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Epistles to the Thessalonians

Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul. This article will treat the Church of Thessalonica, the authenticity, canonicity, time and place of writing, occasion, and contents of the two Epistles to that Church.

I. THE CHURCH OF THESSALONICA

After Paul and Silas had, during the Apostle's second missionary journey, left Philippi, they proceeded to Thessalonica ( Thessalonike , the modern Saloniki), perhaps because there was in the city a synagogue of the Jews ( Acts 17:2 ). Thessalonica was the capital of the Roman Province of Macedonia ; it was a free city, ruled by a popular assembly (cf. Acts 17:5 , eis ton demon ) and magistrates (cf. verse 6, epi tous politarchas ). St. Paul at once began to preach the Gospel to the Jews and proselytes. For three successive sabbaths he explained the Scriptures in the synagogue, opening up the way and gradually leading his hearers to the tremendous truth that there was need the Christ should die and rise again from the dead, and that Jesus whom Paul preached was in very truth this Christ. Some of the Jews believed and took sides with Paul and Silas.

It would seem that Paul stayed in the city some time thereafter, for, according to the reading of Codex Bezæ (fifth century), and the Vulgate and Coptic Versions ( Acts 17:4 ), he converted a large number not only of proselytes ( ton te sebomenon ) but of Gentile Greeks ( kai Hellenon ). In the first place, it is unlikely that a large number of these latter were won over to the Faith during the three weeks devoted to the synagogues ; for Paul did manual labour night and day, so as not to be burdensome to his converts ( 1 Thessalonians 2:9 ). Secondly, these converts from idolatry ( 1 Thessalonians 1:9 ) would scarcely have become, after so brief an apostolate, a "pattern to all that believe in Macedonia and in Achaia " ( 1 Thessalonians 1:7 ). Thirdly, the Church of Philippi sent alms twice to Paul at Thessalonica (Phil., iv, 16), a fact which seems to indicate that his sojourn there was longer than three weeks.

Be this as it may, the signal success of Paul's apostolate among Jews, proselytes, and Hellenes together with the conversion of "not a few noble ladies" ( Acts 17:4 ), aroused the Jews to a fury of envy ; they gathered together a mob of idlers from the agora and set the whole city in tumult; they beset the home of Jason, found the Apostle away, dragged his host to the tribunal of the politarchs and charged him with harbouring traitors, men who set Jesus up as king in place of Cæsar. That night the brethren made good the escape of their teacher to Berea. There the Gospel of Paul met with a much more enthusiastic reception than that accorded to it by the synagogue of Thessalonica. The Jews of that city drove Paul to Berea and there, too, stirred up the mob against him. He left Silas and Timothy to complete his work and went to Athens ( Acts 17:1-15 ).

II. FIRST EPISTLE

A. Authenticity

(1) External Evidence

(a) II Thessalonians. The strongest external evidence in favour of the authenticity of I Thessalonians is II Thessalonians which, whatsoever be its date of composition, is the very earliest document that clearly presupposes I Thessalonians to have been written by Paul.

(b) Manuscripts. The evidence of manuscripts alone is such as to set the authenticity of this letter beyond all doubt ; it is in the Greek text of the Codex Sinaiticus (fourth century), Codex Vaticanus (fourth century), and Codex Alexandrinus (fifth century); it is in the Old Latin and Syriac Versions, which trace its authenticity down to the middle of the second century.

(c) The Apostolic Fathers give evidence of very early use of the Epistle as Sacred Scripture . St. Ignatius of Antioch (d. A.D. 110-17, according to the chronology of Harnack which we shall follow in this article), in "Eph.", X, i, probably uses the adialeiptos proseuchesthai , " pray without ceasing", of I Thess., v, 17; and undoubtedly had in mind I Thess., ii, 4, when writing to the Romans (II, i) the distinctly Pauline thought of ou thelo hymas anthropareskein alla theo , "I will that ye please not man but God ". Because St. Ignatius, as the other Apostolic Fathers, cites from memory, without the exactness of later Fathers and without ever mentioning the name of the sacred writer quoted, Dr. Inge, the Lady Margaret professor of divinity in the University of Cambridge , says: "The evidence that Ignatius knew I Thessalonians is almost nil" (cf. "The New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers ", Oxford, 1905, p. 74). Against such scepticism, the clear use of St. Paul by the Apostolic Fathers is of no avail. Harnack, who cannot be accused of overmuch credulity, thinks that St. Ignatius of Antioch possessed a collection of the Pauline Epistles; and that by the year 117, St. Polycarp of Smyrna had a complete collection ( eine ganze Sammlung ) thereof before him and veritably lived therein (cf. Chronologie der altchristlichen Litteratur, I, 249, note 2). In the "Pastor" of Hermas (A.D. 140), we find the phrase of I Thess., v, 13, "Be at peace among yourselves" ( eireneuete en heautois ) several times, used almost as it occurs in the Alexandrian and Vatican Codices (cf. Hermas, "Simil.", VIII, vii, 2; "Vis.", III, vi, 3; III, ix, 2, 10; III, xii, 3).

The Apologetic Fathers are clear and to the point. St Irenæus (A.D. 181-9) cites I Thess., v, 23, expressly attributing the words to the Apostle's First Epistle to the Thessalonians ("Contra hæreses", V, vi, 1 in P. G., VIII, 1138), and I Thess., v, 3, as the saying of the Apostle (ibid., V, xxx, 2 in P. G., VII, 1205). Tertullian quotes at length passages from each of the five chapters of I Thess. to prove his thesis of the resurrection of the body ("Liber de resurrectione carnis", xxiv, in P. L., II, 874) and uses the Epistle against Marcion ("Adv. Marcionem", V, xv in P. L., II, 541). St Clement of Alexandria (A.D. 190-210) very often cites this brief letter -- cf. "Pædagogus", I, v, 19 (Stählin's ed., I, 101) and "Stromata", I, i, 6 (Stählin's ed., II, 5) for I Thess., ii, 5-7; "Stromata", II, xi, 4, IV, xii (Stählin's ed., II, 138 and 286), for an allusion to I Thess., iv, 3, and an accurate citation of six verses (3-8) of the same chapter; "Pædagogus", II, ix, III, xii, IV, xxii (Stählin's ed., I, 206 and 288, and P. G., VIII, 1352) for the appeal to almost every verse of I Thess., v, i.e. verses 5, 8, 13, 15, 19, 22; "Stromata", I, xi (Stählin's ed., II, 34) for a quotation from the same chapter. So strong is the external evidence in favour of the authenticity of I Thess. as to convince all scholars save only those who, on account of internal evidence, deny to Paul the authenticity of all his Epistles.

(2) Internal Evidence

In I Thessalonians all the main Pauline doctrines are taught -- the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (i, 10; iv, 14; v, 10); His Divinity and Sonship of the living God (i, 9, 10); the resurrection of our bodies (iv, 15-18), the mediatorship of Christ (v, 10); the call of the nations to the Kingdom of Christ, which is the Church (ii, 12), sanctification by the indwelling of the Holy Spirit (iv, 8). The plain and direct style, the writer's affectionate concern for his spiritual children, his impatience of Judaizers, the preponderance of personal over doctrinal statements, the frank and honest self-revelation of the writer -- all these distinctly Pauline characteristics argue strongly for the authenticity of this letter.

Baur, the prime mover of neo-Tübingen ideas, was the first to wave aside recklessly all external evidence and seriously to attack the authenticity of I Thess. from internal evidence (cf. "Der Apostel Paulus", ed. 2, II, 94). He was followed by Nowack, "Der Ursprung des Christentums" (Leipzig, 1857), II, 313; Volkmar, "Mose, Prophezie und Himmelfahrt" (Leipzig, 1867), 114; and Van der Vries, "De beiden brieven aan de Thessalonicensen" (Leyden, 1865). The reasons which impel Baur and his followers are trivial.

  • The lack of doctrine makes the letter unworthy of Paul. We have noted that the main heads of Paul's teaching are included in this short letter. Moreover, the letter is a most touching revelation of the great heart of St. Paul and as such alone is befitting the outspoken Apostle.
  • The Epistle is a clumsy forgery. The author has worked up his story from Acts. Paul could not have written ii, 14-16. It is far-fetched to compare the woes inflicted by the Jews upon the Church of Thessalonica with the ills they wrought upon the Church of Judea. It is un-Pauline to set Jewish Christians up as an example to Gentile converts (Baur, op. cit., 482). These purely subjective objections are worthless. The Apostle was too broadminded to be tied down to the narrow ideas of Baur. True, in his later letters -- to the Romans end Corinthians and Galatians, for instance -- we might not look for the juxtaposition of Jewish with Gentile Christians ; but the Judaizers were not so troublesome to Paul when he wrote to the Thessalonians as when he wrote to the Romans.
  • The expression ephthase de ep autous he orge eis telos , "the wrath hath come upon them unto the end" (ii, 16), naturally refers to the destruction of Jerusalem (A.D. 70) as an accomplished punishment of the Jews for killing the Lord Jesus. This is an unwarranted assumption. The phrase eis telos is indefinite; it has no definite article nor any defining qualificative; it modifies ephthase and refers to no definite end either accomplished or to be accomplished. St. Paul indefinitely but surely sees the oncoming end, reads the easily legible writing on the wall, and interprets that writing: "The wrath [of God ] hath come upon them even unto making an end of them". (iv) Baur (op. cit., 485) finds the eschatology of the Epistle un-Pauline. In the Epistles to the Corinthians, Romans, and Galatians, for instance, there is no diving into the future, nothing said of the Parousia, or second coming of Jesus. But the reason is clear -- those to whom Paul wrote his great and later Epistles had not the eschatological difficulties of the Thessalonians to meet. He adapted his letters to the wants of those to whom he wrote. The very fact that the apprehension of an immediate Parousia us not mentioned in the later letters would have prevented a forger from palming off as Pauline such an unusual topic.
B. Canonicity

The two Epistles to the Thessalonians are included among the canonical books accepted by the Councils of the Vatican, of Trent, and of Florence, and are among the homologoumena of all early lists of canonical New-Testament Scriptures ; for instance, to mention only such early lists as accord with the received canon of Trent, these two Epistles are listed in the Muratorian Fragment (A.D. 195-205), in the canons of St. Athanasius of Alexandria (A.D. 373), of the Third Council of Carthage (A.D. 397), in which Saint Augustine took part, of St. Epiphanius (A.D. 403), of Innocent I (A.D. 405), and of Gelasius (A.D. 492). In fact there can be no reason whatsoever to doubt the canonicity of either letter.

C. Time and Place

The textus receptus , at the end of the two Epistles, gives a subscription stating that they were written from Athens ( egraphe apo Athenon ); and this same subscription is contained in the great uncial codices A, B2, K2, L2 -- that is, Alexandrinus (fourth century), Vaticanus (fifth century corrector), Mosquensis, and Angelicus (both of the ninth century); it is likewise translated in important Latin, Syriac and Coptic manuscripts. None the less, there can be no doubt but that the letters were written during Paul's first stay in Corinth. Timothy had been sent to Thessalonica by Paul from Athens ( 1 Thessalonians 3:2 ). Hence some Fathers inferred that, on this mission, Timothy brought along I Thess. The inference is wrong. As Rendel Harris says in "The Expositor" (1898), 174, Paul may have sent another letter from Athens by Timothy to the Thessalonians. He cannot have sent I Thessalonians from there by him. Paul clearly states that Timothy had returned from Thessalonica before the writing of I Thessalonians. (cf. iii, 6). Whither did he return? I Thessalonians does not state. Acts, xviii, 5, supplies answer. When Timothy returned from Macedonia with Silas to Paul, the Apostle was at Corinth. The news brought him by Timothy was the occasion of I Thessalonians. Moreover, in the greeting with which each letter begins, the names of Paul, Silvanus (i.e. Silas), and Timothy are grouped together; and we know that the three were together at Corinth ( Acts 18:5 ) during Paul's first visit to that city (cf. also 2 Corinthians 1:19 ). We have no proof that they were ever elsewhere together. I Thess., then, was written during the eighteen months Paul stayed. at Corinth, i.e. in the year 48 or 49, according to the chronology of Harnack, "Chronologie der altchristlichen Litteratur" (Leipzig, 1897), I, 717; in the year 53 or 54 according to the commonly received scheme of Pauline chronology. Both letters are generally considered to be the earliest extant writings of St. Paul. Some few now deem it proved that Paul wrote to the South Galatians even before he wrote to the Thessalonians, cf. Zahn, "Einleitung in das Neue Testament" Leipzig, 1897), I, 138.

D. Occasion

Having arrived at Athens, Paul at once set himself to convert the Jews, proselytes and Gentiles of that city. Among the latter he met with unusually small success. The Epicureans and Stoics for the most part rated him as a talkative lounger in the agora and either berated him with ridicule upon the Hill of Ares or waved him aside ( Acts 17:16-32 ). Meanwhile he trembled for the Church of Thessalonica. So long as he had been there, only the Jews strove to set his work at naught; now in his absence, the Gentiles joined the Jews ( 1 Thessalonians 2:14 ), and made a vigorous onslaught upon the faith of his children. Paul yearned mightily to see their face once more. In his intense affection and concern, he breaks away from his wonted first plural: "We willed to have come to you, even I, Paul, and that once and again; but Satan hindered us" (ii, 18). The hindrance wrought by Satan was probably a security against his return given by Jason and some friends ( Acts 17:9 ). Being unable to follow the yearnings of his heart, Paul sent Timothy to save the flock from the ravening wolves ( 1 Thessalonians 2:2 ). The Acts make no mention of this legation of Timothy from Athens to Thessalonica. Not long after, Paul left for Corinth ( Acts 18:1 ). Thither Timothy, who returned from Thessalonica, brought back an eyewitness's testimony as to the conditions of the faithful of that city. Rendel Harris, in "The Expositor" (1898), 167, thinks that the Thessalonians sent Paul a letter by Timothy and, to make good his theory, appeals to I Thess., i, 2, 5; ii, 1, 5, 9-13; iii, 3-6. There may be some ground for such conjecture in "We also" ( kai hemeis ) of I, ii, 13; "Also I" ( kago ) of I, iii, 5, and in "you have a good remembrance of us always" ( echete mneian hemon agaphen ) of I, iii, 6. Be this as it may, whether by letter or by word of mouth, Timothy fully informed Paul of the needs of the Christian community at Thessalonica ; and these needs were the occasion of the first Epistle to that community.

E. Contents

No other letter of Paul to a Church is so free and easy and epistolary as is this letter; it defies strict doctrinal analysis, and is far more personal than doctrinal. Merely for the sake of some division, we may consider chapters i and iii as personal, chapters iv and v as doctrinal.

  • Personal part -- a missionary's free outpouring of a noble heart's yearnings. He is filled with joy at hearing how they stand fast by the faith which he preached to them (i, 2, 8); fondly talks about his labours and about his stay with them (I, 9-ii, 12); thanks God for the way they received from him the word of God (ii, 13 - 16); delicately hints at his apprehensions for them, by telling how at Athens he yearned to see them, how he sent Timothy in his stead, how relieved he now is as Timothy's message has brought him peace of mind (ii, 17-iii, 10). Then follows a brief and beautiful prayer which sums up the yearnings of the great soul of the Apostle (iii, 11-13).
  • Doctrinal part. With this prayer ends what is meant to be free and epistolary. Now follows as little phrase of transition -- "For the rest, therefore, brethren" -- and a thoroughly Pauline and direct exhortation upon how they "ought to walk and to please God " by purity (iv, 1-8), brotherly love (iv, 9-10), and peaceful toil (verse 11). The peace of everyday toil had been disturbed by a fanatical lethargy due to the supposed oncoming Parousia. Hence the eschatological passage that follows. The brethren who have died will have part in the Second Coming just as they that are now alive (verses 12-17); the time of the Parousia is uncertain, so that watch-fullness and not lethargy are needed (v, 1-11). The letter ends with a series of pithy and pointed exhortations to respect for their religious teachers, and to the other virtues that make up the glory of Christian life (v, 12-22); the Apostolic benediction and salutation, a request for prayers and the charge that the letter be read in public (verses 23-28).

III. SECOND EPISTLE

A. Authenticity

(1) External Evidence

Manuscript evidence is the same for II Thessalonians as for I Thessalonians; so, too, the evidence of the ancient versions. The Apostolic and Apologetic Fathers are more clearly in favour of II Thess. than of I Thess. St. Ignatius, in Rom., x, 3, cites a phrase of II Thess., iii, 5, eis ten hypomonen tou Christou , "in the patience of Christ". St. Polycarp (XI, 3) refers the letter expressly to Paul, although, by a slip of the memory, he takes it that the Apostle glories ( 2 Thessalonians 1:4 ) in another Macedonian Church, that of the Philippians; elsewhere (XI, 1) Polycarp uses II Thess., iii, 15. St. Justin (about A.D. 150), in "Dialog.", xxxii (P.G., VI, 544), seems to have in mind the eschatological language of this letter. Besides it is set down as Pauline in the Canon of Marcion (about A.D. 140).

(2) Internal Evidence

The literary dependence of II Thessalonians on I Thessalonians cannot be gainsaid. The writer of the former must have written the latter, and that too not very long thereafter. II Thess., ii, 15, and iii, 6, are to be explained by I Thess., iv, 1-8 and 11. The style of the two letters is admittedly identical; the prayers (I, iii 11, v, 23; II, ii, 16, iii, 16), greetings (I, i, 1; II, i, 1, 2) thanks (I, i, 2; II, i, 3), and transitions (I, iv, 1; II, iii, 1) are remarkably alike in form. Two-thirds of II Thess. is like to I Thess. in vocabulary and style. Moreover, the structure of the Epistle, its subject-matter, and its affectionate outbursts of prayer for the recipients and of exhortation are all decidedly Pauline characteristics. The argument from internal evidence is so strong as to have won over such critics as Harnack (Chronologie, I, 238) and Jülicher (Einleitung, 40). Schmiedel, Holtzmann, Weizacker, and others deny the force of this argument from internal evidence. Its very similarity to I Thess. in vocabulary and style is made to militate against the authenticity of II Thess.; the letter is too Pauline; the author was a clever forger, who, some sixty years later, took up I Thess. and worked it over. There has been no motive assigned for such a forgery ; no proof given that any post-Apostolic writer was so cunning as to palm off thus letter as a Pauline imitation.

Eschatology of Paul. The chief objection is that the eschatology of II Thess. contradicts that of I Thess.: the letter is in this un-Pauline. In I Thess., iv, 14-v, 3, the writer says the Parousia is imminent; in II Thess., ii, 2-12, iii, 11, the writer sets the Parousia a long time off. Non-Catholics who hold the Pauline authorship of the two letters generally admit that Paul predicted the second coming would be within his own lifetime and deem that the signs narrated in II Thess., ii, as preludes to that coming do not imply a long interval nor that Paul expected to die before these signs occurred. Catholics insist that Paul cannot have said the Parousia would be during his lifetime. Had he said so he would have erred ; the inspired word of God would err ; the error would be that of the Holy Spirit more than of Paul. True, the Douay Version seems to imply that the Parousia is at hand: "Then we who are alive, who are left, shall be taken up together with them in the clouds to meet Christ, into the air, and so shall we always be with the Lord" ( 1 Thessalonians 4:16 ). The Vulgate is no clearer: "Nos, qui vivimus, qui residui sumus" etc. (iv, 15-17). The original text solves the difficulty: hemeis oi zontes oi paraleipomenoi, ama syn autois arpagesometha . Here the Hellenistic syntax parallels the Attic. The sentence is conditional. The two participles present stand for two futures preceded by ei ; the participles have the place of a protasis. The translation is: "We, if we be alive -- if we be left -- [on earth], shall be taken up" etc. A similar construction is used by Paul in I Cor., xi, 29 (cf. Moulton "Grammar of New Testament Greek", Edinburgh, 1906, I, 230). St. Paul is here no more definite about the time of the Parousia than he was in I Thess., v, 2, when he wrote "that the day of the Lord shall so come, as a thief in the night." There is in St. Paul's eschatology the very same indefiniteness about the lime of the Parousia that there is in the eschatological sayings of Jesus as related in the Synoptics ( Matthew 24:5-45 ; Mark 13:7-37 ; Luke 21:20-36 ). "Of that day or hour no man knoweth, neither the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but the Father" ( Mark 13:32 ). In the deposit of faith given by the Father to the Son, to be given by the Son to the Church, the time of the Parousia was not contained. We readily admit that St. Paul did not know the time of the Parousia; we cannot admit that he knew it wrong and wrote it wrong as the inspired Word of God and a part of the deposit of faith.

As for the further objection that the apocalyptic character of ii, 2-12, is post-Pauline and dependent upon so late a composition as the Apocalypse of John (A.D. 93-96) or, worse still upon the Nero redivivus story (Tacitus "Hist.", II, viii), we answer that this assertion is entirely gratuitous. St. Paul got his apocalyptic ideas from the very same source as John, that is either from revelation to himself or from the Old Testament or from tradition. Most of the details of his apocalyptic description of the Parousia are given in other apocalypses ( 1 John 2:18 ; Matthew 24:24 ; Luke 21:8 ; Mark 13:22 ; Deuteronomy 13:1-5 ; Ezekiel 38 and 39 ; Daniel 7 , 8 , 9 , 11 , 12 etc.). The man of sin, Antichrist, Belial, the well-nigh complete triumph of evil just before the end of time, the almost general apostasy, the portents, and other items are features familiar to Old-Testament and New-Testament apocalyptic writings.

B. Canonicity

The canonicity of 2 Thessalonians has been treated together with that of 1 Thessalonians .

C. Time and Place

II Thessalonians was written at Corinth not long after I Thessalonians, for both Timothy and Silas are still with Paul (i, 1), and the silence of the Acts shows that, once Paul left Corinth, Silas was not again his companion in the ministry. There seem to be allusions in iii, 2, to the troublous stay of a year and a half at Corinth ( Acts 18 ); in ii, 14, to the letter quite recently written to the Thessalonians; and in iii, 7-9, to the ministry of Paul among them as not long passed.

D. Occasion

The eschatology of I Thessalonians had been misunderstood by the Thessalonians; they took it, the day of the Lord was at hand (ii, 2); they were overwrought by the exaggerations of some meddlers and perhaps by a forged letter which purported to have come from Paul (ii, 2; iii, 17). Moreover the disorderly conduct of some (iii, 6, 11) gave the Apostle no little concern; this concern he showed by the letter.

E. Contents

The three chapters into which the letter is now divided, aptly analyze the thought. In the first chapter are a greeting, thanksgiving for the faith and love of the Thessalonians, and an assurance of Divine recompense to them and to their persecutors. In the second chapter is the main thought of the letter -- the eschatology. Certain signs are detailed which must precede the Parousia. Until these signs appear, there is no reason for terror or taking leave of their senses. The third chapter is the usual Pauline request for prayers, a charge to avoid the disorderly, a truly Pauline allusion to the example he set them, and the final identification of the letter by a greeting written with his own hand.

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A title applied to two different collections of old Norse literature, the poetical or "Elder Edda" ...

Edelinck

The family name of four engravers. Gerard Edelinck Born in Antwerp c. 1640; died in ...

Eden, Garden of

( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

Edesius and Frumentius

Tyrian Greeks of the fourth century, probably brothers, who introduced Christianity into ...

Edessa

A titular archiepiscopal see in that part of Mesopotamia formerly known as Osrhoene. The name ...

Edgeworth, Henry Essex

Better known as L' ABBÉ E DGEWORTH DE F IRMONT Confessor of Louis XVI, and ...

Edinburgh

Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, though not its largest city, derives its name from the time ...

Editions of the Bible

In the present article we understand by editions of the Bible the printed reproductions of its ...

Edmund Arrowsmith, Venerable

English martyr, born in 1585 at Haddock; executed at Lancaster, 23 August, 1628. He is of great ...

Edmund Campion, Saint

English Jesuit and martyr ; he was the son and namesake of a Catholic bookseller, and was born ...

Edmund Rich, Saint

Archbishop of Canterbury, England, born 20 November, c. 1180, at Abingdon, six miles from ...

Edmund the Martyr, Saint

King of East Anglia, born about 840; died at Hoxne, Suffolk, 20 November, 870. The earliest and ...

Edmund, Congregation of Saint

Founded in 1843, by Jean-Baptiste Muard, at Pontigny, France, for the work of popular missions. ...

Education

IN GENERAL In the broadest sense, education includes all those experiences by which intelligence ...

Education of the Blind

Although the education of the blind as a class dates back no further than the year 1784, ...

Education of the Deaf

Education essentially includes the process of encouraging, strengthening, and guiding the ...

Educational Association, The Catholic

The Catholic Educational Association is a voluntary organization composed of Catholic educators ...

Edward III

King of England (1312-77), eldest son of Edward II and Isabella, daughter of Philip IV of ...

Edward Powell, Blessed

With Blessed Thomas Abel there suffered Edward Powell, priest and martyr, b. in Wales about ...

Edward the Confessor, Saint

King of England, born in 1003; died 5 January, 1066. He was the son of Ethelred II and Emma, ...

Edward the Martyr, Saint

King of England, son to Edgar the Peaceful, and uncle to St. Edward the Confessor ; b. about ...

Edwin, Saint

(Æduini.) The first Christian King of Northumbria, born about 585, son of Ælla, ...

Edwy

(Or Eadwig.) King of the English, eldest son of Edmund and St. Aelfgifu, born about 940; died ...

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Eg 15

Egan, Boetius

Archbishop of Tuam, born near Tuam, Ireland, 1734; died near Tuam, 1798. He belonged to a ...

Egan, Michael

First bishop of Philadelphia, U.S.A. b. in Ireland, most probably in Galway, in 1761; d. at ...

Egbert

(ECGBERHT or ECGBRYHT) Frequently though incorrectly called "First King of England ", died ...

Egbert, Archbishop of Trier

Died 8 or 9 December, 993. He belonged to the family of the Counts of Holland. His parents, ...

Egbert, Archbishop of York

Archbishop of York, England, son of Eata, brother of the Northumbrian King Eadbert and cousin ...

Egbert, Saint

A Northumbrian monk, born of noble parentage c. 639; d. 729. In his youth he went for the sake ...

Egfrid

(Also known as ECFRID, ECHGFRID, EGFERD). King of Northumbria, b. 650; d. 685. He ascended the ...

Eginhard

(Less correctly EGINHARD), historian, born c. 770 in the district watered by the River Main in the ...

Egloffstein, Frederick W. von

Born at Aldorf, near Nuremberg, Bavaria, 18 May, 1824; died in New York, 1885. He served in the ...

Egmont, Lamoral, Count of

Born at the Château de La Hamaide, in Hainault, 18 Nov., 1522; beheaded at Brussels, 5 ...

Egoism

( Latin ego, I, self), the designation given to those ethical systems which hold self-love to ...

Eguiara y Eguren, Juan José

Born in Mexico towards the close of the seventeenth century; died 29 January, 1763. He received ...

Egwin, Saint

Third Bishop of Worcester ; date of birth unknown; d. (according to Mabillon ) 20 December, ...

Egypt

This subject will be treated under the following main divisions: I. General Description; II. ...

Egyptian Church Ordinance

The Egyptian Church Ordinance is an early Christian collection of thirty-one canons regulating ...

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Ei 8

Eichendorff, Josef Karl Benedikt

JOSEF KARL BENEDIKT, FREIHERR VON EICHENDORFF. "The last champion of romanticism", b. 10 March, ...

Eichstätt

DIOCESE OF EICHSTÄTT (EYSTADIUM) [EYSTETTENSIS or AYSTETTENSIS] The Diocese of ...

Eimhin, Saint

Abbot and Bishop of Ros-mic-Truin ( Ireland ), probably in the sixth century. He came of the ...

Einhard

(Less correctly EGINHARD), historian, born c. 770 in the district watered by the River Main in the ...

Einsiedeln, Abbey of

A Benedictine monastery in the Canton of Schwyz, Switzerland, dedicated to Our Lady of the ...

Eisengrein, Martin

A learned Catholic theologian and polemical writer, born of Protestant parents at Stuttgart, 28 ...

Eithene, Saint

Styled "daughter of Baite", with her sister Sodelbia; commemorated in the Irish calendars under ...

Eithne, Saint

St. Eithne, styled "of the golden hair", is commemorated in the Irish martyrologies under the 11th ...

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Ek 2

Ekkehard

Name of five monks of the (Swiss) Abbey of St. Gall from the tenth to the thirteenth century. ...

Ekkehard of Aura

(URAUGIENSIS) Benedictine monk and chronicler, b. about 1050; d. after 1125. Very little is ...

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El 46

El Cid

(Rodrigo, or Ruy, Diaz, Count of Bivar). The great popular hero of the chivalrous age of ...

El Greco

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

Elaea

A titular see of Asia Minor. Elaea, said to have been founded by Menestheus, was situated at a ...

Elba

Elba, the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago, is today a part of the Italian province of ...

Elbel, Benjamin

A first-class authority in moral theology , b. at Friedberg, Bavaria, in 1690; d. at ...

Elcesaites

(Or H ELKESAITES ). A sect of Gnostic Ebionites, whose religion was a wild medley of ...

Elder, George

Educator, b. 11 August, 1793, in Kentucky, U.S.A.; d. 28 Sept., 1838, at Bardstown. His parents, ...

Elder, William Henry

Third Bishop of Natchez, Mississippi, U.S.A. and second Archbishop of Cincinnati, b. in ...

Eleazar

( Hebrew al‘wr , God's help). 1. Eleazar, son of Aaron Elizabeth, daughter of Aminadab ...

Elect

Denotes in general one chosen or taken by preference from among two or more; as a theological ...

Election

( Latin electio , from eligere , to choose from) This subject will be treated under the ...

Election, Papal

For current procedures regarding the election of the pope, see Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic ...

Eleutherius, Pope Saint

Pope (c. 174-189). The Liber Pontificalis says that he was a native of Nicopolis, Greece. From ...

Eleutherius, Saint

( French ELEUTHERE). Bishop of Tournai at the beginning of the sixth century. Historically ...

Eleutheropolis

A titular see in Palaestina Prima. The former name of this city seems to have been Beth Gabra, ...

Elevation, The

What we now know as par excellence the Elevation of the Mass is a rite of comparatively ...

Elhuyar y de Suvisa, Fausto de

A distinguished mineralogist and chemist, born at Logroño, Castile, 11 October, 1755; ...

Eli

Heli the Judge and High Priest Heli (Heb. ELI, Gr. HELI) was both judge and high-priest, whose ...

Elias

Elias (Hebrew 'Eliahu , "Yahveh is God "; also called Elijah). The loftiest and most ...

Elias of Cortona

Minister General of the Friars Minor , b., it is said, at Bevilia near Assisi, c. 1180; d. at ...

Elias of Jerusalem

Died 518; one of the two Catholic bishops (with Flavian of Antioch) who resisted the attempt of ...

Elie de Beaumont, Jean-Baptiste-Armand-Louis-Léonce

Geologist, b. at Canon (Dép. Calvados), near Caen, France, 25 Sept., 1798; d. at Canon, 21 ...

Eligius, Saint

( French Eloi). Bishop of Noyon-Tournai, born at Chaptelat near Limoges, France, c. 590, of ...

Elijah

Elias (Hebrew 'Eliahu , "Yahveh is God "; also called Elijah). The loftiest and most ...

Elined, Saint

Virgin and martyr, flourished c. 490. According to Bishop Challoner (Britannia Saneta, London, ...

Eliseus

(E LISHA ; Hebrew ’lysh‘, God is salvation ). A Prophet of Israel. After ...

Elishé

A famous Armenian historian of the fifth century, place and date of birth unknown, d. 480. ...

Elisha

(E LISHA ; Hebrew ’lysh‘, God is salvation ). A Prophet of Israel. After ...

Eliud, Saint

(Eliud.) "Archbishop" of Llandaff, born at Eccluis Gunniau, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died at ...

Elizabeth

(" God is an oath " -- Exodus 6:23 ). Zachary's wife and John the Baptist's mother; was ...

Elizabeth Ann Seton, Saint

Foundress and first superior of the Sisters of Charity in the United States ; born in New York ...

Elizabeth Associations

( Elisabethenvereine .) Charitable associations of women in Germany which aim for the ...

Elizabeth of Hungary, Saint

Also called St. Elizabeth of Thuringia, born in Hungary, probably at Pressburg, 1207; died at ...

Elizabeth of Portugal, Saint

Queen (sometimes known as the PEACEMAKER); born in 1271; died in 1336. She was named after her ...

Elizabeth of Reute, Saint

Member of the Third Order of St. Francis, born 25 November, 1386, at Waldsee in Swabia, of John ...

Elizabeth of Schönau, Saint

Born about 1129; d. 18 June, 1165.-Feast 18 June. She was born of an obscure family, entered the ...

Elizabeth, Sisters of Saint

Generally styled "Grey Nuns ". They sprang from an association of young ladies established by ...

Ellis, Philip Michael

First Vicar Apostolic of the Western District, England, subsequently Bishop of Segni, ...

Ellwangen Abbey

The earliest Benedictine monastery established in the Duchy of Wurtemberg, situated in the ...

Elohim

See also GOD. ( Septuagint, theos ; Vulgate, Deus ). Elohim is the common name for ...

Elphege, Saint

(Or ALPHEGE). Born 954; died 1012; also called Godwine, martyred Archbishop of Canterbury, ...

Elphin

D IOCESE OF E LPHIN (E LPHINIUM ) Suffragan of Tuam, Ireland, a see founded by St. ...

Elusa

A titular see of Palaestina Tertia, suffragan of Petra. This city is called Chellous in the ...

Elvira, Council of

Held early in the fourth century at Elliberis, or Illiberis, in Spain, a city now in ruins not far ...

Ely

ANCIENT DIOCESE OF ELY (ELIENSIS; ELIA OR ELYS). Ancient diocese in England. The earliest ...

Elzéar of Sabran

Baron of Ansouis, Count of Ariano, born in the castle of Saint-Jean de Robians, in Provence, ...

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Em 19

Emanationism

The doctrine that emanation (Latin emanare , "to flow from") is the mode by which all things ...

Emancipation, Ecclesiastical

In ancient Rome emancipation was a process of law by which a slave released from the ...

Ember Days

Ember days (corruption from Lat. Quatuor Tempora , four times) are the days at the beginning of ...

Embolism

(Greek: embolismos , from the verb, emballein , "to throw in") Embolism is an insertion, ...

Embroidery

ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY That in Christian worship embroidery was used from early times to ...

Emerentiana, Saint

Virgin and martyr, d. at Rome in the third century. The old Itineraries to the graves of the ...

Emery, Jacques-André

Superior of the Society of St-Sulpice during the French Revolution , b. 26 Aug., 1732, at Gex; ...

Emesa

A titular see of Phœnicia Secunda, suffragan of Damascus, and the seat of two Uniat ...

Emigrant Aid Societies

Records of the early immigration to the North American colonies are indefinite and ...

Emiliana and Trasilla, Saints

Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...

Emiliani, Saint Jerome

Founder of the Order of Somascha; b. at Venice, 1481; d. at Somascha, 8 Feb., 1537; feast, 20 ...

Emmanuel

Emmanual ( Septuagint Emmanouel ; A.V., Immanuel ) signifies " God with us" ( Matthew 1:23 ), ...

Emmaus

A titular see in Pa1æstina Prima, suffragan of Cæsarea. It is mentioned for the ...

Emmeram, Saint

Bishop of Poitiers and missionary to Bavaria, b. at Poitiers in the first half of the seventh ...

Emmeram, Saint, Abbey of

A Benedictine monastery at Ratisbon (Regensburg), named after its traditional founder, the ...

Emmerich, Anne Catherine

An Augustinian nun, stigmatic, and ecstatic, born 8 September, 1774, at Flamsche, near ...

Empiricism

(Lat. empirismus, the standpoint of a system based on experience). Primarily, and in its ...

Ems, Congress of

The Congress of Ems was a meeting of the representatives of the German Archbishops Friedrich ...

Emser, Hieronymus

The most ardent literary opponent of Luther, born of a prominent family at Ulm, 20 March, 1477; ...

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En 34

Encina, Juan de la

(JUAN DE LA ENZINA). Spanish dramatic poet, called by Ticknor the father of the Spanish ...

Enciso, Diego Ximenez de

Dramatic poet, b. in Andalusia, Spain, c. 1585; date of death unknown. All trace of him is lost ...

Enciso, Martín Fernández de

Navigator and geographer, b. at Seville, Spain, c. 1470; d. probably about 1528 at Seville. It ...

Encolpion

(Greek egkolpion , that which is worn on the breast). The name given in early Christian ...

Encratites

[ ’Egkrateîs (Irenæus) ’Egkratetai (Clement of Alexandria, ...

Encyclical

( Latin Litterœ Encyclicœ ) According to its etymology, an encyclical (from the ...

Encyclopedia

An abridgment of human knowledge in general or a considerable department thereof, treated from a ...

Encyclopedists

(1) The writers of the eighteenth century who edited or contributed articles to the ...

Endlicher, Stephan Ladislaus

Austrian botanist (botanical abbreviation, Endl. ), linguist, and historian, b. at Pressburg, ...

Endowment

( German Stiftung , French fondation , Italian fondazione , Latin fundatio ) An ...

Energy, The Law of Conservation of

Amongst the gravest objections raised by the progress of modern science against Theism, the ...

Engaddi

( Septuagint usually ’Eggadí ; Hebrew ‘En Gédhi, "Fountain of the ...

Engel, Ludwig

Canonist, b. at Castle Wagrein, Austria ; d. at Grillenberg, 22 April 1694. He became a ...

Engelberg, Abbey of

A Benedictine monastery in Switzerland, formerly in the Diocese of Constance, but now in that ...

Engelbert

Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of Admont in Styria, b. of noble parents at Volkersdorf ...

Engelbert of Cologne, Saint

Archbishop of that city (1216-1225); b. at Berg, about 1185; d. near Schwelm, 7 November, 1225. ...

Engelbrechtsen, Cornelis

(Also called ENGELBERTS and ENGELBRECHT, and now more usually spelt ENGELBRECHTSZ). Dutch ...

England (1066-1558)

This term England is here restricted to one constituent, the largest and most populous, of the ...

England (After 1558)

The Protestant Reformation is the great dividing line in the history of England, as of Europe ...

England (Before 1066)

I. ANGLO-SAXON OCCUPATION OF BRITAIN The word Anglo-Saxon is used as a collective name for ...

England, John

First Bishop of Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.; b. 23 September, 1786, in Cork, Ireland ...

Englefield, Sir Henry Charles, Bart.

Antiquary and scientist, b. 1752; d. 21 March, 1822. He was the eldest son of Sir Henry ...

English College, The, in Rome

I. FOUNDATION Some historians (e.g., Dodd, II, 168, following Polydore Vergil, Harpsfield, ...

English Confessors and Martyrs (1534-1729)

Though the resistance of the English as a people to the Reformation compares very badly with the ...

English Hierarchy, Reorganization of the

On 29 September, 1850, by the Bull "Universalis Ecclesiae", Pius IX restored the Catholic ...

English Literature

It is not unfitting to compare English Literature to a great tree whose far spreading and ever ...

English Revolution of 1688

James II, having reached the climax of his power after the successful suppression of Monmouth's ...

Ennodius, Magnus Felix

Rhetorician and bishop, b. probably at Arles, in Southern Gaul, in 474; d. at Pavia, Italy, 17 ...

Enoch

(Greek Enoch ). The name of the son of Cain ( Genesis 4:17, 18 ), of a nephew of Abraham ...

Enoch, Book of

The antediluvian patriarch Henoch according to Genesis "walked with God and was seen no more, ...

Ensingen, Ulrich

(ULRICH ENSINGER) Belonged to a family of architects who came from Einsingen near Ulm, ...

Entablature

A superstructure which lies horizontally upon the columns in classic architecture. It is divided ...

Enthronization

(From Greek ’enthronízein , to place on a throne). This word has been employed ...

Envy

Jealousy is here taken to be synonymous with envy. It is defined to be a sorrow which one ...

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Eo 1

Eoghan, Saints

(1) EOGHAN OF ARDSTRAW was a native of Leinster, and, after presiding over the Abbey of ...

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Ep 26

Epée, Charles-Michel de l'

A philanthropic priest and inventor of the sign alphabet for the instruction of the deaf and ...

Epact

(Greek épaktai hemérai; Latin dies adjecti ). The surplus days of the ...

Eparchy

( eparchia ). Originally the name of one of the divisions of the Roman Empire. Diocletian ...

Eperies

DIOCESE OF EPERIES (EPERIENSIS RUTHENORUM). Diocese of the Greek Ruthenian Rite, suffragan to ...

Ephesians, Epistle to the

This article will be treated under the following heads: I. Analysis of the Epistle; II. ...

Ephesus

A titular archiespiscopal see in Asia Minor, said to have been founded in the eleventh century ...

Ephesus, Council of

The third ecumenical council, held in 431. THE OCCASION AND PREPARATION FOR THE COUNCIL The ...

Ephesus, Robber Council of

(L ATROCINIUM ). The Acts of the first session of this synod were read at the Council of ...

Ephesus, Seven Sleepers of

The story is one of the many examples of the legend about a man who falls asleep and years after ...

Ephod

( Hebrew aphwd or aphd ; Greek ’ís, ’ephód, ...

Ephraem, Saint

(EPHREM, EPHRAIM). Born at Nisibis, then under Roman rule, early in the fourth century; died ...

Ephraemi Rescriptus, Codex

(Symbol C). The last in the group of the four great uncial manuscripts of the Greek Bible, ...

Ephraim of Antioch

( Ephraimios ). One of the defenders of the Faith of Chalcedon (451) against the ...

Epicureanism

This term has two distinct, though cognate, meanings. In its popular sense, the word stands for a ...

Epiklesis

Epiklesis ( Latin invocatio ) is the name of a prayer that occurs in all Eastern liturgies ...

Epimachus and Gordianus, Saints

Martyrs, suffered under Julian the Apostate , 362, commemorated on 10 May. Gordianus was a judge ...

Epiphania

A titular see in Cilicia Secunda, in Asia Minor, suffragan of Anazarbus. This city is ...

Epiphanius

Surnamed SCHOLASTICUS, or in modern terms, THE PHILOLOGIST, a translator of various Greek works in ...

Epiphanius of Constantinople

Died 535. Epiphanius succeeded John II (518-20) as Patriarch of Constantinople. It was the time ...

Epiphanius of Salamis

Born at Besanduk, near Eleutheropolis, in Judea, after 310; died in 403. While very young he ...

Epiphany

Known also under the following names: (1) ta epiphania , or he epiphanios , sc. hemera ...

Episcopal Subsidies

( Latin subsidia , tribute, pecuniary aid, subvention) Since the faithful are obliged to ...

Episcopalians

The history of this religious organization divides itself naturally into two portions: the period ...

Epistemology

( Epistéme , knowledge, science, and lógos , speech, thought, discourse). ...

Epistle (in Scripture)

Lat. epistola ; Greek ’epistolé ; in Hebrew, at first only the general term ...

Epping, Joseph

German astronomer and Assyriologist, b. at Neuenkirchen near Rhine in Westphalia, 1 Dec., 1835; ...

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Er 24

Erasmus, Desiderius

The most brilliant and most important leader of German humanism, b. at Rotterdam, Holland, 28 ...

Erastus and Erastianism

The name "Erastianism" is often used in a somewhat loose sense as denoting an undue subservience ...

Erbermann, Veit

(Or Ebermann). Theologian and controversialist, born 25 May, 1597, at Rendweisdorff, in ...

Ercilla y Zúñiga, Alonso de

Spanish soldier and poet, born in Madrid, 7 August, 1533; died in the same city, 29 November, ...

Erconwald, Saint

Bishop of London, died about 690. He belonged to the princely family of the East Anglian Offa, ...

Erdeswicke, Sampson

Antiquarian, date of birth unknown; died 1603. He was born at Sandon in Staffordshire, his ...

Erdington Abbey

Erdington Abbey, situated in a suburb of Birmingham, Warwickshire, England, belongs to the ...

Erhard of Ratisbon, Saint

Bishop of that city in the seventh century, probably identical with an Abbot Erhard of ...

Erie

DIOCESE OF ERIE (ERIENSIS). Established 1853; it embraces the thirteen counties of ...

Erin, The Twelve Apostles of

By this designation are meant twelve holy Irishmen of the sixth century who went to study at the ...

Eriugena, John Scotus

An Irish teacher, theologian, philosopher, and poet, who lived in the ninth century. NAME ...

Ermland

Ermland, or Ermeland (Varmiensis, Warmia), a district of East Prussia and an exempt bishopric. ...

Ernakulam, Vicariate Apostolic of

In May, 1887, the churches of Syrian Rite in Malabar were separated from those of the Latin ...

Ernan, Saints

Name of four Irish saints. O'Hanlon enumerates twenty-five saints bearing the name Ernan, ...

Ernst of Hesse-Rheinfels

Landgrave, b. 9 Dec., 1623, at Cassel; d. 12 May, 1693, at Cologne. He was the sixth son of ...

Ernulf

Architect, b. at Beauvais, France, in 1040; d. 1124. He studied under Lanfranc at the monastery ...

Errington, William

Priest, founder of Sedgley Park School, b. 17 July, 1716; d. 28 September, 1768. He was son of ...

Error

Error, reduplicatively regarded, is in one way or another the product of ignorance. But besides ...

Erskine, Charles

Cardinal, b. at Rome, 13 Feb., 1739; d. at Paris, 20 March, 1811. He was the son of Colin ...

Erthal, Franz Ludwig von

Prince- Bishop of Würzburg and Bamberg, b. at Lohr on the Main, 16 September, 1730; d. at ...

Erthal, Friedrich Karl Joseph, Freiherr von

Last Elector and Archbishop of Mainz, b. 3 Jan., 1719, at Mainz ; d. 25 July, 1802, at ...

Erwin of Steinbach

One of the architects of the Strasburg cathedral, date of birth unknown; d. at Strasburg, 17 ...

Erythrae

A titular see in Asia Minor. According to legend the city was founded by colonists from Crete. ...

Erzerum (Theodosiopolis)

DIOCESE OF ERZERUM (ERZERUMIENSIS ARMENIORUM). The native name, Garin (Gr. Karenitis ; ...

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Es 11

Esau

( ‘sw , hairy). The eldest son of Isaac and Rebecca, the twin-brother of Jacob. The ...

Esch, Nicolaus van

(ESCHIUS) A famous mystical theologian, b. in Oisterwijk near Hertogenbosch (Boisle-Duc), ...

Eschatology

That branch of systematic theology which deals with the doctrines of the last things ( ta ...

Escobar y Mendoza, Antonio

Born at Valladolid in 1589; died there, 4 July, 1669. In his sixteenth year he entered the ...

Escobar, Marina de

Mystic and foundress of a modified branch of the Brigittine Order b. at Valladolid, Spain, 8 ...

Escorial, The

A remarkable building in Spain situated on the south-eastern slope of the Sierra Guadarrama about ...

Esdras

(Or EZRA.) I. ESDRAS THE MAN Esdras is a famous priest and scribe connected with Israel's ...

Esglis, Louis-Philippe Mariauchau d'

Eighth Bishop of Quebec, Canada ; born Quebec, 24 April, 1710; died 7 June, 1788. After ...

Eskil

Archbishop of Lund, Skåne, Sweden ; b. about 1100; d. at Clairvaux, 6 (7?) Sept., 1181; ...

Eskimo

A littoral race occupying the entire Arctic coast and outlying islands of America from below Cook ...

Esnambuc, Pierre Belain, Sieur d'

Captain in the French marine, b. 1565, at Allouville, near Yvetot (Seine-Inferieure); d. at St. ...

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ES 1

ESP

( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...

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Es 14

Espejo, Antonio

A Spanish explorer, whose fame rests upon a notable expedition which he conducted into New ...

Espen, Zeger Bernhard van

(also called ESPENIUS) A Belgian canonist, born at Louvain, 9 July, 1646; died at ...

Espence, Claude D'

(ESPENCÆUS) A French theologian, born in 1511 at Châlons-sur-Marne; died 5 Oct., ...

Espinel, Vincent

Poet and novelist; born at Ronda (Malaga), Spain, 1544; died at Madrid, 1634. He studied at ...

Espinosa, Alonso De

Spanish priest and historian of the sixteenth century. Little is known of his early life. He is ...

Espousals

An Espousal is a contract of future marriage between a man and a woman, who are thereby ...

Espousals of the Blessed Virgin Mary

(DESPONSATIO BEATÆ MARIÆ VIRGINIS) A feast of the Latin Church. It is certain ...

Essence and Existence

( Latin essentia, existentia ) Since they are transcendentals, it is not possible to put ...

Essenes

One of three leading Jewish sects mentioned by Josephus as flourishing in the second century ...

Est, Willem Hessels van

(ESTIUS.) A famous commentator on the Pauline epistles, born at Gorcum, Holland, in 1542; ...

Establishment, The

(Or ESTABLISHED CHURCH) The union of Church and State setting up a definite and distinctive ...

Estaing, Comte d'

JEAN-BAPTISTE-CHARLES-HENRI-HECTOR, COMTE D'ESTAING (MARQUIS DE SAILLANS). A French admiral, ...

Esther

(From the Hebrew meaning star, happiness ); Queen of Persia and wife of Assuerus, who is ...

Estiennot de la Serre, Claude

Benedictine of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, b. at Varennes, France, 1639; d. at Rome, 1699. ...

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Et 11

Eternity

( aeternum , originally aeviternum, aionion, aeon -- long). Eternity is defined by ...

Ethelbert

Archbishop of York, England, date of birth uncertain; d. 8 Nov., 781 or 782. The name also ...

Ethelbert, Saint

Date of birth unknown; d. 794; King of the East Angles, was, according to the "Speculum ...

Ethelbert, Saint

King of Kent; b. 552; d. 24 February, 616; son of Eormenric, through whom he was descended from ...

Etheldreda, Saint

Queen of Northumbria; born (probably) about 630; died at Ely, 23 June, 679. While still very young ...

Ethelwold, Saint

St. Ethelwold, Bishop of Winchester, was born there of good parentage in the early years of the ...

Etherianus, Hugh and Leo

Brothers, Tuscans by birth, employed at the court of Constantinople under the Emperor Manuel I ...

Ethethard

(ÆTHELHEARD, ETHELREARD) The fourteenth Archbishop of Canterbury, England, date of ...

Ethics

I. Definition Many writers regard ethics (Gr. ethike ) as any scientific treatment of the ...

Ethiopia

The name of this region has been derived, through the Greek form, aithiopia , from the two ...

Etschmiadzin

A famous Armenian monastery, since 1441 the ecclesiastical capital of the schismatic Armenians, ...

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Euaria

A titular see of Phoenicia Secunda or Libanensis, in Palestine. The true name of this city ...

Eucarpia

A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris in Asia Minor. Eucarpia ( Eukarpia ), mentioned by Strabo ...

Eucharist, as a Sacrament

Since Christ is present under the appearances of bread and wine in a sacramental way, the ...

Eucharist, as a Sacrifice

The word Mass ( missa ) first established itself as the general designation for the ...

Eucharist, Early Symbols of the

Among the symbols employed by the Christians of the first ages in decorating their tombs, those ...

Eucharist, Introduction to the

See also EUCHARIST AS SACRIFICE , EUCHARIST AS SACRAMENT , and REAL PRESENCE . (Greek ...

Eucharist, Real Presence of Christ in

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

Eucharistic Congresses

Eucharistic Congresses are gatherings of ecclesiastics and laymen for the purpose of ...

Eucharistic Prayer

This article will be divided into four sections: (I) Name and place of the Canon; (II) History of ...

Eucharius, Saint

First Bishop of Trier (Treves) in the second half of the third century. According to an ...

Eucherius, Saint

Bishop of Lyons, theologian, born in the latter half of the fourth century; died about 449. On ...

Euchologion

The name of one of the chief Service-books of the Byzantine Church ; it corresponds more or less ...

Eudes, Blessed Jean

French missionary and founder of the Eudists and of the Congregation of Our Lady of Charity; ...

Eudists

(Society of Jesus and Mary) An ecclesiastical society instituted at Caen, France, 25 March, ...

Eudocia

(E UDOKIA ). Ælia Eudocia, sometimes wrongly called Eudoxia, was the wife of ...

Eudoxias

A titular see of Galatia Secunda in Asia Minor, suffragan of Pessinus. Eudoxias is mentioned ...

Eugendus, Saint

(AUGENDUS; French OYAND, OYAN) Fourth Abbot of Condat (Jura), b. about 449, at Izernore, ...

Eugene I, Saint, Pope

Eugene I was elected 10 Aug., 654, and died at Rome, 2 June, 657. Because he would not submit to ...

Eugene II, Pope

Elected 6 June, 824; died 27 Aug., 827. On the death of Pascal I (Feb.-May, 824) there took place ...

Eugene III, Pope

Bernardo Pignatelli, born in the neighbourhood of Pisa, elected 15 Feb., 1145; d. at Tivoli, 8 ...

Eugene IV, Pope

Gabriello Condulmaro, or Condulmerio, b. at Venice, 1388; elected 4 March, 1431; d. at Rome, 23 ...

Eugenics

Eugenics literally means "good breeding". It is defined as the study of agencies under social ...

Eugenius I

Archbishop of Toledo, successor in 636 of Justus in that see ; d. 647. Like his predecessor he ...

Eugenius II (the Younger)

Archbishop of Toledo from 647 to 13 Nov., 657, the date of his death. He was the son of a Goth ...

Eugenius of Carthage, Saint

Unanimously elected Bishop of Carthage in 480 to succeed Deogratias (d. 456); d. 13 July, 505. ...

Eulalia of Barcelona, Saint

A Spanish martyr in the persecution of Diocletian (12 February, 304), patron of the ...

Eulogia

(Greek eulogia , "a blessing"). The term has been applied in ecclesiastical usage to the ...

Eulogius of Alexandria, Saint

Patriarch of that see from 580 to 607. He was a successful combatant of the heretical errors ...

Eulogius of Cordova, Saint

Spanish martyr and writer who flourished during the reigns of the Cordovan Caliphs, Abd-er-Rahman ...

Eumenia

A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana in Asia Minor, and suffragan to Hierapolis. It was founded ...

Eunan, Saint

(Or Eunan). Abbot of Iona, born at Drumhome, County Donegal, Ireland, c. 624; died at the ...

Eunomianism

A phase of extreme Arianism prevalent amongst a section of Eastern churchmen from about 350 ...

Euphemius of Constantinople

Euphemius of Constantinople (490-496) succeeded as patriarch Flavitas (or Fravitas, 489-490), who ...

Euphrasia, Saint

Virgin, b. in 380; d. after 410. She was the daughter of Antigonus, a senator of Constantinople, ...

Euphrosyne, Saint

Died about 470. Her story belongs to that group of legends which relate how Christian virgins, in ...

Euroea

A titular see of Epirus Vetus in Greece, suffragan of Nicopolis. Euroea is mentioned by ...

Europe

NAME The conception of Europe as a distinct division of the earth, separate from Asia and ...

Europus

A titular see in Provincis Euphratensis, suffragan of Hierapolis. The former name of this city ...

Eusebius Bruno

Bishop of Angers, b. in the early part of the eleventh century; d. at Angers, 29 August, 1081. ...

Eusebius of Alexandria

Ecclesiastical writer and author of a number of homilies well known in the sixth and seventh ...

Eusebius of Cæsarea

Eusebius Pamphili, Bishop of Cæsarea in Palestine, the "Father of Church History "; b. ...

Eusebius of Dorylæum

Eusebius, Bishop of Dorylæum in Asia Minor, was the prime mover on behalf of Catholic ...

Eusebius of Laodicea

An Alexandrian deacon who had some fame as a confessor and became bishop of Laodicea in ...

Eusebius of Nicomedia

Bishop, place and date of birth unknown; d. 341. He was a pupil at Antioch of Lucian the ...

Eusebius, Chronicle of

Consists of two parts: the first was probably called by Eusebius the "Chronograph" or ...

Eusebius, Saint

Bishop of Vercelli, b. in Sardinia c. 283; d. at Vercelli, Piedmont, 1 August, 371. He was ...

Eusebius, Saint

Bishop of Samosata (now Samsat) in Syria ; date of birth unknown: d. in 379 or 380. History ...

Eusebius, Saint

A presbyter at Rome ; date of birth unknown; d. 357(?). He was a Roman patrician and ...

Eusebius, Saint, Pope

Successor of Marcellus, 309 or 310. His reign was short. The Liberian Catalogue gives its duration ...

Eustace, John Chetwode

Antiquary, b. in Ireland, c. 1762; d. at Naples, Italy, 1 Aug., 1815. His family was English, ...

Eustace, Maurice

Eldest son of Sir John Eustace, Castlemartin, County Kildars, Ireland, martyred for the Faith, ...

Eustace, Saint

Date of birth unknown; died 29 March, 625. He was second abbot of the Irish monastery of ...

Eustachius and Companions, Saints

Martyrs under the Emperor Hadrian, in the year 188. Feast in the West, 20 September; in the East, 2 ...

Eustachius, Bartolomeo

A distinguished anatomist of the Renaissance period — "one of the greatest anatomists ...

Eustathius of Sebaste

Born about 300; died about 377. He was one of the chief founders of monasticism in Asia Minor, ...

Eustathius, Saint

Bishop of Antioch, b. at Side in Pamphylia, c. 270; d. in exile at Trajanopolis in Thrace , ...

Eustochium Julia, Saint

Virgin, born at Rome c. 368; died at Bethlehem, 28 September, 419 or 420. She was the third of ...

Euthalius

( ) A deacon of Alexandria and later Bishop of Sulca. He lived towards the middle of ...

Euthanasia

(From Greek eu , well, and thanatos , death), easy, painless death. This is here considered ...

Euthymius, Saint

(Styled THE GREAT). Abbot in Palestine; b. in Melitene in Lesser Armenia, A.D. 377; d. A.D. ...

Eutropius of Valencia

A Spanish bishop ; d. about 610. He was originally a monk in the Monasterium Servitanum , ...

Eutyches

An heresiarch of the fifth century, who has given his name to an opinion to which his teaching and ...

Eutychianism

Eutychianism and Monophysitism are usually identified as a single heresy. But as some ...

Eutychianus, Saint, Pope

He succeeded Pope Felix I a few days after the latter's death, and governed the Church from ...

Eutychius

Melchite Patriarch of Alexandria, author of a history of the world, b. 876, at Fustat (Cairo); ...

Eutychius I

Patriarch of Constantinople, b. about 512, in Phrygia; d. Easter Day , 5 April, 582. He became ...

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Ev 18

Evagrius

Ecclesiastical historian and last of the continuators of Eusebius of Caesarea, b. in 536 at ...

Evagrius

Born about 345, in Ibora, a small town on the shores of the Black Sea; died 399. He is numbered ...

Evangeliaria

Liturgical books containing those portions of the Gospels which are read during Mass or in the ...

Evangelical Alliance, The

An association of Protestants belonging to various denominations founded in 1846, whose object, ...

Evangelical Church

(IN PRUSSIA) The sixteenth-century Reformers accused the Catholic Church of having ...

Evangelical Counsels

( Or COUNSELS OF PERFECTION). Christ in the Gospels laid down certain rules of life and ...

Evangelist

In the New Testament this word, in its substantive form, occurs only three times: Acts, xxi, 8; ...

Evaristus, Pope Saint

Date of birth unknown; died about 107. In the Liberian Catalogue his name is given as Aristus. In ...

Eve

( Hebrew hawwah ). The name of the first woman, the wife of Adam, the mother of Cain, Abel, ...

Eve of a Feast

(Or VIGIL; Latin Vigilia ; Greek pannychis ). In the first ages, during the night before ...

Evesham Abbey

Founded by St. Egwin, third Bishop of Worcester, about 701, in Worcestershire, England, and ...

Evil

Evil, in a large sense, may be described as the sum of the opposition, which experience shows to ...

Evin, Saint

St. Abban of New Ross -- also known as St. Ewin, Abhan, or Evin, but whose name has been locally ...

Evodius

The first Bishop of Antioch after St. Peter. Eusebius mentions him thus in his "History": ...

Evolution, Catholics and

One of the most important questions for every educated Catholic of today is: What is to be ...

Evolution, History and Scientific Foundation of

The world of organisms comprises a great system of individual forms generally classified ...

Evora

Located in Portugal, raised to archiepiscopal rank in 1544, at which time it was given as ...

Evreux

DIOCESE OF EVREUX (EBROICENSIS) Diocese in the Department of Eure, France ; suffragan of the ...

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Ew 3

Ewald, Saints

(Or HEWALD) Martyrs in Old Saxony about 695. They were two priests and natives of ...

Ewin, Saint

St. Abban of New Ross -- also known as St. Ewin, Abhan, or Evin, but whose name has been locally ...

Ewing, Thomas

Jurist and statesman, b. in West Liberty, Virginia (now West Virginia ), U.S.A. 28 December, ...

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Ex 31

Ex Cathedra

Literally "from the chair", a theological term which signifies authoritative teaching and is ...

Examination

A process prescribed or assigned for testing qualification; an investigation, inquiry. ...

Examination of Conscience

By this term is understood a review of one's past thoughts, words and actions for the purpose of ...

Examiners, Apostolic

So called because appointed by the Apostolic See for service in Rome. In 1570 Pius V ...

Examiners, Synodal

So called because chosen in a diocesan synod. The Council of Trent prescribes at least six ...

Exarch

(Greek Exarchos ). A title used in various senses both civilly and ecclesiastically. In ...

Excardination and Incardination

(Latin cardo, a pivot, socket, or hinge--hence, incardinare, to hang on a hinge, or fix; ...

Exclusion, Right of

(Latin Jus Exclusivæ . The alleged competence of the more important Catholic ...

Excommunication

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. General Notions and Historical ...

Executor, Apostolic

A cleric who puts into execution a papal rescript, completing what is necessary in order ...

Exedra

A semicircular stone or marble seat; a rectangular or semicircular recess; the portico of the ...

Exegesis, Biblical

Exegesis is the branch of theology which investigates and expresses the true sense of Sacred ...

Exemption

Exemption is the whole or partial release of an ecclesiastical person, corporation, or ...

Exequatur

(Synonymous with REGIUM PLACET) Exequatur, as the Jansenist Van Espen defines it, is a ...

Exeter, Ancient Diocese of

(EXONIA, ISCA DAMNONIORUM, CAER WISE, EXANCEASTER; EXONIENSIS). English see, chosen by Leofric, ...

Exmew, Blessed William

Carthusian monk and martyr ; suffered at Tyburn, 19 June, 1535. He studied at Christ's ...

Exodus ( See Pentateuch)

Pentateuch , in Greek pentateuchos , is the name of the first five books of the Old ...

Exorcism

( See also DEMONOLOGY, DEMONIACS, EXORCIST, POSSESSION.) Exorcism is (1) the act of driving ...

Exorcist

( See also DEMONOLOGY, DEMONIACS, EXORCISM, POSSESSION.) (1) In general, any one who ...

Expectation of the Blessed Virgin Mary

( Exspectatio Partus B.V.M. ) Celebrated on 18 December by nearly the entire Latin Church. ...

Expectative

(From the Latin expectare , to expect or wait for.) An expectative, or an expectative grace, ...

Expeditors, Apostolic

(Latin Expeditionarius literarum apostolicarum, Datariae Apostolicae sollicitator atque ...

Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament

Exposition is a manner of honouring the Holy Eucharist, by exposing It, with proper solemnity, to ...

Extension

(From Latin ex-tendere , to spread out.) That material substance is not perfectly ...

Extension Society, The Catholic Church

IN THE UNITED STATES The first active agitation for a church extension or home mission society ...

Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP)

( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...

Extravagantes

( Extra , outside; vagari , to wander.) This word is employed to designate some papal ...

Extreme Unction

A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect ...

Exul Hibernicus

The name given to an Irish stranger on the Continent of Europe in the time of Charles the ...

Exultet

The hymn in praise of the paschal candle sung by the deacon, in the liturgy of Holy ...

Exuperius, Saint

(Also spelled Exsuperius). Bishop of Toulouse in the beginning of the fifth century; place ...

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Ey 7

Eyb, Albrecht von

One of the earliest German humanists, born in 1420 near Anabach in Franconia; died in 1475. After ...

Eyck, Hubert and Jan van

Brothers, Flemish illuminators and painters, founders of the school of Bruges and ...

Eycken, Jean Baptiste van

Painter, born at Brussels, Belgium, 16 September, 1809; died at Schaerbeek, 19 December, 1853. ...

Eymard, Venerable Pierre-Julien

Founder of the Society of the Blessed Sacrament , and of the Servants of the Blessed Sacrament, ...

Eymeric, Nicolas

Theologian and inquisitor, born at Gerona, in Catalonia, Spain, c. 1320; died there 4 January, ...

Eyre, Thomas

First president of Ushaw College ; born at Glossop, Derbyshire; in 1748; died at Ushaw, 8 May, ...

Eyston, Charles

Antiquary, born 1667; died 5 November, 1721; he was a member of the ancient family of Eyston, ...

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Ez 6

Ezechias

Ezechias (Hebrew = "The Lord strengtheneth"; Septuagint Ezekias ; in the cuneiform inscriptions ...

Ezekiel

Ezekiel, whose name, Yehézq'el signifies "strong is God ", or "whom God makes strong" ...

Ezion-geber

More properly Ezion-geber, a city of Idumea, situated on the northern extremity of the ...

Eznik

A writer of the fifth century, born at Golp, in the province of Taikh, a tributary valley of the ...

Ezra

(Or EZRA.) I. ESDRAS THE MAN Esdras is a famous priest and scribe connected with Israel's ...

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