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Lyons

The Archdiocese of Lyons (Lugdunensis) comprises the Department of the Rhône (except the Canton of Villeurbanne, which belongs to the Diocese of Grenoble ) and of the Loire. The Concordat of 1801 assigned as the boundaries of the Archdiocese of Lyons the Departments of the Rhône, the Loire, and the Ain and as suffragans the Dioceses of Mende, Grenoble, and Chambéry. The Archdiocese of Lyons was authorized by Letters Apostolic of 29 November, 1801, to unite with his title the titles of the suppressed metropolitan Sees of Vienne and Embrun (see G RENOBLE ; G AP ). In 1822 the Department of Ain was separated from the Archdiocese of Lyons to form the Diocese of Belley ; the title of the suppressed church of Embrun was transferred to the Archdiocese of Aix , and the Archdiocese of Lyons and Vienne had henceforth as suffragans Langres, Autun, Dijon, St. Claude, and Grenoble.

History

It appears to have been proved by Mgr Duchesne, despite the local traditions of many Churches, that in all three parts of Gaul in the second century there was but a single organized Church, that of Lyons. The "Deacon of Vienne", martyred at Lyons during the persecution of 177, was probably a deacon installed at Vienne by the ecclesiastical authority of Lyons. The confluence of the Rhône and the Saône, where sixty Gallic tribes had erected the famous altar to Rome and Augustus, was also the centre from which Christianity was gradually propagated throughout Gaul. The presence at Lyons of numerous Asiatic Christians and their almost daily communications with the Orient were likely to arouse the susceptibilities of the Gallo-Romans. A persecution arose under Marcus Aurelius. Its victims at Lyons numbered forty-eight, half of them of Greek origin, half Gallo-Roman, among others St. Blandina , and St. Pothinus, first Bishop of Lyons, sent to Gaul by St. Polycarp about the middle of the second century. The legend according to which he was sent by St. Clement dates from the twelfth century and is without foundation. The letter addressed to the Christians of Asia and Phrygia in the name of the faithful of Vienne and Lyons, and relating the persecution of 177, is considered by Ernest Renan as one of the msot extraordinary documents possessed by any literature; it is the baptismal certificate of Christianity in France. The successor of St. Pothinus was the illustrious St. Irenæus , 177-202.

The discovery on the Hill of St. Sebastian of ruins of a naumachia capable of being transformed into an amphitheatre, and of some fragments of inscriptions apparently belonging to an altar of Augustus, has led several archæologists to believe that the martyrs of Lyons suffered death on this hill. Very ancient tradition, however, represents the church of Ainay as erected at the place of their martyrdom. The crypt of St. Pothinus, under the choir of the church of St. Nizier was destroyed in 1884. But there are still revered at Lyons the prison cell of St. Pothinus, where Anne of Austria, Louis XIV , and Pius VII came to pray, and the crypt of St. Irenæus built at the end of the fifth century by St. Patiens, which contains the body of St. Irenæus. There are numerous funerary inscriptions of primitive Christianity in Lyons; the earliest dates from the year 334. In the second and third centuries the See of Lyons enjoyed great renown throughout Gaul, witness the local legends of Besançon and of several other cities relative to the missionaries sent out by St. Irenæus. Faustinus, bishop in the second half of the third century, wrote to St. Cyprian and Pope Stephen I, in 254, regarding the Novatian tendencies of Marcian, Bishop of Arles. But when Diocletian by the new provincial organization had taken away from Lyons its position as metropolis of the three Gauls, the prestige of Lyons diminished for a time.

At the end of the empire and during the Merovingian period several saints are counted among the Bishops of Lyons: St. Justus (374-381) who died in a monastery in the Thebaid and was renowned for the orthodoxy of his doctrine in the struggle against Arianism (the church of the Machabees, whither his body was brought, was as early as the fifty century a place of pilgrimage under the name of the collegiate church of St. Justus ), St. Alpinus and St. Martin (disciple of St. Martin of Tours ; end of fourth century); St. Antiochus (400-410); St. Elpidius (410-422); St. Sicarius (422-33); St. Eucherius (c. 433-50), a monk of Lérins and the author of homilies, from whom doubtless dates the foundation at Lyons of the "hermitages" of which more will be said below; St. Patiens (456-98) who successfully combated the famine and Arianism, and whom Sidonius Apollinaris praised in a poem; St. Lupicinus (491-94); St. Rusticus (494-501); St. Stephanus (d. Before 515), who with St. Avitus of Vienne, convoked a council at Lyons for the conversion of the Arians ; St. Viventiolus (515-523), who in 517 presided with St. Avitus at the Council of Epaone; St. Lupus, a monk, afterwards bishop (535-42), probably the first archbishop, who when signing in 438 the Council of Orléans added the title of "metropolitanus"; St. Sardot or Sacerdos (549-542), who presided in 549 at the Council of Orléans , and who obtained from King Childebert the foundation of the general hospital ; St. Nicetius or Nizier (552-73), who received from the pope the title of patriarch, and whose tomb was honoured by miracles. The prestige of St. Nicetius was lasting; his successor St. Priseus (573-588) bore the title of patriarch, and brought the council of 585 to decide that national synods should be convened every three years at the instance of the patriarch and of the king; St. Ætherius (588-603), who was a correspondent of St. Gregory the Great and who perhaps consecrated St. Augustine, the Apostle of England ; St. Aredius (603-615); St. Annemundus or Chamond (c. 650), friend of St. Wilfrid, godfather of Clotaire III, put to death by Ebroin together with his brother, and patron of the town of Saint-Chamond; St. Genesius or Genes (660-679 or 680), Benedictine Abbot of Fontenelle, grand almoner and minister of Queen Bathilde; St. Lambertus (c. 680-690), also Abbot of Fontenelle.

At the end of the fifth century Lyons was the capital of the Kingdom of Burgundy, but after 534 it passed under the domination of the kings of France. Ravaged by the Saracens in 725, the city was restored through the liberality of Charlemagne who established a rich library in the monastery of Ile Barbe. In the time of St. Patiens and the priest Constans (d. 488) the school of Lyons was famous; Sidonius Apollinaris was educated there. The letter of Leidrade to Charlemagne (807) shows the care taken by the emperor for the restoration of learning in Lyons. With the aid of the deacon Florus he made the school so prosperous that in the tenth century Englishmen went thither to study. Under Charlemagne and his immediate successors, the Bishops of Lyons, whose ascendancy was attested by the number of councils over which they were called to preside, played an important theological part. Adoptionism had no more active enemies than Leidrade (798-814) and Agobard (814-840). When Felix of Urgel continued rebellious to the condemnations pronounced against Adoptionism from 791-799 by the Councils of Ciutad, Friuli, Ratisbon, Frankfort, and Rome, Charlemagne conceived the idea of sending to Urgel with Nebridius, Bishop of Narbonne, and St. Benedict, abbot of the monastery of Aniane, Archbishop Leidrade, a native of Nuremberg and Charlemagne's librarian. They preached against Adoptionism in Spain, conducted Felix in 799 to the Council of Aachen, where he seemed to submit to the arguments of Alcuin, and then brought him back to his diocese., But the submission of Felix was not complete; Agobard, "Chorepiscopus" of Lyons, convicted him anew of Adoptionism in a secret conference, and when Felix died in 815 there was found among his papers a treatise in which he professed Adoptionism. Then Agobard, who had become Archbishop of Lyons in 814 after Leidrade's retirement to the monastery of St. Médard of Soissons, composed a long treatise which completed the ruin of that heresy.

Agobard displayed great activity as a pastor and a publicist in his opposition to the Jews and to various superstitions. His rooted hatred for all superstition led him in his treatise on images into certain expressions which savoured of Iconoclasm. The five historical treatises which he wrote in 833 to justify the deposition of Louis the Pious, who had been his benefactor, are a stain on his life. Louis the Pious having been restored to power, caused Agobard to be deposed in 835 by the Council of Thionville, but three years later gave him back his see, in which he died in 840. During the exile of Agobard the See of Lyons had been for a short time administered by Amalarius of Metz, whom the deacon Florus charged with heretical opinions regarding the "triforme corpus Christi", and who took part in the controversies with Gottschalk on the subject of predestination. Amolon (841-852) and St. Remy (852-75) continued the struggle against the heresy of Valence, which condemned this heresy, and also was engaged in strife with Hincmar. From 879-1032 Lyons formed part of the Kingdom of Provence and afterwards of the second Kingdom of Burgundy. When in 1302 Rudolph III, the Sluggard, ceded his states to Conrad the Salic, Emperor of Germany, the portion of Lyons situated on the left bank of the Saône became, at least nominally, an imperial city. Finally Archbishop Burchard, brother of Rudolph, claimed rights of sovereignty over Lyons as inherited from his mother, Mathilde of France ; in this way the government of Lyons instead of being exercised by the distant emperor, became a matter of dispute between the counts who claimed the inheritance and the successive archbishops.

Lyons attracted the attention of Cardinal Hildebrand, who held a council there in 1055 against the simoniacal bishops. In 1076, as Gregory VII, he deposed Archbishop Humbert (1063-76) for simony. Saint Gebuin (Jubinus), who succeeded Humbert was the confidant of Gregory VII and contributed to the reform of the Church by the two councils of 1080 and 1082, at which were excommunicated Manasses of Reims, Fulk of Anjou, and the monks of Marmoutiers. It was under the episcopate of Saint Gebuin that Gregory VII (20 April, 1079) established the primacy of the Church of Lyons over the Provinces of Rouen, Tours, and Sens, which primacy was specially confirmed by Callistus II, despite the letter written to him in 1126 by Louis VI in favour of the church of Sens. As far as it regarded the Province of Rouen this letter was later suppressed by a decree of the king's council in 1702, at the request of Colbert, Archbishop of Rouen. Hugh (1081-1106), the successor of St. Gebuin, the friend of St. Anselm , and for a while legate of Gregory VII in France and Burgundy, had differences later on with Victor III, who excommunicated him for a time, also with Paschal II. The latter pope came to Lyons in 1106, consecrated the basilica of Ainay, and dedicated one of its altars in honour of the Immaculate Conception. The Feast of the Immaculate Conception was solemnized at Lyons about 1128, perhaps at the instance of St. Anselm of Canterbury, and St. Bernard wrote to the canons of Lyons to complain that they should have instituted a feast without consulting the pope. As soon as Thomas à Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, had been proclaimed Blessed (1173), his cult was instituted at Lyons. Lyons of the twelfth century thus has a glorious place in the history of Catholic liturgy and even of dogma, but the twelfth century was also marked by the heresy of Peter Waldo and the Waldenses, the Poor Men of Lyons, who were opposed by Jean de Bellème (1181-1193), and by an important change in the political situation of the archbishops.

In 1157 Frederick Barbarossa confirmed the sovereignty of the Archbishops of Lyons; thenceforth there was a lively contest between them and the counts. An arbitration effected by the pope in 1167 had no result, but by the treaty of 1173 Guy, Count of Forez, ceded to the canons of the primatial church of St. John his title of count of Lyons and his temporal authority. Then came the growth of the Commune, more belated in Lyons than in many other cities, but in 1193 the archbishop had to make some concession to the citizens. The thirteenth century was a period of conflict. Three times, in 1207, 1269, and 1290, grave troubles broke out between the partisans of the archbishop who dwelt in the château of Pierre Seize, those of the count-canons who lived in a separate quarter near the cathedral, and those of the townsfolk. Gregory X attempted, but without success, to restore peace by two Acts, 2 April, 1273, and 11 Nov., 1274. The kings of France were always inclined to side with the commune; after the siege of Lyons by Louis X (1310) the treaty of 10 April, 1312, definitively attached Lyons to the Kingdom of France, but, until the beginning of the fifteenth century the Church of Lyons was allowed to coin its own money.

If the thirteenth century had imperilled the political sovereignty of the archbishops, it had on the other hand made Lyons a kind of second Rome. Gregory X was a former canon of Lyons, while Innocent V, as Peter of Tarantaise, was Archbishop of Lyons from 1272 to 1273. The violence of the Hohenstaufen towards the Holy See forced Innocent IV and Gregory X to seek refuge at Lyons and to hold there two general councils (see L YONS, C OUNCILS OF ). A free and independent city of the Kingdom of France as well as of the Holy Empire, located in a central position between Italy, Spain, France, England, and Germany, Lyons possessed in the thirteenth century important monasteries which naturally sheltered distinguished guests and their numerous followers. For several years Innocent IV dwelt there with his court in the buildings of the chapter of Saint Justus. Local tradition relates that it was on seeing the red hat of the canons of Lyons that the courtiers of Innocent IV conceived the idea of obtaining from the Council of Lyons its decree that the cardinals should henceforth wear red hats. The sojourn of Innocent IV at Lyons was marked by numerous works of public utility, to which the pope gave vigorous encouragement. He granted indulgences to the faithful who should assist in the construction of the bridge over the Rhône, replacing that destroyed about 1190 by the passage of the troops of Richard Cœur de Lion on their way to the Crusade. The building of the churches of St. John and St. Justus was pushed forward with activity; he sent delegates even to England to solicit alms for this purpose and he consecrated the high altar in both churches. At Lyons were crowned Clement V (1305) and John XXII (1310); at Lyons in 1449 the antipope Felix V renounced the tiara ; there, too, was held in 1512, without any definite conclusion, the last session of the schismatical Council of Pisa against Julius II. In 1560 the Calvinists took Lyons by surprise, but they were driven out by Antoine d'Albon, Abbot of Savigny and later Archbishop of Lyons. Again masters of Lyons in 1562 they were driven thence by the Ambrose Maréchal de Vieuville. At the command of the famous Baron des Adrets they committed numerous acts of violence in the region of Montbrison. It was at Lyons that Henry IV, the converted Calvinist king, married Marie de Medicis (9 December, 1600).

The principal Archbishops of Lyons during the modern period were: Guy III d'Auvergne, Cardinal de Bologne (1340-1342), who as a diplomat rendered great service to the Holy See ; Cardinal Jean de Lorraine (1537-1539); Hippolyte d'Este, Cardinal of Ferrara (1539-1550), whom Francis I named protector of the crown of France at the court of Paul III, and a patron of scholars; Cardinal François de Tournon (1550-1562), who negotiated several times between Francis I and Charles V, combated the Reformation and founded the Collège de Tournon, which the Jesuits later made one of the most celebrated educational establishments of the kingdom; Antoine d'Albon (1562-1574), editor of Rufinus and Ausonius ; Pierre d'Epinac (1573-1599), active auxiliary of the League; Cardinal Alphonse Louis du Plessis de Richelieu (1628-1563), brother of the minister of Louis XIII ; Cardinal de Tencin (1740-1758); Antoine de Montazet (1758-1788), a prelate of Jansenist tendencies, whose liturgical works will be referred to later, and who had published for his seminary by the Oratorian Joseph Valla, six volumes of "Institutiones theologicæ" known as "Théologie de Lyon", and spread throughout Italy by Scipio Ricci until condemned by the Index in 1792; Marbeuf (1788-1799), who died in exile at Lübeck in 1799 and whose vicar-general Castillon was beheaded at Lyons in 1794; Antoine Adrien Lamourette (1742-1794), deputy to the Constitutional Assembly, who brought about by a curious speech (7 July, 1792) an understanding between all parties, to which was given the jesting name of "Baiser Lamourette", and who was constitutional Bishop of Lyons from 27 March, 1791, to 11 January, 1794, the date of his death on the scaffold. Among the archbishops subsequent to the Concordat must be mentioned: Joseph Fesch under whose episcopate Pius VII twice visited Lyons, in Nov., 1804, and April, 1805, and in 1822 the Society for the Propagation of the Faith was founded; Maurice de Bonald (1840-1870), son of the philosopher ; Ginoulhiac (1870-1875), known by his "Histoire du dogme catholique pendant let trois premiers siècles".

Chapters and Colleges

At the end of the old regime the primatial chapter consisted of 32 canons, each able to prove 32 degrees of military nobility; each of these canons bore the title of Count of Lyons. The Chapter of Lyons has the honour of numbering among its canons four popes ( Innocent IV, Gregory X, Boniface VIII, and Clement V ), 20 cardinals, 20 archbishops, more than 80 bishops, and finally 3 persons of officially recognized sanctity : St. Ismidon of Sassenage, later Bishop of Die (d. About 1116), Blessed Blessed Louis Aleman and Blessed François d'Estaing, later Bishop of Rodez (d. In 1501). The city of Lyons numbered 5 collegiate churches and the diocese 14 others. There were 4 chapters of noble canonesses. The Jesuits had at Lyons the Collège de la Trinité, founded in 1527 by a lay confraternity which ceded it to them in 1565, the Collège Notre Dame, founded in 1630, a house of probation, a professed house, and other colleges in the diocese. Convents were perhaps more numerous here than in any other part of France. The Petites Ecoles founded in 1670 by Démia, a priest of Bourg, contributed much to primary instruction at Lyons. Since the law of 1875 concerning higher education Lyons possesses Catholic faculties of theology, letters, sciences, and law.

Principal Saints

The Diocese of Lyons honours as saints : St. Epipodius and his companion St. Alexander, probably martyrs under Marcus Aurelius ; the priest St. Peregrinus (third century); St. Baldonor (Galmier), a native of Aveizieux, at first a locksmith, whose piety was remarked by the bishop, St. Viventiolus; he became a cleric at the Abbey of St. Justus , then subdeacon, and died about 760; the thermal resort of "Aquæ Segestæ", in whose church Viventiolus met him, has taken the name of St. Galmier; St. Viator (d. About 390), who followed the Bishop, St. Justus, to the Thebaid ; Sts. Romanus and Lupicinus (fifth century), natives of the Diocese of Lyons who lived as solitaries within the present territory of the Diocese of St. Claude; St. Consortia, d. about 578, who according to a legend, criticized by Tillemont, was a daughter of St. Eucherius ; St. Rambert, soldier and martyr in the seventh century, patron of the town of the same name; Blessed Jean Pierre Néel, b. in 1832 at Ste. Catherine sur Riviere, martyred at Kay-Tcheou in 1862.

Among the natives of Lyons must be mentioned Sidonius Apollinaris (430-489); Abbé Morellet, litterateur (1727-1819); the Christian philosopher Ballanche (1776-1847); the religious painter Hippolyte Flandrin (1809-1864); Puvis de Chavannes, painter of the life of Ste Geneviève (1824-1898). The diocese of Lyons is also the birthplace of the Jesuit Père Coton (1564-1626), confessor of Henry IV and a native of Néronde, and Abbé Terray, controller general of finance under Louis XVI, a native of Boen (1715-1778). Gerson, whose old age was spent at Lyons in the cloister of St. Paul, where he instructed poor children, died there in 1429. St. Francis de Sales died at Lyons, 28 December, 1622. The Curé Colombet de St. Amour was celebrated at St. Etienne in the seventeenth century for the generosity with which he founded the Hôtel-Dieu (the charity hospital ), also free schools, and fed the workmen during the famine of 1693.

M. Guigue has catalogued the eleven "hermitages" (eight of them for men and three for women ) which were distinctive of the ascetical life of Christian Lyons in the Middle Ages ; these were cells in which persons shut themselves up for life after four years of trial. The system of hermitages along the lines described by Grimalaius and Olbredus in the ninth century flourished especially from the eleventh to the thirteenth century, and disappeared completely in the sixteenth. These hermitages were the private property of a neighbouring church or monastery, which installed therein for life a male or female recluse. The general almshouse of Lyons, or charity hospital, was founded in 1532 after the great famine of 1531 under the supervision of eight administrators chosen from among the more important citizens. The institution of the jubilee of St. Nizier dates beyond a doubt to the stay of Innocent IV at Lyons. This jubilee, which had all the privileges of the secular jubilees of Rome, was celebrated each time that Low Thursday, the feast of St. Nizier, coincided with 2 April, i.e. whenever the feast of Easter itself was on the earliest day allowed by the paschal cycle, namely 22 March. In 1818, the last time this coincidence occurred, the feast of St. Nizier was not celebrated. But the cathedral of St. John also enjoys a great jubilee each time that the feast of St. John the Baptist coincides with Corpus Christi, that is, whenever the feast of Corpus Christi falls on 24 June. It is certain that in 1451 the coincidence of these two feasts was celebrated with special splendour by the population of Lyons, then emerging from the troubles of the Hundred Years' War, but there is no document to prove that the jubilee indulgence existed at that date. However, Lyonnese tradition places the first great jubilee in 1451; the four subsequent jubilees took place in 1546, 1666, 1734 and 1886.

Liturgy

Some authors have held that the Gallican Liturgy was merely the Liturgy of Ephesus, brought to Gaul by the founders of the Church of Lyons. Mgr Duchesne considers that during the two centuries after Emperor Constantine the prestige of the Church of Lyons was not such that it could dictate a liturgy across the Pyrenees, the Channel and the Alps, and lure from Roman influence half the Churches of Italy. In his opinion it was not Lyons, but Milan, which was the centre of the diffusion of the Gallican Liturgy. Under Leidrade and Agobard the Church of Lyons, although fulfilling the task of purifying its liturgical texts exacted by the Holy See, upheld its own traditions. "Among the Churches of France ", wrote St. Bernard to the canons of Lyons, "that of Lyons has hitherto had ascendancy over all the others, as much for the dignity of its see as for its praiseworthy institutions. It is especially in the Divine Office that this judicious Church has never readily acquiesced in unexpected and sudden novelties, and has never submitted to be tarnished by innovations which are becoming only to youth". In the seventeenth century Cardinal Bona, in his treatise "De divina psalmodia", renders similar homage to the Church of Lyons. But in the eighteenth century Bishop Montazet, contrary to the Bull of Pius V on the Breviary, changed the text of the Breviary and the Missal, from which there resulted a whole century of troubles for the Church of Lyons. The efforts of Pius IX and Cardinal Bonald to suppress the innovations of Montazet provoked great resistance on the part of the canons, who feared an attempt against the traditional Lyonnese ceremonies. This culminated in 1861 in a protest on the part of the clergy and the laity, as much with regard to the civil power as to the Vatican. Finally, on 4 Feb., 1864, at a reception of the parish priests of Lyons, Pius IX declared his displeasure at this agitation and assured them that nothing should be changed in the ancient Lyonnese ceremonies ; by a Brief of 17 March, 1864, he ordered the progressive introduction of the Roman Breviary and Missal in the diocese. The primatial church of Lyons adopted them for public services 8 December, 1869. One of the most touching rites of the ancient Gallican liturgy, retained by the Church of Lyons, is the blessing of the people by the bishop at the moment of Communion.

Churches

The cathedral of St. John, begun in the twelfth century on the ruins of a sixth century church, was completed in 1476; worthy of note are the two crosses to right and left of the altar, preserved since the council of 1274 as a symbol of the union of the churches, and the Bourbon chapel, built by Cardinal de Bourbon and his brother Pierre de Bourbon, son-in-law of Louis XI, a masterpiece of fifteenth century sculpture. The church of Ainay, dating from the tenth and eleventh centuries, is of the Byzantine style. The doorway of St. Nizier's (fifteenth century) was carved in the sixteenth century by Philibert Delorme. The collegiate church of St. John Baptist at St. Chamond, now destroyed, presented a singular arrangement; the belfry was situated below the church, to which those coming from the city could only gain access by climbing two hundred steps; the roof of the church served as pavement for the courtyard of the fortress, the circuit of which might be made in a carriage.

Pilgrimages

The chief pilgrimages of the diocese are Notre Dame de Fourvières, a sanctuary dating from the time of St. Pothinus, on the site of a temple of Venus. In 1643 the people of Lyons consecrated themselves to Notre Dame de Fourvières and pledged themselves to a solemn procession on 8 September of each year; the new basilica of Fourvières, consecrated in 1896, attracts numerous pilgrims. Notre Dame de Benoite-Vaux at Saint-Etienne, a pilgrimage founded in 1849 by the Marists who had been miraculously preserved from a flood; Notre-Dame de Valfleury, near Saint Chamond, a pilgrimage dating from the eighth century and re-established in 1629 after a plageue; Notre Dame de Vernay, near Roanne.

Religious Congregations

In 1901, before the application of the Associations Law to congregations the Diocese of Lyons possessed Capuchins, Jesuits, Camillians, Dominicans, Carmelites, Oblates of Mary Immaculate, Redemptorists, Sulpicians, Clerics of St. Viator, and three great orders native to the diocese : (1) the Marists, founded by Ven. Colin and approved by Gregory XVI in 1836; they had their mother-house at Lyons, which governed a number of establishments in England, Ireland, Belgium, Spain, America, New Zealand, and Australia, and they were charged with the Vicariates Apostolic of New Caledonia (since 1847), of Central Oceania (since 1842), Fuji (since 1844), Samoa, and the Prefecture Apostolic of the Solomon Islands. (2) The African missionaries (Missionnaires d'Afrique), an association of secular priests founded in 1856 by Mgr de Marion-Bresillac and charged with the Vicariate Apostolic of Benin (1860), with the five Prefectures Apostolic of Ivory Coast (1895), Gold Coast (1879), Nigeria (1884), Dahomey (1882), and the Delta of the Nile . This congregation has two Apostolic schools, at Clermont-Ferand and at Cork, Ireland ; and two preparatory schools at Nantes and Keer-Maestricht, Holland. (3) The Little Brothers of Mary, founded 2 January, 1817 by Ven. Marcellin Champagnat, vicar at Valla, d. 1840. The mother-house at Saint Genis-Laval, near Lyons, governs 7000 members, 14 novitiates, 25 juniorates, and about 800 schools, either elementary, agricultural or secondary, in France, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Great Britain, Italy, Switzerland, Turkey, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, the United States, Colombia, Egypt, Cap Haïtien, Seychelles, Syria, Arabia, China, Australia, New Zealand , New Caledonia , Central Oceanica.

The Brothers of St. John of God have their mother-house for France at Lyons. The Society of the Priests of St. Irenæus is engaged in teaching and giving diocesan missions. In 1901 the Diocese of Lyons had a diocesan "grand séminaire" and a university seminary at Lyons, a seminary of philosophy at Alix and five "petits séminaires" at St. Jean de Lyon, Duerne, St. Jodard, Vernières, and Montbrison; the first of these was founded under Charlemagne.

The female congregations native to the Diocese of Lyons are numerous; the following deserve special mention: The Sisters of Notre Dame de Fourvières, founded 1732 at Usson, for teaching and nursing, with the mother-house at Lyons; the Sisters of St. Charles, founded 1680 by the Abbé Démia, teaching and nursing, with mother-house at Lyons; the Religious of the Perpetual Adoration of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, founded 1820 by the Curé Ribier, with their mother-house at Lajarasse; the Religious of the Five Wounds of Our Lord, founded at Lyons in 1886 as a contemplative, nursing, and teaching order, which has houses in Canada ; the Sisters of the Child Jesus, teaching, with their mother-house at Claveisolles, the origin of which dates from the opening of a little school in 1830 by Josephine du Sablon; the Franciscan Sisters of the Propagation of the Faith, founded in 1836 by Mother Moyne for the care of incurables with mother-house at Lyons; the Religious of Jesus-Mary, a teaching congregation, founded in 1818 by the priest André Coindre and Claudine Thevenet, whose mother-house installed at Lyons governs a number of houses abroad; the Ladies of Nazareth, teaching, founded in 1822 at Montmirail (Marne) by the Duchesse de La Rochefoucauld Doudeauville, whose mother-house removed to Oullins in 1854 governs several establishments in Palestine and at London ; the Religious of Our Lady of Missions, founded at Lyons in 1861 for the missions of Oceanica; the abbey of the Benedictines of the Holy Heart of Mary, founded 1804, the first house of this congregation to be restored after the Revolution ; the Religious of the Holy Family, founded in 1825 by the Curé of St. Bruno les Chartreux for mission work among workmen; the Sisters of St. Francis of Assisi , founded in 1838 by pious working women for education and nursing, with mother-house at Lyons, also sends subjects to the missions of Armenia and America.

Statistics

At the end of the nineteenth century the religious congregations maintained in the Diocese of Lyons 2 maternity hospitals, 3 day nurseries, 193 nurseries, 2 children's hospitals, 9 hospitals for incurables, 1 asylum for blind girls, 4 asylums for deaf mutes, 5 boys' orphanages, 49 girls' orphanages, 4 workrooms, 3 industrial schools, 2 schools of apprentices, 5 institutions for the rescue of young women, 1 house of correction for young women, 1 house of correction for boys, 3 institutions for the reform of adults, 61 hospitals, infirmaries, or asylums for the aged, 19 houses for the care of the sick in their homes, 2 homes for convalescents, 5 houses of retreat, 2 insane asylums. In 1908, three years after the Separation Law went into effect, the Archdiocese of Lyons had 1,464,665 inhabitants, 74 parishes, 595 branch churches, 585 vicariates.

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L'Enfant, Pierre-Charles

Engineer, b. in France, August, 1755; d. near Bladensburg, Maryland, U.S.A. 14 June, 1825. He ...

L'Hospital, Michael de

Born at Aigueperse, about 1504; d. at Courdimanche, 13 March, 1573. While very young he went to ...

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La 208

La Bruyère, Jean de

Born at Paris in 1645; died at Chantilly in 1696. He was the son of a comptroller general of ...

La Chaise, François d'Aix de

( Also Chaize). Confessor of King Louis XIV, born at the mansion of Aix, in Forez, ...

La Crosse

(CROSSENSIS) Diocese erected in 1868; included that part of the State of Wisconsin , U.S.A. ...

La Fayette, Marie Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, Comtesse de

Author of memoirs and novels, born in Paris, 1634; died there, 1693 (al., 1696). She received a ...

La Fontaine, Jean de

French poet, b. at Chateau-Thierry, 8 July, 1621; d. at Paris, 13 April, 1695. He was the eldest ...

La Fosse, Charles de

Painter, b. in Paris, 15 June, 1636; d. in Paris, 13 December, 1716, and buried in the church of ...

La Harpe, Jean-François

A French critic and poet, b. at Paris, 20 November, 1739; d. February, 1803. He was ten years old ...

La Haye, Jean de

Franciscan Biblical scholar, b. at Paris, 20 March, 1593; d. there 15 Oct., 1661. He passed his ...

La Hire, Philippe de

Mathematician, astronomer, physicist, naturalist, and painter, b. in Paris, 18 March, 1640; d. ...

La Luzerne, César-Guillaume

French cardinal b. at Paris, 1738; d. there, 1821. He studied at the Collège de Navarre, ...

La Moricière, Louis-Christophe-Leon Juchault de

French general and commander-in-chief of the papal army, b. at Nantes, 5 February, 1806; d. ...

La Paz

DIOCESE OF LA PAZ (PACENSIS). Diocese of La Paz, in Bolivia. The city is the capital of the ...

La Plata

DIOCESE OF LA PLATA (DE PLATA). The city of La Plata, capital of the Argentine Province of ...

La Plata

ARCHDIOCESE OF LA PLATA/DE PLATA (OR CHARCAS) La Plata, besides being the metropolitan see of ...

La Richardie, Armand de

Born at Périgueux, 7 June, 1686; died at Quebec, 17 March, 1758. He entered the Society ...

La Roche Daillon, Joseph de

Recollect, one of the most zealous missionaries of the Huron tribe, d. in France, 1656. He ...

La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, The Duke of

(François-Alexandre-Frédéric). Born at La Roche-Guyon, on 11 January, 1747; ...

La Rochejacquelein, Henri-Auguste-Georges du Vergier, Comte de

French politician, b. at the château of Citran (Fironde), on 28 September, 1805; d. on 7 ...

La Rochelle

The Diocese of La Rochelle (Rupellensis), suffragan of Bordeaux, comprises the entire Department ...

La Rue, Charles de

One of the great orators of the Society of Jesus in France in the seventeenth century, b. at ...

La Salette

Located in the commune and parish of La Salette-Fallavaux, Canton of Corps, Department of Isere, ...

La Salette, Missionaries of

The Missionaries of La Salette were founded in 1852, at the shrine of Our Lady of La Salette , ...

La Salle, John Baptist de, Saint

Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools , educational reformer, and ...

La Salle, René-Robert-Cavelier, Sieur de

Explorer, born at Rouen, 1643; died in Texas, 1687. In his youth he displayed an unusual ...

La Serena, Diocese of

(De Serena, Serenopolitana). Embracing Atacama and Coquimbo provinces (Chile), suffragan of ...

La Trappe

This celebrated abbey of the Order of Reformed Cistercians is built in a solitary valley ...

La Valette, Jean Parisot de

Forty-eighth Grand Master of the Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem ; b. in 1494; d. ...

La Verna

An isolated mountain hallowed by association with St. Francis of Assisi, situated in the centre ...

Labadists

A pietist sect of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries founded by Jean de Labadie, who was ...

Laban

Son of Bathuel, the Syrian (Gen. xxviii, 5; cf. xxv, 20); grandson of Nachor, Abraham's ...

Labarum (Chi-Rho)

Labarum is the name by which the military standard adopted by Constantine the Great after his ...

Labat, Jean-Baptiste

Dominican missionary, born at Paris, 1664; died there, 1738. He entered the Order of Preachers ...

Labbe, Philippe

Born at Borges, 10 July, 1607; died at Paris, at the College of Clermont, 17 (16) March, 1667; ...

Labour and Labour Legislation

Labour is work done by mind or body either partly or wholly for the purpose of producing ...

Labour Unions, Moral Aspects of

Since a labour union is a society, its moral aspects are determined by its constitution, its ...

Labyrinth

A complicated arrangement of paths and passages; or a place, usually subterraneous, full of ...

Lac, Stanislaus du

Jesuit educationist and social work, b. at Paris, 21 November, 1835; d. there, 30 August, 1909. ...

Lace

(Latin laqueus ; It. laccio, trine, merletto ; Spanish lazo, encaje, pasamano ; French ...

Lacedonia, Diocese of

(LAQUEDONIENSIS) Located in the province of Avellino, Southern Italy. Lacedonia is famous in ...

Lacordaire, Jean-Baptiste-Henri-Dominique

The greatest pulpit orator of the nineteenth century b. near Dijon, 13 May, 1802; d. at ...

Lactantius, Lucius Cæcilius Firmianus

A Christian apologist of the fourth century. The name Firmianus has misled some authors into ...

Lacy, Blessed William

Born at "Hanton", Yorkshire (probably Houghton or Tosside, West Riding); suffered at York, 22 ...

Laderchi, James

An Italian Oratorian and ecclesiastical historian, born about 1678, at Faenza near Ravenna ; ...

Ladislaus, Saint

King of Hungary, born 1040; died at Neutra, 29 July, 1095; one of Hungary's national Christian ...

Laennec, René-Théophile-Hyacinthe

Born at Quimper, in Brittany, France, 17 February, 1781; died at Kerlouanec, 13 August, 1826, a ...

Laetare Sunday

The fourth, or middle, Sunday of Lent, so called from the first words of the Introit at Mass, ...

Laetus, Pomponius

Humanist, b. in Calabria in 1425; d. at Rome in 1497. He was a bastard of the House of the ...

LaFarge, John

Painter, decorator, and writer, b. at New York, 31 March, 1835; d. at Providence, Rhode Island, ...

Lafitau, Joseph-Françs

Jesuit missionary and writer, born at Bordeaux, France, 1 January, 1681; died there, 1746. He ...

Laflèche, Louis-François Richer

French-Canadian bishop, b. 4 Sept., 1818, at Ste-Anne de la Perade, Province of Quebec ; d. 14 ...

Laforêt, Nicholas-Joseph

Belgian philosopher and theologian, born at Graide, 23 January, 1823; died at Louvain, 26 ...

Lafuente y Zamalloa, Modesto

Spanish critic and historian, b. at Ravanal de los Caballeros, 1 May, 1806; d. at Madrid, 25 ...

Lagania

A titular see in Galatia Prima. The town is mentioned by Ptolemy, V, i, 14, and in several ...

Lagrené, Pierre

A missionary in New France, b. at Paris, 12 Nov. (al. 28 Oct.), 1659; d. at Quebec in 1736. He ...

Lahore

(LAHLORENSIS). Diocese in northern India, part of the ecclesiastical Province of Agra. Its ...

Laibach

(LABACENSIS). Austrian bishopric and suffragan of Görz, embraces the territory of the ...

Laicization

( Latin laicus , lay). The term laity signifies the aggregation of those Christians who ...

Lainez, James

(LAYNEZ). Second general of the Society of Jesus , theologian, b. in 1512, at Almazan, ...

Laity

(Greek laos , "the people"; whence laikos , "one of the people"). Laity means the body ...

Lake Indians

Called by themselves S ENIJEXTEE and possibly identical with the L AHANNA of Lewis and Clark ...

Lalemant, Charles

Born at Paris, 17 November, 1587; died there, 18 November, 1674. He was the first superior of ...

Lalemant, Gabriel

Jesuit missionary, b. at Paris, 10 October, 1610, d. in the Huron country, 17 March 1649. He was ...

Lalemant, Jerome

Alias H IEROSME . Jesuit missionary, b. at Paris, 27 April, 1593, d. at Quebec, 16 ...

Lallemant, Jacques-Philippe

French Jesuit, b. at St-Valéry-sur-Somme about 1660; d. at Paris 1748. Little is known ...

Lallemant, Louis

French Jesuit, b. at Châlons-sur-Marne, 1588; d. at Bourges, 5 April, 1635. After making ...

Lalor, Teresa

Co-foundress, with Bishop Neale of Baltimore, of the Visitation Order in the United States ...

Lamarck, Chevalier de

(Jean-Baptiste-Pierre-Antoine de Monet; also spelled L A M ARCK ; botanical abbreviation ...

Lamartine, Alphonse de

Poet, b. at Mâcon Saône-et-Loire, France, 21 Oct., 1790; d. at Paris, l March, ...

Lamb (in Early Christian Symbolism)

One of the few Christian symbols dating from the first century is that of the Good Shepherd ...

Lamb, Paschal

A lamb which the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as a part of the ...

Lambeck, Peter

Generally called LAMBEC[C]IUS, historian and librarian, b. at Hamburg, 13 April 1628; d. at Vienna, ...

Lambert Le Bègue

Priest and reformer, lived at Liège, Belgium, about the middle of the twelfth century. ...

Lambert of Hersfeld

A medieval historian; b. in Franconia or Thuringia, c. 1024; d. after 1077. On 15 March 1058, ...

Lambert of St-Bertin

Benedictine chronicler and abbot, b. about 1060; d. 22 June, 1125, at St-Bertin, France. He came ...

Lambert, Louis A.

Priest and journalist, b. at Charleroi, Pennsylvania, 13 April, 1835; d. at Newfoundland, New ...

Lambert, Saint

(LANDEBERTUS). Martyr, Bishop of Maestricht, b. at Maestricht between 633 and 638; d. at ...

Lamberville, Jacques and Jean de

Jacques de Lamberville Jesuit missionary, b. at Rouen, 1641; d. at Quebec, 1710. He joined the ...

Lambillotte, Louis

Belgian Jesuit, composer and paleographer of Church music ; born at La Hamaide, near Charleroi, ...

Lambin, Denis

(DIONYSIUS LAMBINUS.) French philologist, b. about 1520, at Montreuil-sur-mer, in Picardy; d. ...

Lambruschini, Luigi

Cardinal, b. at Sestri Levante, near Genoa, 6 March, 1776, d. at Rome, 12 May, 1854. As a youth ...

Lambton, Ven. Joseph

English martyr, b. 1569; d. at Newcastle-on-Tyne. The day of his death is variously given as 23 ...

Lamego

(LAMECENSIS). Diocese situated in the district of Vizeu, province of Beira, Portugal. The ...

Lamennais, Félicité Robert de

Born at Saint-Malo, 29 June, 1782; died at Paris, 27 February, 1854. His father, Pierre Robert de ...

Lamennais, Jean-Marie-Robert de

French priest, brother of Félicité Robert de Lamennais, b. at St-Malo in 1780; d. ...

Lamoignon, Family of

Illustrious in the history of the old magistracy, originally from Nivernais. Owing to the nearness ...

Lamont, Johann von

Astronomer and physicist, b. 13 Dec., 1805, at Braemar in Scotland, near Balmoral Castle; d.. 6 ...

Lamormaini, Wilhelm

Confessor of Emperor Ferdinand II, b. 29 December, 1570, at Dochamps, Luxemburg ; d. at ...

Lamp and Lampadarii

There is very little evidence that any strictly liturgical use was made of lamps in the early ...

Lamp, Altar

In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should ...

Lampa

(LAMPAE, LAPPA). A titular see in Crete, suffragan of Gortyna, was probably a colony of ...

Lamprecht

Surnamed D ER P FAFFE (The Priest). German poet of the twelfth century, of whom practically ...

Lamps, Early Christian

Of the various classes of remains from Christian antiquity there is probably none so numerously ...

Lampsacus

A titular see of Hellespont, suffragan of Cyzicus. The city is situated in Mysia, at the ...

Lamuel

Name of a king mentioned in Proverbs 31:1 and 4 , but otherwise unknown. In the opening verse we ...

Lamus

A titular see of Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia. In antiquity this village is mentioned by ...

Lamy, Bernard

Oratorian, b. at Le Mans, France, in June, 1640; d. at Rouen, 29 Jan., 1715. At the age of twelve ...

Lamy, François

An ascetical and apologetic writer of the Congregation of St-Maur, b. in 1636 at Montireau in ...

Lamy, Thomas Joseph

Biblical scholar end orientalist, b. at Ohey, in Belgium, 27 Jan., 1827, d. at Louvain, 30 July, ...

Lana, Francesco

Born 10 Dec., 1631, at Brescia in Italy ; died in the same place, 22 Feb., 1687. Mathematician ...

Lance, The Holy

We read in the Gospel of St. John (19:34) , that, after our Saviour's death, "one of the ...

Lancelotti, Giovanni Paolo

Canonist, b. at Perugia in 1522; d. there, 23 September, 1590. He graduated doctor of law in ...

Lanciano and Ortona

(LANCIANENSIS ET ORTONENSIS). Lanciano is a small city in the province of Chieti, in the ...

Land-Tenure in the Christian Era

The way in which land has been held or owned during the nineteen hundred years which have seen in ...

Lando, Pope

(913-14). A native of the Sabina, and the son of Taino, elected pope seemingly in July or ...

Landriot, Jean-François-Anne

French bishop, b. at Couches-les-Mines near Autun, 1816, d. at Reims, 1874. Ordained in 1839 ...

Lanfranc

Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Pavia c. 1005; d. at Canterbury, 24 May, 1089. Some say his ...

Lanfranco, Giovanni

Also known as CAVALIERE GIOVANNI DI STEFANO. Decorative painter, b. at Parma, 1581, d. in ...

Langénieux, Benoit-Marie

Cardinal, Archbishop of Reims, b. at Villefranche-sur-Saône, Department of Rhône, ...

Lang, Matthew

Cardinal, Bishop of Gurk and Archbishop of Salzburg, b. at Augsburg in 1468; d. at ...

Langen, Rudolph von

Humanist and divine, b. at the village of Everswinkel, near Munster, Westphalia, 1438 or 1439; ...

Langham, Simon

Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of England, b. at Langham in Rutland; d. at ...

Langheim

A celebrated Cistercian abbey situated in Upper Franconia (Bavaria), not far from Mein, in the ...

Langhorne, Ven. Richard

English martyr, b. about 1635, d. at Tyburn, 14 July, 1679. He was the third son of William ...

Langley, Richard

Layman and martyr, b. probably at Grimthorpe, Yorks, England, date unknown; d. at York, 1 Dec., ...

Langres

(LINGONÆ). Diocese comprising the Department of the Haute-Marne. Suppressed by the ...

Lanigan, John

Church historian, b. at Cashel, County Tipperary, Ireland, in 1758; d. at Finglas, Dublin, 8 ...

Lanspergius

(JOHN JUSTUS OF LANDSBERG). Carthusian monk and ascetical writer, b. at Landsberg in Bavaria ...

Lantern

In Italian or modern architecture, a small structure on the top of a dome, for the purpose of ...

Lanterns, Altar

Lanterns are used in churches to protect the altar candles and lamp, if the latter for any ...

Lanzi, Luigi

An Italian archeologist, b. at Mont Olmo, near Macerata, in 1732; d. at Florence in 1810. In ...

Laodicea

A titular see, of Asia Minor, metropolis of Phrygia Pacatiana, said to have been originally ...

Laos

(Vicariate Apostolic) Separated from the Vicariate Apostolic of Siam by a decree of 4 ...

Laplace, Pierre-Simon

Mathematical and physical astronomer, b. in Beaumont-en-Auge, near Caen, department of Calvados, ...

Lapland and Lapps

About 150,000 square miles of the most northerly regions of Europe, from the Atlantic Ocean to the ...

Lapparent, Albert Auguste de

French geologist, b. at Bourges, 30 Dec., 1839; d. at Paris, 12 May, 1908. He made a brilliant ...

Laprade, Victor de

French poet and critic, b. at Montbrison in 1812; d. at Lyons in 1883. He first studied ...

Lapsi

( Latin, labi, lapsus ). The regular designation in the third century for Christians who ...

Lapuente, Venerable Luis de

(Also, D'Aponte, de Ponte, Dupont). Born at Valladolid, 11 November, 1554; died there, 16 ...

Laranda

A titular see of Isauria, afterwards of Lycaonia. Strabo (XII, 569), informs us that Laranda ...

Lares

Formerly a titular archiepiscopal see in pro-consular Africa. In ancient times it was a ...

Larino

(Larinum). Diocese in the province of Capmobasso, Southern Italy. Larinum was a city of the ...

Larissa

The seat of a titular archbishopric of Thessaly. The city, one of the oldest and richest in ...

Larke, Blessed John

English martyr ; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1543-4. He was rector of St. Ethelburga's ...

Larrey, Dominique-Jean

Baron, French military surgeon, b. at Baudéan, Hautes-Pyrénées, July, 1766; ...

Larrey, Dominique-Jean

Baron, French military surgeon, b. at Baudéan, Hautes-Pyrénées, July, 1766; ...

Larue, Charles de

Born 29 July, 1685 (some say 12 July, 1684), at Corbie, in France ; died 5 Oct., 1739, at St. ...

Lasaulx, Ernst von

Scholar and philosopher, born at Coblenz, 16 March, 1805; died at Munich, 9 May, 1861. His ...

Lascaris, Constantine

Greek scholar from Constantinople; born 1434; died at Messina in 1501. Made a prisoner by the ...

Lascaris, Janus

Also called John; surnamed Rhyndacenus (from Rhyndacus, a country town in Asia Minor ). He ...

Laski, John

J OHN A L ASCO . Archbishop of Gnesen and Primate of Poland, b. at Lask, 1456; d. at ...

Lassberg, Baron Joseph Maria Christoph von

A distinguished German antiquary, born at Donaueschingen, 10 April, 1770; died 15 March, 1855. He ...

Lassus, Orlandus de

(Original name, Roland de Lattre), composer, born at Mons, Hainault, Belgium, in 1520 (according ...

Last Judgment, The

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

Last Supper, The

The meal held by Christ and His disciples on the eve of His Passion at which He instituted the ...

Lataste, Marie

Born at Mimbaste near Dax, France, 21 February, 1822; died at Rennes, 10 May, 1847; was the ...

Latera, Flaminius Annibali de

Historian, born at Latera, near Viterbo, 23 November, 1733; died at Viterbo, 27 February, 1813. He ...

Lateran Council, Fifth

When elected pope, Julius II promised under oath that he would soon convoke a general ...

Lateran Council, First

The Council of 1123 is reckoned in the series of ecumenical councils. It had been convoked in ...

Lateran Council, Fourth

From the commencement of his reign Innocent III had purposed to assemble an ecumenical council, ...

Lateran Council, Second

The death of Pope Honorius II (February, 1130) was followed by a schism. Petrus Leonis (Pierleoni), ...

Lateran Council, Third

The reign of Alexander III was one of the most laborious pontificates of the Middle Ages. Then, ...

Lateran Councils

A series of five important councils held at Rome from the twelfth to the sixteen century. From ...

Lateran, Christian Museum of

Established by Pius IX in 1854, in the Palazzo del Laterano erected by Sixtus V on the part of ...

Lateran, Saint John

THE BASILICA This is the oldest, and ranks first among the four great "patriarchal" basilicas ...

Lathrop, George Parsons

Poet, novelist, b. at Honolulu, Hawaii, 25 August, 1851; d. at New York, 19 April, 1898. He was ...

Latin Church

The word Church ( ecclesia ) is used in its first sense to express whole congregation of ...

Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem

The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was founded as a result of the First Crusade, in 1099. Destroyed ...

Latin Literature in Christianity (Before the Sixth Century)

The Latin language was not at first the literary and official organ of the Christian Church in ...

Latin Literature in Christianity (Sixth to Twentieth Century)

During the Middle Ages the so-called church Latin was to a great extent the language of poetry, ...

Latin, Ecclesiastical

In the present instance these words are taken to mean the Latin we find in the official textbooks ...

Latini, Brunetto

Florentine philosopher and statesman, born at Florence, c. 1210; the son of Buonaccorso Latini, ...

Latreille, Pierre-André

A prominent French zoologist; born at Brives, 29 November, 1762; died in Paris, 6 February, 1833. ...

Latria

Latria ( latreia ) in classical Greek originally meant "the state of a hired servant" (Aesch., ...

Latrocinium

(L ATROCINIUM ). The Acts of the first session of this synod were read at the Council of ...

Latter-Day Saints, The Church of Jesus Christ of

( Also called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.) This religious body had ...

Lauda Sion

The opening words (used as a title of the sequence composed by St. Thomas Aquinas, about the year ...

Lauds

In the Roman Liturgy of today Lauds designates an office composed of psalms and canticles, ...

Laura

The Greek word laura is employed by writers from the end of the fifth century to distinguish ...

Laurence O'Toole, Saint

(L ORCAN UA T UATHAIL ; also spelled Laurence O'Toole) Confessor, born about 1128, in the ...

Laurentie, Pierre-Sébastien

French publicist; b. at Houga, in the Department of Gers, France, 21 January, 1793; d. 9 ...

Lausanne and Geneva

Diocese of Lausanne and Geneva (Lausannensis et Genevensis). Diocese in Switzerland, immediately ...

Lauzon, Jean de

Fourth governor of Canada, b. at Paris, 1583; d. there, 16 Feb., 1666. He was the son of ...

Lauzon, Pierre de

A noted missionary of New France in the eighteenth century, born at Poitiers, 26 September, ...

Lavérendrye, Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de

Discoverer of the Canadian West, born at Three Rivers, Quebec, 17 November, 1685; died at ...

Lavabo

The first word of that portion of Psalm 25 said by the celebrant at Mass while he washes his hands ...

Laval University of Quebec

The University of Laval was founded in 1852 by the Seminary of Quebec; the royal charter granted ...

Laval, François de Montmorency

First bishop of Canada, b. at Montigny-sur-Avre, 30 April, 1623, of Hughes de Laval and ...

Lavant

(LAVANTINA) An Austrian bishopric in the southern part of Styria, suffragan of Salzburg. The ...

Laverdière, Charles-Honoré

French-Canadian historian, born Chateau-Richer, Province of Quebec, 1826; died at Quebec, 1873. ...

Laverlochère, Jean-Nicolas

Missionary, born at St. Georges d'Espérance, Grenoble, France, 6 December, 1812; died at ...

Lavigerie, Charles-Martial-Allemand

French cardinal, b. at Huire near Bayonne, 13 Oct., 1825; d. at Algiers, 27 Nov., 1892. He ...

Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent

Chemist, philosopher, economist ; born in Paris, 26 August, 1743; guillotined 8 May, 1794. He ...

Law

I. CONCEPT OF LAW A. By law in the widest sense is understood that exact guide, rule, or ...

Law, Canon

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. General Notion and DivisionsII. Canon ...

Law, Cemeteries in

Cemeteries in Civil Law It would be impossible here to deal in detail with the various ...

Law, Civil (Influence of the Church on)

Christianity is essentially an ethical religion; and, although its moral principles were meant ...

Law, Common

(Latin communis , general, of general application; lex , law) The term is of English ...

Law, Divine (Moral Aspect of)

Divine Law is that which is enacted by God and made known to man through revelation. We ...

Law, International

International law has been defined to be "the rules which determine the conduct of the general ...

Law, Mosaic

The body of juridical, moral, and ceremonial institutions, laws and decisions comprised in the ...

Law, Natural

I. ITS ESSENCE In English this term is frequently employed as equivalent to the laws of nature, ...

Law, Roman

In the following article this subject is briefly treated under the two heads of; I. Principles; ...

Lawrence Justinian, Saint

Bishop and first Patriarch of Venice, b. in 1381, and d. 8 January, 1456. He was a descendant ...

Lawrence O'Toole, Saint

(L ORCAN UA T UATHAIL ; also spelled Laurence O'Toole) Confessor, born about 1128, in the ...

Lawrence of Brindisi, Saint

(Also: Lawrence, or Laurence, of Brindisi.) Born at Brindisi in 1559; died at Lisbon on 22 ...

Lawrence, Saint

Martyr ; died 10 August, 258. St. Lawrence, one of the deacons of the Roman Church, was one ...

Lawrence, Saint

Second Archbishop of Canterbury, d. 2 Feb., 619. For the particulars of his life and ...

Laws, Penal

This article treats of the penal legislation affecting Catholics in English-speaking countries ...

Lay Abbot

( abbatocomes, abbas laicus, abbas miles ). A name used to designate a layman on whom a king ...

Lay Brothers

Religious occupied solely with manual labour and with the secular affairs of a monastery or ...

Lay Communion

The primitive discipline of the Church established a different punishment for certain crimes ...

Lay Confession

This article does not deal with confession by laymen but with that made to laymen, for the ...

Lay Tithes

Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...

Laymann, Paul

A famous Jesuit moralist, b. in 1574 at Arzl, near Innsbruck; d. of the plague on 13 November, ...

Lazarites

A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul. The ...

Lazarus

Lazarus (Greek Lazaros , a contraction of Eleazaros --see 2 Maccabbees 6:18 — meaning ...

Lazarus of Bethany, Saint

Reputed first Bishop of Marseilles, died in the second half of the first century. According ...

Lazarus of Jerusalem, Order of Saint

The military order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem originated in a leper hospital founded in the ...

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Le 130

Le Blant, Edmond-Frederic

French archeologist and historian, born 12 August, 1818; died 5 July, 1897 at Paris. He studied ...

Le Camus, Emile-Paul-Constant-Ange

Preacher, theologian, scripturist, Bishop of La Rochelle and Saintes, b. at Paraza, France, ...

Le Camus, Etienne

French cardinal, b. at Paris, 1632; d. at Grenoble, 1707. Through the influence of his father, ...

Le Caron, Joseph

One of the four pioneer missionaries of Canada and first missionary to the Hurons, b. near ...

Le Coz, Claude

French bishop, b. at Plouévez-Parzay (Finistère), 1740; d. at Villevieux (Jura), ...

Le Fèvre, Jacques

A French theologian and controversialist, b. at Lisieux towards the middle of the seventeenth ...

Le Gobien, Charles

French Jesuit and founder of the famous collection of "Lettres édifiantes et curieuses", ...

Le Gras, Venerable Louise de Marillac

Foundress of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul , born at Paris, 12 August, 1591, ...

Le Hir, Arthur-Marie

Biblical scholar and Orientalist ; b. at Morlaix (Finisterre), in the Diocese of Quimper, ...

Le Loutre, Louis-Joseph

A missionary to the Micmac Indians and Vicar-General of Acadia under the Bishop of Quebec, b. ...

Le Mans

DIOCESE OF LE MANS (CENOMANENSIS). Comprises the entire Department of Sarthe. Prior to the ...

Le Mercier, François

One of the early missionaries of New France , b. at Paris, 4 October, 1604; d. in the island of ...

Le Moyne

The name of one of the most illustrious families of the New World, whose deeds adorn the pages ...

Le Moyne, Simon

A Jesuit missionary, b. at Beauvais, 1604; d. in 1665 at Cap de la Madeleine, near Three ...

Le Nourry, Denis-Nicolas

Denis-Nicolas Le Nourry, of the Congregation of St-Maur, ecclesiastical writer, b. at Dieppe in ...

Le Puy

(Aniciensis). Diocese comprising the whole Department of Haute Loire, and is a suffragan of ...

Le Quien, Michel

French historian and theologian, b. at Boulogne-sur-Mer, department of Pas-de-Calais, 8 Oct., ...

Le Sage, Alain-René

Writer, b. at Sarzeau (Morbihan), 1668; d. at Boulogne-sur-Mer, 1747. The son of a notary who ...

Le Tellier, Charles-Maurice

Archbishop of Reims, b. at Turin, 1642; d. at Reims, 1710. The son of Michel Le Tellier and ...

Le Tellier, Michel

Born 16 October, 1643, of a peasant family, not at Vire as has so often been said, but at Vast ...

Le Verrier, Urbain-Jean-Joseph

An astronomer and director of the observatory at Paris, born at Saint Lô, the ancient ...

León

DIOCESE OF LEÓN (LEONENSIS) Suffragan of Michoacan in Mexico, erected in 1863. In the ...

León, Luis de

Spanish poet and theologian, b. at Belmonte, Aragon, in 1528; d. at Madrigal, 23 August, 1591. ...

Lead, Diocese of

(LEADENSIS). The Diocese of Lead, which was established on 6 August, 1902, comprises all that ...

League of the Cross

A Catholic total abstinence confraternity founded in London in 1873 by Cardinal Manning to ...

League, German

Only three years before the League was established, Duke Maximilian of Bavaria (d. 1651), who ...

League, The

I. THE LEAGUE OF 1576 The discontent produced by the Peace of Beaulieu (6 May, 1576), which ...

Leander of Seville, Saint

Bishop of that city, b. at Carthage about 534, of a Roman family established in that city; d. ...

Leavenworth

Diocese of Leavenworth (Leavenworthensis). Suffragan to St. Louis. When established, 22 May, ...

Lebanon

Lebanon (Assyr. Labn nu ; Hebrew Lebanôn ; Egypt. possibly, Ramunu ; Greek Libanos ...

Lebedus

Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. It was on the coast, ninety stadia to the east ...

Lebrun, Charles

French historical painter, born in Paris, 1619; died at the Gobelin tapestry works, 1690. This ...

Lebwin, Saint

(LEBUINUS or LIAFWIN). Apostle of the Frisians and patron of Deveater, b. in England of ...

Lecce

(LICIENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Otranto. Lecce, the capital of a province in Terra ...

Leclerc du Tremblay, François

A Capuchin, better known as P ÈRE J OSEPH , b. in Paris, 4 Nov., 1577; d. at Rueil, ...

Leclercq, Chrestien

A Franciscan Récollet and one of the most zealous missionaries to the Micmac of ...

Lecoy de La Marche

(RICHARD-ALBERT). French historian; b. at Nemours, 1839; d. at Paris, 1897. He left the ...

Lectern

(Lecturn, Letturn, Lettern, from legere , to read). Support for a book, reading-desk, or ...

Lectionary

( Lectionarium or Legenda ). Lectionary is a term of somewhat vague significance, used ...

Lector

A lector (reader) in the West is a clerk having the second of the four minor orders. In all ...

Ledge, Altar

Originally the altar was made in the shape of an ordinary table, on which the crucifix and ...

Ledochowski, Miecislas Halka

Count, cardinal, Archbishop of Gnesen-Posen, b. at Gorki near Sandomir in Russian Poland, 29 ...

Leeds

(LOIDIS; LOIDENSIS). Diocese embracing the West Riding of Yorkshire, and that part of the city ...

Lefèvre d'Etaples, Jacques

Frequently called "Faber Stapulensis." A French philosopher, biblical and patristic scholar; ...

Lefèvre de la Boderie, Guy

French Orientalist and poet; b. near Falaise in Normandy, 9 August, 1541; d. in 1598 in the house ...

Lefèvre, Family of

There were various members of the Lefèvre family engaged in tapestry weaving in the ...

Lefebvre, Camille

Apostle of the Acadians, b. at St. Philippe, P. Q., 1831; d. at St. Joseph, N. B., 1895. The ...

Legacies

(Latin Legata ). I. DEFINITION In its most restricted sense, by a pious legacy or bequest ...

Legate

( Latin legare , to send). Legate, in its broad signification, means that person who is sent ...

Legends of the Saints

Under the term legend the modern concept would include every untrue tale. But it is not so ...

Legends, Literary or Profane

In the period of national origins history and legend are inextricably mingled. In the course of ...

Leghorn

(LIBURNENSIS.) Suffragan of Pisa. Leghorn ( Italian Livorno ), in Tuscany, is the capital ...

Legio

Titular see of Palestina Secunda, suffragan of Scythopolis. It figures for the first time in a ...

Legipont, Oliver

Benedictine, bibliographer, born at Soiron, Limburg, 2 Dec., 1698; died at Trier, 16 Jan., 1758. ...

Legists

Teachers of civil or Roman law, who, besides expounding sources, explaining terms, elucidating ...

Legitimation

( Latin legitimatio ). The canonical term for the act by which the irregularity contracted ...

Legrand, Louis

French theologian and noted doctor of the Sorbonne, b. in Burgundy at Lusigny-sur-Ouche, 12 ...

Lehnin, Abbey of

Founded in 1180 by Otto II, Margrave of Brandenburg, for Cistercian monks. Situated about ...

Leibniz, System of

I. LIFE OF LEIBNIZ Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz was born at Leipzig on 21 June (1 July), 1646. ...

Leigh, Venerable Richard

English martyr, born in Cambridgeshire about 1561; died at Tyburn, 30 August, 1588. Ordained ...

Leipzig

Chief town in the Kingdom of Saxony, situated at the junction of the Pleisse, Parthe, and Weisse ...

Leipzig, University of

The University of Leipzig in Saxony is, next to Heidelberg, the oldest university in the German ...

Leitmeritz

(L ITOMERICENSIS ), in Austria, embraces the northern part of the Kingdom of Bohemia (see map ...

Lejeune, Jean

Born at Poligny in 1592; died at Limoges, 19 Aug., 1672; member of the Oratory of Jesus, founded ...

Lelong, Jacques

A French bibliographer, b. at Paris, 19 April, 1665 d. there, 13 Aug., 1721. As a boy of ten, he ...

Lemberg

Seat of a Latin, a Uniat Ruthenian, and a Uniat Armenian archbishopric. The city is called Lwow ...

Lemcke, Henry

Missionary in the United States b. at Rhena, Mecklenburg, 27 July, 1796; d. at Carrolltown, ...

Lemercier, Jacques

Born at Pontoise, about 1585; died at Paris, 1654. Lemercier shares with Mansart and Le Muet the ...

Lemos, Thomas de

Spanish theologian and controversialist, b. at Rivadavia, Spain, 1555, d. at Rome 23 Aug., ...

Lennig, Adam Franz

Theologian, b. 3 Dec., 1803, at Mainz ; d. there, 22 Nov., 1866. He studied at Bouchsal under the ...

Lenormant, Charles

French arch æologist, b. in Paris, 1 June, 1802; d. at Athens, 24 November, 1859. After ...

Lenormant, François

Arch&aeligologist; son of Charles Lenormant, b. at Paris, 17 January, 1837; d. there, 9 ...

Lent

Origin of the word The Teutonic word Lent , which we employ to denote the forty days' fast ...

Lentulus, Publius

Publius Lentulus is a fictitious person, said to have been Governor of Judea before Pontius, and ...

Leo Diaconus

Byzantine historian; b. at Kaloe, at the foot of Mount Tmolos, in Ionia, about the year 950; the ...

Leo I (the Great), Pope

(Reigned 440-61). Place and date of birth unknown; died 10 November, 461. Leo's pontificate, ...

Leo II, Pope Saint

Pope (682-83), date of birth unknown; d. 28 June, 683. He was a Sicilian, and son of one Paul. ...

Leo III, Pope Saint

Date of birth unknown; died 816. He was elected on the very day his predecessor was buried (26 ...

Leo IV, Pope

(Reigned 847-55) A Roman and the son of Radoald, was unanimously elected to succeed Sergius ...

Leo IX, Pope

(1049-54), b. at Egisheim, near Colmar, on the borders of Alsace, 21 June, 1002; d. 19 April, ...

Leo V, Pope

Very little is known of him. We have no certainty either as to when he was elected or as to ...

Leo VI, Pope

The exact dates of the election and death of Leo VI are uncertain, but it is clear that he was ...

Leo VII, Pope

Date of birth unknown; d. 13 July, 939. A Roman and priest of St. Sixtus, and probably a ...

Leo VIII, Pope

Date of birth unknown; d. between 20 February and 13 April, 965. When the Emperor Otho I ...

Leo X, Pope

(G IOVANNI DE M EDICI ). Born at Florence, 11 December, 1475; died at Rome, 1 December, ...

Leo XI, Pope

(ALESSANDRO OTTAVIANO DE' MEDICI). Born at Florence in 1535; died at Rome 27 April, 1605, on ...

Leo XII, Pope

(A NNIBALE F RANCESCO C LEMENTE M ELCHIORE G IROLAMO N ICOLA DELLA G ENGA ) Born ...

Leo XIII, Pope

Born 2 March, 1810, at Carpineto; elected pope 20 February, 1878; died 20 July, 1903, at Rome. ...

Leo, Brother

Friar Minor, companion of St. Francis of Assisi,date of birth uncertain; died at Assisi, 15 ...

Leocadia, Saint

Virgin and martyr, d. 9 December, probably 304, in the Diocletian persecution. The last great ...

Leodegar, Saint

(LEGER) Bishop of Autun, b. about 615; d. a martyr in 678, at Sarcing, Somme. His mother ...

Leon

(THE DIOCESE AND CIVIL PROVINCE OF LEON) HISTORY Probably before the time of Trajan, the ...

Leonard of Chios

Born at an uncertain date on the Island of Chios, then under Genoese domination; died in Chios ...

Leonard of Limousin, Saint

Nothing absolutely certain is known of his history, as his earliest "Life", written in the ...

Leonard of Port Maurice, Saint

Preacher and ascetic writer, b. 20 Dec., 1676, at Porto Maurizio on the Riviera di Ponente; d. ...

Leonardo da Vinci

(LEONARDO DI SER PIERO DA VINCI) Florentine painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and ...

Leonidas, Saint

( Or LEONIDES.) The Roman Martyrology records several feast days of martyrs of this ...

Leontius Byzantinus

( Leontios Byzantios ) An important theologian of the sixth century. In spite of his ...

Leontius, Saint

Bishop of Fréjus, in Provence. France, b. probably at Nîmes, towards the end of ...

Leontopolis

A titular archiepiscopal see of Augustamnica Secunda. Strabo (XVII, 1,19, 20) places it near ...

Leopoldine Society, The

Established at Vienna for the purpose of aiding the Catholic missions in North America. When ...

Lepanto

Italian name for Naupactos (Naupactus) a titular metropolitan see of ancient Epirus. The name ...

Leprosy

Leprosy proper, or lepra tuberculosa , in contradistinction to other skin diseases commonly ...

Leptis Magna

Leptis Magna, a titular see of Tripolitana. Founded by the Sidonians in a fine and fertile ...

Leros

Titular see of the Cyclades, suffragan of Rhodes. According to Strabo (XIV, i, 6), this island ...

Leroy-Beaulieu, Anatole

French publicist, b. at Lisieux, Calvados, in 1842; d. at Paris, 15 June, 1912. After ...

Lesbi

A titular see in Mauretania Sitifensis, suffragan of Sitifis, or Sétif, in Algeria. It ...

Lesbi

A titular see in Mauretania Sitifensis, suffragan of Sitifis, or Sétif, in Algeria. It ...

Lescarbot, Marc

French lawyer, writer, and historian, b. at Vervins, between 1565 and 1570; d. about 1629. ...

Lescarbot, Marc

French lawyer, writer, and historian, b. at Vervins, between 1565 and 1570; d. about 1629. ...

Lescot, Pierre

One of the greatest architects of France in the pure Renaissance style, b. at Paris about ...

Lescot, Pierre

One of the greatest architects of France in the pure Renaissance style, b. at Paris about ...

Lesina

(PHARIA: HVAR; PHARENSIS, BRACHIENSIS, ET ISSENSIS) Diocese in Dalmatia ; includes the three ...

Leslie, John

Bishop of Ross, Scotland, born 29 September, 1527, died at Guirtenburg, near Brussels 30 May, ...

Lessius, Leonard

(LEYS) A Flemish Jesuit and a theologian of high reputation, born at Brecht, in the ...

Lessons in the Liturgy

(Exclusive of Gospel). I. HISTORY The reading of lessons from the Bible, Acts of Martyrs , or ...

Lestrange, Louis-Henri de

(In religion, DOM AUGUSTINE) Born in 1754, in the Château de Colombier-le-Vieux, ...

Lesueur, François Eustache

Jesuit missionary and philologist, of the Abnaki mission in Canada ; born (according to notes ...

Lesueur, Jean-François

Composer, b. at Drucat-Plessiel, near Abbeville, 15 Feb., 1760; d. at Paris, 6 October, 1837. He ...

Lete

A titular see of Macedonia, known by its coins and inscriptions, mentioned in Ptolemy (III, ...

Letourneux, Nicolas

A well-known French preacher and ascetical writer of Jansenistic tendencies, born at Rouen, 30 ...

Letters, Ecclesiastical

(LITTERÆ ECCLESIASTICÆ) Ecclesiastical letters are publications or announcements of ...

Leubus

A celebrated ancient Cistercian abbey, situated on the Oder, northwest of Breslau, in the ...

Leuce

A titular see of Thrace, not mentioned by any ancient historian or geographer. However, its ...

Levadoux, Michael

One of the first band of Sulpicians who, owing to the distressed state of religion in France, ...

Levau, Louis

(LE VAU) A contemporary of Jacques Lemercier and the two Mansarts, and the chief architect of ...

Levites

(From Levi , name of the ancestral patriarch, generally interpreted "joined" or "attached ...

Leviticus

The third book of the Pentateuch, so called because it treats of the offices, ministries, rites, ...

Lex

(LAW) The etymology of the Latin word lex is a subject of controversy. Some authorities ...

Lezana, Juan Bautista de

Theologian, born at Madrid, 23 Nov., 1586; died in Rome, 29 March, 1659. He took the habit at ...

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Li 90

Liège

(The Diocese of Liège; canonical name L EODIENSIS ). Liège (V ICUS L ...

Libel

( Latin libellus , a little book) A malicious publication by writing, printing, picture, ...

Libellatici, Libelli

The libelli were certificates issued to Christians of the third century. They were of two ...

Liber Diurnus Romanorum Pontificum

A miscellaneous collection of ecclesiastical formularies used in the papal chancery until the ...

Liber Pontificalis

(BOOK OF THE POPES). A history of the popes beginning with St. Peter and continued down to ...

Liber Septimus

Three canonical collections of quite different value from a legal standpoint are known by this ...

Libera Me

(Domine, de morte aeterna, etc.). The responsory sung at funerals. It is a responsory of ...

Libera Nos

The first words of the Embolism of the Lord's Prayer in the Roman Rite. Most liturgies ...

Liberal Arts, The Seven

The expression artes liberales , chiefly used during the Middle Ages, does not mean arts as we ...

Liberalism

A free way of thinking and acting in private and public life. I. DEFINITION The word liberal ...

Liberatore, Matteo

A philosopher, theologian, and writer, born at Salerno, Italy, 14 August, 1810; died at Rome, ...

Liberatus of Carthage

(Sixth century) Archdeacon ; author of an important history of the Nestorian and ...

Liberia

A republic on the west coast of Africa, between 4° 20´ and 7° 20´ N. lat., ...

Liberius, Pope

(Reigned 352-66) Pope Julius died on 12 April, according to the "Liberian Catalogue", and ...

Libermann, Ven. Francis Mary Paul

Founder of the Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, which was afterwards merged in the ...

Libraries

Libraries, that is to say, collections of books accumulated and made accessible for public or ...

Libri Carolini

A work in four books (120 or 121 chapters), purporting to be the composition of Charlemagne, and ...

Lichfield

ANCIENT DIOCESE OF LICHFIELD (LICHFELDENSIS). This diocese took its rise in the conversion ...

Lidwina, Saint

Born at Schiedam, Holland, 18 April 1380; died 14 April, 1433. Her father, Peter by name, came of ...

Lieber, Ernst Maria

Born at Camberg in the Duchy of Nassau, 16 Nov., 1838; died 31 March, 1902. He was the principal ...

Lieber, Moriz

Politician and publicist, b. at the castle of Blankenheim in the Eifel, 1 Oct., 1790, d. at ...

Liebermann, Bruno Franz Leopold

Catholic theologian, b., at Molsheim in Alsace 12 Oct., 1759; 4. at Strasburg, 11 Nov., 1844. ...

Liesborn

A former noted Benedictine Abbey in Westphalia, Germany, founded in 815; suppressed in 1803. ...

Liesborn, Master of

A Westphalian painter, who in 1465 executed an altar-piece of note in the Benedictine monastery ...

Liessies

A Benedictine monastery near Avesnes, in the Diocese of Cambrai, France (Nord), founded about ...

Life

(Greek zoe ; Latin vita ; French La vie , German Das Leben ; vital principle; Greek ...

Ligamen

( Latin for bond ). The existing marriage tie which constitutes in canon law a public ...

Lights

Upon the subject of the liturgical use of lights, as an adjunct of the services of the Church, ...

Ligugé

A Benedictine Abbey, in the Diocese of Poitiers, France, was founded about the year A.D. 360, ...

Liguori, Saint Alphonsus

Born at Marianella, near Naples, 27 September, 1696; died at Nocera de' Pagani, 1 August, 1787. ...

Lilienfeld

Lilienfeld, a Cistercian Abbey fifteen miles south of St. Polten, Lower Austria, was founded ...

Lilius, Aloisius

Aloisius Lilius, principal author of the Gregorian Calendar, was a native of Cirò or ...

Lille

The ancient capital of Flanders, now the chief town of the Département du Nord in France. ...

Lillooet Indians

An important tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, in southern British Columbia, formerly holding a ...

Lima

(Limana). The city of Lima, in the Department of the same name, is the capital of the Republic ...

Limbo

(Late Latin limbus ) a word of Teutonic derivation, meaning literally "hem" or "border," as ...

Limbourg, Pol de

A French miniaturist. With his two brothers, he flourished at Paris at the end of the fourteenth ...

Limburg

(L IMBURGENSIS ) Diocese in the Kingdom of Prussia, suffragan of Freiburg. I. HISTORY ...

Limerick

(LIMERICENSIS) Diocese in Ireland ; includes the greater part of the County of Limerick and ...

Limoges

(LEMOVICENSIS). Diocese comprising the Departments of Haute Vienne and Creuse in France. ...

Limyra

Limyra, a titular see of Lycia, was a small city on the southern coast of Lycia, on the Limyrus, ...

Linacre, Thomas

English physician and clergyman, founder of the Royal College of Physicians, London, b. at ...

Linares

[Or MONTEREY or NUEVO LEÓN; ARCHDIOCESE OF (DE LINARES)] In 1777, at the request of ...

Lincoln

(LINCOLNIENSIS) Suffragan of Dubuque, erected 2 August, 1887, to include that part of the ...

Lincoln

ANCIENT DIOCESE OF LINCOLN (LINCOLNIENSIS). This see was founded by St. Theodore, Archbishop ...

Lindanus, William Damasus

(VAN LINDA) Bishop of Ruremonde and of Ghent, b. at Dordrecht, in 1525; d. at Ghent, 2 ...

Linde, Justin Timotheus Balthasar, Freiherr von

Hessian jurist and stateman, b. in the village of Brilon, Westphalia, 7 Aug., 1797; d. at Bonn ...

Lindemann, Wilhelm

A Catholic historian of German literature, b. at Schonnebeck near Essen, 17 December, 1828; d. ...

Lindisfarne, Ancient Diocese and Monastery of

(Lindisfarnensis). The island of Lindisfarne lies some two miles off the Northumberland coast, ...

Lindores, Benedictine Abbey of

On the River Tay, near Newburgh, Fifeshire, Scotland, founded by David, Earl of Huntingdon, ...

Line, Saint Anne

English martyr, d. 27 Feb., 1601. She was the daughter of William Heigham of Dunmow, Essex, a ...

Linens, Altar

The altar-linens are the corporal, pall, purificator, and finger- towels. The Blessed Sacrament ...

Lingard, John

English priest and historian b. at Winchester, 5 February, 1771; d. at Hornby, 17 July, 1851. He ...

Linköping, Ancient See of

(LINCOPIA; LINCOPENSIS.) Located in Sweden ; originally included Östergötland, the ...

Linoe

A titular see of Bithynia Secunda, known only from the "Notitiae Episcopatuum" which mention ...

Linus, Pope Saint

(Reigned about A.D. 64 or 67 to 76 or 79). All the ancient records of the Roman bishops ...

Linz

D IOCESE OF L INZ (L INCIENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Vienna . I. HISTORY ...

Lippe

One of the Confederate States of the German Empire. The occasional use of the designation "Lippe ...

Lippi, Filippino

Italian painter, son of Filippo Lippi, b. at Prato, in 1458; d. at Florence 18 April, 1515. His ...

Lippi, Filippo

Italian painter, b. at Florence about 1406; d. at Spoleto, 9 October, 1469. Left an orphan at ...

Lippomano, Luigi

( Or Aloisius Lipomanus Lippomano). A cardinal, hagiographer, b. in 1500; d. 15 August, ...

Lipsanotheca

A term sometimes used synonymously with reliquary, but signifying, more correctly, the little box ...

Lipsius, Justus

(JOSSE LIPS) A philologian and humanist of the Netherlands, b. at Overyssche, 18 Oct., ...

Lisbon

Patriarchate of Lisbon (Lisbonensis). Includes the districts of Lisbon and Santarem. The area ...

Lismore

DIOCESE OF LISMORE (LISMORENSIS) The Diocese of Lismore extends over a territory of 21,000 ...

Lismore and Waterford

(Waterfordiensis et Lismorensis), suffragan of Cashel. This diocese is almost coterminous with ...

Lismore, School of

As the School of Armagh in the North of Ireland, and that of Clonmacnoise in the centre, so the ...

Lister, Thomas

( alias Thomas Butler) Jesuit writer, b. in Lancashire, about 1559; d. in England, probably ...

Liszt, Franz

Admittedly the greatest pianist in the annals of music, and a composer whose status in musical ...

Litany

(Latin litania , letania , from Greek lite , prayer or supplication) A litany is a ...

Litany of Loreto

Despite the fact that, from the seventeenth century onwards, the Litany of Loreto has been the ...

Litany of the Holy Name

An old and popular form of prayer in honour of the Name of Jesus. The author is not known. ...

Litany of the Saints

The model of all other litanies, of great antiquity. HISTORY It was used in the "Litania ...

Literature, English

It is not unfitting to compare English Literature to a great tree whose far spreading and ever ...

Lithuania

( German Litauen ) An ancient grandy-duchy united with Poland in the fourteenth century. ...

Lithuanians in the United States

The Lithuanians ( Lietuvys ; adjective, lietuviskas ) are a people of Russia, occupying the ...

Litta

A noble Milanese family which gave two distinguished cardinals to the Church. I. ALFONSO ...

Little Flowers of St. Francis of Assissi

Little Flowers of Francis of Assisi , the name given to a classic collection of popular legends ...

Little Office of Our Lady

A liturgical devotion to the Blessed Virgin, in imitation of, and in addition to, the Divine ...

Little Rock

(PETRICULANA) The State of Arkansas and the Indian Territory, parts of the Louisiana ...

Littré, Paul-Maximilien-Emile

A French lexicographer and philosopher ; born at Paris, 1 February, 1801; died there, 2 June, ...

Liturgical Books

Under this name we understand all the books, published by the authority of any church, that ...

Liturgical Chant

Taking these words in their ordinary acceptation, it is easy to settle the meaning of "liturgical ...

Liturgy

The various Christian liturgies are described each under its own name. ( See ALEXANDRINE ...

Liturgy of Jerusalem

The Rite of Jerusalem is that of Antioch. That is to say, the Liturgy that became famous as ...

Liturgy of the Hours

("Liturgy of the Hours" I. THE EXPRESSION "DIVINE OFFICE" This expression signifies ...

Liutprand of Cremona

(Or L UIDPRAND ). Bishop and historian, b. at the beginning of the tenth century; d. after ...

Liverpool

Diocese of Liverpool/a>/Liverpolium (Liverpolitana). One of the thirteen dioceses into ...

Livias

A titular see in Palestina Prima, suffragan of Cæsarea. It is twice mentioned in the Bible ...

Livorno

(LIBURNENSIS.) Suffragan of Pisa. Leghorn ( Italian Livorno ), in Tuscany, is the capital ...

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Ll 4

Llancarvan

Llancarvan, Glamorganshire, Wales, was a college and monastery founded apparently about the ...

Llandaff

ANCIENT DIOCESE OF LLANDAFF (LANDAVENSIS) The origins of this see are to be found in the sixth ...

Llanthony Priory

A monastery of Augustinian Canons, situated amongst the Black Mountains of South Wales, nine ...

Lloyd, Saint John

Welsh priest and martyr, executed at Cardiff, 22 July, 1679. He took the missionary oath at ...

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Lo 73

Loaisa, Garcia de

Cardinal and Archbishop of Seville, b. in Talavera, Spain, c. 1479; d. at Madrid, 21 April, ...

Loango

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF LOANGO (LOWER FRENCH CONGO). Formerly included in the great Kingdom of ...

Loaves of Proposition

Heb. "bread of the faces", i.e. "bread of the presence (of Yahweh )" ( Exodus 35:13 ; 39:35 , ...

Lobbes, Benedictine Abbey of

Located in Hainault, Belgium, founded about 650, by St. Landelin, a converted brigand, so that ...

Lobera, Ann

(Better known as V ENERABLE A NN OF J ESUS ). Carmelite nun, companion of St. Teresa; ...

Loccum

(LUCCA, LOCKEN, LOCKWEEN, LYKE, LYCKO) A Cistercian abbey in the Diocese of Minden, formerly ...

Lochleven

(From leamhan , an elm-tree) Lochleven, a lake in Kinross-shire, Scotland, an island of ...

Lochner, Stephen

A painter, born at Meersburg, on the Lake of Constance, date of birth unknown; died at ...

Loci Theologici

Loci theologici or loci communes , are the common topics of discussion in theology. As ...

Locke, Matthew

Composer; born at Exeter, in 1629; died August, 1677. He was a chorister of Exeter Cathedral ...

Lockhart, William

Son of the Rev. Alexander Lockhart of Waringham, Surry; b. 22 Aug., 1820; d. at St. Etheldreda's ...

Lockwood, Venerable John

Venerable John Lockwood, priest and martyr, born about 1555; died at York, 13 April, 1642. He ...

Lodi

(LAUDENSIS) A suffragan of Milan. Lodi, the capital of a district in the Province of Milan, ...

Logia, Jesu

Found partly in the Inspired Books of the New Testament, partly in uninspired writings. The ...

Logic

Logic is the science and art which so directs the mind in the process of reasoning and ...

Logos, The

The word Logos is the term by which Christian theology in the Greek language designates the ...

Lohel, Johann

(JOHANN LOHELIUS) Archbishop of Prague, b. at Eger, Bohemia, 1549; d. 2 Nov., 1622. Of poor ...

Lohner, Tobias

Born 13 March, 1619, at Neuötting in the Diocese of Salzburg ; died 26 (probably) May, ...

Loja, Diocese of

(Lojana), suffragan of Quito, Ecuador, includes the greater part of the Provinces of Loja and El ...

Lollards

The name given to the followers of John Wyclif, an heretical body numerous in England in the ...

Loménie de Brienne, Etienne-Charles de

French cardinal and statesman; b. at Paris, 1727; d. at Sens, 1794. He was of noble lineage, ...

Loman, Saint

Bishop of Trim in Ireland, nephew of St. Patrick, was remarkable as being the first placed over ...

Lombard, Peter

Theologian, b. at Novara (or perhaps Lumello), Italy, about 1100; d. about 1160-64. He studied ...

Lombard, Peter

Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Waterford, about 1555; d. at Rome, 1625; belonged to a respectable ...

Lombardy

A word derived from Longobardia and used during the Middle Ages to designate the country ruled ...

London (England)

London, the capital of England and chief city of the British Empire, is situated about fifty ...

London (Ontario)

DIOCESE OF LONDON (LONDINENSIS) Diocese in Canada, established 21 February, 1855; see ...

Longstreet, James

Soldier and Catholic convert. Born 8 January, 1821, at Edgefield, South Carolina, U.S.A.; died ...

Lope de Vega Carpio, Félix de

Poet and dramatist, b. at Madrid, 1562; d. 23 Aug., 1635. With Lope de Vega begins the era of ...

Lopez-Caro, Francisco

Spanish artist, b. at Seville in 1598; d. at Madrid in 1662; he was a pupil of Juan de Las ...

Lord's Prayer

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

Lorea

Titular see in the province of Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. The city figures in the different ...

Lorenzana, Francisco Antonio de

Cardinal, b. 22 Sept., 1722 at Leon in Spain ; d. 17 April, 1804, at Rome. After the completion ...

Lorenzetti, Pietro and Ambrogio

Sienese painters. The time of their birth and death is not known. Their dated works extend ...

Lorenzo da Brindisi, Saint

(Also: Lawrence, or Laurence, of Brindisi.) Born at Brindisi in 1559; died at Lisbon on 22 ...

Loreto, Holy House of

(The Holy House of Loreto). Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the "Holy ...

Loreto, Litany of

Despite the fact that, from the seventeenth century onwards, the Litany of Loreto has been the ...

Lorette

(Full name, Notre-Dame de la Jeune Lorette , "Our Lady of New Loretto") An Indian village ...

Lorrain, Claude de

French painter and etcher, b. in 1600 at Chamagnc on the banks of the Moselle in Lorraine ; d. ...

Lorraine

I. ORIGIN By the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the empire of Charlemagne was divided in three ...

Lorsch Abbey

( Laureshamense Monasterium , called also Laurissa and Lauresham ). One of the most ...

Loryma

A titular see of Caria, small fortified town and harbour on the coast of Caria, not far from ...

Los Angeles and Monterey

DIOCESE OF MONTEREY AND LOS ANGELES (MONTEREYENSIS ET ANGELORUM). Comprises that part of the ...

Lossada, Luis de

Philosopher, b. at Quiroga, Asturias, Spain in 1681; d. at Salamanca, in 1748. He entered the ...

Lossen, Karl August

German petrologist and geologist, born at Kreuznach (Rhine Province), 5 January, 1841; died at ...

Lot

Son of Abraham's brother Aran ( Genesis 11:27 ), therefore Abraham's nephew (his "brother": ...

Lottery

A lottery is one of the aleatory contracts and is commonly defined as a distribution of prizes by ...

Lotti, Antonio

Composer, born at Venice in 1667; died there, 5 January, 1740 and studied under Legrenzi, ...

Lotto, Lorenzo

Italian portrait painter, born at Venice, 1480; died at Loreto, 1556. This eminent artist was ...

Loucheux

The would-be Kuchin of some ethnologists, and the Tukudh of the Protestant missionaries; ...

Louis Allemand, Blessed

Cardinal, Archbishop of Arles, whose name has been written in a great variety of ways (Alamanus, ...

Louis Bertrand, Saint

Born at Valencia, Spain, 1 Jan., 1526; died 9 Oct., 1581. His patents were Juan Bertrand and ...

Louis IX, Saint

King of France, son of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile, born at Poissy, 25 April, 1215; died ...

Louis of Casoria, Venerable

Friar Minor and founder of the Frati Bigi; b. at Casoria, near Naples, 11 March, 1814; d. at ...

Louis of Granada, Venerable

Theologian, writer, and preacher; b. of very humble parentage at Granada, Spain, 1505; d. at ...

Louis of Toulouse, Saint

Bishop of Toulouse, generally represented vested in pontifical garments and holding a book and a ...

Louis XIV

King of France, b. at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 16 September, 1638; d. at Versailles, 1 September, ...

Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, Saint

Missionary in Brittany and Vendee; born at Montfort, 31 January, 1673; died at Saint Laurent sur ...

Louise de Marillac Le Gras, Venerable

Foundress of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul , born at Paris, 12 August, 1591, ...

Louise, Sister

Educator and organizer, b. at Bergen-op-Zoom, Holland, 14 Nov., 1813; d. at Cincinnati, Ohio, 3 ...

Louisiana

I. COLONIAL The history of Louisiana forms an important part of the history of the United ...

Louisville, Diocese of

Comprises that part of Kentucky west of the Kentucky River and western borders of Carroll, Owen, ...

Lourdes, Brothers of Our Lady of

(Abbreviation C.N.D.L. — Congregation de Notre-Dame de Lourdes) A community devoted to ...

Lourdes, Notre-Dame de

Notre-Dame de Lourdes, in the Department of Hautes Pyrenées, France, is far-famed for the ...

Louvain, University of

In order to restore the splendour of Louvain, capital of his Duchy of Brabant, John IV of the ...

Love, Theological Virtue of

The third and greatest of the Divine virtues enumerated by St. Paul ( 1 Corinthians 13:13 ), ...

Low Church

The name given to one of the three parties or doctrinal tendencies that prevail in the ...

Low Sunday

The first Sunday after Easter. The origin of the name is uncertain, but it is apparently ...

Lower California, Vicariate Apostolic of

Includes the territory of that name in Mexico (Sp. Baja or Vieja California ), a peninsula ...

Lower Criticism

The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...

Loyola University (Chicago)

Loyola University is the outgrowth of St. Ignatius College, founded by the Jesuits in 1869 for ...

Loyola University (New Orleans)

Loyola University, New Orleans, Louisiana, is (1912) the only Catholic university in what is ...

Loyola, Saint Ignatius

Youngest son of Don Beltrán Yañez de Oñez y Loyola and Marina Saenz de Lieona ...

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Lu 49

Luçon

Diocese of Luçon (Lucionensis). Embraces the Department of La Vendée. It was ...

Lublin

DIOCESE OF LUBLIN (LUBLINENSIS). The city of Lublin is in Russian Poland, capital of the ...

Luca, Giovanni Battista de

A Cardinal and Italian canonist of the seventeenth century, b. at Venusia, Southern Italy, in ...

Lucas, Frederick

A member of Parliament and journalist, b. in Westminster, 30 March, 1812, d. at Staines, ...

Lucca

ARCHDIOCESE OF LUCCA (LUCENSIS). Lucca, the capital of the like named province in Tuscany, ...

Lucera

DIOCESE OF LUCERA (LUCERINENSIS). Lucera is a very ancient city in the province of Foggia in ...

Lucerne

Chief town of the Canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. The beginnings of the town, as well as the ...

Lucian of Antioch

A priest of the Church of Antioch who suffered martyrdom (7 January, 312), during the reign ...

Lucic, John

(Or LUCIUS) Croatian historian, b. early in the seventeenth century, at Trojir, or Tragurion, ...

Lucifer

( Hebrew helel ; Septuagint heosphoros , Vulgate lucifer ) The name Lucifer ...

Lucifer of Cagliari

(LUCIFER CALARITANUS) A bishop, who must have been born in the early years of the fourth ...

Lucina, Crypt of

The traditional title of the most ancient section of the catacomb of St. Callistus. According to ...

Lucius I, Pope Saint

Reigned 253-254; died at Rome, 5 March, 254. After the death of St. Cornelius , who died in ...

Lucius II, Pope

(Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso) Born at Bologna, unknown date, died at Rome, 15 February, ...

Lucius III, Pope

(Ubaldo Allucingoli) Born at Lucca, unknown date ; died at Verona, 25 Notaember, 1185. ...

Lucy, Saint

A virgin and martyr of Syracuse in Sicily, whose feast is celebrated by Latins and ...

Ludger, Saint

(Lüdiger or Liudger) Missionary among the Frisians and Saxons, first Bishop of Munster ...

Ludmilla, Saint

Wife of Boriwoi, the first Christian Duke of Bohemia, b. at Mielnik, c. 860; d. at Tetin, near ...

Ludolph of Saxony

(Ludolph the Carthusian ). An ecclesiastical writer of the fourteenth century, date of ...

Ludovicus a S. Carolo

(LUDOVICUS JACOB) Carmelite writer, b. at Châlons-sur-Marne (according to some at ...

Lueger, Karl

A burgomaster of Vienna, Austrian political leader and municipal reformer, born at Vienna, 24 ...

Lugo

DIOCESE OF LUGO (LUCENSIS) Diocese in Galicia, Spain, a suffragan of Santiago, said to have ...

Lugo, Francisco de

Jesuit theologian, b. at Madrid, 1580; d. at Valladolid, 17 September, 1652. he was the elder ...

Lugo, John de

Spanish Jesuit and Cardinal, one of the most eminent theologians of modern times, b. at ...

Lugos

Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Fogaras and Alba Julia of the Uniat-Rumanian Rite, was ...

Luini, Bernardino

Milanese painter, b. between 1470 and 1480; d. after 1530. The actual facts known respecting the ...

Luke, Gospel of Saint

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Biography of Saint Luke ...

Lulé Indians

A name which has given rise to considerable confusion and dispute in Argentine ethnology, owing ...

Lully, Jean-Baptiste

Composer, b. near Florence in 1633; d. at Paris, 22 March, 1687. He was brought to France when ...

Lully, Raymond

(RAMON LULL) "Doctor Illuminatus", philosopher, poet, and theologian, b. at Palma in Majorca, ...

Lumen Christi

The versicle chanted by the deacon on Holy Saturday as he lights the triple candle. After ...

Luminare

(A word which gives in the plural luminaria and has hence been incorrectly written in the ...

Lummi Indians

(Abbreviated from Nuglummi , about equivalent to "people", the name used by themselves). ...

Lumper, Gottfried

Benedictine patristic writer, born 6 Feb., 1747, at Füssen in Bavaria ; died 8 March, ...

Luna, Pedro de

Antipope under the name of Benedict XIII, b. at Illueca, Aragon, 1328; d. at the ...

Lund

[LUNDA; LONDUNUM (LONDINUM) GOTHORUM (SCANORUM, SCANDINORUM, or DANORUM)]. In the Län of ...

Lunette

The lunette, known in Germany as the lunula and also as the melchisedech, is a crescent-shaped ...

Luni-Sarzana-Brugnato

Diocese in the province of Genoa. Luni (originally Luna) was an Etruscan city, but was seized by ...

Lupus

(SERVATUS LUPUS, LOUP) Abbot of Ferrières, French Benedictine writer, b. in the ...

Lupus, Christian

(WOLF) Historian, b. at Ypres (Flanders), 23 July, 1612; d. at Louvain, 10 July, 1681. He ...

Luscinius, Ottmar

(NACHTGALL) An Alsatian Humanist, b. at Strasburg, 1487; d. at Freiburg, 1537. After ...

Lusignan, Jean-Baptiste-Alphonse

French-Canadian writer, b. at St-Denis on the Richelieu, P.Q., 27 September, 1843; d. 5 January, ...

Lussy, Melchior

Statesman, b. at Stans, Canton of Unterwalden, Switzerland, 1529; d. there 14 Nov., 1606. Even in ...

Lust

The inordinate craving for, or indulgence of, the carnal pleasure which is experienced in the ...

Luther, Martin

Leader of the great religious revolt of the sixteenth century in Germany ; born at Eisleben, 10 ...

Lutheranism

The religious belief held by the oldest and in Europe the most numerous of the Protestant ...

Lutzk, Zhitomir, and Kamenetz, Diocese of

(LUCEORIENSIS, ZYTOMIRIENSIS, ET CAMENECENSIS). Diocese located in Little Russia. Its present ...

Luxemburg

The small remnant of the old duchy of this name and since 11 May, 1867, an independent neutral ...

Luxeuil Abbey

Situated in the Department of Haute-Saône in Franche-Comté, in the Diocese of ...

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Ly 13

Lycopolis

A titular see in Thebais Prima, suffragan of Antinoë. As Siout or Siaout it played a ...

Lydda

A titular see of Palestina Prima in the Patriarchate of Jerusalem. The town was formerly ...

Lydgate, John

Born at Lydgate, Suffolk, about 1370; d. probably about 1450. He entered the Benedictine abbey ...

Lying

Lying, as defined by St. Thomas Aquinas , is a statement at variance with the mind . This ...

Lynch, John

Historian, b. at Galway, Ireland, 1599; d. in France, 1673; was the son of Alexander Lynch, who ...

Lyndwood, William

Bishop of St. David's and the greatest of English canonists, b. about 1375; d. in 1446. He had ...

Lyons, Archdiocese of

The Archdiocese of Lyons (Lugdunensis) comprises the Department of the Rhône (except the ...

Lyons, Councils of (Introduction)

Previous to 1313 the Abbé Martin counts no less than twenty-eight synods or councils held ...

Lyons, First Council of

Innocent IV, threatened by Emperor Frederick II, arrived at Lyons 2 December, 1244, and early in ...

Lyons, Second Council of

The Second Council of Lyons was one of the most largely attended of conciliar assemblies, there ...

Lyrba

A titular see of Pamphylia Prima, known by its coins and the mention made of it by Dionysius, ...

Lysias

A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris, mentioned by Strabo, XII, 576, Pliny, V, 29, Ptolemy, V, 2, ...

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