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Gallicanism

This term is used to designate a certain group of religious opinions for some time peculiar to the Church of France, or Gallican Church, and the theological schools of that country. These opinions, in opposition to the ideas which were called in France "Ultramontane", tended chiefly to a restraint of the pope's authority in the Church in favour of that of the bishops and the temporal ruler. It is important, however, to remark at the outset that the warmest and most accredited partisans of Gallican ideas by no means contested the pope's primacy in the Church, and never claimed for their ideas the force of articles of faith. They aimed only at making it clear that their way of regarding the authority of the pope seemed to them more in conformity with Holy Scripture and tradition. At the same time, their theory did not, as they regarded it, transgress the limits of free opinions, which it is allowable for any theological school to choose for itself provided that the Catholic Creed be duly accepted.

General Notions

Nothing can better serve the purpose of presenting an exposition at once exact and complete of the Gallican ideas than a summary of the famous Declaration of the Clergy of France of 1682. Here, for the first time, those ideas are organized into a system, and receive their official and definitive formula. Stripped of the arguments which accompany it, the doctrine of the Declaration reduces to the following four articles:

  • St. Peter and the popes, his successors, and the Church itself have received dominion [ puissance ] from God only over things spiritual and such as concern salvation and not over things temporal and civil. Hence kings and sovereigns are not by God's command subject to any ecclesiastical dominion in things temporal; they cannot be deposed, whether directly or indirectly, by the authority of the rulers of the Church, their subjects cannot be dispensed from that submission and obedience which they owe, or absolved from the oath of allegiance.
  • The plenitude of authority in things spiritual, which belongs to the Holy See and the successors of St. Peter, in no wise affects the permanence and immovable strength of the decrees of the Council of Constance contained in the fourth and fifth sessions of that council, approved by the Holy See, confirmed by the practice of the whole Church and the Roman pontiff, and observed in all ages by the Gallican Church. That Church does not countenance the opinion of those who cast a slur on those decrees, or who lessen their force by saying that their authority is not well established, that they are not approved or that they apply only to the period of the schism.
  • The exercise of this Apostolic authority [ puissance ] must also be regulated in accordance with the canons made by the Spirit of God and consecrated by the respect of the whole world. The rules, customs and constitutions received within the kingdom and the Gallican Church must have their force and their effect, and the usages of our fathers remain inviolable since the dignity of the Apostolic See itself demands that the laws and customs established by consent of that august see and of the Churches be constantly maintained.
  • Although the pope have the chief part in questions of faith, and his decrees apply to all the Churches, and to each Church in particular, yet his judgment is not irreformable, at least pending the consent of the Church.
  • According to the Gallican theory, then, the papal primacy was limited, first, by the temporal power of princes, which, by the Divine will, was inviolable; secondly by the authority of the general council and that of the bishops, who alone could, by their assent, give to his decrees that infallible authority which, of themselves, they lacked; lastly, by the canons and customs of particular Churches, which the pope was bound to take into account when he exercised his authority.

    But Gallicanism was more than pure speculation. It reacted from the domain of theory into that of facts. The bishops and magistrates of France used it, the former as warrant for increased power in the government of dioceses, the latter to extend their jurisdiction so as to cover ecclesiastical affairs. Moreover, there was an episcopal and political Gallicanism, and a parliamentary or judicial Gallicanism. The former lessened the doctrinal authority of the pope in favour of that of the bishops, to the degree marked by the Declaration of 1682; the latter, affecting the relations of the temporal and spiritual powers, tended to augment the rights of the State more and more, to the prejudice of those of the Church, on the grounds of what they called "the Liberties of the Gallican Church " ( Libertes de l'Eglise Gallicane ).

    These Liberties, which are enumerated in a collection, or corpus, drawn up by the jurisconsults Guy Coquille and Pierre Pithou , were, according to the latter, eighty-three in number. Besides the four articles cited above, which were incorporated, the following may be noted as among the more important: The Kings of France had the right to assemble councils in their dominions, and to make laws and regulations touching ecclesiastical matters. The pope's legates could not be sent into France, or exercise their power within that kingdom, except at the king's request or with his consent. Bishops, even when commanded by the pope, could not go out of the kingdom without the king's consent. The royal officers could not be excommunicated for any act performed in the discharge of their official duties. The pope could not authorize the alienation of any landed estate of the Churches, or the diminishing of any foundations. His Bulls and Letters might not be executed without the Pareatis of the king or his officers. He could not issue dispensations to the prejudice of the laudable customs and statutes of the cathedral Churches. It was lawful to appeal from him to a future council, or to have recourse to the "appeal as from an abuse" ( appel comme d'abus ) against acts of the ecclesiastical power.

    Parliamentary Gallicanism, therefore, was of much wider scope than episcopal; indeed, it was often disavowed by the bishops of France, and about twenty of them condemned Pierre Pithou's book when a new edition of it was published, in 1638, by the brothers Dupuy.

    Origin and History

    The Declaration of 1682 and the work of Pithou codified the principles of Gallicanism, but did not create them. We have to inquire, then, how there came to be formed in the bosom of the Church of France a body of doctrines and practices which tended to isolate it, and to impress upon it a physiognomy somewhat exceptional in the Catholic body. Gallicans have held that the reason of this phenomenon is to be found in the very origin and history of Gallicanism.

    For the more moderate among them, Gallican ideas and liberties were simply privileges -- concessions made by the popes, who had been quite willing to divest themselves of a part of their authority in favour of the bishops or kings or France. It was thus that the latter could lawfully stretch their powers in ecclesiastical matters beyond the normal limits. This idea made its appearance as early as the reign of Philip the Fair, in some of the protests of that monarch against the policy of Boniface VIII. In the view of some partisans of the theory, the popes had always thought fit to show especial consideration for the ancient customs of the Gallican Church, which in every age had distinguished itself by its exactitude in the preservation of the Faith and the maintenance of ecclesiastical discipline . Others, again, assigned a more precise date to the granting of these concessions, referring their origin to the period of the earliest Carlovingians and explaining them somewhat differently. They said that the popes had found it impossible to recall to their allegiance and to due respect for ecclesiastical discipline the Frankish lords who had possessed themselves of episcopal sees ; that these lords, insensible to censures and anathemas, rude and untaught, recognized no authority but that of force; and that the popes had, therefore, granted to Carloman, Pepin, and Charles the Great a spiritual authority which they were to exercise only under papal control. It was this authority that the Kings of France, successors of these princes, had inherited. This theory comes into collision with difficulties so serious as to have caused its rejection as well by the majority of Gallicans as by their Ultramontane adversaries. The former by no means admitted that the Liberties were privileges since a privilege can be revoked by him who has granted it; and, as they regarded the matter, these Liberties could not be touched by any pope. Moreover, they added, the Kings of France have at times received from the popes certain clearly defined privileges ; these privileges have never been confounded with the Gallican Liberties. As a matter of fact, historians could have told them, the privileges accorded by popes to the King of France in the course of centuries are known from the texts, of which an authentic collection could be compiled, and there is nothing in them resembling the Liberties in question. Again, why should not these Gallican Liberties have been transmitted to the German Emperors as well since they, too, were the heirs of Pepin and Charlemagne ? Besides, the Ultramontanes pointed out there are some privileges which the pope himself could not grant. Is it conceivable that a pope should allow any group of bishops the privilege of calling his infallibility in question, putting his doctrinal decisions upon trial, to be accepted or rejected? -- or grant any kings the privilege of placing his primacy under tutelage by suppressing or curtailing his liberty of communication with the faithful in a certain territory?

    Most of its partisans regarded Gallicanism rather as a revival of the most ancient traditions of Christianity, a persistence of the common law, which law, according to some (Pithou, Quesnel ), was made up of the conciliar decrees of the earliest centuries or, according to others (Marca, Bossuet ), of canons of the general and local councils, and the decretals, ancient and modern, which were received in France or conformable to their usage. "Of all Christian countries", says Fleury, "France has been the most careful to conserve the liberty of her Church and oppose the novelties introduced by Ultramontane canonists". The Liberties were so called, because the innovations constituted conditions of servitude with which the popes had burdened the Church, and their legality resulted from the fact that the extension given by the popes to their own primacy was founded not upon Divine institution, but upon the false Decretals. If we are to credit these authors, what the Gallicans maintained in 1682 was not a collection of novelties, but a body of beliefs as old as the Church, the discipline of the first centuries. The Church of France had upheld and practised them at all times; the Church Universal had believed and practised them of old, until about the tenth century; St. Louis had supported, but not created, them by the Pragmatic Sanction ; the Council of Constance had taught them with the pope's approbation. Gallican ideas, then, must have had no other origin than that of Christian dogma and ecclesiastical discipline. It is for history to tell us what these assertions of the Gallican theorists were worth.

    To the similarity of the historical vicissitudes through which they passed, their common political allegiance, and the early appearance of a national sentiment, the Churches of France owed it that they very soon formed an individual, compact, and homogeneous body. From the end of the fourth century the popes themselves recognized this solidarity. It was to the "Gallican" bishops that Pope Damasus -- as M. Babut seems to have demonstrated recently -- addressed the most ancient decretal which has been preserved to our times. Two centuries later St. Gregory the Great pointed out the Gallican Church to his envoy Augustine, the Apostle of England, as one of those whose customs he might accept as of equal stability with those of the Roman Church or of any other whatsoever. But already -- if we are to believe the young historian just mentioned -- a Council of Turin, at which bishops of the Gauls assisted, had given the first manifestation of Gallican sentiment. Unfortunately for M. Babut's thesis, all the significance which he attaches to this council depends upon the date, 417, ascribed to it by him, on the mere strength of a personal conjecture, in opposition to the most competent historians. Besides, It is not at all plain how a council of the Province of Milan is to be taken as representing the ideas of the Gallican Church.

    In truth, that Church, during the Merovingian period, testifies the same deference to the Holy See as do all the others. Ordinary questions of discipline are in the ordinary course settled in councils, often held with the assent of the kings, but on great occasions -- at the Councils of Epaone (517), of Vaison (529), of Valence (529), of Orléans (538), of Tours (567) -- the bishops do not fail to declare that they are acting under the impulse of the Holy See, or defer to its admonitions; they take pride in the approbation of the pope ; they cause his name to be read aloud in the churches, just as is done in Italy and in Africa they cite his decretals as a source of ecclesiastical law; they show indignation at the mere idea that anyone should fail in consideration for them. Bishops condemned in councils -- like Salonius of Embrun Sagitarius of Gap, Contumeliosus of Riez -- have no difficulty in appealing to the pope, who, after examination, either confirms or rectifies the sentence pronounced against them.

    The accession of the Carlovingian dynasty is marked by a splendid act of homage paid in France to the power of the papacy : before assuming the title of king, Pepin makes a point of securing the assent of Pope Zachary. Without wishing to exaggerate the significance of this act, the bearing of which the Gallicans have done every thing to minimize, one may be permitted to see in it the evidence that, even before Gregory VII, public opinion in France was not hostile to the intervention of the pope in political affairs. From that time on, the advances of the Roman primacy find no serious opponents in France before Hincmar, the famous Archbishop of Reims, in whom some have been willing to see the very founder of Gallicanism. It is true that with him there already appears the idea that the pope must limit his activity to ecclesiastical matters, and not intrude in those pertaining to the State, which concern kings only; that his supremacy is bound to respect the prescriptions of the ancient canons and the privileges of the Churches; that his decretals must not be placed upon the same footing as the canons of the councils. But it appears that we should see here the expression of passing feelings, inspired by the particular circumstances, much rather than a deliberate opinion maturely conceived and conscious of its own meaning. The proof of this is in the fact that Hincmar himself, when his claims to the metropolitan dignity are not in question, condemns very sharply, though at the risk of self-contradiction, the opinion of those who think that the king is subject only to God, and he makes it his boast to "follow the Roman Church whose teachings", he says quoting the famous words of Innocent I , "are imposed upon all men". His attitude, at any rate, stands out as an isolated accident ; the Council of Troyes (867) proclaims that no bishop can be deposed without reference to the Holy See, and the Council of Douzy (871), although held under the influence of Hincmar condemns the Bishop of Laon only under reserve of the rights of the pope.

    With the first Capets the secular relations between the pope and the Gallican Church appeared to be momentarily strained. At the Councils of Saint-Basle de Verzy (991) and of Chelles (c. 993), in the discourses of Arnoul, Bishop of Orléans, in the letters of Gerbert, afterwards Pope Sylvester II , sentiments of violent hostility to the Holy See are manifested, and an evident determination to elude the authority in matters of discipline which had until then been recognized as belonging to it. But the papacy at that period, given over to the tyranny of Crescentius and other local barons, was undergoing a melancholy obscuration. When it regained its independence, its old authority in France came back to it, the work of the Councils of Saint-Basle and of Chelles was undone; princes like Hugh Capet, bishops like Gerbert, held no attitude but that of submission. It has been said that during the early Capetian period the pope was more powerful in France than he had ever been. Under Gregory VII the pope's legates traversed France from north to south, they convoked and presided over numerous councils, and, in spite of sporadic and incoherent acts of resistance, they deposed bishops and excommunicated princes just as in Germany and Spain

    In the following two centuries Gallicanism is even yet unborn; the pontifical power attains its apogee in France as elsewhere, St. Bernard, then the standard bearer of the University of Paris , and St. Thomas outline the theory of that power, and their opinion is that of the school in accepting the attitude of Gregory VII and his successors in regard to delinquent princes, St. Louis, of whom it has been sought to make a patron of the Gallican system, is still ignorant of it -- for the fact is now established that the Pragmatic Sanction, long attributed to him was a wholesale fabrication put together (about 1445) in the purlieus of the Royal Chancellery of Charles VII to lend countenance to the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges .

    At the opening of the fourteenth century, however, the conflict between Philip the Fair and Boniface VIII brings out the first glimmerings of the Gallican ideas. That king does not confine himself to maintaining that, as sovereign he is sole and independent master of his temporalities; he haughtily proclaims that, in virtue of the concession made by the pope, with the assent of a general council to Charlemagne and his successors, he has the right to dispose of vacant ecclesiastical benefices. With the consent of the nobility, the Third Estate, and a great part of the clergy, he appeals in the matter from Boniface VIII to a future general council -- the implication being that the council is superior to the pope. The same ideas and others still more hostile to the Holy See reappear in the struggle of Fratricelles and Louis of Bavaria against John XXII ; they are expressed by the pens of William Occam, of John of Jandun, and of Marsilius of Padua, professors in the University of Paris. Among other things, they deny the Divine origin of the papal primacy, and subject the exercise of it to the good pleasure of the temporal ruler. Following the pope, the University of Paris condemned these views; but for all that they did not entirely disappear from the memory, or from the disputations, of the schools, for the principal work of Marsilius, "Defensor Pacis", wax translated into French in 1375, probably by a professor of the University of Paris The Great Schism reawakened them suddenly. The idea of a council naturally suggested itself as a means of terminating that melancholy rending asunder of Christendom. Upon that idea was soon grafted the "conciliary theory", which sets the council above the pope, making it the sole representative of the Church, the sole organ of infallibility. Timidly sketched by two professors of the University of Paris , Conrad of Gelnhausen and Henry of Langenstein, this theory was completed and noisily interpreted to the public by Pierre d'Ailly and Gerson. At the same time the clergy of France, disgusted with Benedict XIII, took upon itself to withdraw from his obedience. It was in the assembly which voted on this measure (1398) that for the first time there was any question of bringing back the Church of France to its ancient liberties and customs -- of giving its prelates once more the right of conferring and disposing of benefices. The same idea comes into the foreground in the claims put, forward in 1406 by another assembly of the French clergy ; to win the votes of the assembly, certain orators cited the example of what was happening in England. M. Haller has concluded from this that these so-called Ancient Liberties were of English origin, that the Gallican Church really borrowed them from its neighbour, only imagining them to be a revival of its own past. This opinion does not seem well founded. The precedents cited by M. Haller go back to the parliament held at Carlisle in 1307, at which date the tendencies of reaction against papa reservations had already manifested themselves in the assemblies convoked by Philip the Fair in 1302 and 1303. The most that we can admit is, that the same ideas received parallel development from both sides of the channel.

    Together with the restoration of the "Ancient Liberties" the assembly of the clergy in 1406 intended to maintain the superiority of the council to the pope, and the fallibility of the latter. However widely they may have been accepted at the time, these were only individual opinions or opinions of a school, when the Council of Constance came to give them the sanction of its high authority. In its fourth and fifth sessions it declared that the council represented the Church that every person, no matter of what dignity, even the pope, was bound to obey it in what concerned the extirpation of the schism and the reform of the Church ; that even the pope, if he resisted obstinately, might be constrained by process of law to obey It in the above-mentioned points. This was the birth or, if we prefer to call it so, the legitimation of Gallicanism. So far we had encountered in the history of the Gallican Church recriminations of malcontent bishops, or a violent gesture of some prince discomforted in his avaricious designs; but these were only fits of resentment or ill humor, accidents with no attendant consequences; this time the provisions made against exercise of the pontifical authority took to themselves a body and found a fulcrum. Gallicanism has implanted itself in the minds of men as a national doctrine e and it only remains to apply it in practice. This is to be the work of the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges. In that instrument the clergy of France inserted the articles of Constance repeated at Basle, and upon that warrant assumed authority to regulate the collation of benefices and the temporal administration of the Churches on the sole basis of the common law, under the king's patronage, and independently of the pope's action. From Eugene IV to Leo X the popes did not cease to protest against the Pragmatic Sanction, until it was replaced by the Concordat of 1516. But, if its provisions disappeared from the laws of France, the principles it embodied for a time none the less continued to inspire the schools of theology and parliamentary jurisprudence. Those principles even appeared at the Council of Trent, where the ambassadors, theologians, and bishops of France repeatedly championed them, notably when the questions for decision were as to whether episcopal jurisdiction comes immediately from God or through the pope, whether or not the council ought to ask confirmation of its decrees from the sovereign pontiff, etc. Then again, it was in the name of the Liberties of the Gallican Church that a part of the clergy and the Parlementaires opposed the publication of that same council; and the crown decided to detach from it and publish what seemed good, in the form of ordinances emanating from the royal authority.

    Nevertheless, towards the end of the sixteenth century, the reaction against the Protestant denial of all authority to the pope and, above all, the triumph of the League had enfeebled Gallican convictions in the minds of the clergy, if not of the parliament. But the assassination of Henry IV, which was exploited to move public opinion against Ultramontanism and the activity of Edmond Richer, syndic of the Sorbonne, brought about, at the beginning of the seventeenth century, a strong revival of Gallicanism, which was thenceforward to continue gaining in strength from day to day. In 1663 the Sorbonne solemnly declared that it admitted no authority of the pope over the king's temporal dominion, nor his superiority to a general council, nor infallibility apart from the Church's consent. In 1682 matters were much worse. Louis XIV having decided to extend to all the Churches of his kingdom the regale, or right of receiving the revenue of vacant sees, and of conferring the sees themselves at his pleasure, Pope Innocent XI strongly opposed the king's designs. Irritated by this resistance, the king assembled the clergy of France and, on 19 March, 1682, the thirty-six prelates and thirty-four deputies of the second order who constituted that assembly adopted the four articles recited above and transmitted them to all the other bishops and archbishops of France. Three days later the king commanded the registration of the articles in all the schools and faculties of theology ; no one could even be admitted to degrees in theology without having maintained this doctrine in one of his theses and it was forbidden to write anything against them. The Sorbonne, however, yielded to the ordinance of registration only after a spirited resistance. Pope Innocent XI testified his displeasure by the Rescript of 11 April, 1682, in which he voided and annulled all that the assembly had done in regard to the regale, as well as all the consequences of that action; he also refused Bulls to all members of the assembly who were proposed for vacant bishoprics. In like manner his successor Alexander VIII by a Constitution dated 4 August, 1690, quashed as detrimental to the Holy See the proceedings both in the matter of the regale and in that of the declaration on the ecclesiastical power and jurisdiction, which had been prejudicial to the clerical estate and order. The bishops designate to whom Bulls had been refused received them at length, in 1693, only after addressing to Pope Innocent XII a letter in which they disavowed everything that had been decreed in that assembly in regard to the ecclesiastical power and the pontifical authority. The king himself wrote to the pope (14 September, 1693) to announce that a royal order had been issued against the execution of the edict of 23 March, 1682. In spite of these disavowals, the Declaration of 1682 remained thenceforward the living symbol of Gallicanism, professed by the great majority of the French clergy, obligatorily defended in the faculties of theology, schools, and seminaries, guarded from the lukewarmness of French theologians and the attacks of foreigners by the inquisitorial vigilance of the French parliaments, which never failed to condemn to suppression every work that seemed hostile to the principles of the Declaration.

    From France Gallicanism spread, about the middle of the eighteenth century, into the Low Countries, thanks to the works of the jurisconsult Van-Espen. Under the pseudonym of Febronius, Hontheim introduced it into Germany where it took the forms of Febronianism and Josephism. The Council of Pistoia (1786) even tried to acclimatize it in Italy. But its diffusion was sharply arrested by the Revolution, which took away its chief support by overturning the thrones of kings. Against the Revolution that drove them out and wrecked their sees, nothing was left to the bishops of France but to link themselves closely with the Holy See. After the Concordat of 1801 -- itself the most dazzling manifestation of the pope's supreme power -- French Governments made some pretence of reviving, in the Organic Articles, the "Ancient Gallican Liberties" and the obligation of teaching the articles of 1682, but ecclesiastical Gallicanism was never again resuscitated except in the form of a vague mistrust of Rome. On the fall of Napoleon and the Bourbons, the work of Lamennais, of "L'Avenir" and other publications devoted to Roman ideas, the influence of Dom Guéranger, and the effects of religious teaching ever increasingly deprived it of its partisans. When the Vatican Council opened, in 1869, it had in France only timid defenders. When that council declared that the pope has in the Church the plenitude of jurisdiction in matters of faith, morals discipline, and administration that his decisions ex cathedra. are of themselves, and without the assent of he Church, infallible and irreformable, it dealt Gallicanism a mortal blow. Three of the four articles were directly condemned. As to the remaining one, the first, the council made no specific declaration; but an important indication of the Catholic doctrine was given in the condemnation fulminated by Pius IX against the 24th proposition of the Syllabus, in which it was asserted that the Church cannot have recourse to force and is without any temporal authority, direct or indirect. Leo XIII shed more direct light upon the question in his Encyclical "Immortale Dei" (12 November, 1885), where we read: " God has apportioned the government of the human race between two powers, the ecclesiastical and the civil, the former set over things divine, the latter over things human. Each is restricted within limits which are perfectly determined and defined in conformity with its own nature and special aim. There is therefore, as it were a circumscribed sphere in which each exercises its functions jure proprio ". And in the Encyclical "Sapientiae Christianae" (10 January, 1890), the same pontiff adds: "The Church and the State have each its own power, and neither of the two powers is subject to the other."

    Stricken to death, as a free opinion, by the Council of the Vatican, Gallicanism could survive only as a heresy ; the Old Catholics have endeavoured to keep it alive under this form. Judging by the paucity of the adherents whom they have recruited -- daily becoming fewer -- in Germany and Switzerland, it seems very evident that the historical evolution of these ideas has reached its completion.

    Critical Examination

    The principal force of Gallicanism always was that which it drew from the external circumstances in which it arose and grew up: the difficulties of the Church, torn by schism ; the encroachments of the civil authorities ; political turmoil; the interested support of the kings of France. None the less does it seek to establish its own right to exist, and to legitimize its attitude towards the theories of the schools. There is no denying that it has had in its service a long succession of theologians and jurists who did much to assure its success. At the beginning, its first advocates were Pierre d'Ailly and Gerson, whose somewhat daring theories, reflecting the then prevalent disorder of ideas, were to triumph in the Council of Constance. In the sixteenth century Almain and Major make but a poor figure in contrast with Torquemada and Cajetan, the leading theorists of pontifical primacy. But in the seventeenth century the Gallican doctrine takes its revenge with Richer and Launoy, who throw as much passion as science into their efforts to shake the work of Bellarmine, the most solid edifice ever raised in defence of the Church's constitution and the papal supremacy. Pithou, Dupuy, and Marca edited texts or disinterred from archives the judicial monuments best calculated to support parliamentary Gallicanism. After 1682 the attack and defence of Gallicanism were concentrated almost entirely upon the four Articles. While Charlas in his anonymous treatise on the Liberties of the Catholic Church, d'Aguirre, in his "Auctoritas infallibilis et summa sancti Petri", Rocaberti, in his treatise "De Romani pontificis auctoritate", Sfondrato, in his "Gallia vindicata", dealt severe blows at the doctrine of the Declaration, Alexander Natalis and Ellies Dupin searched ecclesiastical history for titles on which to support it. Bossuet carried on the defence at once on the ground of theology and of history. In his "Defensio declarationis", which was not to see the light of day until 1730, he discharged his task with equal scientific power and moderation. Again Gallicanism was ably combatted in the works of Muzzarelli, Bianchi, and Ballerini, and upheld in those of Durand de Maillane, La Luzerne, Maret and Döllinger. But the strife is prolonged beyond its interest; except for the bearing of some few arguments on either side, nothing that is altogether new, after all, is adduced for or against, and it may be said that with Bossuet's work Gallicanism had reached its full development, sustained its sharpest assaults, and exhibited its most efficient means of defence.

    Those means are well known. For the absolute independence of the civil power, affirmed in the first Article, Gallicans drew their argument from the proposition that the theory of indirect power, accepted by Bellarmine, is easily reducible to that of direct power, which he did not accept. That theory was a novelty introduced into the Church by Gregory VII ; until his time the Christian peoples and the popes had suffered injustice from princes without asserting for themselves the right to revolt or to excommunicate. As for the superiority of councils over popes, as based upon the decrees of the Council of Constance, the Gallicans essayed to defend it chiefly by appealing to the testimony of history which, according to them, shows that general councils have never been dependent on the popes, but had been considered the highest authority for the settlement of doctrinal disputes or the establishment of disciplinary regulations. The third Article was supported by the same arguments or upon the declarations of the popes. It is true that that Article made respect for the canons a matter rather of high propriety than of obligation for the Holy See. Besides, the canons alleged were among those that had been established with the consent of the pope and of the Churches, the plenitude of the pontifical jurisdiction was therefore safeguarded and Bossuet pointed out that this article had called forth hardly any protests from the adversaries of Gallicanism. It was not so with the fourth Article, which implied a negation of papal infallibility. Resting chiefly on history, the whole Gallican argument reduced to the position that the Doctors of the Church -- St. Cyprian, St. Augustine, St. Basil, St. Thomas, and the rest -- had not known pontifical infallibility ; that pronouncements emanating from the Holy See had been submitted to examination by councils; that popes -- Liberius, Honorius, Zosimus, and others -- had promulgated erroneous dogmatic decisions. Only the line of popes, the Apostolic See, was infallible ; but each pope, taken individually, was liable to error.

    This is not the place to discuss the force of this line of argument, or set forth the replies which it elicited; such an enquiry will more appropriately form part of the article devoted to the primacy of the Roman See. Without involving ourselves in technical developments, however, we may call attention to the weakness, of the Scriptural scaffolding upon which Gallicanism supported its fabric. Not only was it opposed by the luminous clearness of Christ's words -- "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock will I build My Church "; "I have prayed for thee, Peter, that thy faith fail not . . . confirm thy brethren" -- but it finds nothing in Scripture which could warrant the doctrine of the supremacy of council or the distinction between the line of popes and the individuals -- the Sedes and the Sedens . Supposing there were any doubt of Christ's having promised infallibility to Peter, it is perfectly certain that He did not promise it to the council, or to the See of Rome, neither of which is named in the Gospel.

    The pretension implied in Gallicanism -- that only the schools and the churches of France possessed the truth as to the pope's authority, that they had been better able than any others to defend themselves against the encroachments of Rome -- was insulting to the sovereign pontiff and invidious to the other churches. It does not belong to one part of the Church to decide what council is oecumenical, and what is not. By what right was this honour refused in France to the Councils of Florence (1439) and the Lateran (1513), and accorded to that of Constance ? Why, above all, should we attribute to the decision of this council, which was only a temporary expedient to escape from a deadlock, the force of a general principle, a dogmatic decree ? And moreover, at the time when these decisions were taken, the council presented neither the character, nor the conditions, nor the authority of a general synod ; it is not clear that among the majority of the members there was present any intention of formulating a dogmatic definition, nor is it proved that the approbation given by Martin V to some of the decrees extended to these. Another characteristic which is apt to diminish one's respect for Gallican ideas is their appearance of having been too much influenced, originally and evolutionally, by interested motives. Suggested by theologians who were under bonds to the emperors, accepted as an expedient to restore the unity of the Church, they had never been more loudly proclaimed than in the course of the conflicts which arose between popes and kings, and then always for the advantage of the latter. In truth they savoured too much of a courtly bias. "The Gallican Liberties", Joseph de Maistre has said, "are but a fatal compact signed by the Church of France, in virtue of which she submitted to the outrages of the Parliament on condition of being allowed to pass them on to the sovereign pontiff ". The history of the assembly of 1682 is not such as to give the lie to this severe judgment. It was a Gallican -- no other than Baillet -- who wrote: "The bishops who served Philip the Fair were upright in heart and seemed to be actuated by a genuine, if somewhat too vehement, zeal for the rights of the Crown; whereas among those whose advice Louis XIV followed there were some who, under pretext of the public welfare, only sought to avenge themselves, by oblique and devious methods, on those whom they regarded as the censors of their conduct and their sentiments."

    Even apart from every other consideration, the practical consequences to which Gallicanism led, and the way in which the State turned it to account should suffice to wean Catholics from it forever. It was

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    Gédoyn, Nicolas

    A French translator and literary critic; b. at Orléans, 17 June, 1667; d. 10 August, 1744, ...

    Génebrard, Gilbert

    A learned Benedictine exegete and Orientalist, b. 12 December, 1535, at Riom, in the department ...

    Génicot, Edward

    Moral theologian, b. at Antwerp, Belgium, 18 June, 1856; d. at Louvain, 21 February, 1900. After ...

    Géramb, Baron Ferdinand de

    In religion, Brother Mary Joseph; Abbot and procurator-general of La Trappe, came of a noble and ...

    Gérando, Joseph-Marie de

    A French statesman and writer, born at Lyons, 29 February, 1772; died at Paris, 10 November, ...

    Gérard, Abbot of Brogne, Saint

    Born at Staves in the county of Namur, towards the end of the ninth century; died at Brogne or ...

    Géry, Saint

    (Latin Gaugericus ). Bishop of Cambrai - Arras ; b. of Roman parents, Gaudentius and ...

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    Gómara, Francisco Lopez de

    ( Or GOMORA.) Born at Seville, Spain, in 1510; studied at the University of Alcalá, ...

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    Görres, Guido

    Historian, publicist, and poet; b. at Coblenz on 28 May, 1805; d. at Munich on 14 July, 1852. He ...

    Görres, Johann Joseph

    Born at Coblenz, in the heart of the Rhine country, 25 January, 1776; died at Munich, 29 January, ...

    Görz

    ( Italian GORIZIA; Slovene GORICA). Capital of the Austrian crown-land Görz and ...

    Göttweig, Abbey of

    (GOTTWEIH, GOTTVICUM, GOTTVICENSE). A Benedictine abbey situated on a hill of the same name, ...

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    3

    Gügler, Joseph Heinrich Aloysius

    Born at Udligerschwyl, near Lucerne, Switzerland, 25 August, 1782; died at Lucerne, 28 February, ...

    Günther of Cologne

    (also GUNTHAR) An archbishop of that city, died 8 July, 873. He belonged to a noble ...

    Günther, Anton

    Philosopher ; b. 17 Nov., 1783, at Lindenau, near Leitmeritz, Bohemia ; d. at Vienna, 24 ...

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    Ga 103

    Gabala

    A titular see of Syria Prima. Ten bishops of this city are known between 325 and 553, the ...

    Gabbatha

    The Aramaic appellation of a place in Jerusalem, designated also under the Greek name of ...

    Gaboon

    V ICARIATE A POSTOLIC OF G ABUN Formerly called the Vicariate Apostolic of the Two ...

    Gabriel Possenti, Blessed

    Passionist student; renowned for sanctity and miracles ; born at Assisi, 1 March, 1838; died ...

    Gabriel Sionita

    A learned Maronite, famous for his share in the publication of the Parisian polyglot of the ...

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    "Fortitudo Dei", one of the three archangels mentioned in the Bible . Only four appearances of ...

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    The Congregation of the Brothers of Christian Instruction of St. Gabriel was originally founded ...

    Gad

    ( , fortune, luck). A proper name which designates in the Bible , (I), a patriarch; (II), a ...

    Gadara

    A titular see of Palaestina Prima; there were two sees of this name, one in Palaestina Prima, ...

    Gaddi, Agnolo, Giovanni, and Taddeo

    Florentine artists, Taddeo being the father of Agnolo and Giovanni. The dates of their birth ...

    Gaeta

    ARCHDIOCESE OF GAETA (CAIETANA). Archdiocese in the province of Caserta in Campania (Southern ...

    Gaetano, Saint

    (GAETANO.) Founder of the Theatines, born October, 1480 at Vicenza in Venetian territory; ...

    Gagarin, Ivan Sergejewitch

    Gagarin was of the princely Russian family which traces its origin to the ancient rulers of ...

    Gagliardi, Achille

    Ascetic writer and spiritual director ; born at Padua, Italy, in 1537; died at Modena, 6 ...

    Gahan, William

    A priest and author; born 5 June, 1732, in the parish of St. Nicholas, Dublin ; died ...

    Gaillard, Claude Ferdinand

    A French engraver and painter ; b. at Paris, 7 Jan., 1834; d. there, 27 Jan., 1887. His early ...

    Gal, Saint

    Of the ninety-eight bishops who have occupied the see of Clermont-Ferrand (Auvergne) the ...

    Galantini, Ippolito, Blessed

    Founder of the Congregation of Christian Doctrine of Florence; b. at Florence of obscure ...

    Galatians, Epistle to the

    GALATIA In the course of centuries, gallic tribes, related to those that invaded Italy and ...

    Galatino, Pietro Colonna

    Friar Minor, philosopher, theologian, Orientalist ; b. at Galatia (now Cajazzo) in Apulia; d. at ...

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    Galien, Joseph

    Dominican, professor of philosophy and theology at the University of Avignon, meteorologist, ...

    Galilee

    ( Septuagint and New Testament Galilaia ). The native land of Jesus Christ, where He began ...

    Galilei, Alessandro

    An eminent Florentine architect ; born 1691; died 1737. Having attained some distinction, he ...

    Galilei, Galileo

    Generally called GALILEO. Born at Pisa, 15 February, 1564; died 8 January, 1642. His father, ...

    Galitzin, Elizabeth

    Princess, religious of the Sacred Heart ; born at St. Petersburg, 22 February, 1797; died in ...

    Gall, Abbey of Saint

    In Switzerland, Canton St. Gall, 30 miles southeast of Constance ; for many centuries one of ...

    Gall, Saint

    (GALLUS; in the most ancient manuscript he is called GALLO, GALLONUS, GALLUNUS, and sometimes ...

    Galla

    Vicariate Apostolic embracing the territory of the Galla or Oromo tribes in Abyssinia. In its ...

    Galla, Saint

    A Roman widow of the sixth century; feast, 5 October. According to St. Gregory the Great ...

    Gallait, Louis

    Flemish painter ; born at Tournai, 10 May, 1810; died in Brussels, 20 November, 1887. He ...

    Galland, Antoine

    French Orientalist and numismatist, b. at Rollot, near Montdidier, in Picardy, 1646, d. at ...

    Gallandi, Andrea

    Oratorian and patristic scholar, born at Venice, 7 December, 1709; died there 12 January, 1779, ...

    Galle

    DIOCESE OF GALLE (GALLENSIS). Diocese in Ceylon, created by Leo XIII 25 Aug., 1893, by ...

    Gallego, Juan Nicasio

    Priest and poet; born at Zamora, Spain, 14 December, 1777; died at Madrid, 9 January, 1853; ...

    Galletti, Pietro Luigi

    Benedictine, historian and archaeologist; b. at Rome in 1724; d. there, 13 December, 1790. He ...

    Gallia Christiana

    A documentary catalogue or list, with brief historical notices, of all the dioceses and ...

    Gallican Rite, The

    This subject will be treated under the following six heads: I. History and Origin; II. ...

    Gallicanism

    This term is used to designate a certain group of religious opinions for some time peculiar to the ...

    Gallicanus, Saints

    The following saints of this name are commemorated on 25 June: (1) St. Gallicanus Roman ...

    Gallienus, Publius Licinius Egnatius

    Roman emperor; b. about 218; d. at Milan, 4 March, 268; appointed regent by his father Valerian ...

    Gallifet, Joseph de

    Priest ; b. near Aix, France, 2 May 1663; d. at Lyons, 1 September, 1749. He entered the ...

    Gallipoli

    DIOCESE OF GALLIPOLI (GALLIPOLITANA). Diocese in the province of Lecce (Southern Italy ). ...

    Gallitzin, Adele Amalie

    (Or GOLYZIN). Princess; b. at Berlin, 28 Aug., 1748; d. at Angelmodde, near Münster, ...

    Gallitzin, Demetrius Augustine

    Prince, priest, and missionary, born at The Hague, Holland, 22 December, 1770; died at Loretto, ...

    Galloway, Diocese of

    (Gallovidiana). Situated in the southwest of Scotland. It comprises the Counties of Dumfries, ...

    Galluppi, Pasquale

    Philosopher, b. at Tropea, in Calabria, 2 April, 1770; d. at Naples, 13 Dec., 1846, where from ...

    Gallwey, Peter

    Born at Killarney, 13 Nov., 1820; d. in London, 23 Sept., 1906; one of the best-known London ...

    Galtelli-Nuoro

    (Galtellinensis-Norensis) Diocese in the province of Sassari (Sardinia), on a hill of the ...

    Galura, Bernhard

    Prince- Bishop of Brixen ; b. 21 August, 1764, at Herbolzheim, Bresigau; d. 17 May, 1856. After ...

    Galvani, Luigi

    Physician, b. at Bologna, Italy, 9 September, 1737; d. there, 4 December, 1798. It was his ...

    Galveston

    DIOCESE OF GALVESTON (GALVESTONIENSIS). The Diocese of Galveston was established in 1847 and ...

    Galway and Kilmacduagh

    DIOCESE OF GALWAY AND KILMACDUAGH (GALVIENSIS ET DUACENSIS). Diocese in Ireland ; an ...

    Gama, Vasco da

    The discover of the sea route to East Indies; born at Sines, Province of Alemtejo, Portugal, ...

    Gamaliel

    (Greek form of the Hebrew name meaning "reward of God "). The name designates in the New ...

    Gamans, Jean

    Born 8 July, 1606, at Ahrweiler (according to other sources at Neuenahr, about two miles from ...

    Gambling

    Gambling , or gaming , is the staking of money or other thing of value on the issue of a game ...

    Gams, Pius Bonifacius

    An ecclesiastical historian, b. at Mittelbuch, Würtemberg, 23 January, 1816; d. Munich, ...

    Gandolphy, Peter

    (Or Gandolphi.) Jesuit preacher; b. in London, 26 July, 1779; d. at East Sheen, Surrey, 9 ...

    Gangra

    A titular see in the province of Paphlagonia; in the native tongue the word signifies goat, and ...

    Gansfort, John Wessel

    (GANSFORT). A fifteenth-century Dutch theologian, born at Gröningen in 1420; died there ...

    Gap

    (VAPINCENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Aix, includes the department of the Hautes-Alpes. ...

    García Moreno, Gabriel

    Ecuadorean patriot and statesman; b. at Guayaquil, 24 December, 1821; assassinated at Quito, 6 ...

    García, Anne

    Better known as Venerable Anne of St. Bartholomew, Discalced Carmelite nun, companion of St. ...

    Garcia, Saint Gonsalo

    Born of a Portuguese father and a Canarese mother in Bassein, East India, about the year 1556 or ...

    Garcilasso de la Vega

    Spanish lyric poet; b. at Toledo, 6 Feb., 1503; d. at Nice, 14 Oct., 1536. A noble and a ...

    Garcilasso de la Vega

    Historian of Peru ; b. at Cuzco, Peru, 12 April, 1539; d. at Córdoba, Spain, c. 1617. The ...

    Gardellini, Aloisio

    Born at Rome, 4 Aug., 1759; died there, 8 Oct., 1829. He is famous chiefly for his collection of ...

    Garesché, Julius Peter

    Soldier; born 26 April, 1821, near Havana, Cuba; killed at the battle of Stone River, Tennessee, ...

    Garet, Jean

    Benedictine of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Havre about 1627; died at ...

    Gargara

    A titular see in the province of Asia, suffragan of Ephesus. The city appears to have been ...

    Garin, André

    An Oblate missionary and parish priest, born 7 May, 1822, at Côte-Saint-André, ...

    Garland

    A wreath of flowers or evergreens formerly used in connection with baptismal, nuptial, and ...

    Garland, John

    An English poet and grammarian, who lived in the middle of the thirteenth century. He tells us ...

    Garlick, Venerable Nicholas

    Priest and martyr, born at Dinting, Derbyshire, c. 1555; died at Derby, 24 July, 1588. He ...

    Garneau, François-Xavier

    A French Canadian historian, b. at Quebec, 15 June, 1809, of François-Xavier Garneau and ...

    Garnet, Henry

    (Garnett.) English martyr, b. 1553-4; d. 1606, son of Brian Garnet, master of Nottingham ...

    Garnet, Saint Thomas

    Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...

    Garnier, Charles

    Jesuit Missionary, born at Paris, 1606, of Jean G. and Anne de Garault; died 7 December, 1649. He ...

    Garnier, Jean

    Church historian, patristic scholar, and moral theologian ; b. at Paris, 11 Nov., 1612; d. at ...

    Garnier, Julien

    Jesuit missionary, born at Connerai, France, 6 January, 1642; d. in Quebec, 1730. He entered ...

    Garrucci, Raffaele

    A historian of Christian art, b. at Naples, 22 January, 1812; d. at Rome, 5 May, 1885. He ...

    Garzon

    (GARZONENSIS.) Suffragan diocese of Popayan in the Republic of Colombia . It comprises the ...

    Gaspare del Bufalo, Blessed

    Founder of the Missionaries of the Most Precious Blood (C.P.P.S.); b. at Rome on the feast of ...

    Gaspe, Philippe-Aubert de

    A French Canadian writer, b. at Quebec, 30 Oct., 1786, of a family ennobled by Louis XIV in ...

    Gassendi, Pierre

    (GASSENDY, GASSEND.) A French philosopher and scientist ; b. at Champtercier, a country ...

    Gasser von Valhorn, Joseph

    An Austrian sculptor, b. 22 Nov., 1816 at Prägraten, Tyrol; d. 28 Oct., 1900. He was first ...

    Gassner, Johann Joseph

    A celebrated exorcist ; b. 22 Aug., 1727, at Braz, Vorarlberg, Austria ; d. 4 April, 1779, at ...

    Gaston, William

    Jurist; b. at Newbern, North Carolina , U.S.A. 19 Sept., 1778: d. at Raleigh, North Carolina ...

    Gatianus, Saint

    Founder and bishop of Tours ; b. probably at Rome ; d. at Tours, 20 December, 301. He came ...

    Gau, Franz Christian

    Architect and archeologist, b. at Cologne, 15 June, 1790; d. at Paris, January, 1854. In 1809 he ...

    Gaubil, Antoine

    A French Jesuit and missionary to China, b. at Gaillac (Aveyron), 14 July, 1689; d. at Peking, ...

    Gaudentius of Brescia

    (GAUDENTIUS BRIXIENSIS or BONTEMPS.) A theologian of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins ; ...

    Gaudentius, Saint

    Bishop of Brescia from about 387 until about 410; he was the successor of the writer on ...

    Gaudete Sunday

    The third Sunday of Advent, so called from the first word of the Introit at Mass ( Gaudete ...

    Gaudier, Antoine de

    A writer on asectic theology ; b. at Château-Thierry, France, 7 January, 1572; d. at ...

    Gaudiosus

    Bishop of Tarazona (Turiasso), Spain ; died about 540. Our information concerning the life ...

    Gaul, Christian

    The Church of Gaul first appeared in history in connexion with the persecution at Lyons under ...

    Gaultier, Aloisius-Edouard-Camille

    Priest and schoolmaster; b. at Asti, Piedmont, about 1745, of French parents ; d. at Paris, 18 ...

    Gaume, Jean-Joseph

    French theologian and author, b. at Fuans (Franche-Comté) in 1802; d. in 1879. While ...

    Gavantus, Bartolommeo

    (GAVANTO) Liturgist, a member of the Barnabite Order ; b. at Monza, 1569; d. at Milan, 14 ...

    Gaza

    ( Hebrew 'Azzah , "the strong") A titular see of Palaestina Prima, in the Patriarchate ...

    Gazzaniga, Pietro Maria

    A theologian, b. at Bergamo, Italy, 3 March, 1722; d. at Vicenza, 11 Dec., 1799. At a very ...

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    Ge 93

    Gebhard (III) of Constance

    Bishop of that city and strenuous defender of papal rights against imperial encroachments ...

    Gebhart, Emile

    A French professor and writer, b. 19 July, 1839, at Nancy ; d. 22 April, 1908, in Paris. He was ...

    Gedeon

    Gideon or Gedeon (Hebrew "hewer"), also called JEROBAAL ( Judges 6:32 ; 7:1 ; etc.), and ...

    Gegenbauer, Josef Anton

    An accomplished German historical and portrait painter, b. 6 March, 1800, at Wangen, ...

    Geiler von Kayserberg, Johann

    A celebrated German pulpit orator, b. at Schaffhausen, Switzerland, 16 March, 1445; d. at ...

    Geissel, Johannes von

    Cardinal, Archbishop of Cologne, b. 5 February, 1796, at Gimmeldingen, in the Palatinate; d. 8 ...

    Gelasius I, Pope Saint

    Died at Rome, 19 Nov., 496. Gelasius, as he himself states in his letter to the Emperor ...

    Gelasius II, Pope

    Born at Gaeta, year unknown; elected 24 Jan., 1118; died at Cluny, 29 Jan., 1119. No sooner had ...

    Gelasius of Cyzicus

    Ecclesiastical writer. He was the son of a priest of Cyzicus, and wrote in Bithynia, about 475, ...

    Gemblours

    (Gembloux, Gemblacum) A suppressed Benedictine monastery about nine miles north-west of ...

    Genealogy (in the Bible)

    The word genealogy occurs only twice in the New Testament : I Tim., i, 4, and Tit., iii, 9. ...

    Genealogy of Christ

    It is granted on all sides that the Biblical genealogy of Christ implies a number of exegetical ...

    General Chapter

    ( Latin capitulum , a chapter). The daily assembling of a community for purposes of ...

    General Judgment

    (Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

    Generation

    ( Latin Vulgate, generatio ). This word, of very varied meaning, corresponds to the two ...

    Genesareth

    ( Gennesaret .) This is the name given to the Lake of Tiberias in Luke 5:1; called ...

    Genesius

    (1) Genesius (of Rome) A comedian at Rome, martyred under Diocletian in 286 or 303. Feast, 25 ...

    Genevieve, Saint

    Patroness of Paris, b. at Nanterre, c. 419 or 422; d. at Paris, 512. Her feast is kept on 3 ...

    Genezareth, Land of

    By this name is designated in Mark, vi, 53, a district of Palestine bordering on the Sea of ...

    Genga, Girolamo

    A painter, born at Urbino in 1476; died at the same place, 1551. This talented craftsman was ...

    Gennadius I, Saint

    Patriarch of Constantinople (458-471), has left scarcely any writings. Facundus (Defensio, II, ...

    Gennadius II

    Patriarch of Constantinople (1454-1456). His original name was George Scholarius ( Georgios ...

    Gennadius of Marseilles

    (GENNADIUS SCHOLASTICUS). A priest whose chief title to fame is his continuation of St. ...

    Gennings, Edmund and John

    The first, a martyr for the Catholic Faith, and the second, the restorer of the English province ...

    Genoa

    ARCHDIOCESE OF GENOA (JANUENSIS) Archdiocese in Liguria, Northern Italy. The city is situated ...

    Gentile da Fabriano

    Italian painter ; b. probably about 1378 in the District of the Marches; d. probably 1427. The ...

    Gentiles

    ( Hebrew Gôyîm ; Greek ethne, ethnikoi , Hellenes ; Vulgate Gentes, Gentiles, ...

    Gentili, Aloysius

    Born 14 July, 1801, at Rome ; died 26 September, 1848, at Dublin. He was proficient in poetry, ...

    Genuflexion

    To genuflect [ Latin genu flectere , geniculare (post-classic), to bend the knee; Greek ...

    Geoffrey of Clairvaux

    A disciple of Bernard, was b. between the years 1115 and 1120, at Auxerre; d. some time after ...

    Geoffrey of Dunstable

    Also known as GEOFFREY OF GORHAM. Abbot of St. Alban's, d. at St. Alban's, 26 Feb., 1146. He ...

    Geoffrey of Monmouth

    (GAUFRIDUS ARTURUS, GALFRIDUS MONEMETENSIS, GALFFRAI or GRUFFYD AB ARTHUR). Bishop of St. ...

    Geoffrey of Vendôme

    (GOFFRIDUS ABBAS VINDOCINENSIS.) A cardinal, b. in the second half of the eleventh century of ...

    Geography and the Church

    The classic historians of geography, Alexander von Humboldt, Carl Ritter, and Oscar Peschel, never ...

    Geography, Biblical

    With the exception of the didactic literature, there is no book in the Bible which, to a greater ...

    George Hamartolus

    A monk at Constantinople under Michael III (842-867) and the author of a chronicle of some ...

    George of Trebizond

    A Greek scholar of the early Italian Renaissance ; b. in Crete (a Venetian possession from ...

    George Pisides

    (Or THE PISIDIAN). A Byzantine poet lived in the first half of the seventh century. From his ...

    George the Bearded

    (Also called THE RICH.) Duke of Saxony, b. at Dresden, 27 August, 1471; d. in the same city, ...

    George, Orders of Saint

    Knights of St. George appear at different historical periods and in different countries as ...

    George, Saint

    Martyr, patron of England, suffered at or near Lydda, also known as Diospolis, in Palestine, ...

    Georgetown University

    Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia , "is the oldest Catholic literary ...

    Georgia

    STATISTICS The area of Georgia is 59,475 sq. m., and it is the largest of the original thirteen ...

    Georgius Syncellus

    (Greek Georgios ho Sygkellos ). Died after 810; the author of one of the more important ...

    Gerace

    DIOCESE OF GERACE (HIERACENSIS). Diocese in the province of Reggio in Calabria (Southern Italy ...

    Gerald, Saint

    Bishop of Mayo, an English monk, date of birth unknown; died 13 March, 731; followed St. ...

    Geraldton

    DIOCESE OF GERALDTON (GERALDTONENSIS). Diocese in Australia, established in 1898, comprises ...

    Gerard Majella, Saint

    Born in Muro, about fifty miles south of Naples, in April, 1726; died 16 October, 1755; ...

    Gerard of Cremona

    A twelfth-century student of Arabic science and translator from Arabic into Latin; born at ...

    Gerard, Archbishop of York

    Date of birth unknown; died at Southwell, 21 May, 1108. He was a nephew of Walkelin, Bishop of ...

    Gerard, Bishop of Toul, Saint

    Born at Cologne, 935; died at Toul, 23 April, 994. Belonging to a wealthy and noble family, he ...

    Gerard, John

    Jesuit ; born 4 October, 1564; died 27 July, 1637. He is well known through his autobiography, a ...

    Gerard, Richard

    Confessor ; born about 1635; died 11 March, 1680 (O.S.). The Bromley branch of the Gerard ...

    Gerard, Ven. Miles

    Martyr ; born about 1550 at Wigan; executed at Rochester 13 (30?) April, 1590. Sprung perhaps ...

    Gerardus Odonis

    Also Geraldus Othonis , or Ottonis , a medieval theologian and Minister General of the ...

    Gerasa

    A titular see in the province of Arabia and the Patriarchate of Antioch. According to ...

    Gerberon, Gabriel

    A Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation ; b. at St-Calais, Department of Sarthe, France, 12 ...

    Gerbet, Olympe-Phillipe

    A French bishop and writer; b. at Poligny (Jura), 1798; d. at Perpignan (Pyrénées ...

    Gerbillon, Jean-François

    French missionary; born at Verdun, 4 June, 1654; died at Peking, China, 27 March, 1707. He ...

    Gerdil, Hyacinthe Sigismond

    Cardinal and theologian ; b. at Samoëns in Savoy, 20 June, 1718; d. at Rome, 12 August ...

    Gerhard of Zütphen

    (ZERBOLT OF ZUTPHEN) Born at Zütphen, 1367; died at Windesheim, 1398; a mystical writer ...

    Gerhoh of Reichersberg

    Provost of that place and Austin canon , one of the most distinguished theologians of Germany ...

    Germain, Saint, Bishop of Auxerre

    Bishop of Auxerre, born at Auxerre c. 380; died at Ravenna, 31 July, 448. He was the son of ...

    Germain, Saint, Bishop of Paris

    Bishop of Paris ; born near Autun, Saône-et-Loire, c. 496; died at Paris, 28 May, 576. ...

    Germaine Cousin, Saint

    Born in 1579 of humble parents at Pibrac, a village about ten miles from Toulouse ; died in ...

    German Gardiner, Blessed

    Last martyr under Henry VIII ; date of birth unknown; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1544; ...

    German Literature

    I. FROM OLDEST PRE-CHRISTIAN PERIOD TO 800 A.D. There are no written monuments before the eighth ...

    Germanicia

    A titular see in the province of Euphratensis and the patriarchate of Antioch; incorrectly ...

    Germanicopolis

    A titular see in the province of Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia. The city took its name from ...

    Germans in the United States

    Germans, either by birth or descent, form a very important element in the population of the ...

    Germanus I, Saint

    Patriarch of Constantinople (715-30), b. at Constantinople towards the end of the reign of ...

    Germany

    I. BEFORE 1556 From their first appearance in the history of the world the Germans represented ...

    Germany, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern

    (VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF THE NORTHERN MISSIONS) Its jurisdiction covers the Grand Duchies of ...

    Germia

    A titular see of Galatia Secunda, a suffragan of Pessinus ; mentioned by Hierocles in the ...

    Gerona

    DIOCESE OF GERONA (GERUNDENSIS) The Diocese of Geronia in Catalonia, Spain, suffragan of ...

    Gerrha

    A titular see in the province of Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium in the Patriarchate ...

    Gerson, Jean de Charlier de

    The surname being the name of his native place; b. in the hamlet of Gerson 14 December, 1363; d. ...

    Gertrude of Aldenberg, Blessed

    Abbess of the Premonstratensian convent of Aldenberg, near Wetzlar, in the Diocese of Trier ; ...

    Gertrude of Hackeborn

    Cistercian Abbess of Helfta, near Eisleben; born near Halberstadt in 1232; died towards the end ...

    Gertrude of Nivelles, Saint

    Virgin, and Abbess of the Benedictine monastery of Nivelles; born in 626; died 17 March, 659. ...

    Gertrude the Great, Saint

    Benedictine and mystic writer; born in Germany, 6 Jan., 1256; died at Helfta, near Eisleben, ...

    Gertrude van der Oosten, Venerable

    Beguine ; born at Voorburch, Holland ; died at Delft, 6 Jan., 1358. She was born of peasant ...

    Gervaise, Dom François Armand

    Discalced Carmelite, b. at Paris, 1660; d. at Reclus, France, 1761. After completing his ...

    Gervase of Canterbury

    (GERVAS US DOROBORNENSIS) English chronicler, b. about 1141; d. in, or soon after, 1210. If ...

    Gervase of Tilbury

    (TILBERIENSIS) Medieval writer, b. probably at Tilbury, in the County of Essex, England, ...

    Gervase, George

    (Jervise.) Priest and martyr, born at Boscham, Suffolk, England, 1571; died at Tyburn, 11 ...

    Gervasius and Protasius, Saints

    Martyrs of Milan, probably in the second century, patrons of the city of Milan and of ...

    Gesellenvereine

    German Catholic societies for the religious, moral, and professional improvement of young men. ...

    Gesta Dei per Francos

    Gesta Dei per Francos is the title adopted by Guibert de Nogent (died about 1124) for his history ...

    Gesta Romanorum

    A medieval collection of anecdotes, to which moral reflections are attached. It was compiled ...

    Gethsemane

    Gethsemani (Hebrew gat , press, and semen , oil) is the place in which Jesus Christ ...

    Gethsemane, Abbey of Our Lady of

    An abbey of the Order of Reformed Cistercians, commonly called Trappists, established in ...

    Gezireh

    Gezireh (or Djezireh), seat of two Catholic residential sees, one Chaldean, the other Syrian. ...

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    Gf 1

    Gfrörer, August Friedrich

    German historian; b. at Calw, Würtemberg, 5 March, 1803; d. at Karlsbad, 6 July, 1861. ...

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    Gh 7

    Ghardaia

    Prefecture Apostolic in the French Sahara, separated in 1901 from the Vicariate Apostolic of ...

    Ghent

    DIOCESE OF GHENT (GANDENSIS or GANDAVENSIS). The Diocese of Ghent at present comprises the ...

    Ghibellines and Guelphs

    Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the ...

    Ghiberti, Lorenzo di Cione

    Sculptor ; b. at Florence about 1381; d. there, December, 1455. He ushered in the early ...

    Ghirlandajo

    (D OMENICO DI T OMMASO B IGORDI ). A famous Florentine painter ; b. 1449; d. 11 Jan., ...

    Ghislain, Saint

    Confessor and anchorite in Belgium ; b. in the first half of the seventh century; d. at ...

    Ghost Dance

    The principal ceremonial rite of a peculiar Indian religion with originated about 1887 with ...

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    Gi 53

    Giannone, Pietro

    Italian historian, born 7 May, 1676, at Ischitella in the province of Capinata, Naples ; died ...

    Gibail and Batrun

    A Maronite residential see. Gibail is merely the modern name of Byblos a titular see of ...

    Gibault, Pierre

    Missionary, b. at Montreal, Canada, 1737; d. at New Madrid, about 1804; son of Pierre Gibault ...

    Gibbons, John

    Jesuit theologian and controversialist; b. 1544, at or near Wells, Somersetshire; died 16 Aug. or ...

    Gibbons, Richard

    Brother of Father John Gibbons, born at Winchester, 1550 or 1549; died at Douai, 23 June, 1632. ...

    Giberti, Gian Matteo

    Cardinal, and Bishop of Verona, the natural son of Francesco Giberti, a Genoese naval ...

    Giberti, Jean-Pierre

    Canonist; b. at Aix, Provence, in 1660; d. at Paris in 1736. He became a cleric at an early ...

    Gibraltar

    VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF GIBRALTAR. Gibraltar is a rugged promontory in the province of ...

    Gideon

    Gideon or Gedeon (Hebrew "hewer"), also called JEROBAAL ( Judges 6:32 ; 7:1 ; etc.), and ...

    Giffard, Bonaventure

    Born at Wolverhampton, England, 1642; died at Hammersmith, Middlesex, 12 March, 1734; second son ...

    Giffard, Godfrey

    Bishop of Worcester, b. about 1235; d. 26 Jan., 1301. He was the son of Hugh Giffard of Boyton ...

    Giffard, William

    Second Norman Bishop of Winchester from 1100 to 1129. Little is known of his history anterior ...

    Gifford, William

    Archbishop of Reims ; b. in Hampshire, 1554; d. at Reims, 11 April, 1629. He was the son of ...

    Gift of Miracles

    The gift of miracles is one of those mentioned by St. Paul in his First Epistle to the ...

    Gift, Supernatural

    A supernatural gift may be defined as something conferred on nature that is above all the ...

    Gil de Albornoz, Alvarez Carillo

    A renowned cardinal, general, and statesman; b. about 1310 at Cuenca in New Castile ; d. 23 ...

    Gil of Santarem, Blessed

    A Portuguese Dominican : b. at Vaozela, diocese of Viseu, about 1185; d. at Santarem, 14 May, ...

    Gilbert de la Porrée

    (Gilbertus Porretanus) Bishop of Poitiers, philosopher, theologian and general scholar; b. ...

    Gilbert Foliot

    Bishop of London, b. early in the twelfth century of an Anglo-Norman family and connected ...

    Gilbert Islands

    Vicariate apostolic ; comprises the group of that name, besides the islands of Ellice and ...

    Gilbert of Sempringham, Saint

    Founder of the Order of Gilbertines , b. at Sempringham, on the border of the Lincolnshire fens, ...

    Gilbert, Nicolas-Joseph-Laurent

    Poet, b. at Fontenoy-le-Château, 1751; d. at Paris, 12 November, 1780. His parents were ...

    Gilbert, Sir John Thomas

    Irish archivist and historian, b. in Dublin, 23 January, 1829; d. there, 23 May, 1898. He was ...

    Gilbertines, Order of

    Founded by St. Gilbert, about the year 1130, at Sempringham, Gilbert's native place, where he was ...

    Gildas, Saint

    Surnamed the Wise; b. about 516; d. at Houat, Brittany, 570. Sometimes he is called "Badonicus" ...

    Giles, Saint

    (Latin Ægidius.) An Abbot, said to have been born of illustrious Athenian parentage ...

    Gillespie, Eliza Maria

    (In religion Mother Mary of St. Angela). Born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, 21 ...

    Gillespie, Neal Henry

    Brother of Eliza Maria Gillespie ; b. in Washington County, Pennsylvania, 19 January 1831; d. at ...

    Gillis, James

    Scottish bishop ; b. at Montreal, Canada, 7 April, 1802; d. at Edinburgh, 24 February 1864. He ...

    Gilmore, Patrick Sarsfield

    A musician, born at Ballygar Galway, Ireland, 25 Dec., 1829; died at St. Louis, 24 Sept., 1892; ...

    Gindarus

    A titular see of Syria Prima, in the Patriarchate of Antioch. Pliny (Hist. nat. V, 81) ...

    Ginoulhiac, Jacques-Marie-Achille

    A French bishop ; b. at Montpellier (department of Herault) 3 Dec., 1806; d. there 17 Nov., ...

    Gioberti, Vincenzo

    An Italian statesman and philosopher ; b. at Turin, 5 April, 1801; d. at Paris, 26 October, ...

    Giocondo, Fra Giovanni

    An Italian architect, antiquary, archaeologist, and classical scholar, b. in Verona, c. 1445; ...

    Giordani, Tommasso

    A composer, b. at Naples in 1738; d. at Dublin, Ireland, February 1806. The family came to ...

    Giordano, Luca

    Neapolitan painter ; b. at Naples, 1632; d. in the same place, 12 Jan., 1705. He was esteemed ...

    Giorgione

    (GIORGIO BARBARELLI, ZORZO DA CASTELFRANCO) Italian painter, b. at Castelfranco in or before ...

    Giotto di Bondone

    A Florentine painter, and founder of the Italian school of painting, b. most probably, in 1266 ...

    Giovanelli, Ruggiero

    Composer, b. at Velletri, near Rome, in 1560; d. at Rome, 7 January, 1625. In 1584 he was ...

    Giovanni Dominici, Blessed

    (BANCHINI or BACCHINI was his family name). Cardinal, statesman and writer, born at ...

    Giraldi, Giovanni Battista

    (Surnamed CINTIO) Italian dramatist and novelist; b. at Ferrara, Italy, 1504; d. there, ...

    Giraldi, Ubaldo

    (UBALDUS A SANCTO CAJETANO). An Italian canonist; b. in 1692; d. in 1775. He was a member of ...

    Giraldus Cambrensis

    Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald de Barry) was a distinguished writer, historian, and ecclesiastic of ...

    Girard, Jean-Baptiste

    Known as Père Girard, a Swiss pedagogue, b. at Fribourg, 17 December, 1765; d. there, 6 ...

    Girardon, François

    A noted sculptor of the reign of Louis XIV, b. at Troyes, France, 1630; d. at Paris, 1715. The ...

    Giraud de Borneil

    A Provençal troubadour, b. about the middle of the twelfth century, at Excideuil in the ...

    Girba

    A titular see in the province of African Tripoli. It is an island, in ancient times called ...

    Girgenti

    DIOCESE OF GIRGENTI (AGRIGENTINA). Girgenti is the capital of a province in Sicily and is ...

    Gisbert, Blaise

    French rhetorician and critic; born at Cahors, 21 February, 1657; died at Montpellier, 21 ...

    Giuliani, Veronica

    Born at Mercatello in the Duchy of Urbino, Italy, 1660; died at Citt` di Castello, 9 July, 1727. ...

    Giulio Romano

    Properly GIULIO DEI GIANNUZZI, also known as GIULIO PIPPI. A famous architect and painter, the ...

    Giuseppe Giusti

    A poet and patriot ; b. 1809, at Monsumano near Pescia, Italy ; d. 31 March, 1850, at ...

    Giuseppe Maria Tommasi, Blessed

    A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...

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    Gl 19

    Glaber, Raoul

    Benedictine chronicler; b. in Burgundy before 1000; d. at Cluny about 1050. In early boyhood he ...

    Glabrio, Manius Acilius

    Consul at Rome during A.D. 91, with Trajan. He belonged to one of the noblest families of ...

    Glagolitic

    (Or G LAGOLITSA ; Slavonic glagol, a word; glagolati, to speak). An ancient alphabet ...

    Glaire, Jean-Baptiste

    Priest, hebraist, and Biblical scholar; b. at Bordeaux, 1 April, 1798; d. at Issy, near Paris, ...

    Glanville, Ranulf de

    Chief Justiciar of England ; b. at Stratford, Suffolk, England, date unknown; d. before Acre, ...

    Glarean, Henry

    (LORITI) The most distinguished of Swiss humanists, poet, philosopher, geographer, ...

    Glasgow

    I. ARCHDIOCESE OF GLASGOW (GLASGUENSIS) Archdiocese in the south-west of Scotland, comprising at ...

    Glastonbury Abbey

    [G LESTINGABURH; called also Y NISWITRIN (Isle of Glass) and A VALON (Isle of Apples)] ...

    Glebe

    Glebe ( Latin gleba ) originally signified, in common law , any farm, estate, or parcel of ...

    Glendalough, School of

    Glendalough (the Valley of the Two Lakes) is a picturesque and lonely glen in the heart of the ...

    Gloria in Excelsis Deo

    The great doxology ( hymnus angelicus ) in the Mass is a version of a very old Greek form". ...

    Gloria, Laus et Honor

    A hymn composed by St. Theodulph of Orléans in 810, in Latin elegiacs, of which the ...

    Glory

    This word has many shades of meaning which lexicographers are somewhat puzzled to differentiate ...

    Glory Be

    In general this word means a short verse praising God and beginning, as a rule, with the Greek ...

    Glosses, Glossaries, Glossarists

    (IN CANON LAW) A gloss (Gk. glossa , Lat. glossa , tongue, speech) is an interpretation ...

    Glosses, Scriptural

    I. ETYMOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL MEANINGS The modern English word gloss is derived directly from the ...

    Glossolalia

    (Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...

    Gloves, Episcopal

    Liturgical gloves ( chirothecœ , called also at an earlier date manicœ , wanti ...

    Gluttony

    (From Lat. gluttire , to swallow, to gulp down), the excessive indulgence in food and drink. ...

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    Gn 2

    Gnesen-Posen

    Archdiocese in the Kingdom of Prussia. The archdiocese includes the Dioceses of Gnesen and ...

    Gnosticism

    The doctrine of salvation by knowledge. This definition, based on the etymology of the word ( ...

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    Go 89

    Goa

    (GOANENSIS.) Patriarchate of the East Indies, the chief see of the Portuguese dominions in the ...

    Goajira, Vicariate Apostolic of

    Goajira is the most northern portion of South America is a peninsula running into the Caribbean ...

    Goar, Jacques

    A Dominican and hellenist, b. at Paris, 1601, d. 23 September, 1653. He entered the convent of ...

    Goar, Saint

    An anchorite of Aquitaine; b. about 585; d. near Oberwesel (Germany), 6 July, 649. He came of a ...

    Gobat, George

    Moral theologian ; born at Charmoilles, in the Diocese of Basil, now in the Department of the ...

    Gobban Saer

    Regarded in traditional lore as the greatest Irish architect of the seventh century, and ...

    Gobelinus, Person

    (Persona.) Born in 1358; died 17 November, 1421. He was a Westphalian and was known as an ...

    God

    Etymology of the Word "God" Discusses the root-meaning of the name "God", which is derived from ...

    God, Existence of

    The topic will be treated as follows: I. As Known Through Natural ReasonA. The Problem Stated1. ...

    God, Nature and Attributes of

    I. As Known Through Natural ReasonA. Infinity of GodB. Unity or Unicity of God C. Simplicity of ...

    God, Relation of the Universe to

    1. Essential Dependence of the Universe on God (Creation and Conservation) In developing the ...

    God, Three Persons of

    This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...

    Godard, Saint

    (Also spelled GOTHARD, GODEHARD). Bishop of Hildesheim in Lower Saxony ; born about the ...

    Godden, Thomas

    (True name Tylden.) Born at Addington, Kent, 1624; died in London, 1 Dec., 1688. His father, ...

    Godeau, Antoine

    Bishop, poet and exegete ; b. at Dreux in the diocese of Chartres, 1605; d. at Vence, 21 ...

    Godeberta, Saint

    Born about the year 640, at Boves, a few leagues from Amiens, in France ; died about the ...

    Godelina, Saint

    (GODELINA.) Born at Hondeforte-lez-Boulogne, c. 1049; died at Ghistelles, 6 July, 1070. The ...

    Godet des Marais, Paul

    Bishop of Chartres, France ; b. at Talcy, near Blois, 1647; d. at Chartres, 1709. He studied ...

    Godfrey Goodman

    Born at Ruthin, Denbighshire, 28 February, 1582-3; died at Westminster, 19 January, 1656. He was ...

    Godfrey of Bouillon

    Duke of Lower Lorraine and first King of Jerusalem, son of Eustache II, Count of Boulogne, and ...

    Godfrey of Fontaines

    (GODEFRIDUS DE fontIBUS, DOCTOR VENERANDUS) A scholastic philosopher and theologian ; born ...

    Godfrey of Viterbo

    German writer of the twelfth century. Nothing is known as to the place or date of his birth, ...

    Godinez

    (GODINEZ). Mystical theologian, born at Waterford, Ireland, in 1591; died in Mexico, Dec. ...

    Godric

    The name of two Abbots of Croyland. Godric I (870-941) Godrick I was the successor of the Abbot ...

    Goesport, John Wessel

    (GANSFORT). A fifteenth-century Dutch theologian, born at Gröningen in 1420; died there ...

    Goetz, Marie Josephine

    Second superior-general of the Society of the Sacred Heart, daughter of Joseph Goetz of ...

    Goffe, Stephen

    (Or Gough) Oratorian; b. 1605; d. at Paris, Christmas Day, 1681. He was the son of Stephen ...

    Goffine, Leonard

    (Or G OFFINÉ ). Born at Cologne, or according to some, at Broich, 6 December, 1648; ...

    Gog and Magog

    Names, respectively, of a king and of his supposed kingdom, mentioned several times in chapters 38 ...

    Golden Bull

    (Golden Bull ). A fundamental law of the Holy Roman Empire; probably the best known of all ...

    Golden Calf

    An object of worship among the Hebrews, mention of which occurs principally in Exodus 32 where ...

    Golden Rose

    A precious and sacred ornament made of pure gold by skilled artificers, which the popes have ...

    Goldoni, Carlo

    Dramatist; b. at Venice, 25 Feb., 1707; d. at Paris, 6 Jan., 1793. Goldoni is especially ...

    Goldwell, Thomas

    Bishop of St. Asaph, the last survivor of the ancient hierarchy of England ; b. probably at ...

    Golgotha

    The place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ. NAME Etymology and Use The word Calvary ( ...

    Gomes De Amorim, Francisco

    Portuguese poet, dramatist, and novelist; b. at Avelomar, near Oporto, 13 August, 1827; d. 4 ...

    Gondulphus

    (GUNDULFUS). The name of three saints, of whom one was Bishop of Tongres (Maestricht), the ...

    Gonet, Jean Baptiste

    Theologian, b. about 1616 at Beziers, in the province of Languedoc; d. there 24 Jan., 1681. From ...

    Gonnelieu, Jérôme de

    Theologian, ascetical writer, and preacher; born at Soissons, 8 Sept., 1640; died at Paris, 28 ...

    González de Santalla, Thyrsus

    Theologian and thirteenth general of the Society of Jesus, b. at Arganda, Spain, 18 January, ...

    González, Zeferino

    Dominican, cardinal, theologian, and philosopher, b. at Villoria in the Province and Diocese ...

    Gonzaga, Ercole

    (Hercules.) Cardinal ; b. at Mantua, 23 November, 1505; d. 2 March, 1563. He was the Son of ...

    Gonzaga, Saint Aloysius

    Born in the castle of Castiglione, 9 March, 1568; died 21 June, 1591. At eight he was placed in ...

    Gonzaga, Scipione

    Cardinal ; b. at Mantua, 11 November, 1542; d. at San Martino, 11 January, 1593. He belonged to ...

    Gonzalez, Saint Peter

    Popularly known as St. Elmo, b. in 1190 at Astorga, Spain ; d. 15 April, 1246, at Tuy. He was ...

    Gonzalo de Berceo

    Spanish poet, active between 1220 and 1242. Born in the closing years on twelfth century, he ...

    Good

    "Good" is one of those primary ideas which cannot be strictly defined. In order to fix its ...

    Good Faith

    A phrase employed to designate the mental and moral state of honest, even if objectively ...

    Good Friday

    Definition and etymology Good Friday, called Feria VI in Parasceve in the Roman Missal, he ...

    Good Hope, Cape of (Eastern)

    The Eastern Vicariate of the Cape of Good Hope was established in 1847, when the Vicariate of the ...

    Good Hope, Cape of (Western)

    The Western vicariate and the Central prefecture, although different in name, are virtually one. ...

    Good Samaritan, Sisters of the

    A congregation of Tertiaries Regular of St. Benedict, established 2 February, 1857, at Sydney, ...

    Good Shepherd, Our Lady of Charity of the

    The aim of this institute is to provide a shelter for girls and women of dissolute habits, who ...

    Good, Highest, The

    "We always act with a view to some good. The good is the object which all pursue, and for the ...

    Goodman, Ven. John

    Priest and martyr ; born in the Diocese of Bangor, Wales, 1590; died 1642. He was educated at ...

    Goossens, Pierre-Lambert

    Cardinal, Archbishop of Mechlin (Belgium), b. at Perck, near Vilvorde, 18 July, 1827; d. at ...

    Gordian

    ( Latin GORDIANUS.) There were three Roman emperors of this name, who reigned between A.D. ...

    Gordianus and Epimachus, Saints

    Martyrs, suffered under Julian the Apostate , 362, commemorated on 10 May. Gordianus was a judge ...

    Gordon Riots

    This agitation, so called from the head and spirit of the movement, Lord George Gordon, ...

    Gordon, Andrew

    A Benedictine monk, physicist ; b. 15 June, 1712, at Cofforach in Forfarshire, Scotland ; d. ...

    Gordos

    A titular see in the province of Lydia, suffragan of Sardis. The city is mentioned by Strabo, ...

    Gorgonius, Saint

    Martyr, suffered in 304 at Nicomedia during the persecution of Diocletian. Gorgonius held a high ...

    Gorkum, The Martyrs of

    The year 1572, Luther and Calvin had already wrested from the Church a great part of Europe. ...

    Gortyna

    A titular see, and in the Greek Church metropolitan see, of the Island of Crete. The city, ...

    Goscelin

    (Or GOTSELIN, according to the spelling in the earliest manuscripts of his works.) A ...

    Gospel and Gospels

    The word Gospel usually designates a written record of Christ's words and deeds. It is very ...

    Gospel in the Liturgy

    I. HISTORY From the very earliest times the public reading of parts of the Bible was an important ...

    Gospel of Mark

    The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Contents, Selection and Arrangement of ...

    Goss, Alexander

    Second Bishop of Liverpool ; born at Ormskirk, Lancashire, 5 July, 1814; died. at St. Edward's ...

    Gossaert, Jan

    Called M ABUSE from Maubeuge in Hainaut. Flemish painter ; b. about 1472; d. at Middelburg ...

    Gosselin, Jean-Edmé-Auguste

    Ecclesiastical author; b. at Rouen, France, 28 Sept., 1787; d. at Paris, 27 Nov., 1858. He ...

    Gother, John

    (Or JOHN GOTER) Priest and controversialist; b. at Southampton, date unknown; d. at sea on a ...

    Gothic Architecture

    The term Gothic was first used during the later Renaissance, and as a term of contempt. Says ...

    Gottfried von Strasburg

    One of the greatest of Middle High German epic poets. Of his life we know absolutely nothing; ...

    Gotti, Vincent Louis

    Cardinal and theologian, b. at Bologna, 5 Sept., 1664; d. in Rome, 18 Sept., 1742. He received ...

    Gottschalk of Orbais

    A medieval theologian ; b. about 800, d. after 866, probable 30 October, 868 (or 869), in the ...

    Gottschalk, Saint

    (GODESCALCUS). Martyr Prince of the Wends; d. at Lenzen on the Elbe, 7 June 1066. His feast ...

    Goulburn

    (Gulburnensis). One of the six suffragan sees of the ecclesiastical province of Sydney, ...

    Gounod, Charles-François

    One of the most distinguished French musicians and composers of the nineteenth century, b. in ...

    Goupil, René

    Jesuit missionary; born 1607, in Anjou; martyred in New York State, 23 September, 1642. Health ...

    Gousset, Thomas-Marie-Joseph

    French cardinal and theologian ; b. at Montigny-les-Charlieu, a village of ...

    Government Authority

    Civil Authority is the moral power of command, supported (when need be) by physical coercion, ...

    Gower, John

    Poet; born between 1327-1330, probably in Kent; died October, 1408. He was of gentle blood and ...

    Goya y Lucientes, Francisco José de

    Painter and etcher, b. in Fuendetodos, Aragon, Spain, 31 March, 1746; d. in Bordeaux, 16 ...

    Goyaz, Diocese of

    (Goyasiensis). Co-extensive with the state of the same name, one of the twenty states which, with ...

    Gozo, Diocese of

    The diocese of Gozo (Goulos-Gaudisiensis), comprises the Island of Gozo in the Mediterranean ...

    Gozzi, Carlo

    Italian author, born at Venice, 1720; died 1806. He spent in military service three years that ...

    Gozzoli

    (BENOZZO DI LESE DI SANDRO, surnamed GOZZOLI). Painter ; b. at Florence, 1420; d. at Pisa ...

    Gozzolini, Saint Sylvester

    Founder of the Sylvestrines, b. of the noble family of the Gozzolini at Osimo, 1177; d. 26 ...

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    Gr 107

    Grässel, Lorenz

    Coadjutor-elect of Baltimore ; born at Ruemannsfelden, Bavaria, 18 August, 1753; died at ...

    Gröne, Valentin

    A Catholic theologian, b. at Paderborn, 7 December, 1817; d. at Irmgarteichen, in the district ...

    Grün, Anastasius

    A pseudonym for Anton Alexander (Maria), Count von Auersperg, an Austrian poet; b. at Laibach in ...

    Grace

    Actual Grace Explains the concept of actual grace, which is defined in the article as "a ...

    Grace at Meals

    In Apostolic times St. Paul counsels the faithful: "Whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever ...

    Grace, Actual

    Grace ( gratia, Charis ), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual creatures ...

    Grace, Controversies on

    These are concerned chiefly with the relation between grace and free will. How can the ...

    Grace, Supernatural

    Grace ( gratia, Charis ), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual ...

    Grace, William Russell

    Philanthropist and merchant, born at Cork, Ireland, 10 May, 1832; died at New York, 21 March, ...

    Gradual

    ( Latin Graduale , from gradus , a step) Gradual, in English often called Grail, is the ...

    Gradual Psalms

    Fifteen psalms -- namely, Psalms 119-133 (in Hebrew 120-134) -- bear a Hebrew inscription which ...

    Gradwell, Robert

    Bishop; b. at Clifton-in-the-Fylde, Lancashire, 26 Jan., 1777; d. in London, 15 March, 1833; went ...

    Graffiti

    The term in common usage among archaeologists to designate a class of rude inscriptions scratched ...

    Graham, Patrick

    First Archbishop of St. Andrews and Metropolitan of Scotland, date of birth uncertain; d. ...

    Grail, The Holy

    The name of a legendary sacred vessel , variously identified with the chalice of the Eucharist ...

    Gramont, Eugénie de

    Religious of the Society of the Sacred Heart ; b. at Versailles, 17 September, 1788; d. at ...

    Gran

    ( Hungarian ESZTERGOM; Latin STRIGONIUM, STRIGONIENSIS) Located in Hungary. From the ...

    Granada

    Archdiocese of Granada (Granatensis). Archdiocese in Spain, founded by St. Cecilius about ...

    Granada, University of

    The origin of this university is to be traced to the Arab school at Cordova, which, when the ...

    Grancolas, Jean

    Doctor of the Sorbonne, theologian, liturgist; b. near Chateaudun, about 1660; d. at Paris, 1 ...

    Grand Rapids

    (Grandormensis) Diocese created 12 May, 1882 out of the diocese of Detroit, and made to ...

    Grande Chartreuse, La

    The mother-house of the Carthusian Order lies in a high valley of the Alps of Dauphine, at an ...

    Granderath, Theodor

    Born 19 June, 1839, at Giesenkirchen, Rhine Province; died 19 March, 1902, at Valkenburg, ...

    Grandidier, Philippe-André

    Priest and historian, b. at Strasburg, Alsace, 9 Nov., 1752; d. at the Abbey of Luntzel ...

    Grandmont, Abbey and Order of

    Abbey and Order in the department of Hte-Vienne, France. The exact date of the foundation of the ...

    Grant, Thomas

    First Bishop of Southwark ; b. at Ligny-les-Aires, Arras, France, 25 Nov., 1816; d. at Rome, ...

    Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de

    Known in history as CARDINAL DE GRANVELLE (GRANVELLA). Born at Ornans in Franche-Comté, ...

    Gras, Venerable Louise de Marillac Le

    Foundress of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul , born at Paris, 12 August, 1591, ...

    Grasse, François-Joseph-Paul

    Count and Marquess de Grasse-Tilly, lieutenant-general of the naval forces; b. near Toulon, 1723; ...

    Grassis, Paris de

    Master of ceremonies to Julius II and Leo X ; b. at Bologna, about 1470; d. at Rome, 10 June, ...

    Gratian

    Roman Emperor; son of Valentinian I; born at Sirmium, 359; died at Lyons, 383. Before he had ...

    Gratian, Jerome

    Spiritual director of St. Teresa and first Provincial of the Discalced Carmelites ; born at ...

    Gratian, Johannes

    (GRATIANUS). The little that is known concerning the author of the "Concordantia discordantium ...

    Gratianopolis

    A titular see in Caesarea Mauretania, Africa. This city does not figure in a list of the ...

    Gratius, Ortwin

    (VAN GRAES) Humanist ; b. 1475 at Holtwick, near Coesfeld, Westphalia ; d. at Cologne, 22 ...

    Gratry, Auguste-Joseph-Alphonse

    French priest and writer; b. at Lille, 30 March, 1805; d. at Montreux, Switzerland, 7 February, ...

    Gratz, Peter Aloys

    Schoolmaster and exegete, b. 17 Aug., 1769, at Mittelberg, Allgäu, Bavaria ; d. at ...

    Gravier, Jacques

    Jesuit missionary; born 1651 at Moulins, where he studied classics and philosophy under the ...

    Gravina and Montepeloso

    DIOCESE OF GRAVINA AND MONTEPELOSO (GRAVINENSIS ET MONTIS PELUSII). Gravina is a town in the ...

    Gravina, Dominic

    Theologian ; b. in Sicily, about 1573; d. in the Minerva, at Rome, 26 Aug., 1643. He entered the ...

    Gravina, Giovanni Vincenzo

    Italian jurist and littérateur of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; b. at ...

    Graz, University of

    The University of Graz, located in the capital of the Province of Steiermark, owes its ...

    Great Falls

    DIOCESE OF GREAT FALLS (GREATORMENSIS). Created by Pope Pius X, 18 May, 1904; comprises the ...

    Greco, El

    One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

    Greece

    Greece will be treated in this article under the following heads: I. The Land and the People; II. ...

    Greek Catholics in America

    The Uniat churches of the Byzantine or Greek Rite were almost unknown to the United States ...

    Greek Church

    This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Explanation of Terms; II. The Greek ...

    Greek Orthodox Church in America

    The name Orthodox Church is generally used to distinguish those of the Greek Rite who are ...

    Greek Rites

    (1) Rite, Language, Religion These are three things that must always be distinguished. A rite is ...

    Green Bay

    (SINUS VIRIDIS) The Diocese of Green Bay — established 3 March, 1868, from the territory ...

    Green, Hugh

    Martyr ; born about 1584; martyred 19 August, 1642. His parents, who were Protestants, sent him ...

    Green, Thomas Louis

    Priest and controversialist; b. at Stourbridge, Worcestershire, 1799; d. at Newport, Shropshire, ...

    Greenland

    An island stretching from within the Arctic Circle south to about 59 degrees N. latitude, being ...

    Gregorian Chant

    The name is often taken as synonymous with plain chant, comprising not only the Church music of ...

    Gregory Bæticus

    Bishop of Elvira, in the province of Baetica, Spain, from which he derived his surname; d. ...

    Gregory I, Pope Saint

    Doctor of the Church ; born at Rome about 540; died 12 March 604. Gregory is certainly one of ...

    Gregory II, Pope Saint

    (Reigned 715-731). Perhaps the greatest of the great popes who occupied the chair of Peter ...

    Gregory III, Pope Saint

    (Reigned 731-741.) Pope St. Gregory III was the son of a Syrian named John. The date of his ...

    Gregory IV, Pope

    Elected near the end of 827; died January, 844. When Gregory was born is not known, but he was a ...

    Gregory IX

    (UGOLINO, Count of Segni). Born about 1145, at Anagni in the Campagna; died 22 August, 1241, ...

    Gregory of Heimburg

    Humanist and Statesman, b. at Würzburg in the beginning of the fifteenth century; d. at ...

    Gregory of Nazianzus, Saint

    Doctor of the Church, born at Arianzus, in Asia Minor, c. 325; died at the same place, 389. He ...

    Gregory of Neocaesarea, Saint

    Known at THAUMATURGUS, ( ho Thaumatourgos , the miracle-worker). Born at Neocæsarea in ...

    Gregory of Nyssa, Saint

    Date of birth unknown; died after 385 or 386. He belongs to the group known as the "Cappadocian ...

    Gregory of Rimini, Saint

    An Augustinian theologian ; born at Rimini, Italy, in the second half of the thirteenth ...

    Gregory of Tours, Saint

    Born in 538 or 539 at Arverni, the modern Clermont-Ferrand; died at Tours, 17 Nov., in 593 or ...

    Gregory of Utrecht, Saint

    Abbot; b. about 707 or 708; d. 775 or 780. Gregory was born of a noble family at Trier. His ...

    Gregory of Valencia

    Professor of the University of Ingolstadt , b. at Medina, Spain, March, 1550 (1540, 1551?); d. ...

    Gregory the Illuminator

    Born 257?; died 337?, surnamed the Illuminator (Lusavorich). Gregory the Illuminator is the ...

    Gregory V, Pope

    Born c. 970; died 4 February, 999. On the death of John XV the Romans sent a deputation to Otto ...

    Gregory VI

    On the death of Sergius IV in June, 1012, "a certain Gregory", opposed the election of ...

    Gregory VI, Pope

    (JOHN GRATIAN). Date of birth unknown; elected 1 May 1045; abdicated at Sutri, 20 December, ...

    Gregory VII, Pope Saint

    (HILDEBRAND). One of the greatest of the Roman pontiffs and one of the most remarkable men ...

    Gregory VIII

    Antipope. He was Mauritius Burdinus (Bordinho, Bourdin), who was placed upon the papal chair by ...

    Gregory VIII, Pope

    (ALBERTO DI MORRA). Born about the beginning of the twelfth century, at Benevento ; elected ...

    Gregory X

    Born 1210; died 10 January, 1276. The death of Pope Clement IV (29 November, 1268) left the ...

    Gregory XI

    (PIERRE ROGER DE BEAUFORT). Born in 1331, at the castle of Maumont in the Dioceses of Limoges ...

    Gregory XII

    (ANGELO CORRARIO, now CORRER). Legal pope during the Western Schism ; born at Venice, of a ...

    Gregory XIII, Pope

    (UGO BUONCOMPAGNI). Born at Bologna, 7 Jan., 1502; died at Rome, 10 April, 1585. He studied ...

    Gregory XIV, Pope

    (N ICCOLÒ S FONDRATI ). Born at Somma, near Milan, 11 Feb., 1535; died at Rome, 15 ...

    Gregory XV, Pope

    (ALESSANDRO LUDOVISI). Born at Bologna, 9 or 15 January, 1554; died at Rome, 8 July, 1623. ...

    Gregory XVI, Pope

    (MAURO, or BARTOLOMEO ALBERTO CAPPELLARI). Born at Belluno, then in the Venetian territory, 8 ...

    Greifswald, University of

    The oldest university of Prussia, founded in 1456. Even before this, Greifswald had, for a short ...

    Greith, Karl Johann

    Bishop and church historian, b. at Rapperswyl, Switzerland, 25 May, 1897; d. at St. Gall, 17 ...

    Gremiale

    A square or oblong cloth which the bishop, according to the "Cæremoniale" and ...

    Grenoble

    DIOCESE OF GRENOBLE (GRATIANOPOLITANA) Now comprises the Department of Isère and the Canton ...

    Gresemund, Dietrich

    German humanist ; b. in 1477, at Speyer ; d. 1512, at Mainz. His father, also named Dietrich, ...

    Greslon, Adrien

    French missionary; b. at Perigueux, in 1618; entered the Society of Jesus at Bordeaux, 5 ...

    Gresset, Jean Baptiste

    Born 29 August, 1709; died 16 June, 1777, at Amiens. Having finished his studies at the college ...

    Gretser, Jacob

    A celebrated Jesuit writer; b. at Markdorf in the Diocese of Constance in 1562; d. at ...

    Greuze, Jean-Baptiste

    French painter, b. at Tournus in Ardeche, 21 August, 1725; d. at Paris, 21 March, 1805. His ...

    Grey Nuns

    The Order of Sisters of Charity of the Hôpital Général of Montreal, commonly ...

    Grey Nuns of the Cross

    A community founded in 1745 at Monteal by Madame d'Youville, known as the Grey Sisters, or Grey ...

    Griffin, Gerald

    A novelist, dramatist, lyricist; b. 12 December, 1803, at Limerick, Ireland ; d. at Cork, 12 ...

    Griffin, Martin Ignatius Joseph

    Journalist, historian, b. at Philadelphia, 23 Oct., 1842; d. there, 10 Nov., 1911. In early ...

    Griffiths, Thomas

    Born in London, 2 June, 1791; died 19 August, 1847; the first and only Vicar Apostolic of the ...

    Grillparzer, Franz

    An Austrian poet, b. at Vienna, 15 January, 1791, d. 21 January, 1872. After desultory ...

    Grimaldi, Francesco Maria

    Italian physicist, b. at Bologna, 2 April, 1618; d. in the same city, 28 Dec., 1663. He entered ...

    Grimaldi, Giovanni Francesco

    An eclectic painter of the Bolognese school ; b. at Bologna, 1606; d. at Rome, 1680. He was a ...

    Grimmelshausen, Johann Jacob Christoffel von

    The greatest German novelist of the seventeenth century. What we know of his life is largely ...

    Groote, Gerard

    ( Or Geert De Groote; Gerhardus Magnus.) Founder of the "Brethren of the Common Life" , b. ...

    Gropper, John

    An eminent jurist and theologian, b. 24 Feb., 1503, at Soest, Westphalia ; d. at Rome, 13 March, ...

    Grosseteste, Robert

    Bishop of Lincoln and one of the most learned men of the Middle Ages ; b. about 1175; d. 9 ...

    Grosseto

    (Grossetana) Grosseto, suffragan diocese of Siena, has for its episcopal city the capital ...

    Grosswardein

    ( Hungarian Nagy-Várad; Magno-Varadinensis) A diocese of the Latin Rite in ...

    Grottaferrata, Abbey of

    ( Latin Crypta ferrata .) A Basilian monastery near Rome, sometimes said to occupy the site ...

    Grueber, Johann

    A German Jesuit missionary in China and noted explorer of the seventeenth century; b. at Linz, ...

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    Gu 49

    Guéranger, Prosper Louis Pascal

    Benedictine and polygraph; b. 4 April, 1805, at Sablé-sur-Sarthe; d. at Solesmes, 30 ...

    Guérard, Robert

    Born at Rouen, 1641; died at the monastery of Saint-Ouen, 2 January, 1715. For some time he ...

    Guérin

    (1) Eugénie de Guérin A French writer; b. at the château of La Cayla, in ...

    Guérin, Anne-Thérèse

    (In religion, Mother Theodore) Born at Etables (Côte du Nord), Brittany, France, 2 ...

    Guadalajara

    (Guadalaxara) Archdiocese in Mexico, separated from the Diocese of Michoacan by Paul III, 31 ...

    Guadalupe, Shrine of

    Guadalupe is strictly the name of a picture, but was extended to the church containing the ...

    Guadeloupe

    (Or Basse Terre; Guadalupensis; Imæ Telluris) Diocese in the West Indies, comprises the ...

    Guadix, Diocese of

    (GUADICENSIS) The Diocese of Guadix, in Spain, comprises the greater part of the Province of ...

    Guaicuri Indians

    (Pronounced Waikuri .) A group of small tribes, speaking dialectic forms of a common ...

    Guamanga, Diocese of

    ( Or Guamanga). A Peruvian diocese, suffragan to Lima. The See of Guamanga was erected by ...

    Guaraní Indians

    (Pronounced Waraní .) One of the most important tribal groups of South America, ...

    Guarantees, Law of

    (LA LEGGE DELLE GUARENTIGIE) A name given to the law passed by the senate and chamber of the ...

    Guarda, Diocese of

    (EGITANIENSIS.) Province of Beira, Portugal. Near the episcopal city are the ruins of Idanha, ...

    Guardi, Francesco

    Venetian painter ; born at Venice, 1712; died in the same city, 1793. He was a pupil of ...

    Guardian Angels

    ( See also FEAST OF THE GUARDIAN ANGELS .) That every individual soul has a guardian angel ...

    Guardian Angels, Feast of

    This feast, like many others, was local before it was placed in the Roman calendar. It was not ...

    Guardianship, in Civil Jurisprudence

    Guardianship is "the condition or fact of being a guardian; the office or position of guardian" ...

    Guarini, Battista

    An Italian poet, b. at Ferrara, 1538, d. at Venice, 7 Oct., 1612. His father, Francesco ...

    Guarino da Verona

    A humanist, b. 1370, at Verona, Italy ; d. 1460, at Ferrara. He studied Latin in the school ...

    Guastalla, Diocese of

    (GUASTELLENSIS). In the province of Reggio Emilia (Central Italy ) on the left bank of the Po ...

    Guastallines

    Luigia Torelli, Countess of Guastalla (b. about 1500; d. 29 Oct., 1559 or 1569), widowed for ...

    Guatemala, Santiago de

    (Sancti Jacobi majoris de Guatemala) Archdiocese conterminous with the Republic of Guatemala, ...

    Guayaquil

    A RCHDIOCESE OF G UAYAQUIL (G UAYAQUILENSIS ). Guayaquil, the capital of the Ecuadorian ...

    Gubbio

    Diocese of Eugubinensis, in the province of Perugia in Umbria (Central Italy ). The city ...

    Gudenus, Moritz

    A German convert to the Catholic faith from the Protestant ministry; b. 11 April, 1596, at ...

    Gudula, Saint

    (Latin, Guodila ). Born in Brabant, Belgium, of Witger and Amalberga, in the seventh ...

    Guelphs and Ghibellines

    Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the ...

    Guglielmini, Giovanni Battista

    Scientist, b. at Bologna, 16 August, 1763; d. in the same city, l5 December, 1817. He is known as ...

    Guiana

    (Or Guayana .) Guiana was the name given to all that region of South America which extends ...

    Guibert of Ravenna

    An antipope, known as Clement III, 1080 (1084) to 1100; born at Parma about 1025; died at ...

    Guicciardini, Francesco

    An historian and statesman; born at Florence, 1483; died there, 23 May, 1540. His parents, Piero ...

    Guido of Arezzo

    (Guido Aretinus). A monk of the Order of St. Benedict, b. (according to Dom Morin in the ...

    Guigues du Chastel

    (Guigo de Castro). Fifth prior of the Grande Chartreuse, legislator of the Carthusian Order ...

    Guijon, André

    Bishop and orator; born in November, 1548, at Autun ; died in September, 1631. He was the son ...

    Guilds

    Guilds were voluntary associations for religious, social, and commercial purposes. These ...

    Guiney, Patrick Robert

    Second and eldest surviving son of James Roger Guiney and Judith Macrae; born at Parkstown, Co. ...

    Guiscard, Robert

    Duke of Apulia and Calabria, founder of the Norman state of the Two Sicilies; born about 1016; ...

    Guise, House of

    The House of Guise, a branch of the ducal family of Lorraine, played an important part in the ...

    Guitmund

    A Bishop of Aversa, a Benedictine monk, theologian, and opponent of Berengarius ; born at an ...

    Gulf of St. Lawrence

    Vicariate erected 12 September, 1905, and formed from the prefecture Apostolic of the same name ...

    Gunpowder Plot, The

    (Oath taken May, 1604, plot discovered November, 1605). Robert Catesby, the originator of the ...

    Gunther, Blessed

    A hermit in Bohemia in the eleventh century; b. about 955; d. at Hartmanitz, Bohemia, 9 ...

    Gurk

    (GURCENSIS) A prince-bishopric of Carinthia, suffragan to Salzburg, erected by Archbishop ...

    Gury, Jean-Pierre

    Moral theologian ; b. at Mailleroncourt, Haute-Saône, 23 January, 1801; d. at Merc ur, ...

    Gusmão, Bartholomeu Lourenço de

    Naturalist, and the first aeronaut; b. in 1685 at Santos in the province of São Paulo , ...

    Gutenberg, Johann

    (Henne Gänsfleisch zur Laden, commonly called Gutenberg). Inventor of printing; born about ...

    Guthlac, Saint

    Hermit; born about 673; died at Croyland, England, 11 April, 714. Our authority for the life ...

    Guyon, Jeanne-Marie-Bouvier de La Motte-

    A celebrated French mystic of the seventeenth century; born at Montargis, in the Orléanais, ...

    Guzmán, Fernando Pérez de

    Señor de Batres; Spanish historian and poet (1376-1458). He belonged to a family ...

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