annas

    (According to Blass and Wescott-Hort, Annas ; Josephus, Ananos ). Name (cf. Hebrew ...

    Annat, François

    French Jesuit, theologian, writer, and one of the foremost opponents of Jansenism, b. 5 ...

    Annates

    The first fruits, or first year's revenue of an ecclesiastical benefice paid to the Papal ...

    Anne d'Auray, Sainte

    A little village three miles from the town of Auray (6,500 inhabitants), in the Diocese of ...

    Anne de Beaupré, Sainte

    Devotion to Saint Anne , in Canada, goes back to the beginning of New France, and was brought ...

    Anne de Xainctonge, Venerable

    Foundress of the Society of the Sisters of St. Ursula of the Blessed Virgin , born at Dijon, 21 ...

    Anne Line, Saint

    English martyr, d. 27 Feb., 1601. She was the daughter of William Heigham of Dunmow, Essex, a ...

    Anne, Saint

    Anne (Hebrew, Hannah , grace; also spelled Ann, Anne, Anna ) is the traditional name of the ...

    Anne-Marie Javouhey, Venerable

    Foundress of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny, born at Chamblanc, Diocese of Dijon, 11 ...

    Annecy

    (A NNECIENSIS ) Diocese comprising the Department of Haute-Savoie in France, with the ...

    Annegarn, Joseph

    Catholic theologian and popular writer, b. 13 October, 1794, at Ostbevern in Westphalia ; d. 8 ...

    Annibaldi, Annibale d'

    Theologian, b. of a Roman senatorial family early in the thirteenth century; d. at Rome, 1 ...

    Annibale, Giuseppe d'

    Cardinal, theologian, b. at Borbona in the Diocese of Rieti, 22 September, 1815; d. at the same ...

    Annius of Viterbo

    (Giovanni Nanni). Archeologist and historian, born at Viterbo about 1432; died 13 November, ...

    Anno, Saint

    (Or HANNO). Archbishop of Cologne in 1055. When very young he entered the ecclesiastical ...

    Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, The Fact of the

    The fact of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary is related in Luke 1:26-38 . The ...

    Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, The Feast of the

    The Feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary (25 March), also called in old ...

    Annunciation, The Orders of the

    I. ANNUNCIADES A penitential order founded by St. Jeanne de Valois (b. 1464; d. 4 February, ...

    Anointing of the Sick

    A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect ...

    Anquetil, Louis-Pierre

    A French historian, b. in Paris, 21 Feb., 1723; d. 6 Sept., 1806. He entered the Congregation of ...

    Ansaldi, Casto Innocenzio

    Theologian and archaeologist, b. at Piacenza, in Italy, 7 March, 1710; d. at Turin, in 1780. ...

    Ansaloni, Giordano

    (Sometimes called GIORDANO DI SAN STEFANO.) Born at San Angelo in Sicily early in the ...

    Anschar, Saint

    (Or ANSGARIUS.) Called the Apostle of the North, was b. in Picardy, 8 September, 801; d. 5 ...

    Anse, Councils of

    Several medieval councils were held in this French town (near Lyons ). That of 994 decreed, ...

    Ansegisus

    Archbishop of Sens ; d. 25 November 879, or 883. He was a Benedictine monk, Abbot of St. ...

    Ansegisus, Saint

    Born about 770, of noble parentage; died 20 July, 833, or 834. At the age of eighteen he entered ...

    Anselm of Laon

    (ANSELMUS LAUDINENSIS.) Died 15 July, 1117, one of the famous theologians of the Middle ...

    Anselm of Liège

    A Belgian chronicler of the eleventh century, b. 1008; d. about 1056. He was educated at the ...

    Anselm of Lucca (the Younger), Saint

    Born at Mantua c. 1036; d. in the same city, 18 March, 1086. He was nephew of Anselm of Lucca, ...

    Anselm, Saint

    Archbishop of Canterbury, Doctor of the Church ; born at Aosta a Burgundian town on the ...

    Anselm, Saint

    Abbot, Duke of Forum Julii, the modern Friuli, in the northeastern part of Italy. Wishing to ...

    Anselme, Antoine

    A celebrated French preacher, b. at l'Isle-Jourdain in the Comté d'Armagnac, 13 January, ...

    Anslo, Reyer

    Dutch poet and convert, b. at Amsterdam in 1622; d. at Perugia in 1669. His parents were ...

    Anstey, Thomas Chisholm

    Lawyer and politician, son of one of the first settlers in Tasmania, b. in London, England, ...

    Antediluvians

    (From Latin ante =before, and diluvium =flood; people who lived before the Flood ). IN ...

    Anterus, Pope Saint

    (ANTEROS.) (Reigned 21 November, 235-3 January, 236). We know for certain only that he ...

    Anthelmi, Joseph

    A French ecclesiastical historian , b. at Fréjus, 25 July, 1648; d. in the same city, 21 ...

    Anthemius

    A Byzantine official of the fourth and fifth centuries, of high rank and fine character. He was ...

    Anthony of Padua, Saint

    Franciscan Thaumaturgist, born at Lisbon, 1195; died at Vercelli [actually Arcella -- Ed. ], ...

    Anthony of Sienna

    A Dominican theologian, so called because of his great veneration for St. Catharine of Sienna, b. ...

    Anthony of the Desert, Saint

    Founder of Christian monasticism . The chief source of information on St. Anthony is a Greek ...

    Anthony of the Mother of God

    (A. DE OLIVERA). A Spanish Carmelite, b. at Leon in Old-Castile; d. 1641. He taught ...

    Anthony, Orders of Saint

    Religious communities or orders under the patronage of Anthony the Hermit, father of monasticism, ...

    Anthropomorphism, Anthropomorphites

    ( anthropos , man, and morphe , form). A term used in its widest sense to signify the ...

    Antichrist

    (Greek Antichristos ). In composition anti has different meanings: antibasileus denotes ...

    Antidicomarianites

    An Eastern sect which flourished about A. D. 200 to 400, and which was so designated as ...

    Antidoron

    (Greek, anti , instead of; doron , a gift; i.e. a gift instead of) The remains of the ...

    Antigonish

    (Micmac, nalagitkooneech , "where the branches are torn off") Antigonish is the shiretown ...

    Antimensium

    Also ANTIMINSION (Greek antimension , from anti , instead of, and mensa , table, altar). ...

    Antinoe

    (or ANTINOPOLIS) A titular see of the Thebaid, now Esneh or Esench, a city in Egypt, built ...

    Antinomianism

    ( anti , against, and nomos , law ) The heretical doctrine that Christians are ...

    Antioch

    I. ANTIOCH OF SYRIA It is difficult to realize that in the modern Antakieh (28,000 inhab.), we ...

    Antioch, The Church of

    ( Antiocheia, Antiochia ) I. ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF THE CITY Of the vast empire conquered by ...

    Antiochene Liturgy

    The family of liturgies originally used in the Patriarchate of Antioch begins with that of the ...

    Antiochus of Palestine

    A monk of the seventh century, said to have been born near Ancyra ( Asia Minor ), lived first ...

    Antipater of Bostra

    (In Arabia ) in the fifth century, one of the foremost Greek prelates of the Roman Orient ; ...

    Antipatris

    A titular see of Palestine, whose episcopal list is known from 449 to 451 ( Gams,( 452). It ...

    Antiphellos

    Now ANTEPHELO, or ANDIFILO, a titular see of Lycia, on the south coast of Asia Minor, at the head ...

    Antiphon

    (From the Greek antiphonon , sounding against, responsive sound, singing opposite, alternate ...

    Antiphon (in Greek Liturgy)

    The Greek Liturgy uses antiphons, not only in the Office, but also in the Mass, at Vespers, and ...

    Antiphon (in the Greek Church)

    ( antiphonon ) Socrates, the church historian (Hist. Eccl., VI, viii), says that St. ...

    Antiphon, Communion

    The term Communion ( Communio ) is used, not only for the reception of the Holy Eucharist, but ...

    Antiphonary

    (Latin antiphonarium, antiphonarius, antiphonarius liber, antiphonale ; Greek ...

    Antiphonary, Gregorian

    It is no longer possible to reconstruct completely a primitive Christian antiphonary ; by a ...

    Antipodes

    Speculations concerning the rotundity of the earth and the possible existence of human beings ...

    Antipope

    A false claimant of the Holy See in opposition to a pontiff canonically elected. At various ...

    Antiquities, Biblical

    This department of archæology has been variously defined and classified. Some scholars have ...

    Antivari

    ( Antibarium ) So called from its position opposite to Bari in Italy ; the Catholic ...

    Antofogaste

    Vicariate Apostolic in Chile, dependent on the Sacred Congregation of Ecclesiastical Affairs. By ...

    Antoine, Paul Gabriel

    A French theologian, born at Lunéville, 10 January, 1678; died at Pont-à-Mousson, ...

    Anton Ulrich

    D UKE OF B RUNSWICK — L ÜNEBURG — W OLFENBÜTTEL A convert to the ...

    Antonelli, Giacomo

    Cardinal ; Secretary of State to Pius IX, b. at Sonnino, in the Papal States, 2 April 1806; d. in ...

    Antonelli, Leonardo

    Cardinal, b. at Sinigaglia, 6 November 1730; d. 23 January, 1811, nephew of Cardinal ...

    Antonelli, Nicolò Maria

    Cardinal, learned canonist, ecclesiastical historian, and Orientalist, b. at Sinigaglia, 8 July, ...

    Antoniano, Giovanni

    Patrologist, b. at Nimeguen, in Holland, early in the sixteenth century; d. same place, in 1588. ...

    Antoniano, Silvio

    Cardinal, writer on education, b. 31 December 1540 in Rome ; d. there 16 August 1603. He was ...

    Antoniewicz, Charles

    (Botoz.) A Polish Jesuit and missionary, born in Lwów (Lemberg), 6 November 1807; ...

    Antoninus Pius

    (T ITUS Æ LIUS H ADRIANUS A NTONINUS P IUS ). Roman Emperor (138-161), born 18 ...

    Antoninus, Saint

    Archbishop of Florence, b. at Florence, 1 March, 1389; d. 2 May, 1459; known also by his ...

    Antonio Maria Zaccaria, Saint

    Founder of the Clerks Regular of St. Paul, commonly known as the Barnabites ; b. in Cremona, ...

    Antonio of Vicenza, Maria

    A Reformed Minorite, b. at Vicenza, 1 March, 1834; d. at Rovigno, 22 June, 1884. After his ...

    Antonius

    A supposed Latin Christian poet of the third century, under whose name there is printed in ...

    Antony, Franz Joseph

    Born 1790, at Muenster, Westphalia ; d. there, 1837. He received Holy Orders, and in 1819 became ...

    Antwerp

    (ANVERS, ANTVERPEN, Spanish AMBERES) A city of Belgium, in the archdiocese of Mechlin, ...

    Anunciación, Fray Domingo de la

    Dominican missionary, b. at Fuenteovejuna, 1510; d. in Mexico, 1591. In the world his name was ...

    Anunciación, Fray Juan de la

    Born at Granada in Spain, probably 1514; died 1594. He went to Mexico, where he joined the ...

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    Ao 1

    Aosta

    An Italian diocese, suffragan of Turin, and comprising 73 towns in the province of Turin. ...

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    Ap 68

    Apaches

    A tribe of North American Indians belonging linguistically to the Athapascan stock whose ...

    Apameia

    A titular metropolitan see of Syria, in the valley of the Orontes, whose episcopal list dates ...

    Aparisi y Guijarro, Antonio

    Parliamentary orator, jurisconsult, Catholic controversialist, and Spanish litterateur, b. in ...

    Apelles

    Founder of a Gnostic sect ; died at an advanced age late in the second century. What little is ...

    Aphian, Saint

    St. Aphian (or Apian), an illustrious martyr, under the Emperor Maximian, c. 306. He was only ...

    Aphraates

    (Greek, Aphraates ; Syriac Aphrahat or Pharhad ). The long list of Syriac writers ...

    Apiarius of Sicca

    A priest of the diocese of Sicca, in proconsular Africa. Interest attaches to him only ...

    Apocalypse, Book of

    Apocalypse, from the verb apokalypto , to reveal, is the name given to the last book in the ...

    Apocatastasis

    (Greek, apokatastasis ; Latin, restitutio in pristinum statum , restoration to the original ...

    Apocrisiarius

    (Gr. apochrisis , an answer; cf. Lat. responsalis , from responsum ). This term indicates ...

    Apocrypha

    Overview The scope of this article takes in those compositions which profess to have been ...

    Apodosis

    (Greek apodosis , a giving back) A usage of the Greek Church corresponding somewhat to the ...

    Apollinarianism

    A Christological theory, according to which Christ had a human body and a human sensitive ...

    Apollinaris

    One of the first great martyrs of the church. He was made Bishop of Ravenna by St. Peter ...

    Apollinaris (the Elder)

    A Christian grammarian of the fourth century, first at Berytus in Phoenicia, then at Laodicea ...

    Apollinaris Claudius, Saint

    A Christian apologist, Bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia in the second century. He became ...

    Apollinaris, Saint

    The most illustrious of the Bishops of Valence, b. at Vienne, 453; d. 520. He lived in the ...

    Apollonia, Saint

    A holy virgin who suffered martyrdom in Alexandria during a local uprising against the ...

    Apollonius of Ephesus

    Anti- Montanist Greek ecclesiastical writer, between 180 and 210, probably from Asia Minor, ...

    Apologetics

    A theological science which has for its purpose the explanation and defence of the Christian ...

    Apolysis

    (Greek, apolysis , dismissal) The dismissal blessing said by the Greek priest at the end ...

    Apolytikion

    A dismissal prayer or hymn said or sung at the end of the Gree Mass and at other times during ...

    Apophthegmata Patrum

    ( apo , from; phtheggomai , to cry out; pater , father) Sayings of the Fathers of the ...

    Aporti, Ferrante

    An educator and theologian, born at San Martino dell'Argine, province of Mantua, Italy, 20 ...

    Apostasy

    ( apo , from, and stasis , station, standing, or position). The word itself in its ...

    Apostle (in Liturgy)

    The name given by the Greek Church to the Epistle of the Divine Liturgy, which is invariably of ...

    Apostle Spoons

    A set of thirteen spoons, usually silver, the handles of which are adorned with representations of ...

    Apostles of Erin, The Twelve

    By this designation are meant twelve holy Irishmen of the sixth century who went to study at the ...

    Apostles' Creed

    A formula containing in brief statements, or "articles," the fundamental tenets of Christian ...

    Apostles, Acts of the

    In the accepted order of the books of the New Testament the fifth book is called The Acts of the ...

    Apostles, Portraits of the

    The earliest fresco representing Christ surrounded by the Apostles dates from the beginning of ...

    Apostles, The

    Under this title it may be sufficient to supply brief and essential information, I. on the name ...

    Apostleship of Prayer, The

    A pious association otherwise known as a league of prayer in union with the Heart of Jesus. It ...

    Apostolic Blessing

    The solemn blessing ( urbi et orbi ) which, before 1870, the Holy Father himself gave from the ...

    Apostolic Camera

    The former central board of finance in the papal administrative system, which at one time was of ...

    Apostolic Church-Ordinance

    A third-century pseudo-Apostolic collection of moral and hierarchical rules and instructions, ...

    Apostolic Churches

    The epithet Apostolic ( apostolikos ) occurs as far back as the beginning of the second ...

    Apostolic College

    This term designates The Twelve Apostles as the body of men commissioned by Christ to spread the ...

    Apostolic Constitutions

    A fourth-century pseudo-Apostolic collection, in eight books, of independent, though closely ...

    Apostolic Executor

    A cleric who puts into execution a papal rescript, completing what is necessary in order ...

    Apostolic Expeditors

    (Latin Expeditionarius literarum apostolicarum, Datariae Apostolicae sollicitator atque ...

    Apostolic Fathers, The

    Christian writers of the first and second centuries who are known, or are considered, to have had ...

    Apostolic Letters

    ( Litterae apostolicae ). 1. The letters of the Apostles to Christian communities or those ...

    Apostolic Majesty

    A title given to the Kings of Hungary, and used, since the time of Maria Theresa, by the King ...

    Apostolic See, The

    ( Soles apostolica, cathedra apostolica ). This is a metaphorical term, used, as happens in ...

    Apostolic Succession

    Apostolicity as a note of the true Church being dealt with elsewhere, the object of the present ...

    Apostolic Union of Secular Priests, The

    An association of secular priests who observe a simple rule embodying the common duties of ...

    Apostolicæ Sedis Moderationi

    A Bull of Pius IX (1846-78) which regulates anew the system of censures and reservations in ...

    Apostolicæ Servitutis

    A Bull issued by Benedict XIV, 23 February, 1741, against secular pursuits on the part of the ...

    Apostolicae Curae

    Note: An English translation of Apostolicae Curae is available here. A Bull of Leo XIII ...

    Apostolici

    The name of four different heretical bodies. I. Heretics of the third century The sect of ...

    Apostolici Ministerii

    A Bull issued 23 May, 1724, by Innocent XIII, for the revival of ecclesiastical discipline in ...

    Apostolici Regiminis

    A Bull issued 19 December, 1513, by Leo X, in defence of the Catholic doctrine concerning the ...

    Apostolicity

    Apostolicity is the mark by which the Church of today is recognized as identical with the ...

    Apostolicum Pascendi Munus

    A Bull issued by Clement XIII, 12 January, 1765, in defense of the Society of Jesus against ...

    Apotactics

    (From Greek, apotassomai , to renounce). The adherents of a heresy which sprang up in the ...

    Apotheosis

    (Greek apotheosis , from, and theos , deify). Deification, the exaltation of men to the ...

    Apparitions

    This article will deal not with natural but with supernatural visions, that is, visions due to ...

    Apparitor

    The official name given to an officer in ecclesiastical courts designated to serve the summons, ...

    Appeal as from an abuse

    ( Appel comme d'abus ) Appeal was originally a recourse to the civil forum against the ...

    Appeals

    The purpose of this article is to give a comprehensive view of the positive legislation of the ...

    Appetite

    ( ad , to + petere , to seek) A tendency, an inclination, or direction. As it is used by ...

    Approbation

    Approbation is an act by which a bishop or other legitimate superior grants to an ecclesiastic ...

    Appropriation

    In general, consists in the attribution to a person or thing of a character or quality which ...

    Apse

    (Latin, apsis or absis , Ionic Greek, apsis , an arch). The semicircular or polygonal ...

    Apse Chapel

    A chapel radiating tangentially from one of the bays or divisions of the apse, and reached ...

    Apsidiole

    (Also written ABSIDIALE). A small or secondary apse, one of the apses on either side of the ...

    Apt, Council of

    Held 14 May, 1365, in the cathedral of that city by the archbishops and bishops of the ...

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    Aq 8

    Aquarians

    (Greek, Hydroparastatai ; Latin, Aquarii ). A name given to several sects in the ...

    Aquila

    An Italian archdiocese in the Abruzzi, directly dependent on the Holy See. The See of ...

    Aquila and Priscilla

    ( Or Prisca.) Jewish tentmakers, who left Rome (Aquila was a native of Pontus ) in the ...

    Aquileia

    A former city of the Roman Empire, situated at the head of the Adriatic, on what is now the ...

    Aquileia, Councils of

    A council held in 381, presided over by St. Valerian of Aquileia, and attended by thirty-two ...

    Aquileian Rite

    The See of Aquileia fell into schism during the quarrel of the Three Chapters (under Bishop ...

    Aquinas, St. Thomas

    Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church ( Angelicus Doctor ), patron of Catholic ...

    Aquino, Sora, and Pontecorvo

    An Italian diocese immediately subject to the Holy See. It comprises 29 towns in the province ...

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    Ar 143

    Arévalo, Faustino

    A learned Jesuit hymnographer and patrologist, born 23 July, 1747. at Companario in ...

    Arévalo, Rodríguez Sanchez de

    A learned Spanish bishop. b. 1404, in the diocese of Segovia ; d. 4 October, 1470. After ...

    Arabia

    Arabia is the cradle of Islam and, in all probability, the primitive home of the Semitic race. ...

    Arabia, Councils of

    In 246 and 247 two councils were held at Bostra in Arabia against Beryllus, Bishop of the see, ...

    Arabia, Vicariate Apostolic of

    Arabia formerly belonged to the mission of Galla ( Africa), but was made a separate prefecture ...

    Arabian School of Philosophy

    Until the eighth century the Arabians, although they expressed their religious feelings in a ...

    Arabici

    A small sect of the third century, whose founder is unknown, and which is commonly named from ...

    Arabissus

    A titular see of Armenia, suffragan of Melitene ; its episcopal list is known from 381 to ...

    Arad

    A titular see of Palestine, said to be identical with the eminence of Tell' Arad on the way from ...

    Aragon and Castile

    The united kingdom which came into existence by the marriage (1469) of Isabella, heiress of ...

    Aran, The Monastic School of

    The three islands of Aran stretch across the mouth of Galway Bay, forming a kind of natural ...

    Aranda, Council of

    Held at Aranda in the province of Burgos in Spain, in 1473, by Alfonso Carillo, Archbishop of ...

    Aranda, Philip

    Jesuit theologian, born at Moneva, Aragon, 3 February 1642; died at Saragossa, 3 June, 1695. He ...

    Arason Jón

    The last Catholic bishop of Iceland before the introduction of Protestantism, b. 1484; d. 7 ...

    Arator

    A Christian poet of the sixth century, probably of Ligurian origin. He studied at Milan under ...

    Araucania

    Located in Chile, established by Leo XIII in 1901, and confided to the Capuchins, It has ...

    Araucanians

    ( Also Araucans, Moluches, Mapuches). The origin of the word is not yet fully ascertained. A ...

    Araujo, Antonio de

    Brazilian missionary, born at St. Michael's in the Azores ; died 1632. He entered the Society ...

    Araujo, Francisco de

    Spanish theologian, b. at Verin, Galicia, 1580; d. Madrid, 19 March, 1664. In 1601, he entered the ...

    Arawaks

    ( Also Aruacans). The first American aborigines met by Columbus -- not to be confounded ...

    Arbieto, Ignacio de

    Jesuit, born at Madrid, February, 1585; died at Lima, Peru, 7 August 1670. He joined the Society ...

    Arbitration

    Arbitration in a general sense, is a method of arranging differences between two parties by ...

    Arbogast, Saint

    (Gaelic Arascach ). St. Arbogast has been claimed as a native of Scotland, but this is ...

    Arbroath, Abbey of

    This monastery was founded on the east coast of Scotland (1178) by William the Lion, for ...

    Arbuthnott, Missal of

    A manuscript Scottish missal or mass-book, written in 1491 by James Sibbald, priest of ...

    Arca

    A box in which the Eucharist was kept by the primitive Christians in their homes. St. Cyprian ( ...

    Arcachon, Our Lady of

    A miraculous image venerated at Arcachon, France, and to all appearances the work of the ...

    Arcadelt, Jacob

    (Also ARCHADELT, ARKADELT, HARCADELT) A distinguished musician, b. in Holland at the close of ...

    Arcadiopolis

    A titular see of Asia Minor. Its episcopal list (431-879) is given in Gams (p. 444); there is ...

    Arcae

    Also ARCA, now TEL-ARKA. A titular see on the coast of Phoenicia, between Tripolis and ...

    Arcanum

    An Encyclical Letter on Christian marriage, issued 10 February, 1880, by Leo XIII. Its scope ...

    Arch

    A structure composed of separate pieces, such as stone or bricks, having the shape of truncated ...

    Archæology, Christian

    Christian archaeology is that branch of the science of archaeology the object of which is the ...

    Archæology, The Commission of Sacred

    An official pontifical board founded in the middle of the nineteenth century for the purpose of ...

    Archange de Lyon

    A preacher of the Capuchin order whose name was Michael Desgranges, b. at Lyons, 2 March, 1736; ...

    Archbishop

    ( Archiepiskopos , archiepiscopus ). I. IN THE CATHOLIC CHURCH An archbishop or ...

    Archconfraternity

    A confraternity empowered to aggregate or affiliate other confraternities of the same nature, and ...

    Archdeacon

    ( Latin archidiaconos ; Greek archidaikonos ). The incumbent of an ecclesiastical ...

    Archdeacon, Richard

    An Irish Jesuit, whose name is sometimes given as Archdekin or Arsdekin, b. at Kilkenny, 30 ...

    Archdiocese

    ( Archidioikesis , archidioecesis ). This term does not designate an ecclesiastical ...

    Archelais

    A titular see of Palestine, twelve miles west of the Jordan. Its episcopal list is given in ...

    Archeology, Christian

    Christian archaeology is that branch of the science of archaeology the object of which is the ...

    Archer, James

    An English missionary priest, born in London, 17 November, 1751; died 22 August, 1832. While ...

    Arches, The Court of

    The Court of Arches, so called from the fact that it was anciently held in the Church of St. ...

    Archiereus

    (Russian, arkhierei ). A Greek word for bishop, when considered as the culmination of the ...

    Archimandrite

    (Greek archo , I command, and mandra , a sheepfold). In the Greek Rite the superior of ...

    Archinto, Filipo

    An Italian theologian and diplomatist, born 1500 at Milan of the distinguished family of that ...

    Architecture, Ecclesiastical

    The best definition of architecture that has ever been given is likewise the shortest. It is "the ...

    Architecture, Gothic

    The term Gothic was first used during the later Renaissance, and as a term of contempt. Says ...

    Archives, Ecclesiastical

    Ecclesiastical archives may be described as a collection of documents, records, muniments, and ...

    Archontics

    (From archon , prince, ruler). A Gnostic sect which existed in Palestine and Armenia ...

    Archpriest

    Just as among the deacons of the bishop's church one stood out as the special assistant and ...

    Archpriest Controversy

    This controversy arose in England on the appointment of George Blackwell as archpriest with ...

    Arcosolium

    This word is derived from arcus "arch" and solium , a term sometimes used by Latin writers ...

    Arculf

    A Frankish Bishop of the latter part of the seventh century. According to some, e.g. Alexis de ...

    Ardagh

    (High Field). Ardagh, an Irish diocese in the ecclesiastical province of Armagh, takes its ...

    Ardbraccan

    (Hill of Braccan, or Brecan) Site of an ancient abbey, now a parish and village in the county ...

    Ardchatten, The Priory of

    An Argyllshire house, one of the three in Scotland belonging to the Order of Vallis Caulium, or ...

    Arden, Edward

    An English Catholic, executed during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, b. 1542 (?); d. 1583. He was ...

    Ardilliers, Notre Dame des

    (Latin argilla , French argile , colloquial ardille , clay). A statue, fountain, and ...

    Aremberg, Prince Charles d'

    Definitor-general and Commissary of the Capuchins ; died at Brussels, 5 June, 1669. He is the ...

    Areopolis

    (Rabbath-Moab). A titular see of Palestine. Its episcopal list (449-536) is given in Gams ...

    Arequipa, Diocese of

    Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lima, Peru , was erected by Gregory XIII , 15 April, 1577, at ...

    Arethas of Caesarea

    Born at Patrae, Greece, about 860; was, like all the eminent men of that time, a disciple of ...

    Arethusa

    A titular see of Syria near Apameia. Its episcopal list (325-680) is given in Gams (p. ...

    Arezzo

    A diocese of Tuscany, in Italy, which is directly dependent on the Holy See. It has 40 towns in ...

    Argüello, Luis Antonio

    Governor of California, born at San Francisco, 1784; died there in 1830. His family was one of ...

    Argenson, Pierre de Voyer d'

    Called the vicomte d'Argenson, chevalier, vicomte de Mouzé, seigneur de Chastres, was the ...

    Argentina

    (Argentine Republic). A South American confederation of fourteen provinces, or States, united ...

    Argos

    A titular see of Peloponnesian Greece, from the fifth to the twelfth century, about twenty miles ...

    Argyll and the Isles, Diocese of

    The Diocese of Argyll, founded about 1200, was separated from the Diocese of Dunkeld ; it ...

    Argyropulos, John

    Humanist, and translator of Aristotle, born at Constantinople, 1416; died at Rome about 1486. It ...

    Arialdo, Saint

    Martyred at Milan in 1065, for his attempt to reform the simoniacal and immoral clergy of ...

    Arianism

    A heresy which arose in the fourth century, and denied the Divinity of Jesus Christ. ...

    Ariano

    Diocese in the Archdiocese of Beneventum, comprising seven towns in the province of Avellino, ...

    Arias de Avila, Pedro

    (Also known as Pedrarias Davila). A Spanish knight from Segovia, b. about the middle of the ...

    Arias Montanus, Benedictus

    Orientalist, exegete, and editor of the "Antwerp Polyglot", born at Frejenal de la Sierra in ...

    Arias, Francis

    Writer of ascetical treatises, born at Seville in Spain, 1533, died in that place, 15 May, ...

    Ariassus

    A titular see of Pamphylia in Asia Minor, whose episcopal list (381-458) is given in Gams (p. ...

    Aribo

    Archbishop of Mainz ; date of birth unknown; d. 6 April, 1032; son of Arbo, Count Palatine in ...

    Arindela

    A titular see of Palestine, whose episcopal list (431-536) is given in Gams (page 454).

    Ariosto, Ludovico

    Called "The Italian Homer". He was the son of Nicolo Ariosto, Governor of Reggio, and Daria ...

    Aristeas

    A name given in Josephus (Ant. XII, ii passim ) to the author of a letter ascribing the Greek ...

    Aristides

    A Christian apologist living at Athens in the second century. According to Eusebius, the ...

    Aristotle

    The greatest of heathen Philosophers, born at Stagira, a Grecian colony in the Thracian ...

    Arius

    An heresiarch, born about A.D.ú died 336. He is said to have been a Libyan by descent. His ...

    Arizona

    Said to have been, probably in the original form of the word, Arizonac , and in this form a Pima ...

    Ark of the Covenant

    The Hebrew aron , by which the Ark of the Covenant is expressed, does not call to the mind, as ...

    Ark, Noah's

    The Hebrew name to designate Noah's Ark, the one which occurs again in the history of Moses' ...

    Arkansas

    One of the United States of America , bounded on the north by the State of Missouri, on the ...

    Arlegui, Fray José

    A Spaniards from Biscay, first attached to the Franciscan province of Cantabria, then ...

    Arles, The Synods of

    The first Council of Arles was held in 314, for the purpose of putting an end to the Donatist ...

    Armada, The Spanish

    The Spanish Armada, also called the Invincible Armada ( infra ), and more correctly La Armada ...

    Armagh

    Archdiocese founded by St. Patrick about 445, as the primatial and metropolitan see of ...

    Armagh, The Book of

    Technically known as LIBER AR(D)MACHANUS. A celebrated Irish-Latin manuscript preserved in ...

    Armagh, The School of

    The School of Armagh seems to have been the oldest, and down to the time of the Anglo-Norman ...

    Armagnac, Georges d'

    French cardinal and diplomatist, b. c. 1501; d. 2 June, 1585. He belonged to the illustrious ...

    Armellino, Mariano

    Benedictine historian, b. in Rome (according to others, at Ancona ) in 1657; d. at Foligno in ...

    Armenia

    A mountainous region of Western Asia occupying a somewhat indefinite area to the southeast of ...

    Armenierstadt

    ( Hungarian, Szamos-Ujvar , Latin, Armenopolis ). A city in the Transylvanian county of ...

    Armentia, Fray Nicolás

    Bishop of La Paz (capital of Bolivia, South America), appointed 22 October, 1901; b. at ...

    Armidale

    A diocese situated in New South Wales (Australia), with its cathedral at Armidale, 335 miles ...

    Arminianism

    The popular designation of the doctrines held by a party formed in the early days of the ...

    Arnauld

    (A RNAUT, or A RNAULT .) A celebrated family, the history of which is intimately ...

    Arne, Thomas Augustine

    English composer, b. 12 March 1710, at London ; d. 5 March, 1778. Although of Catholic ...

    Arni Thorlaksson

    An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297. While a deacon, he visited ...

    Arnobius

    A Christian apologist, flourished during the reign of Diocletian (284-305). St. Jerome says, in ...

    Arnold

    Name of several medieval personages. Arnold Amalricus Cistercian monk, Abbot of ...

    Arnold of Brescia

    (ARNALDUS, ARNOLDUS, ERNALDUS) Born at Brescia towards the end of the eleventh century, ...

    Arnoldi, Alberto

    (Or di Arnoldo). Italian sculptor and architect, b. at Florence, fourteenth century. In 1364, ...

    Arnoldi, Bartholomaeus

    Usually called Usingen, after his birthplace, an Augustinian friar, teacher of Luther, and with him ...

    Arnolfo di Cambio

    Sometimes called di Lapo, the principal master of Italian Gothic, b. at Florence, about 1232; d. ...

    Arnoudt, Peter Joseph

    ( Also: Aernoudt, Arnold). Jesuit writer on spiritual subjects, born at Moere Belgium, 17 ...

    Arnpeck, Veit

    Bavarian historian, b. at Landshut in 1440; d. at the same place about the year 1505. He was ...

    Arnulf of Bavaria

    Son of Luitpold of the Agilulfing family and of Kunigunde, and Duke of Bavaria from 907 to 937. ...

    Arnulf of Lisieux

    (Lexoviensis or Luxoviensis). In France ; d. 31 August, 1184. He was educated by his ...

    Arnulf of Metz, Saint

    Statesman, bishop under the Merovingians, born c. 580; died c. 640. His parents belonged to a ...

    Arras

    (Atrebatum). Diocese comprising the Department of Pas-de-Calais in France. On the occasion of ...

    Arras, Councils of

    In 1025 a council was held at Arras against certain (Manichaean) heretics who rejected the ...

    Arriaga, Pablo José

    Born at Vergara, in Biscay, 1564, entered the Society of Jesus in 1579, and in 1585 went to ...

    Arricivita, Juan

    A native of Mexico in the eighteenth century. Little more is known of his life than that he was ...

    Arrighetti, Nicolò

    A professor of natural philosophy at Spoleto, Prato, and Sienna, b. at Florence, 17 March, 1709; ...

    Arrighetti, Nicola

    Mathematician, b. at Florence and died there in 1639. He was distinguished as a litterateur, but ...

    Arrowsmith, Venerable Edmund

    English martyr, born in 1585 at Haddock; executed at Lancaster, 23 August, 1628. He is of great ...

    Arsacidæ

    It was under the Dynasty of the Arsacids, who ruled the Persian empire from the year 256 B.C. ...

    Arsenius Autorianos

    Patriarch of Constantinople, in the thirteenth century; died 1273. He entered a monastery in ...

    Arsenius, Saint

    Anchorite; born 354, at Rome ; died 450, at Troe, in Egypt. Theodosius the Great having ...

    Arsinoe

    A titular see of Egypt, now Medinet el Fayum, capital of the district of that name, and ...

    Art, Christian

    " Christian art" is a term which, while it always applies to the fine arts and their creations ...

    Art, Ecclesiastical

    Before speaking in detail of the developments of Christian art from the beginning down to the ...

    Artemon

    (Or Artemas). Mentioned as the leader of an Antitrinitarian sect at Rome, in the third ...

    Arthur, James

    (Didacus Arturus). A Dominican friar, and a theologian of note, b. at Limerick, Ireland, ...

    Arthur, Thomas

    A celebrated Catholic physician of the seventeenth century, born at Limerick, 1593, died c. ...

    Articles of Faith

    (Greek, arthron ; Latin, articulus , joint). Certain revealed supernatural truths such ...

    Articles, The Organic

    A name given to a law regulating public worship, comprising 77 articles relative to Catholicism, ...

    Artoklasia

    (Greek artos = bread, klao = to break; the breaking of bread). A peculiar service in the ...

    Arts, Bachelor of

    A degree marking the completion of the traditional curriculum of the college. In the medieval ...

    Arts, Master of

    An academic degree higher than that of Bachelor. The conferring of the degree of Master of Arts, ...

    Arts, The Faculty of

    One of the four traditional divisions of the teaching body of the university. It is impossible to ...

    Arts, The Seven Liberal

    The expression artes liberales , chiefly used during the Middle Ages, does not mean arts as we ...

    Artvin

    Artvin, a Russian city in the trans-Caucasian province of Kutais, is situated near Turkish ...

    Arundel, Thomas

    Sixtieth Archbishop of Canterbury, second son of Robert, Earl of Arundel and Warren, b. 1353; ...

    Arundell

    Thomas, first Lord Arundell of Wardour Born 1560; died at Oxford, 7 November, 1639. He was the ...

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    As 70

    Asaph, Saint

    (Or Asa). First Bishop of the Welsh See of that name (second half of the sixth century). ...

    Ascalon

    A titular see of Palestine whose episcopal list (351-930 or 40) is given in Gams (p. 453). It ...

    Ascelin

    Ambassador of Innocent IV (1243-54) to the Tartars. He entered the Dominican Order, probably at ...

    Ascendente Domino

    A Bull issued by Gregory XIII, 24 May, 1584, in favor of the Society of Jesus, to confirm the ...

    Ascension

    See also The Feast of the Ascension . The elevation of Christ into heaven by His own power ...

    Ascension, Feast of the

    See also The Fact of the Ascension . The fortieth day after Easter Sunday , commemorating ...

    Ascetical Theology

    Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of ...

    Asceticism

    The word asceticism comes from the Greek askesis which means practice, bodily exercise, and ...

    Aschbach, Joseph, Ritter von

    German historian, b. at Hochst, in Hesse-Nassau, 29 April, 1801; d. at Vienna, 25 April, 1882. In ...

    Ascoli, Satriano, and Cirignola

    An Italian diocese, suffragan to the Archdiocese of Beneventum, comprising six towns and two ...

    Ascoli-Piceno

    Diocese comprising sixteen towns in the Province of Ascoli-Piceno, two in that of Aquila, and two ...

    Aseity

    Aseity (Latin a , from; se , itself: ens a se ) is the property by which a being exists ...

    Aseneth

    The daughter of Putiphare (Poti-phera), priest of On. The Pharaoh of Egypt gave her to wife ...

    Aser

    Though the form Aser uniformly appears in the Septuagint, Vulgate, and Douay versions, an ...

    Asgaard

    Asgaard (from As , plural Aeser , or in English, "Ases"--Norwegian for the gods--and gaard ...

    Ash Wednesday

    The Wednesday after Quinquagesima Sunday , which is the first day of the Lenten fast. The ...

    Ashby, George

    Monk of the Cistercian Monastery of Jervaulx in Yorkshire, executed after the Pilgrimage of ...

    Ashby, Thomas

    Suffered at Tyburn, 29 March, 1544. His name was originally contained in the process of the ...

    Ashes

    It is not easy to arrive at the fundamental conception of the liturgical use of ashes. No doubt ...

    Ashley, Venerable Ralph

    Martyr and Jesuit lay-brother; first heard of, it seems, as cook at Douay College, which he ...

    Ashton, John

    An early Jesuit missionary in Maryland ; born in Ireland, 1742; died in Maryland, 1814, or ...

    Ashton, Venerable Roger

    Martyr, third son of Richard Ashton of Croston, in Lancashire. He was hanged, drawn, and ...

    Asia

    In the present article it is intended to give a rapid survey of the geography, ethnography, ...

    Asia Minor

    The peninsular mass that the Asiatic continent projects westward of an imaginary line running ...

    Asiongaber

    More properly Ezion-geber, a city of Idumea, situated on the northern extremity of the ...

    Aske, Robert

    An English gentleman, and nominal leader of the 30,000 Northern Catholics who rose in defence ...

    Asmodeus

    The name of the demon mentioned in the Book of Tobias (iii, 8). The name is most probably ...

    Aspendus

    A titular see of Pamphylia in Asia Minor, situated along the Eurymedon, on a lofty hill that ...

    Asperges

    (Latin, aspergere, to wash, sprinkle). The rite of sprinkling the congregation with holy ...

    Aspilcueta, Martin

    (Also AZPILCOETA.) Generally known as Navarrus, or Doctor Navarrus, a famous Spanish canonist ...

    Ass, The, in Caricature of Christians

    The calumny of onolatry, or ass-worship, attributed by Tacitus and other writers to the Jews, ...

    Assam

    A Prefecture Apostolic in the ecclesiastical province of Calcutta, India, established in 1889. ...

    Assemani

    (Arabic, Sam'an , i.e. Simeon ) The name of an illustrious Maronite family of Mount ...

    Assemblies of the French Clergy

    Quinquennial representative meetings of the Clergy of France for the purpose of apportioning ...

    Asser, John

    (Or Asserius Menevensis). A learned monk of St David's, Menevia, b. in Pembrokeshire; d. ...

    Asses, Feast of

    The celebration of the "Festum Asinorum" in medieval and ecclesiastical circles was a pastime ...

    Assessor of the Holy Office

    An official of the Congregation of the Inquisition. The Holy Office is better known as the ...

    Assessors

    Assessors, in ecclesiastical law, are learned persons who function is to counsel a judge with ...

    Assicus, Saint

    Bishop and Patron of Elphin, in Ireland, one of St. Patrick's converts, and his worker in ...

    Assideans

    Assideans (Hebrew, chasidim , saints; Greek, Asidaioi ), men endowed with grace ( Psalm 39:5 ; ...

    Assimilation, Physiological

    In this sense the word may be defined as that vital function by which an organism changes nutrient ...

    Assimilation, Psychological

    As applied to a mental process, assimilation derives all its force and meaning from the analogy ...

    Assisi

    Diocese located in the civil province of Umbria, Italy. The town of Assisi ( Assisium ), ...

    Assistant at the Pontifical Throne

    (ASSISTENS THRONO PONTIFICIO.) Bishops-assistant at the pontifical throne are those prelates ...

    Assizes of Jerusalem

    The signification of the word assizes in this connection is derived from the French verb ...

    Assmayer, Ignaz

    An Austrian musician, born at Salzburg, 11 February, 1790; died in Vienna, 31 August, 1862. ...

    Association of Ideas

    (1) A principle in psychology to account for the succession of mental states; (2) the basis ...

    Association of Priestly Perseverance

    A sacerdotal association founded in 1868 at Vienna, and at first confined to that Archdiocese. ...

    Association, Right of Voluntary

    I. LEGAL RIGHT A voluntary association means any group of individuals freely united for the ...

    Associations, Pious

    Under this term are comprehended all those organizations, approved and indulgenced by Church ...

    Assuerus

    The name of two different persons in the Bible : I. In Ezra 4:6 , and Esther 1:17 , it ...

    Assumption of Mary

    The Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 15 August; also called in old liturgical ...

    Assumption, Augustinians of the

    (Also called the Assumptionists .) This congregation had its origin in the College of the ...

    Assumption, Little Sisters of the

    A congregation whose work is the nursing of the sick poor in their own homes. This labour they ...

    Assumption, Sisters of the

    A congregation of French nuns devoted to the teaching of young girls. It was founded in 1839 by ...

    Assumptionists

    (Also called the Assumptionists .) This congregation had its origin in the College of the ...

    Assur (multiple definitions)

    (Septuagint Assour .) (1) The name used in the Old Testament to designate the Assyrian land ...

    Assur (titular see)

    (Or Assuræ.) A titular see of Proconsular Africa, now Henchir-Zenfour. Its episcopal ...

    Assyria

    In treating of Assyria it is extremely difficult not to speak at the same time of its sister, ...

    Assyrian Rite

    Also known as the Chaldean, Assyrian, or Persian Rite. History and Origin This rite is used by ...

    Asterisk

    (From the Greek aster , a star). This is a utensil for the Liturgy according to the Greek ...

    Asterius

    Name of several prominent persons in early Christian history. (1) Asterius of Petra, a ...

    Asti

    One of the divisions of the province of Alexandria, and suffragan of Turin. Asti is a very old ...

    Aston

    The name of several English Catholics of prominence. Sir Arthur, member of an ancient and ...

    Astorga

    (ASTURIGA AUGUSTA.) Suffragan of Valladolid in Spain, dates it is said, from the third ...

    Astrology

    The supposed science which determines the influence of the stars, especially of the five older ...

    Astronomy

    (From Greek astron , star; nemein , to distribute). A science of prehistoric antiquity, ...

    Astronomy in the Bible

    No systematic observations of the heavenly bodies were made by the Jews. Astral worship was rife ...

    Astros, Paul-Thérèse-David d'

    A French cardinal, b. At Tourves (Var.) in 1772; d. 29 September, 1851. He was a nephew of ...

    Astruc, Jean

    Born At Sauves, 19 March, 1684; died At Paris, 5 May, 1766. He was the son of a converted ...

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    At 41

    Atahuallpa

    Properly ATAU-HUALLPA (etymology usually given as from huallpa , the name of some indigenous ...

    Atahualpa, Jean Santos

    An Indian from Cuzco who, being in the service of a Jesuit, went to Spain with his master. ...

    Atavism

    (Latin, atavus , a great-grandfather's grandfather, an ancestor). Duchesne introduced the ...

    Athabasca

    (Northwest Territories). Suffragan of Saint Boniface ; erected 8 April, 1862, by Pius IX. ...

    Athanasian Creed, The

    One of the symbols of the Faith approved by the Church and given a place in her liturgy, is a ...

    Athanasius, Saint

    Bishop of Alexandria ; Confessor and Doctor of the Church ; born c. 296; died 2 May, 373. ...

    Atheism

    ( a privative, and theos , God, i.e. without God ). Atheism is that system of thought ...

    Athelney, The Abbey of

    The Abbey of Athelney, established in the County of Somerset, England, was founded by King Alfred, ...

    Athenagoras

    A Christian apologist of the second half of the second century of whom no more is known than ...

    Athenry

    A small inland town in the county Galway, Ireland, anciently called Athnere, from Ath-na-Riagh ...

    Athens, Christian

    Christianity was first preached in Athens by St. Paul. He came to Athens from Berœa of ...

    Athens, Modern Diocese of

    The Greeks have long regarded their religion as a national affair. This notion is so deep-rooted ...

    Athias, Joseph

    Born in Spain, probably in Cordova, at the beginning of the seventeenth century; died at ...

    Athos, Mount

    Athos is a small tongue of land that projects into the Aegean Sea, being the eastern-most of the ...

    Atienza, Juan de

    Born at Tordehumos, near Valladolid, in Spain, in the year 1546, eldest son of the royal ...

    Atkinson, James

    Catholic confessor, tortured to death in Bridewell prison in 1595. His pathetic and romantic ...

    Atkinson, Nicholas

    Priest and martyr, probably to be identified with Venerable Thomas Atkinson. Dodd, who mentions ...

    Atkinson, Paul, of St. Francis

    One of the notable confessors of the English Church during the age which succeeded the ...

    Atkinson, Sarah

    Philanthropist and biographer, born at Athlone, Ireland, 13 October, 1823; died Dublin 8 July ...

    Atkinson, Ven. Thomas

    Martyred at York, 11 March, l6l6. He was born in the East Riding of Yorkshire, was ordained ...

    Atom

    (Gr. a privative, and temno , cut; indivisible). Primarily, the smallest particle of ...

    Atomism

    Atomism [ a privative and temnein to cut, i.e. indivisible] is the system of those who hold ...

    Atonement, Day of

    ( Hebrew Yom Hakkippurim . Vulgate, Dies Expiationum , and Dies Propitiationis — ...

    Atonement, Doctrine of the

    The word atonement , which is almost the only theological term of English origin, has a ...

    Atrib

    A titular see of Lower Egypt (Athribites) whose episcopal list (325-479) is given in Gams ...

    Atrium

    I. An open place or court before a church. It consisted of a large quadrangle with colonnaded ...

    Attainder

    A bill of attainder may be defined to be an Act of Parliament for putting a man to death or for ...

    Attala, Saint

    Born in the sixth century in Burgundy ; died 627. He first became a monk at Lérins, but, ...

    Attalia

    (Also ATTALEIA.) A titular metropolitan see of Pamphylia in Asia Minor. Its episcopal list ...

    Attaliates, Michael

    Byzantine statesman and historian, probably a native of Attalia in Pamphylia, whence he seems ...

    Atticus

    Patriarch of Constantinople (406-425), born at Sebaste in Armenia ; died 425. He was ...

    Attigny, Councils of

    In 765, St. Chrodegang of Metz and thirty-seven other bishops mutually promised in an ...

    Attila the Hun

    King and general of the Huns; died 453. Succeeding in 433 to the kingship of Scythian hordes ...

    Attiret, Jean Denis

    Painter, born at Dole, France, 31 July, 1702; died at Pekin, 8 December, 1768. He made serious ...

    Atto

    A faithful follower of Gregory VII in his conflict with the simoniac clergy, born probably at ...

    Atto of Pistoia

    Born at Badajoz in Spain, 1070; died 22 May, 1155. He became Abbot of Vallombrosa, (Tuscany) in ...

    Atto of Vercelli

    A learned theologian and canonist of the tenth century, son of the Viscount Aldegarius and ...

    Attracta, Saint

    (Or ST. ARAGHT). A contemporary of St. Patrick from whom she received the veil. She is known ...

    Attributes, Divine

    In order to form a more systematic idea of God, and as far as possible, to unfold the ...

    Attrition

    Attrition or Imperfect Contrition (Latin attero , "to wear away by rubbing"; p. part. ...

    Attuda

    A titular see of Phrygia in Asia Minor whose episcopal list (431-879) is given in Gams (446).

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    Au 69

    Aubarède, Jean-Michel-d'Astorg

    Canon regular, and Vicar Capitular of Pamiers, born 1639; died 4 August, 1692. He was educated ...

    Aubermont, Jean-Aontoine d'

    Theologian of Bois-le-Duc ; died 22 November, 1686. He joined the Dominicans in 1633, taught ...

    Aubery, Joseph

    Jesuit missionary in Canada, born at Gisors in Normandy, 10 May, 1673; died at St. ...

    Aubignac, François Hédelin, Abbé d'

    Grammarian, poet, preacher, archeologist, philologist. Born at Paris, 4 August, 1604; died at ...

    Aubusson, Pierre d'

    Grand Master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem , born 1423; died 1503. He made his first ...

    Auch

    (Augusta Auscorum). Archdiocese ; comprises the Department of Gers in France. Before the ...

    Auckland

    Diocese comprising the Provincial District of Auckland (New Zealand), with its islets, and the ...

    Auctorem Fidei

    A Bull issued by Pius VI, 28 August, 1794, in condemnation of the Gallican and Jansenist acts ...

    Audiences, Pontifical

    Pontifical Audiences are the receptions given by the pope to cardinals, sovereigns, princes, ...

    Audifax, Abachum, Martha, and Maris, Saints

    All martyred at Rome in 270. Maris and his wife Martha, who belonged to the Persian nobility, ...

    Audiffredi

    Born at Saorgio, near Nice, in 1734; died at Rome, July, 1794. He entered the Dominican Order, ...

    Audin, J.-M.-Vincent

    Born at Lyons in 1793; died in Paris, 21 February, 1851. He first studied theology in the ...

    Audisio, Guglielmo

    Born at Bra, Piedmont, Italy, 1801; died in Rome, 27 September, 1882. He was professor of ...

    Auditor

    The designation of certain officials of the Roman Curia, whose duty it is to hear ( Latin ...

    Audran

    The family name of four generations of distinguished French artists, natives of Paris and Lyons, ...

    Auenbrugger, Leopold

    ( Or von Auenbrugg). An Austrian physician, born 19 November, 1722; died 17 May, 1807. He ...

    Aufsees, Jobst Bernhard von

    Canon of Bamberg and Würzburg, born 28 March, 1671, on the family estate of Mengersdorf; ...

    Auger, Edmond

    Born 1530, near Troyes ; died at Como, Italy, 31 January, 1591, one of the great figures in ...

    Augilæ

    ( Or Augila). A titular see of Cyrenaica in Northern Africa. It was situated in an oasis ...

    Augsburg

    Diocese in the Kingdom of Bavaria, Germany, suffragan of the Archdiocese of Munich-Freising, ...

    Augsburg, Synods of

    From the time of St. Boniface (d. 754), especially during periods of earnest revival of ...

    Augusta

    A titular see of Cilicia in Asia Minor, whose episcopal list (363-434) is given in Gams (435). ...

    Augustin von Alfeld

    (Alveldt, or Alveldianus) One of the earliest and most aggressive opponents of Luther, born in ...

    Augustine of Canterbury, Saint

    First Archbishop of Canterbury, Apostle of the English; date of birth unknown; d. 26 May, ...

    Augustine of Hippo, Life of Saint

    ( See also WORKS OF SAINT AUGUSTINE and TEACHING OF SAINT AUGUSTINE .) The great St. ...

    Augustine of Hippo, Teaching of Saint

    St. Augustine of Hippo (354-430) is "a philosophical and theological genius of the first order, ...

    Augustine of Hippo, Works of Saint

    St. Augustine of Hippo (354-430) was one of the most prolific geniuses that humanity has ever ...

    Augustine, Rule of Saint

    The title, Rule of Saint Augustine , has been applied to each of the following documents: ...

    Augustinian Canons

    (Also called REGULAR CLERICS, RELIGIOUS CLERICS, CLERIC-CANONS, AUGUSTINIAN CANONS, BLACK CANONS, ...

    Augustinians

    (Generally called Augustinians and not to be confounded with the Augustinian Canons ). A ...

    Augustinians of the Assumption

    (Also called the Assumptionists .) This congregation had its origin in the College of the ...

    Augustinus, Antonius

    Historian of canon law and Archbishop of Tarragona in Spain, born at Saragossa 26 February, ...

    Augustinus-Verein, The

    An association organized in 1878 to promote the interests of the Catholic press, particularly the ...

    Augustopolis

    A titular see of Palestine, suffragan of Petra. Its episcopal list (431-536) is given in Gams ...

    Augustus

    The name by which Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus, the first Roman emperor, in whose reign Jesus ...

    Augustus Abbey, Fort

    St. Benedict's Abbey, at Fort Augustus, Inverness-shire, is at present the only monastery for ...

    Aulne Abbey

    (Alna). A former Cistercian monastery near Landelies on the Sambre in the Diocese of ...

    Aumbry

    Variously written AMBRY, or AUMBRYE, is a derivative through the French of the classical ...

    Aunarius, Saint

    (Or Aunacharius). Bishop of Auxerre in France, born 573, died 603. Being of noble birth, he ...

    Aurea

    (Golden). A title given to certain works and documents: Bulla, the charter of emperor ...

    Aurelian

    (Lucius Dominius Aurelianus). Roman Emperor, 270-275, born of humble parents, near Sirmium in ...

    Aureliopolis

    A titular see of Lydia in Asia Minor, whose episcopal list (325-787) is given in Gams (p. 447).

    Aurelius

    Archbishop of Carthage from 388 to 423. From the title of St. Cyprian, Carthage was one of the ...

    Aurelius Antoninus, Marcus

    Roman Emperor, A.D. 161-180, born at Rome, 26 April, 121; died 17 March, 180. HIS EARLY LIFE ...

    Aureoli, Petrus

    (Aureolus, D'auriol, Oriol). A Franciscan philosopher and theologian, called on account of ...

    Auriesville

    The site of the Mohawk village, Montgomery County, New York, U.S.A. in which Father Issac Jogues, ...

    Aurispa, Giovanni

    A famous ltalian humanist and collector of Greek manuscripts, born about 1369 at Noto, in ...

    Aurora Lucis Rutilat

    This is one of the Ambrosian hymns , but its author is unknown. It has been revised and ...

    Ausculta Fili

    A letter addressed 5 December 1301, by Pope Boniface VIII to Philip the Fair, King of France. ...

    Ausonius, Decimus Magnus

    A professor and poet born about A. D. 310; died, probably, about A.D. 394. The son of a physician ...

    Austin, John

    An English lawyer and writer, born 1613 at Walpole, in Norfolk; died London, 1669. He was a ...

    Australia

    (Also known as N EW H OLLAND till about 1817). Australia is geographically the world's ...

    Austremonius, Saint

    Apostle and Bishop of Auvergne (c. 314). All that is certainly known of Austremonius is deduced ...

    Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, The

    By this name is designated the European monarchy whose dominions have for their main ...

    Authentic

    The term is used in two senses. It is applied first to a book or document whose contents are ...

    Authenticity of the Bible

    The authenticity or authority of Holy Writ is twofold on account of its twofold authorship. ...

    Authority, Civil

    Civil Authority is the moral power of command, supported (when need be) by physical coercion, ...

    Authorized Version, The

    Name given to the English translation of the Bible produced by the Commission appointed by James ...

    Autocephali

    (Greek, autokephaloi , independent). A designation in early Christian times of certain ...

    Autos Sacramentales

    (Spanish auto , act or ordinance; sacramental , sacramental, pertaining to a sacrament) ...

    Autpert, Ambrose

    An early medieval writer and abbot of the Benedictine Order, born in France, early in the ...

    Autran, Joseph

    French poet, born at Marseilles 20 June, 1813; died in the same city, 6 March, 1877. He pursued ...

    Autun

    THE DIOCESE OF AUTUN (Augustodonum). Comprises the entire Department of Saone et Loire in ...

    Auxentius of Milan

    Native of Cappadocia, ordained (343) to the priesthood by Gregory, the intruded Bishop of ...

    Auxentius of Mopsuestia

    (360) Baronius places this bishop in the Roman martyrology, because of the story told by ...

    Auxentius, Junior

    Auxentius, Junior — originally Mercurinus, a Scythian, and a disciple of Ulfilas, or ...

    Auxerre, Councils of

    In 585 (or 578) a Council of Auxerre held under St. Annacharius formulated forty-five canons, ...

    Auxiliary Bishop

    A bishop deputed to a diocesan who, capable of governing and administering his diocese, is ...

    Auxilius of Naples

    The name (probably fictitious, according to Hefele ) of an ecclesiastic to whom we owe a series ...

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    Av 29

    Ava

    A German poetess, the first woman known to have written in German and probably identical with a ...

    Avancini, Nicola

    Chiefly known as an ascetical writer, born in the Tyrol, 1612; died 6 December, 1686. He entered ...

    Avarice

    Avarice (from Latin avarus , "greedy"; "to crave") is the inordinate love for riches. Its ...

    Avatar

    An Anglicized form of the Sanskrit, avatara , "descent", from the root tr , "pass" (cf. ...

    Avaugour, Pierre du Bois, Baron d'

    The Baron d'Avaugour (d. 1664) was sixth Governor General of Canada. Born of an ancient family in ...

    Ave Maria

    The Hail Mary (sometimes called the "Angelical salutation", sometimes, from the first words in its ...

    Ave Maris Stella

    (Hail, thou Star of Ocean.) The first verse of an unrhymed, accentual hymn, of seven stropes of ...

    Ave Regina

    An antiphon so called from its first line, Ave regina caelorum (Hail, Queen of Heaven ). It ...

    Avellino

    An Italian diocese in the Province of Naples, suffragan to Benevento. Avellino was founded by ...

    Avellino, Saint Andrew

    Born 1521 at Castronuovo, a small town in Sicily ; died 10 November, 1608. His baptismal name ...

    Avempace

    (Ibn Badsha, or Ibn Badja, called by the Scholastics Aven-Pace and Avempace). Arabian ...

    Avendano, Fernando

    Priest born at Lima, Peru, either towards the end of sixteenth or in the beginning of the ...

    Averbode

    A Premonstratensian abbey belonging to the circary of Brabant and situated near Diest in the ...

    Averroes

    (Abul Walid Mahommed Ibn Achmed, Ibn Mahommed Ibn Roschd). Arabian philosopher, astronomer, ...

    Aversa, Diocese of

    Comprising twenty-one towns in the Province of Caserta and twelve in the Province of Naples, it ...

    Avesta, The

    The sacred books of Parsees, or Zoroastrians, and the main source of our knowledge concerning ...

    Avesta, Theological Aspects of the

    I. GOD The name of the Supreme God of the Avestic system is Ahura Mazda (in the Achaemenid ...

    Avicebron

    Salamo Ben Jehuda Ben Gebirol (or Gabirol), whom the Scholastics, taking him for an Arabian, ...

    Avicenna

    (ABN ALI AL HOSAIN IBN ABDALLAH IBN SINA, called by the Latins AVICENNA). Arabian physician ...

    Avignon

    Avignon, written in the form of Avennio in the ancient texts and inscriptions, takes its name ...

    Avignon, Councils of

    Nothing is known of the council held here in 1060. In 1080 a council was held under the ...

    Avignon, University of

    The University of Avignon (1303-1792), developed from the already existing schools of the city, ...

    Avila

    (ABULA) Diocese ; suffragan of Valladolid in Spain. Its episcopal succession dates at least ...

    Avila, Francisco de

    Curate or vicar in the province of Huarochiri of Peru, later curate at Huánaco, ...

    Avila, Sancho de

    Born at Avila of the Kings, in Old Castile, 1546, and named after the place of his birth; died at ...

    Avitus, Saint

    (Alcimus Ecdicius). A distinguished bishop of Vienne, in Gaul, from 490 to about 518, ...

    Aviz, Order of

    A military body of Portuguese knights. The Kingdom of Portugal, founded in 1128, was not ...

    Avranches, Council of

    In 1172 (September 27-28) a Council was held at Avranches in France, apropos of the troubles ...

    Avril, Philippe

    Jesuit, born at Angoulême, France, 16 September, 1654; died in a shipwreck in 1698. He was ...

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    Ax 1

    Axum

    (A UXUME .) A titular metropolitan see of ancient Christian Ethiopia. Its episcopal ...

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    Ay 6

    Ayacucho, Diocese of

    ( Or Guamanga). A Peruvian diocese, suffragan to Lima. The See of Guamanga was erected by ...

    Ayeta, Fray Francisco de

    A Spanish Franciscan of the seventeenth century, and (while time and place of his birth and ...

    Ayllón, Lucas Vésquez de

    Spanish discoverer of Chesapeake Bay, and the first of those daring navigators who tried to find a ...

    Aylward, James Ambrose Dominic

    Theologian and poet, born at Leeds, 4 April, 1813; died at Hinckley (England), 5 October, 1872. ...

    Aymará

    Also Aymara (etymology unknown as yet). A numerous tribe of sedentary Indians inhabiting the ...

    Aymeric of Piacenza

    A learned Dominican, b. at Piacenza, Italy ; d. at Bologna, 19 August, 1327. Soon after his ...

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    Az 10

    Azara, Féliz de

    Spanish naturalist, b. at Barbunales in Aragon, 18 May, 1746; d. 1811. He first embraced the ...

    Azaria, Aristaces

    A Catholic Armenian abbot and archbishop, b. at Constantinople, 18 July, 1782; d. at Vienna, 6 ...

    Azarias, Brother

    (Patrick Francis Mullany). Educator, essayist, littérateur, and philosopher, b. near ...

    Azevedo, Luiz de

    An Ethiopic missionary and scholar, born, according to probable narration of Franco (Imogem da ...

    Azor, Juan

    Born at Lorca, province of Murcia, Southern Spain, in 1535; entered the Society of Jesus, 18 ...

    Azores

    (Portuguese Acores , "Falcons") An archipelago situated in that tract of the Atlantic Ocean ...

    Azotus

    ( Hebrew Ashdodh ; in Septuagint Azotos ) (1) One of the five great cities of the ...

    Aztecs

    Probably from Aztatl (heron), and Tlacatl (man),"people of the heron", in the Nahuatl, or ...

    Azymes

    (Greek azymos , without leaven; Hebrew maççoth ). Unfermented cakes used by ...

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