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Third Orders

I. GENERAL

Third Orders signify in general lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women who do not necessarily live in community and yet can claim to wear the habit and participate in the good works of some great order.

A. Origin

The general idea of lay people affiliated to religious orders, as seen in the Benedictine Oblates (q.v.) or confraters ( Taunton, "Black Monks of St. Benedict", London, 1897, I, 60-63; for Norbertines cf. Hurter, "Papst Innocenz III", Schaffhausen, 1845, IV, 148), is too natural for there to be any need to seek its origin. Founders and benefactors of monasteries were received in life into spiritual fellowship, and were clothed in death in some religious habit. So too the Templars had a whole system whereby layfolk could partake in some sort in their privileges and in the material administration of their affairs (English Hist. Rev., London, April, 1910, 227). But the essential nature of the tertiary is really an innovation of the thirteenth century. At that date many of the laity, impatient of the indolent and sometimes scandalous lives of the clergy in lower Europe, were seized with the idea of reforming Christendom by preaching. This admirable intention caused the rise of the Vaudois under Valdez of Lyons ("Anecdotes Historiques tirés du Recueil inédit d'Etienne de Bourbon, O.P.", ed. by Lecoq de La Manche, Paris, 1878, 290-314), and under somewhat more curious conditions the Fratres Humiliati. The Vaudois were at first welcomed by the pope, Alexander III, who authorized their preaching, but as they were unacquainted with theological teaching and had pursued no clerical studies, their sermons were not seldom dogmatically inaccurate and eventually defiantly heretical. The Humiliati also soon became suspect and were forbidden by Lucius III to preach, till in 1207 Innocent III gave a section of them permission to resume their work, provided that they limited themselves to moral questions and did not venture on doctrinal subjects ("De articulis fidei et sacramentis ecclesiae", cf. Denifle, O.P., "Archiv für Litteratur und Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters", I, 419). Moreover some became priests, were gathered into a cloister, and took up religious life. The others remained outside, yet spiritually dependent on the clerical portion, and now for the first time in history called a Third Order, Tertius Ordo (Mandonnet, "Les Origines de l'Ordo de Pœnetentia"; the Bull is to be found in Tiraboschi, "Vetera Humiliatorum monumenta", II, Milan, 1766-68, 139).

B. Division

The Third Orders can each be divided into (a) regulars, i.e. living in convents, and (b) seculars, i.e. living in the world. Of these the first take vows, the latter can only make a solemn promise (except that Carmelite Tertiaries apparently take some sort of vows of obedience and chastity, cf. Angelus a S.S. Corde, O.C.D., "Manuale juris communis Regularium", Ghent, 1899, q. 1067), which, however, distinguishes them from members of mere confraternities and constitutes them legally a religious order (Constitution of Leo XIII, "Misericors Dei Filius").

C. Members

Any Catholic may join a Third Order, but may not at once belong to more than one, nor may he without grave cause leave one for another. The laying aside of the distinctive sign or prayers for any space of time does not in itself put an end to membership with a Third Order, but the deliberate wish to dissociate oneself from it is sufficient to produce that effect (S. Cong. Indulg., 31 Jan., 1893).

D. Privileges

The Regular Third Order participates in all the indulgences granted to the First and Second Orders (S. Cong. Indulg., 28 Aug., 1903), but not in those granted to the Secular Third Order (ibid.). This latter no longer participates in any privileges save those directly granted to itself (S. Cong. Indulg., 31 Jan., 1893; S. Cong. Indulg., 18 July, 1902; S. Cong. Indulg., 28 Aug., 1903).

II. THIRD ORDER OF OUR LADY OF MOUNT CARMEL

Soon after the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel was established in Europe in the thirteenth century, lay persons, not bound by religious vows, seem to have attached themselves to it more or less closely. There is evidence of the existence of a "Confrairie N.-D. du Mont-Carmel" at Toulouse in 1273, and of a "Compagnia di Santa Maria del Carmino" at Bologna in 1280, but the exact nature of these bodies is uncertain owing to a lack of documents. Somewhat later mention is frequently made of trade-guilds having their seat in churches of the order, members of which acted as their chaplains. Thus the master-bakers, innkeepers and pastry-cooks at Nîmes, the barbers and surgeons of the same town, who were also connected with the Dominicans, the goldsmiths at Avignon. Benefactors of the order received letters of fraternity with the right of participation in the privileges and good works of the friars. Others, under the name of bizzoche and mantellatoe , wore the habit and observed the rule, e.g. "M. Phicola nostra Pinzochera" at Florence in 1308. Others again became recluses in the anchorages attached to Carmelite churches, and made profession under the form: "Ego frater N. a Spiritu Sancto ad anachoreticam vitam vocatus offero me, coram Deo, Patri et Filio et Spiritui Sancto, et promitto me in servitio Dei secundum Scripturam sacram Novi et Veteris Testamenti more anchoreticae vitae usque ad mortem permansurum." Among the tertiaries not living in community must be mentioned Blessed Louis Morbioli of Bologna (d. 1495).

The canonical institution of the third order dates from the middle of the fifteenth century, when a community of Beguines at Guelders sought affiliation to the order, and Blessed John Soreth, General of the Carmelites, obtained a Bull (7 Oct., 1452) granting the superiors of his order the faculties enjoyed by the Hermits of St. Augustine and the Dominicans of canonically establishing convents of "virgins, widows, beguines and mantellatae". Further legislation took place in 1476 by the Bull "Mare magnum privilegiorum", and under Benedict XIII and his successors. The rule observed by the tertiaries, whether living in the world or gathered into communities, was originally that of the friars with modifications as required by their status. Theodor Stratius, General of the Calced Carmelites, composed in 1635 a new rule, revised in 1678, which is still observed among the tertiaries of the Calced and the Discalced Carmelites. It prescribes the recitation of the canonical office, or else of the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin, or, in its place, of the Pater noster and Ave Maria to be said thirty-five times a day, five times in lieu of each of the canonical hours ; also half an hour's meditation every morning and evening; fasting on all Fridays and also on Wednesdays and Saturdays from 14 September till Easter, abstinence during Advent and Lent, and various works of mortification, devotion, and charity. Superiors may in their discretion dispense from some of these obligations.

It is impossible to estimate even approximately the number of tertiaries living in the world. Besides these there are numerous corporations of tertiaries established in different countries, viz. two communities of tertiary brothers in Ireland (Drumcondra and Clondalkin near Dublin ) in charge of an asylum for the blind and of a high-school for boys; eighteen communities of native priests in British India belonging partly to the Latin and partly to the Syro-Malabar rites ; four houses of Brothers of Christian Education in Spain. Far more numerous are the communities of nuns, namely twenty-three in India (Latin and Syro-Malabar rites ) for the education of native girls, and four convents in Syria in connection with the missions of the Order; two congregations of tertiaries in Spain with nineteen and forty-eight establishments respectively, and one unattached, for educational work. In Spain there are also tertiary nuns called "Carmelitas de la caridad" engaged in works of charity with 150 establishments. The Austrian congregation of nuns numbers twenty-seven houses, while the most recent branch, the Carmelite Tertiaries of the Sacred Heart, founded at Berlin towards the end of the last century for the care and education of orphans and neglected children, have spread rapidly through Germany, Holland, England, Switzerland, Italy, Austria, and Hungary, and have twenty houses. In Italy there are three different congregations with thirty-two convents. There are smaller branches of the tertiaries in South America with two houses at Santiago, Chile, in Switzerland with four convents, and in England with one.

III. THE THIRD ORDER SECULAR OF THE ORDER OF OUR LADY OF MOUNT CARMEL

The Third Order Secular of the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel has been introduced into the United States. There are at present two congregations, with 125 members.

IV. THIRD ORDER OF ST. DOMINIC

Origin

This was one of the earliest developments of St. Francis's Ordo de Poenitentia. It was not indeed the primal organism from which the Friars Preachers evolved, but rather represents that portion of the Order of Penance which came under Dominican influence. At first vaguely constituted and living without system or form, its members gradually grew more and more dependent on their spiritual guides. The climax was reached, and the work of St. Francis received its final perfection, when Muñon de Zamora, the seventh master-general of the Friars Preachers , formulated a definite rule in 1285. By this the Ordo de Poenitentia was to be ruled in each local centre by a Dominican priest (Federici, "Istoria de cavalieri Gaudenti", Venice, 1787, Codex Diplomaticus, II, 35) and was to be subject to the obedience of the Dominican provincials and master-generals. No longer were there to be any of those vague transitions and extravagant vagaries (ibid., 28) which disfigured in history these Orders of Penance. Henceforward this branch was linked to the fortunes of the Friars Preachers, wore their habits of black and white (with few minor differences varying according to time and country), and was to participate in all their good works. They were not called a third order indeed until after the thirteenth century (Mandonnet, "Les règles et le gouvernement de l'ordo de Poenitentia", Paris, 1902, p. 207) but continued to be known as "Brothers and Sisters of Penance" with the addition "of St. Dominic ", that is "The Brothers and Sisters of the Penance of St. Dominic ".

Simultaneously with them there came into being another and very different institution which, however, subsequently amalgamated with the Ordo de Poenitentia to form the Dominican Third Order. This was a military order, called the Militia Jesu Christi (soldiery of Jesus Christ ) created for the defence of the Church against the Albigenses. It owed its origin to Bishop Foulques of Toulouse, Simon de Montfort (Federici, "Istoria de cavalieri Gaudenti", Codex Diplomaticus, I), and not improbably to St. Dominic, then a canon of St. Augustine. This connection with the founder of the Friars Preachers is first definitely propounded by Bl. Raymund of Capua, who became a Dominican about 1350. But the truth of this assertion is borne out by several other indications. As early as 1235, Gregory IX confided the Militia to the care of Bl. Jordan of Saxony, second master-general, by a Bull of 18 May (Federici, op. cit., 10); and in the same year he decreed for the knights a habit of black and white (op. cit., 14). Further, when the Militia was brought across the Alps and established in Italy it is found to be always connected with some Dominican church (op. cit., I, 13). Lastly, it was very largely influenced by a famous Dominican, Fra Bartolomeo of Braganza, or of Vicenza, as he is sometimes called (op. cit., I, 12, 42, etc.). Originally working side by side and independent of each other, owing to the fact that both received the same spiritual administration of the Friars Preachers, they appear to have been merged together at the close of the thirteenth century. This is what Raymond of Capua implies as the result of his researches. So too their ultimate coincidence is hinted at by Honorius III in 1221 when he designates the Militia "nomine poenitentiae" (Federici, Codex Diplomaticus), and a comparison also of the rules of the two institutions: that of Gregory IX for the Militia in 1235 (op. cit., 12-16) and that of Muñon de Zamora for the Order of Penance of St. Dominic in 1285 (op. cit., 28-36) would lead one to the same conclusion. The only considerable difference that could be cited against this identify is that Muñon de Zamora expressly forbids the carrying of arms. But this is in reality but a further proof of their approximation, for he allows for the one exception which could possibly apply to the Militia, viz. in defence of the Church (ibid., 32). This amalgamation is admitted by the Bollandists to have become general in the fourteenth century (Acta Sanctorum, Aug., I, 418-422). From this double movement therefore, i.e. from the Ordo de Poenitentia S. Dominici and the Militia Jesu Christi, was born the modern Third Order of St. Dominic . Though its source is therefore anterior to the First Order, its full perfection as an organized society, with a distinctive habit, a definite rule, and a declared ethos or spirit, is due to the genius of the children of St. Dominic. They took up the work of St. Francis, and, with their characteristic love of order and systematic arrangement, brought it into something compact and symmetrical. From them this idea of subjection to a First Order was taken up by the Franciscans and has been adopted by all subsequent Third Orders.

Spirit

Primarily the work of the Third Order and its definite spirit may be summed up by saying that it was established first to help in reform of church discipline. Its initial purpose was the preaching of penance; but under Dominican influences it rather leaned to the intellectual aspect of the Faith and based its message to the world on the exposition of the Creed ; it was to reform church discipline by the more wide-spread knowledge of the mysteries of faith. Secondly, to defend the Church. Originally this was a military necessity, demanding physical force with which to restrain equally material opposition. Thirdly, to develop the communion of prayer. The medieval ideal of Christ's Mystical Body which has captivated all spiritual-minded people implies a harmony of prayer. To achieve this end the contemplative and monastic orders were begun; and the Third Order of St. Dominic endeavours to link pious souls to this great throng of religious (Proctor, "The Dominican Tertiary's Daily Manual", London, 1900, 15-20).

Reformation

Only for one period in its history was there any real fear of suppression. Many held that the condemnation passed on the Beguines and Beghards at the Council of Vienna in 1312 applied no less to the Orders of Penance. In consequence the master-general petitioned Pope John XXII in 1326 to settle definitely the difficulty. As a result he answered by a Bull of 1 June, 1326 (Cum de Mulieribus), which is a long eulogium on the work of the Dominican Third Order. After the plague of 1348, a great deal of laxity and disorganization crept into the Third Order, but a wonderful throng of saints soon caused its rejuvenation. The influence of St. Catherine of Siena gave a powerful impetus to the movement in Italy and her work was carried on by Bl. Clara Gambacorta (d. 1419) and Bl. Maria Mancini (d. 1431). This new spiritual vigour reached across the Alps to the sisterhoods of Germany, where the effect was almost abnormal (Heimbucher, "Die Orden und Kongregationen der katholischen Kirche", Paderborn, 1907, II, 169-177). But there has never been any reform in the sense of a separate organization with a change of rule or habit. As in the First Order, there has been a peculiar gift of unity which has enabled it to last undivided for seven hundred years.

Divisions

The Third Order as it exists today can be divided into two categories: regular, i.e. comprising Tertiaries, whether men or women, who live in community and wear the habit externally; and secular, i.e. whether married or single, cleric or lay, who live their lives like others of their profession, but who privately take up practices of austerity, recite some liturgical Office, and wear some symbol of the Dominican habit. The origin of the conventual women Tertiaries has never been very clearly worked out. It is usual to trace them back to Bl. Emily Bicchieri, about the year 1255 ("Manual of Third Order of St. Dominic ", London, 1871, 9). But if the view taken above of the origin of the Third Order in the Ordo de Poenitentia be correct, we are forced to the conclusion that the communities of women established by St. Dominic at Prouille, S. Sisto, etc. were really of this Third Order. Their constitutions, approved first for S. Sisto, though previously observed at Prouille, expressly speak of the nuns as "de Poenitentia S. Mariae Magdalenae" ("Analecta Ord. Praed.", Rome, 1898, 628 sqq.). It would seem then that the Ordo de Poenitentia did not exclude convents of enclosed nuns from its ranks, and this was due probably to St. Dominic himself. Very much later came a conventual order of men, originated by the genius of Père Lacordaire. He considered that the democratic spirit of the Dominican Order fitted it especially for the task of training the youth. But he knew how impossible it was for his preaching associates to tie themselves down to schoolwork among boys; as a consequence, he began, in 1852, a Third Order of men, wearing the habit, living in community yet without the burdens of monastic life. The rule was approved provisionally in 1853 and definitely in 1868 (for the rule cf. "Acta Capituli Generalis Ord. Praed.", Rome, 1904, 106 sqq.). But by far the greatest portion of the Third Order consists of secular Tertiaries. These are of every rank of society, and represent the old Ordo de Poenitentia and the old Militia. In certain countries they are grouped into chapters, having a lay prior and sub-prior or prioress and sub-prioress, and hold monthly meetings. Since the Rule of Muñon de Zamora (1285), they have always been subject to a Dominican priest appointed by the Dominican provincial. For the actual reception of the habit, the master-general can give faculties to any priest. The full habit is the same as that of the members of the First and Second Orders, but without the scapular (granted, however, to communities since 1667). Though the habit is not worn during life many procure it so that they may be buried in the recognized dress of St. Dominic's children.

Extent

It is practically impossible to obtain, even in a vague way, the number of the secular Dominican Tertiaries. No general register is kept, and the records of each priory would have to be searched. From the time of St. Louis &151; who wished to join the Dominican and Franciscan Orders (Acta Sanctorum, August, V, 545), and is represented in old illuminations, sometimes in the habit of one, sometimes in the habit of the other (Chapotin, "Histoire de dominicains de la province de France", Rouen, 1898, p. 497), but probably never joined either—to our own time, it can be stated only that with the rise and fall of the First Order's greatness rose and fell the number of the Tertiaries. In England during the thirteenth century very many are said to have become Tertiaries. But of this nothing for certain can be specified. At the time of St. Catharine of Siena and the Mantellate (women secular Tertiaries ) made difficulties about receiving her to the habit as they included at the date only widows (Gardner, " St. Catherine of Siena ", London, 1907, II), and there were no men at all in the Third Order in Italy at that date (Acta Sanctorum, April, III, 1881). Under Bl. Raymund of Capua, her confessor and, after her death, twenty-third master general, attempts were made to re-establish the order and no doubt much was done (Mortier, "Maîtres généraux", III, 605-606). But by the time of St. Antoninus (d. 1450) the numbers had again dwindled down to insignificance ("Summa Moralis", Verona, 1750, III, 23, 5, 5, pp. 1291-2). Just previous to the Reformation there are a few isolated notices; thus Bl. Adrian Fortescue , the martyr, notes in his diary: "Given to the Black Friars of Oxford to be in their fraternity 12d" ("Letters and Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII", London, 1883, Rolls Series , VII, 101). But these give us no ground at all for any surmise as to statistics. In America the first canonized saint ( St. Rose of Lima, d. 1617) and the first beatified negro (Bl. Martin Porres, d. 1639) were both Dominican Tertiaries, and later in France were men like M. Olier and Bl. Grignon de Montfort.

Then came the influence of Lacordaire, from whose time there dates a new enthusiasm in the Third Order ("Année Dominicaine", Paris, 1910, 149-65). Of the regular Tertiaries it is easier to speak more definitely. The numbers of all the sixteen approved congregations existing in 1902 are given, and they amount to some 7000 nuns ("Analecta Ord. Praed.", Rome, 1902, 389). To these must be added another 7000 of congregations not yet definitively authorized by Rome. But every year fresh convents are opened and the numbers continually increase. In England they began under Mother Margaret Hallahan (d. 1868) in 1842, and now in all the separate groupings there are 22 convents with some 500 sisters ; in the United States their success has been remarkable. Founded in 1846 by Mother Amalie Barth (d. 1895), the congregation in 1902 included 34 convents and over 2000 nuns. In 1876 they passed into California, where they are rapidly increasing. In Ireland they have many establishments, especially for educational purposes, for their work is as varied as the needs of humanity require. Some are enclosed, others teach, visit the sick, nurse the lepers, look after old people, take care of penitent girls, work among the poor in the slums, etc. As for the congregation of teaching men, they have been greatly disorganized since their expulsion from France. At present they comprise but a half-dozen colleges in Fribourg, San Sebastian, and South America, and do not amount to more than 100 members in all. Finally, a citation from Faber's "Blessed Sacrament" (2nd ed., p. 565) may be made: "Those who are conversant with, indeed who find the strength and consolation of their lives in, the Acts of the Saints well know that there is not a nook in the mystical Paradise of our heavenly spouse where the flowers grow thicker or smell more fragrantly than this order of multitudinous child-like saints. Nowhere in the Church does the Incarnate Word show His delight at being with the children of men in more touching simplicity, with more unearthly sweetness, or more spouse-like familiarity than in this, the youngest family of S. Dominic."

V. THIRD ORDER REGULAR OF ST. DOMINIC, IN THE UNITED STATES

Congregations of Women

A. Sisters of St. Dominic

(1) Congregation of St. Catherine of Siena , with mother-house at St. Catherine of SienaConvent, Springfield, Kentucky. Founded in 1822 by Rev. Thomas Wilson, O.P. Sisters, 300; novices, 30; postulants, 7; academies, 6; schools, 13; pupils, 5000. By this congregation were founded: (a) Congregation of Dominican Tertiaries of the Blessed Virgin, with mother-house at St. Mary's of the Springs, Sheppard, Ohio, in 1830. Sisters, 195; novices, 28; academies, 3; schools, 12; pupils, 4493. From this congregation were founded (i) Congregation with mother-house at Sacred Heart Convent, Galveston, Texas. Sisters and novices, 81; postulants, 3; schools, 6; pupils, 1130. (b) Congregation with mother-house at the Convent of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart, West Springfield, Illinois, in 1873. Sisters, 120; schools, 19; pupils, 4000, academy, 1.

(2) Congregation with mother-house at St. Cecilia's Convent, Nashville, Tennessee. Founded in 1860 by sisters from St. Mary's, Somerset, Ohio. Sisters, 98; novices, 15; academy, 1; orphan asylum, 1; institute for young ladies, 1; schools, 6; pupils, 1042.

(3) Congregation of the Most Holy Name of Jesus, with mother-house at San Rafael, California. Founded in 1850 by Most Rev. Joseph Alemany, O.P., Archbishop of San Francisco, at Benicia, California. Sisters, 135; academies, 3; schools, 6.

(4) Congregation of the Holy Rosary, with mother-house at St. Clara's Convent, Sinsinawa, Wisconsin. Founded in 1847 by Rev. Samuel Ch. Mazzuchelli, O.P. Sisters, 650; college, 1; academies, 9; schools, 46; pupils, 14,800.

(5) Congregation of the Holy Cross , with mother-house at Holy Cross Convent, Brooklyn, New York. Founded in 1853 by 4 sisters from Holy Cross Convent, Ratisbon, Bavaria. Sisters, 518; novices, 25; postulants, 17; training school, 1; academies, 3; schools, 33; hospitals, 2; sanatorium, 1; infirmary, 1; orphan asylums, 6. From this congregation were founded: (a) Congregation of the Most Holy Rosary with mother-house at Mission San José, California, in 1876. Sisters, 193; novices, 20; postulants, 16; academy, 1; orphan asylum, 1; schools, 9; pupils, 2926. (b) Congregation of the Immaculate Conception, with mother-house at Great Bend, Kansas, in 1902. Sisters, 17; novice, 1; postulant, 1; hospital, 1; school, 1; pupils, 194.

(6) Congregation with mother-house at Holy Rosary Convent, Second Street, New York City. Founded in 1859 by sisters from Holy Cross Convent, Ratisbon, Bavaria. Sisters, 600; academies, 8; hospitals, 2; schools, 60; pupils, 25,000. From this congregation were founded (a) Congregation with mother-house at Grand Rapids, Michigan, in 1877. Sisters, 187; novices, 50; postulants, 15; high school, 1; academies, 2; orphan asylum, 1; schools 32; pupils, 5000. (b) Congregation with mother-house at St. Dominic'sConvent, Blauvelt, New York. Sisters, 139; novices, 11; postulants, 3; schools, 8; asylum, 1. (c) Congregation with mother-house at St. Dominic's Academy, Jersey City, New Jersey , in 1882. Sisters, 215; academies, 3; schools, 21; pupils, 4427. From this congregation was founded: (i) Congregation with mother-house at St. Thomas Aquinas Convent, Tacoma, Washington, in 1888. Sisters, 52; schools, 3; pupils, 300.

(7) Congregations with mother-house at St. Joseph's Convent, Adrian, Michigan. Sisters, 180; novices, 28; academies, 3; schools, 29.

(8) Congregations with mother-house at St. Catherine of Siena's Convent, Racine, Wisconsin. Founded in 1862 by Mother Benedicta Bauer and Sister Thomasina Gincker from Holy Cross Convent, Ratisbon, Bavaria. Sisters, 286; postulants, 24; academies, 2; home for ladies, 1; schools, 38; pupils, 6307.

(9) Congregation with mother-house at St. Mary's Convent, New Orleans, Louisiana. Founded in 1860 by sisters from Cabra, Dublin, Ireland. Sisters, 57; academies, 2; schools, 2; pupils, 565.

(10) Congregation with mother-house at Reno, Nevada; founded by sisters from New Orleans, Louisiana. Sisters, 4.

(11) Congregation with mother-house at St. Catherine of Siena Convent, Fall River, Massachusetts. Founded in 1891 by sisters from Carrollton, Missouri. Sisters, 52.

B. Dominican Sisters of the Third Order of St. Dominic

Congregation with mother-house at the Convent of Our Lady of the Rosary, 63rd Street, New York City. Founded in 1867 by Father Rochford, O.P. Sisters, 160; novices, 10; postulants, 5; academy, 1; orphan asylums, 2; schools, 11; pupils, 4000.

C. Third Order Secular of St. Dominic

Introduced into the United States by the early Dominican missionaries. There are at present congregations of Dominican Tertiaries in almost all the churches in charge of Dominican Fathers, numbering from 100-600 members, and many hundred tertiaries throughout the country not belonging to any congregation.

VI. THIRD ORDER OF ST. FRANCIS (REGULAR AND SECULAR; MALE AND FEMALE)

A branch of the great Franciscan family . We deal here: A. with the secular Third Order; B. with the regular.

A. Origin, Development, and Present State of the Secular Third Order

It has been believed for some time that the Third Order of St. Francis was the oldest of all Third Orders, but historical evidence is against such an opinion. For, besides similar institutions in some monastic orders in the twelfth century, we find, before the foundation of St. Francis, a Third Order, properly so called, among the Humiliati, confirmed together with its rule by Innocent III in 1201 (see text in Tiraboschi, "Vetera Humiliatorum monumenta", II, Milan, 1767, 128). But if the Third Order of St. Francis was not the first of its kind, it was, and still is, undoubtedly the best known and most widely distributed and has the greatest influence. About its origin there are two opposite opinions. According to Karl Müller, Mandonnet, and others, the Secular Third Order is a survival of the original ideal of St. Francis, viz. a lay-confraternity of penitents, from which, through the influence of the Church, the First and Second Orders of the Friars Minor and the Poor Clares have been detached. According to others, St. Francis merely lent his name to pre-existing penitential lay-confraternities, without having any special connection with or influence on them. The two opinions are equally at variance with the best texts we have on the subject, such as Thomas of Celano, "Vita prima", I, 15; Julian of Spires, "Office of St. Francis: Third Antiphon at Lauds "; Gregory IX, Bull of 7 June, 1230 ( Bull. Franc., I, 65); St. Bonaventure, "Leg. Maior", IV, 6; Bernard of Besse, in "Anal. Franc.", III, 686. According to these sources, St. Francis really founded a Third Order and gave it a Rule. If we complete these notices with some early papal Bulls bearing on the penitential movement and with the account given by Mariano of Florence (end of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth century) we can state what follows:

The preaching of St. Francis, as well as his own living example and that of his first disciples, exercised such a powerful attraction on the people that many married men and women wanted to join the First or the Second Order. This being incompatible with their state of life, St. Francis found a middle way: he gave them a rule animated by the Franciscan spirit. In the composition of this rule St. Francis was assisted by his friend Cardinal Ugolino, later Gregory IX. As to the place where the Third Order was first introduced nothing certain is known. Of late however the preponderance of opinion is for Florence, chiefly on the authority of Mariano of Florence, or Faenza, for which the first papal Bull (Potthast, "Regesta Pontificum", 6736) known on the subject is given, whilst the "Fioretti" (ch. xvi), though not regarded as an historical authority, assigns Cannara, a small town two hours' walk from Portiuncula, as the birthplace of the Third Order. Mariano and the Bull for Faenza (16 Dec., 1221) point to 1221 as the earliest date of the institution of the Third Order, and in fact, besides these and other sources, the oldest preserved rule bears this date at its head. This rule was published by P. Sabatier and H. Boehmer (see bibliography), and contained originally twelve chapters, to which at the time of Gregory IX (1227) a thirteenth was added. It prescribes simplicity in dress (1), considerable fasting and abstinence (2-3), the canonical office or other prayers instead (4-5), confession and communion thrice a year, and forbids carrying arms or taking solemn oaths without necessity (6); every month the brothers and sisters have to assemble in a church designated by the ministers, and a religious has to give them an instruction (7); they also exercise the works of charity with their brothers (8); whenever a member dies the whole confraternity has to be present at the funeral and to pray for the departed (9); everyone has to make his last will three months after his reception; dissensions among brothers and sisters or other persons are to be settled peaceably; if any troubles arise with local authorities the ministers ought to act with the counsel of the bishop (10). No heretic or anyone suspected of heresy can be received, and women only with the consent of their husbands (11); the ministers have to denounce shortcomings to the visitor, who will punish the culprits; every year two new ministers and a treasurer are to be elected; no point of the rule obliges under pain of sin (12). On account of the prohibition of arms and unnecessary oaths, the followers of this rule came into conflict with local authorities, a fact of which we have evidence in many papal Bulls all through the thirteenth century, issued to safeguard the privileges of the Tertiaries (see list of these Bulls in Mandonnet, "Les Règles", 146-47).

Wadding ("Annales Min." ad a. 1321, n. 13) gives another longer redaction of the rule, which is almost identical with the one solemnly confirmed by Nicholas IV through the Bull "Supra montem", 17 Aug., 1289. This last form has for long been considered as the work of St. Francis, whilst Karl Müller denied any connection of St. Francis with it. If we compare the rule published and approved by Nicholas IV with the oldest text of 1221, we see that they substantially agree, slight modifications and different dispositions of chapters (here 20 in number) excepted. Through a most interesting text published by Golubovich (Arch. Franc. Hist., II, 1909, 20) we know now that this Rule of Nicholas IV was approved on the petition of some Italian Tertiaries. Another recent publication by Guerrini (Arch. Franc. Hist., I, 1908, 544 sq.) proves that there existed in the thirteenth century Third Order Confraternities with quite different rules. On the whole, it can safely be affirmed that until Nicholas IV there was no Rule of the Third Order generally observed, but besides the one quoted above, and probably the most widely spread, there were others of more local character. The same might be said as to the government of the confraternities. Besides their own officials, they had to have a visitor, who seems to have been usually appointed by the bishop. In 1247 Innocent IV ordered that the Friars Minor were to assume the direction of the Tertiaries in Italy and Sicily ( Bull Franc., I, 464), but about twenty years later when St. Bonaventure wrote his question: "Why do not the Friars Minor promote the Order of 'Penitents'?" (Op. om., VIII, 368) the contrary had practically prevailed. Nicholas IV introduced unity of rule and of direction into the Third Order, which henceforward was entrusted to the care of the Friars Minor.

If we except a few points, bearing especially on fasts and abstinence, mitigated by Clement VII in 1526 and Paul III in 1547, the Rule as given by Nicholas IV remained in vigour till 1883, when Leo XIII, himself a tertiary, through the Apostolic Constitution "Misericors Dei Filius", modified the text, adapting it more to the modern state and needs of the society. All substantial points, however, remained; only the daily vocal prayers were reduced, as also the fasts and abstinences, whilst the former statute of confession and communion thrice a year was changed into monthly communion. Other points of the modified Rule of Leo XIII are of great social and religious importance, such as the prohibition of pomp in dressing, of frequenting theatres of doubtful character, and keeping and reading papers and books at variance with faith and morals. The direction is entrusted to the three branches of the First Order: Friars Minor, Conventuals, Capuchins, and to the Regular Third Order. By delegation, confraternities can be established and directed by any parish priest. Those who for serious reasons cannot join a confraternity may be received as single tertiaries. Finally, great spiritual privileges are granted to all members of the Third Order.

The beneficent influence of the secular Third Order of St. Francis cannot be highly enough appreciated. Through the prohibition against carrying arms a deadly blow was given to the feudal system and to the ever-fighting factions of Italian municipalities; through the admission of poor and rich, nobles and common people, the social classes were brought nearer each other. How far the religious ideal of St. Francis was carried out by the secular Third Order we may judge from the great number (about 75) of saints and blessed of every condition it produced. It may suffice to mention: St. Elizabeth of Hungary ; St. Louis, King of France ; St. Ferdinand, King of Castile ; St. Elizabeth of Portugal ; St. Rosa of Viterbo ; St. Margaret of Cortona ; Bl. Umiliana Cerchi; Bl. Angela of Foligno ; Bl. Raymond Lullus; Bl. Luchesius of Poggibonsi, who passes as the first tertiary received by St. Francis; St. Ivo ; and in our times, Bl. Jean-Baptiste Vianney, the curé of Ars; of names celebrated in history for literature, arts, politics, inventions, etc., Dante, Giotto, Petrarch, Cola di Rienzo, Columbus, Vasco da Gama , Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Thomas More, Galvani, Volta, García Moreno, Liszt, and, finally, Lady Georgiana Fullerton. Popes Pius IX and Leo XIII were members of the Third Order, as also is Pope Pius X. Since the adaptation of the rule by Leo XIII the Third Order has grown more active than ever. At present the total number of members is esteemed about two and a half millions, spread all over the world. National and local congresses have been held in different countries: seven in the period from 1894 to 1908 in France, others in Belgium, some in Italy, the first general congress in Assisi (1895), many local ones from 1909 to 1911; others have been held in Spain, the last one at Santiago in 1909; in Argentina the last one at Buenos Aires in 1906; in India, Canada, and in Germany and Austria, in the last two instances in connection with general congresses of Catholics. There exist almost in all civilized languages numerous monthly periodicals which, whilst keeping up the union amongst the different confraternities, serve also for the instruction and edification of its members. The "Acta Ordinis Frat. Min.", XXVI, Quaracchi, 1907, 255-58, gives the names of 122 such periodicals. French periodicals are indicated by P. B. Ginnet, O.F.M., "Le Tiers Ordre et le Prêtre", Vanves, 1911, p. 51 sq.; German periodicals by Moll, O.M. Cap., "Wegweiser in die Literatur des Dritten Ordens", Ratisbon, 1911. In Italy even a regular newspaper was founded, "Rinascita Francescana", Bologna, 1910; another in Germany, "Allgemeine deutsche Tertiaren-Zeitung", Wiesbaden, 1911.—We may mention also the special organs for directors of the Third Order, e.g. "Der Ordensdirektor", published at Innsbruck by the Tyrolese Franciscans, "Revue sacerdotale du Tiers-Ordre de Saint François", published by French Capuchins. Both reviews appear once every two months.

B. Third Order Regular (Male and Female)

(1) Its origin and general development till Leo X

The origin of the Regular Third Order, both male and female, can be traced back to the second half of the thirteenth century, but no precise date can be indicated. It was organized, in different forms, in the Netherlands, in the south of France, in Germany, and in Italy

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Tænarum

Tænarum, a titular see in Greece, suffragan of Corinth. Tænarum, or Tænarus, ...

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Spanish priest and poet, better known by his pseudonym of Tirso de Molina, b. at Madrid, c. ...

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("ALTHOUGH") The first word of Chapter 1, Session 24 ( De Ref. Matr. ), of the Council of ...

Tamisier, Marie-Marthe-Baptistine

(Called by her intimates EMILIA) Initiator of international Eucharistic congresses, born at ...

Tanagra

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Prince of Antioch, born about 1072; died at Antioch, 12 Dec., 1112. He was the son of Marquess ...

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(Pronounced Tawney ) Fifth chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, ...

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Tanner, Edmund

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Tanner, Matthias

Born at Pilsen in Bohemia, 28 Feb., 1630; died at Prague, 8 Feb., 1692. He entered the Society ...

Tantum Ergo

The opening words of the penultimate stanza of the Vesper hymn (see PANGE LINGUA GLORIOSI, II) ...

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Marchese, Italian statesman, born at Stia in Tuscany, of poor family, in 1698 died at Naples, 29 ...

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(TAO-KIAO.) Taoism is the second of the three state religions ( San-kiao ) of China. ...

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(D'AZEGLIO, christened PROSPERO) Philosopher and writer on sociological subjects, born at ...

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DIOCESE OF TARAZONA (TURIASONENSIS) The Diocese of Tarazona comprises the Spanish provinces of ...

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Targum

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Tavium

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Taxa Innocentiana

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Taxster, John de

(TAYSTER) John de Taxster, sometimes erroneously called Taxter or Taxston, was a ...

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Taylor, Ven. Hugh

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Te 69

Te Deum, The

An abbreviated title commonly given both to the original Latin text and the translations of a ...

Te Lucis Ante Terminum

The hymn at Compline in the Roman Breviary. The authorship of St. Ambrose, for which Pimont ...

Tebaldeo, Antonio

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Tegernsee

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Tehuantepec

(Tehuantepecensis) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of Oaxaca. Its area covers ...

Teilo, Saint

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Teleology

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Telepathy

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Telese

(TELESINENSIS) Telese, a small town in the Province of Benevento, Southern Italy, is situated ...

Telesio, Bernardino

Italian humanist and philosopher born of a noble family at Cosenza, near Naples, 1508; died ...

Telesphorus of Cosenza

(THEOPHORUS, THEOLOPHORUS). A name assumed by one of the pseudo-prophets during the time of ...

Telesphorus, Pope Saint

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Tell el-Amarna Tablets, The

The Tell el-Amarna Tablets are a collection of some 350 clay tablets found in 1887 amid the ruins ...

Tellier, Michel Le

Born 19 April, 1603; died at Paris, 30 Oct., 1685. He was commissioned by Cardinal Mazarin to ...

Telmessus

Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Telmessus (or incorrectly Telmissis) was a flourishing ...

Temiskaming

The Vicariate Apostolic of Temiskaming, suffragan of Ottawa, Canada, is bounded on the north by ...

Temnus

A titular see in Asia, a suffragan of Ephesus. Temnus was a little town of Æolia, near ...

Tempel, Wilhelm

(ERNEST LEBERECHT) German astronomer, b. 4 December, 1821, at (Nieder-) Cunnersdorf near ...

Temperance

(Latin temperare , to mingle in due proportions; to qualify). Temperance is here considered ...

Temperance Movements

EUROPE Reasons for a temperance movement exist to a greater or less degree in all the countries ...

Templars, The Knights

The Knights Templars were the earliest founders of the military orders, and are the type on which ...

Temple

The Latin form, templum , from which the English temple is derived, originally signified an ...

Temple of Jerusalem

The word "temple" is derived from the Latin templum , signifying an uncovered place affording a ...

Temple, Sisters of the

The Sisters of the Temple (whose full title is S ISTERS OF THE F INDING OF J ESUS IN THE T ...

Temptation

( Latin tentare , to try or test). Temptation is here taken to be an incitement to sin ...

Temptation of Christ

In the Catholic translation of the Bible , the word "temptation" is used in various senses, ...

Ten Commandments, The

Called also simply THE COMMANDMENTS, COMMANDMENTS OF GOD, or THE DECALOGUE (Gr. deka , ten, ...

Ten Thousand Martyrs, The

On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. On 18 March: ...

Tencin, Pierre-Guérin de

French statesman and cardinal, b. at Grenoble, 22 August, 1680; d. at Lyons, 2 March, 1758. ...

Tenebræ

Tenebræ is the name given to the service of Matins and Lauds belonging to the last three ...

Tenebrae Hearse

The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...

Tenedos

A titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades. The island, called in Turkish ...

Teneriffe

DIOCESE OF TENERIFFE (TENERIFENSIS). Suffragan of Seville, formerly called Nivariensis from ...

Teniers, David

The name of two eminent Flemish landscape painters ; the elder, born at Antwerp in 1582; ...

Tennessee

The State of Tennessee lies between 35° and 36°30' N. lat. and 81°37' and 90°38' ...

Tenney, William Jewett

An author, editor, born at Newport, Rhode Island, 1814; died at Newark, New Jersey, 20 Sept., ...

Tentyris

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Tenure, Ecclesiastical

I. In the feudal system an ecclesiastical fief followed all the laws laid down for temporal ...

Teos

Titular see ; suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. A city of Caria situated on a peninsula ...

Tepic

DIOCESE OF TEPIC (TEPICENSIS) A diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the ...

Tepl

A Premonstratensian abbey in the western part of Bohemia, included in the Archdiocese of Prague ...

Teramo

Diocese in southern Italy. In the past the city was injured by earthquakes. It is situated at ...

Terce

The origin of Terce, like that of Sext and None, to which it bears a close relationship, dates ...

Terenuthis

Titular see, suffragan of Antinoë in Thebais Prima. Le Quien (Oriens christ., II, 611) ...

Teresa of Avila, Saint

Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada Born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at ...

Teresa of Lisieux, Saint

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed

Guillotined at the Place du Trône Renversé (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 ...

Terill, Anthony

English theologian, b. at Canford, Dorsetshire, in 1623; d. at Liège, 11 Oct., 1676. His ...

Termessus

A titular see, suffragan of Perge in Pamphylia Secunda. This is one of the most ancient cities ...

Termoli

(THERMULARUM) Located on the Italian coast of the Adriatic, having a small harbour near the ...

Ternan, Saint

Bishop of the Picts, flourished in the sixth century. Much obscurity attaches to his history, and ...

Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

(TERRACINENSIS, SETINENSIS ET PRIVERNENSIS) Located in the Province of Rome. The city of ...

Terrasson, André

A French preacher, born at Lyons in 1669; died at Paris, 25 April, 1723. He was the eldest son ...

Terrestrial Paradise

( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

Terrien, Jean-Baptiste

Dogmatic theologian, born at St-Laurent-des-Autels, Maine-et-Loire, 26 Aug., 1832; d. at ...

Tertiaries

(From the Latin tertiarius , the relative adjective of tertius , third ). Tertiaries, or ...

Tertullian

(Q UINTUS S EPTIMIUS F LORENS T ERTULLIANUS ). Ecclesiastical writer in the second and ...

Teruel

(TUROLENSIS) A suffragan of Saragossa, comprises the civil province of the same name, ...

Test-Oath, Missouri

In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...

Testament, New

I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...

Testament, Old

I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...

Testem Benevolentiae

An Apostolic Letter of Leo XIII addressed to Cardinal Gibbons, 22 January, 1899. It opens by ...

Tetzel, Johann

First public antagonist of Luther, b. at Pirna in Meissen, 1465; d. at Leipzig, 11 Aug., 1519. ...

Teuchira

A titular see in Libyan Pentapolis. Teuchira ( Teucheira ) neuter plural, was a city on the ...

Teutonic Order

A medieval military order modelled on the Hospitallers of St. John, which changed its residence ...

Tewdrig

(THEODORIC) A Welsh saint, son of King Ceithfalt of Morganwg or Southern Wales, flourished ...

Texas

S TATE OF T EXAS . The name, Texas, is probably derived from Tejas, the name of a ...

Textual Criticism

The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...

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Th 147

Thænæ

A titular see in Africa Byzacena. It is mentioned in numerous ancient geographical documents ...

Thébaud, Augustus

Jesuit educator and publicist, b. at Nantes, France, 20 Nov., 1807; d. at St. John's College, ...

Thénard, Louis-Jacques, Baron

Chemist, b. at Louptière, near Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube, France, on 4 May, 1777; d. at Paris, ...

Théophane Vénard

(JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...

Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint

(Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

Thabor, Mount

The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...

Thabraca

A titular see of Numidia near the sea, between the Armua and the Tusca. Thabraca was the last ...

Thacia Montana

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. An inscription discovered in the ...

Thagaste

(TAGASTE) Thagaste, a titular see in Numidia, was a rather important municipality. It is ...

Thagora

(Tagora) Titular see in Numidia, mentioned by the "Rabula Peutingeriana", which calls it ...

Thais, Saint

(THAISIS or THAISIA). A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century. In the Greek menology her ...

Thalberg, Sigismond

Musical composer and pianist, b. at Geneva, 1812; d. at Posilipo, Italy, 27 April, 1871. The ...

Thalhofer, Valentin

German theologian, b. at Unterroth, near Ulm, 21 January, 1825; d. at the same place, 17 ...

Thangmar

(THANKMAR) Historian, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. probably at Hildesheim ...

Thanksgiving before and after Meals

The word grace , which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English ...

Thanksgiving Day

A civil holiday observed annually in the United States of America on the last Thursday in ...

Thapsus

A titular see in Byzacene Africa. It was a Phoenician market on the coast of Byzacium in ...

Thasos

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. The island of Thasos was anciently ...

Thaumaci

A titular see in Thessaly, suffragan of Larissa, commanding the defile of Coele at the ...

Thayer, John

Missionary, convert, first native of New England ordained to the priesthood, b. Boston, ...

Theatines

(CLERICS REGULAR) A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo ...

Theatre, The

Considering the tone of what is preserved to us of the works of the Greek tragedians and even of ...

Thebaid

The valley of the Nile, under Roman domination, was divided into four provinces: Lower and Upper ...

Thebes

(THEBAE) A metropolitan titular see of Achaia Secunda. The city was founded by the ...

Thebes

(THEBAE) Titular see of Thebais Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais, and the seat of a Coptic ...

Thecla, Saint

Benedictine Abbess of Kitzingen and Ochsenfurt; date of birth unknown; d. at Kitzingen about 790 ...

Thecla, Saints

I. Thecla of Iconium The reputed pupil of the Apostle Paul , who is the heroine of the ...

Theft

Theft is the secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other. ...

Thegan (Degan) of Treves

Chronicler, d. about 850. Very little is known of his life; all that is certain is that he was ...

Theiner, Augustin

Theologian and historian, b. at Breslau, 11 April, 1804; d. at Civitavecchia, 8 Aug., 1874. He was ...

Thelepte

A titular see in Byzacene. From an inscription we learn that it was a colony. An important ...

Themiscyra

A titular see, suffragan of Amasea in the Hellespont. There was a town of this name near the ...

Themisonium

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. Themisonium was a city of Phrygia, ...

Thennesus

A titular suffragan see of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima. Cassian (Collat., XI, 1-3) gives a ...

Theobald

(T EDBALD .) Archbishop of Canterbury ; d. 18 April, 1161. He was a Norman by descent and ...

Theobald, Saint

Born at Provins in the Province of Champagne, France, in 1017; died at Salanigo in Italy 30 June, ...

Theocracy

A form of civil government in which God himself is recognized as the head. The laws of the ...

Theodard, Saint

Archbishop of Narbonne, b. at Montauban about 840; d. at the same place 1 May, 893. He seems to ...

Theodicy

Etymologically considered theodicy ( théos díe ) signifies the justification of ...

Theodore I, Pope

Pope from 642 to 649; the date of his birth is unknown. He was a Greek of Jerusalem and the ...

Theodore II, Pope

Son of Photius. His pontificate lasted only twenty days; neither the date of his birth nor of his ...

Theodore of Amasea, Saint

Surnamed Tyro (Tiro), not because he was a young recruit, but because for a time he belonged to ...

Theodore of Gaza

A fifteenth-century Greek Humanist and translator of Aristotle, b. at Thessalonica early in ...

Theodore of Studium, Saint

A zealous champion of the veneration of images and the last geat representative of the unity ...

Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

Seventh Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Tarsus in Cilicia about 602; d. at Canterbury 19 ...

Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia

Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer; b. at Antioch about 350 (thus also ...

Theodoret

Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457. He says ...

Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

A Platonist philosopher of the twelfth century, b. in France at the beginning of the twelfth ...

Theodoric the Great

King of the Ostrogoths, born A.D. 454 (?); died 26 August, 526. He was an illegitimate son of ...

Theodorus and Theophanes, Saints

(Called Grapti , "written upon", graptoi ) Theodorus, b. about 775; d. about 842-43; ...

Theodorus Lector

A lector attached to the Church of St. Sophia of Constantinople in the early part of the sixth ...

Theodosiopolis

A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Prima. In the beginning the city was called Apros, or ...

Theodosius Florentini

Born at Münster, in the Grisons, Switzerland, 23 May, 1808; died at Heiden, in Appenzell, ...

Theodosius I

Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 ...

Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint

Martyr. On 18 May the Roman Martyrology says: "At Ancyra, in Galatia, the martyr Saint Theodotus ...

Theodulf

(Theodulfus, Theodulfe), Bishop of Orléans, a writer skilled in poetic forms and a ...

Theology of Christ (Christology)

Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ. In its full extent ...

Theology, Ascetical

Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of ...

Theology, Dogmatic

Dogmatic theology is that part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith ...

Theology, History of Dogmatic

The imposing edifice of Catholic theology has been reared not by individual nations and men, ...

Theology, Moral

Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...

Theology, Mystical

Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...

Theology, Pastoral

Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...

Theonas

Bishop of Alexandria from about 283 to 301 ( Eusebius, "Chronicle", Ann. Abr. 2299, St. Jerome's ...

Theophanes Kerameus

( Kerameus , potter). Archbishop of Rossano in Calabria (1129-52), a celebrated homiletic ...

Theophanes, Saint

Chronicler, born at Constantinople, about 758; died in Samothracia, probably 12 March, 817, on ...

Theophilanthropists

("Friends of God and Man") A deistic sect formed in France during the latter part of the ...

Theophilus

Bishop of Antioch. Eusebius in his "Chronicle" places the name of Theophilus against that of ...

Theophilus

Patriarch of Alexandria (385-412). Concerning the extraction and early life of Theophilus we ...

Theosophy

( Theosophia = "wisdom concerning God ") Theosophy is a term used in general to designate ...

Theotocopuli, Domenico

One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

Thera (Santorin)

DIOCESE OF THERA (SANTORINO) Diocese in the Cyclades. About the year 2000 B.C., the ...

Thermae Basilicae

A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. The Greek "Notitiae episcopatuum" ...

Thermopylae

A titular see and suffragan of Athens in Achaia Prima. It is the name of a defile about 4 ...

Thessalonians, Epistles to the

Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul. This article will treat the Church of ...

Thessalonica

(SALONIKI) Titular metropolis in Macedonia. It was at first a village called Alia, situated ...

Theveste

Titular see of Numidia. The city seems to have had some importance even prior to Christianity. ...

Thibaris

Titular see in Byzacena ( Africa ), not mentioned by any ancient author. The official list of ...

Thibaut de Champagne

Thibaut IV, count of Champagne and King of Navarre, a French poet, b. 1201, at Troyes ; d. 8 ...

Thierry of Freburg

( Or Thierry of Saxony). A philosopher and physician of the Middle Ages, and a member of ...

Thiers, Louis-Adolphe

French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic, b. at Marseilles, ...

Thignica

A titular see in Numidia. The Roman Curia's official list of titular sees places Thignica in ...

Thijm, Joseph Albert Alberdingk

Born at Amsterdam, 8 July, 1820; d. there, 17 March, 1889. After finishing his studies in his ...

Thijm, Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk

Brother of Joseph Alberdingk Thijm , b. at Amsterdam, 21 Oct., 1827, d. at Louvain, 1 Feb., ...

Thimelby, Richard

( Alias ASHBY) Missionary priest, b. in Lincolnshire, England, 1614; d. at St. Omer's, ...

Third Orders

I. GENERAL Third Orders signify in general lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women ...

Thirty Years War

The Thirty Years War (1618-48), though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance ...

Thmuis

A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium ; a city of Lower Egypt, on the ...

Thomas á Jesu

(Diaz Sanchez de Avila). Discalced Carmelite, writer on mystical theology, born at Baeza, ...

Thomas à Kempis

Author of the "Imitation of Christ" , born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; ...

Thomas Abel, Blessed

(Also ABLE, or ABELL.) Priest and martyr, born about 1497; died 30 July, 1540. He was ...

Thomas Alfield, Venerable

(AUFIELD, ALPHILDE, HAWFIELD, OFFELDUS; alias BADGER). Priest, born at Gloucestershire; ...

Thomas Aquinas, Saint

Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church ( Angelicus Doctor ), patron of Catholic ...

Thomas Atkinson, Venerable

Martyred at York, 11 March, l6l6. He was born in the East Riding of Yorkshire, was ordained ...

Thomas Becket, Saint

Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, born at London, 21 December, 1118 (?); died at Canterbury, 29 ...

Thomas Belchiam, Venerable

A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537. He ...

Thomas Christians, Saint

An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent ...

Thomas Cottam, Blessed

Martyr, born 1549, in Lancashire; executed at Tyburn, 30 May, 1582. His parents, Laurence cottam ...

Thomas Ford, Blessed

Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...

Thomas Garnet, Saint

Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...

Thomas Johnson, Blessed

Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...

Thomas More, Saint

Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...

Thomas of Beckington

(BEKYNTON.) Bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Beckington, Somerset, about 1390; died at ...

Thomas of Bradwardine

(BRAGWARDIN, BRANDNARDINUS, BREDWARDYN, BRADWARDYN, DE BREDEWARDINA). Born about 1290; died in ...

Thomas of Cantimpré

Medieval writer, preacher, and theologian, born of noble parentage at Leuw St. Pierre near ...

Thomas of Celano

Friar Minor, poet, andhagiographical writer, born at Celano in the Province of the Abruzzi, about ...

Thomas of Dover

Martyr ; died 2 or 5 August, 1295. On the above date the French ravaged Dover with fire and ...

Thomas of Hereford

(THOMAS DE CANTELUPE). Born at Hambledon, Buckinghamshire, England, about 1218; died at ...

Thomas of Jesus

(THOMAS DE ANDRADA). Reformer and preacher, born at Lisbon, 1529; died at Sagena, Morocco, 17 ...

Thomas of Jorz

(Often but erroneously called JOYCE and frequently referred to as ANGLUS or ANGLICUS). ...

Thomas of Strasburg

A fourteenth-century scholastic of the Augustinian Order, born, according to some writers, at ...

Thomas of Villanova, Saint

Educator, philanthropist, born at Fuentellana, Spain, 1488; died at Valencia, 8 September, 1555. ...

Thomas Percy, Blessed

Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...

Thomas Sherwood, Blessed

Martyr, born in London, 1551; died at Tyburn, London, 7 February, 1578. His parents also ...

Thomas the Apostle, Saint

Little is recorded of St. Thomas the Apostle, nevertheless thanks to the fourth Gospel his ...

Thomas Thwing, Venerable

Martyr. Born at Heworth Hall, near York, in 1635; suffered at York, 23 Oct., 1680. His father was ...

Thomas Woodhouse, Blessed

Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...

Thomas, Charles L.A.

French composer, born at Metz, 5 August, 1811; died at Paris, 12 February, 1896. He gained the ...

Thomassin, Louis

Theologian and French Oratorian, b. at Aix-en-Provence 28 Aug., 1619; d. in Paris, 24 Dec., ...

Thomism

In a broad sense, Thomism is the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. ...

Thompson River Indians

(THOMPSON INDIANS). An important tribe of British Columbia of Salishan linguistic stock, also ...

Thompson, Blessed James

(Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...

Thompson, Edward Healy and Harriet Diana

The name of two English converts : (1) Edward Healy and (2) Harriet Diana. Edward Healy ...

Thompson, Francis

Poet, b. at Preston, Lancashire, 18 Dec., 1859; d. in London, 13 Nov., 1907. He came from the ...

Thompson, Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David

Jurist and first Catholic Premier of Canada, b. at Halifax, Nova Scotia , 10 Nov., 1844; d. ...

Thonissen, Jean-Joseph

Professor of law at the University of Louvain, minister in the Belgian Government, b. at ...

Thorlaksson, Arni

An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297. While a deacon, he visited ...

Thorney Abbey

(i.e. "the isle of thorns", anciently called ANCARIG). Thorney Abbey, in Cambridgeshire, ...

Thorns, Crown of

Although Our Saviour's Crown of Thorns is mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded ...

Thorns, Feast of the Crown of

The first feast in honour of the Crown of Thorns ( Festum susceptionis coronae Domini ) was ...

Thorpe, Venerable Robert

Priest and martyr, b. in Yorkshire; suffered at York, 15 May, 1591. He reached the English ...

Thou, Jacques-Auguste de

French historian, b. at Paris, 8 October, 1553; d. there, 7 May, 1617. The son of Christophe de ...

Thou, Nicolas de

Bishop of Chartres, uncle of the historian Jacques-Auguste de Thou, b. at Paris, 1528; d. at ...

Three Chapters

The Three chapters ( trîa kephálaia ) were propositions anathematizing : (1) the ...

Three Rivers

DIOCESE OF THREE RIVERS (TRIFLUVIANENSIS) Formed from the Archdiocese of Quebec , to which it ...

Throne

(Latin thronus, cathedra, sedes episcopalis ), the seat the bishop uses when not engaged at ...

Thuburbo Minus

A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Thuburbo Minus is mentioned in ...

Thugga

Titular see of Numidia, perhaps the Numidian fortress of Tocai mentioned about 305 B.C. by ...

Thugut, Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula

Austrian statesman, born at Linz, 31 March, 1736; died at Vienna, 28 May, 1818. He was the son of ...

Thulis, Venerable John

English martyr, born at Up Holland, Lancashire, probably about 1568; suffered at Lancaster, 18 ...

Thun-Hohenstein, Count Leo

Austrian statesman, b. at the family castle of Tetschen in Bohemia, 7 April, 1811; d. at Vienna, ...

Thundering Legion

( Legio fulminata , or fulminea , not fulminatrix ). The story of the Thundering Legion ...

Thuringia

The name Thuringia is given to a large part of Central Germany, bounded on the west by the ...

Thurmayr, Johannes

(Called AVENTINUS from the place of his birth) Born at Abensberg, Bavaria, 4 July, 1477; died ...

Thyatira

A titular suffragan see of Sardes in Lydia. According to Stephanus Byzantius, the name was ...

Thynias

A titular see, suffragan of Nicomedia, in Bithynia Prima. It is an island situated in the Black ...

Thyräus, Hermann

German Jesuit, b. at Neuss on the Rhine, 1532; d. at Mainz, 26 October, 1591. He studied first ...

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Ti 45

Tiara

The papal crown, a costly covering for the head, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, ...

Tibaldi, Pellegrino

Known also as Pellegrino da Bologna and as Pellegrino Pellegrini; decorator, mural painter, and ...

Tiberias

Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda. The town of Tiberias was founded on ...

Tiberias, Sea of

So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1 ), otherwise known as "the sea of Galilee" ( Matthew 4:18 ; Mark ...

Tiberiopolis

Titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana. Tiberiopolis is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, 2, 25); Socrates ...

Tiberius

The second Roman emperor ( A. D. 14-37), b. 16 November, 42 B. C. , d. 16 March, A. D. 37. ...

Tibet

A vast plateau, about 463,320 square miles, about 1240 miles in its greatest length from east to ...

Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints

Roman martyrs, feast 11 August. The story is related in the legend of St. Sebastian that ...

Ticelia

Titular see, suffragan of Cyrene, in the Libya Pentapolis. Under this name it is not found in any ...

Tichborne, Ven. Nicholas

Martyr, b. at Hartley Mauditt, Hampshire; suffered at Tyburn, London, 24 Aug., 1601. He was a ...

Tichborne, Ven. Thomas

Born at Hartley, Hampshire, 1567; martyred at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1602. He was educated ...

Ticonius

(Also TYCONIUS, TYCHONIUS, etc.) An African Donatist writer of the fourth century who ...

Ticuna Indians

A tribe of Indians of some importance, constituting a distinct linguistic stock, inhabiting the ...

Tieffentaller, Joseph

Jesuit missionary and noted geographer in Hindustan, b. at Bozen in the Tyrol, 27 August, 1710; ...

Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Tiepolo Born in Venice in 1696; died at Madrid, 27 March, 1770. ...

Tierney, Mark Aloysius

Born at Brighton, Sept., 1795; died at Arundel, 19 Feb., 1862. After his early schooling with the ...

Tigris, Saint

Irish saint, sister of St. Patrick. Much obscurity attaches to her life, and she has been ...

Tillemont, Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de

French historian and priest, b. at Paris, 30 November, 1637; d. there, 10 January, 1698; he was ...

Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of

Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632. He was a member of a noble family of ...

Timbrias

A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. It is called Thymbrium in the official lists ...

Time

The problem of time is one of the most difficult and most keenly debated in the field of natural ...

Timothy and Symphorian, Saints

Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August. During the pontificate of Melchiades (311-13), ...

Timothy and Titus, Epistles to

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

Timucua Indians

A principal group or confederacy of Ancient Florida, notable for the successful missions ...

Tincker, Mary Agnes

Novelist, born at Ellsworth, Maine, 18 July, 1833; died at Boston, Massachusetts, 4 December, ...

Tingis

A titular see of Mauretania Tingitana (the official list of the Roman Curia places it in ...

Tinin

SEE OF TININ (KNIN). Located in Dalmatia ; suffragan to Kalocsa-Bacs. Knin is a town on ...

Tinos and Mykonos

DIOCESE OF TINOS AND MYKONOS (TINENSIS ET MYCONENSIS) A Latin diocese of the Cyclades, ...

Tintern Abbey

This abbey, in Monmouthshire, England [actually Wales -- Ed. ], was founded in 1131 by ...

Tintoretto, Il

(J ACOPO R OBUSTI ) Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594. His father was a ...

Tipasa

A titular see of Numidia. The Phoenician word signifies passage. Early in its history we find ...

Tiraboschi, Girolamo

Italian scholar, b. in the region of Bergamo, 1731; d. 3 June, 1794. At an early age he entered ...

Tiraspol

DIOCESE OF TIRASPOL (or CHERSONESE) (TIRASPOLENSIS; CHERSONENSIS) Diocese in Southern Russia ...

Tisio da Garofalo, Benvenuto

An Italian painter of the Ferrarese school ; b. in 1481 at Garofalo, whence, as was the ...

Tissot, James

(JOSEPH-JACQUES TISSOT) French draughtsman and painter, b. at Nantes, 15 Oct., 1836; d. at ...

Tithes

(Anglo-Saxon teotha , a tenth). Generally defined as "the tenth part of the increase arising ...

Tithes, Lay

Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...

Titian

(T IZIANO V ECELLI , called T ITIAN ). The greatest of Venetian painters, born at Pieve ...

Titopolis

(TITIOPOLIS) Titular see, suffragan of Seleucia Trachaea in Isauria. Le Quien (Oriens ...

Titulus

In pagan times titulus signified an inscription on stone, and later the stone which marked ...

Titus

Roman Emperor 79-81, b. 30 Dec., 41; d. 13 Sept., 81; son of the Emperor Vespasian, and from the ...

Titus and Timothy, Epistles to

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

Titus, Bishop of Bostra

Born about 362-371. Sozomen (Hist. eccl., III, xiv) names Titus among the great men of the time ...

Tius

(TIUM) Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in Honorias. According to Strabo (542, 545) the ...

Tivoli

DIOCESE OF TIVOLI (TIBURTINA) Diocese in the Province of Rome. The city in situated where the ...

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Tl 2

Tlaxcala

(TLAXCALENSIS) A former diocese of the colony of New Spain. It was the fifth diocese ...

Tlos

A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Tlos was one of the six cities forming the Lycian ...

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Toaldo, Giuseppe

Priest and physicist, b. at Pianezze, 1719; d. at Padua, 1797. In his fourteenth year he entered ...

Toba Indians

One of the few still unconquered savage tribes of the great Chaco wilderness of South America, and ...

Tobias

We shall first enumerate the various Biblical persons and then treat the book of this name. I. ...

Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de

(CHARLES-ALEXIS-HENRI-MAURICE-CLEREL DE TOCQUEVILLE) Writer and statesman, b. at Verneuil, ...

Todi

(T UDERTINA ). Diocese in Central Italy ; immediately dependent on the Holy See. The city ...

Tokio

(Tokiensis) Archdiocese comprising 21 provinces or 15 departments with a population of over ...

Toledo (Ohio)

(Toletana in America) A diocese in Ohio, U.S.A. formed out of the Diocese of Cleveland and ...

Toledo (Spain)

ARCHDIOCESE OF TOLEDO (TOLETANENSIS) Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost ...

Toledo, Francisco

Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, son of an actuary, b. at Córdova, 4 Oct., 1532; d. ...

Tolentino and Macerata

Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...

Toleration, History of

In any attempt to deal historically with the attitude of the Church towards religious toleration ...

Toleration, Religious

Toleration in general signifies patient forbearance in the presence of an evil which one is ...

Tolomei, John Baptist

A distinguished Jesuit theologian and cardinal, born of noble parentage, at Camberaia, between ...

Tomb

A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons, ...

Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...

Tomb, Altar

A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having ...

Tomi

A titular metropolitan see in the Province of Scythia, on the Black Sea. It was a Greek colony ...

Tommasi, Blessed Giuseppe Maria

A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...

Tongerloo, Abbey of

Located near Antwerp, Belgium, founded in 1128 in honour of the Blessed Virgin, by de ...

Tongiorgi, Salvator

Philosopher, born at Rome, Italy, 25 December, 1820; d. there, 12 November, 1865. At the age of ...

Tongues, Gift of

(Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...

Tonica Indians

(Or TUNICA). A small tribe constituting a distinct linguistic stock living, when first known ...

Tonkawa Indians

A tribal group or confederacy, of low culture status and constituting a distinct linguistic stock, ...

Tonsure

( Latin tondere , "to shear") A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized ...

Tootell, Hugh

Commonly known as Charles Dodd. Historian, b. in 1671 or 1672, at Durton-in-Broughton, ...

Torah

I. USE OF WORD Torah, (cf. Hiph. of ), signifies first "direction, instruction", as, for ...

Torbido, Francesco

Often called IL MORO (The Moor). Veronese painter and engraver, b. at Verona about 1486; ...

Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint

Archbishop of Lima ; b. at Mayorga, León, Spain, 1538; d. near Lima Peru, 23 March ...

Tornielli, Girolamo Francesco

Italian Jesuit, preacher and writer, b. at Cameri, 1 Febreuary, 1693, of a distinguished family ...

Torone

A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. Torone was a colony of Chalcideans from ...

Toronto

(TORONTINA). Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada. When constituted a diocese, it ...

Torquemada, Tomás de

First Grand Inquisitor of Spain, born at Valladolid in 1420; died at Avila, 16 September, ...

Torres Naharro, Bartolemé de

Spanish poet and dramatist, b. at Torres, near Badajoz, towards the end of the fifteenth ...

Torres, Francisco

(TURRIANUS.) Hellenist and polemicist, born in Herrera, Palencia, about 1509; died at Rome, ...

Torricelli, Evangelista

Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 ...

Torrubia, José

Born towards the end of the seventeenth century at Granada, Spain ; died in 1768 in the ...

Tortona

DIOCESE OF TORTONA (DERTONENSIS) Diocese in Piedmont, Italy. The city is situated on the ...

Tortosa

DIOCESE OF TORTOSA (DERTHUSENSIS, DERTUSA). Located in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; ...

Toscanella and Viterbo

(VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...

Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo

Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer, b. at Florence in 1397; d. there, 10 May, 1482. ...

Tosephta

( Hebrew = addition, supplement ) Tosephta is the name of compilation of ...

Tostado, Alonso

(ALONSO TOSTATUS) Exegete, b. at Madrigal, Castile, about 1400; d. at Bonilla de la Sierra, ...

Tosti, Luigi

Benedictine historian, b. at Naples 13 Feb., 1811; d. at Monte Cassino, 24 Sept., 1897. His ...

Totemism

Totemism from ote , root ot , possessive form otem , in the Ojibway dialect of the ...

Totonac Indians

One of the smaller cultured nations of ancient Mexico, occupying at the time of the Spanish ...

Touchet, George Anselm

Born at Stalbridge, Dorset; died about 1689. He was second son of Mervyn, twelfth Lord Audley, ...

Toulouse

A RCHDIOCESE OF T OULOUSE (T OLOSENSIS ) Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne. As ...

Tournély, Honoré

Theologian, b. Antibes, Provence, 28 August, 1658; d. at Paris, 26 December 1729. His parents ...

Tournai

DIOCESE OF TOURNAI (Latin TURNACUM, TORNACUM; Flemish, DOORNIJK — TORNACENSIS) Diocese ...

Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de

French botanist, b. at Aix in Provence, 5 June, 1656; d. at Paris, 28 Dec., 1708. After his ...

Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de

Papal legate to India and China, cardinal, born of a noble Savoyard family at Turin, 21 ...

Touron, Antoine

Dominican biographer and historian, born at Graulhet, Tarn, France, on 5 September, 1686; died ...

Tours

(TURONENSIS.) Comprises the Department of Indre-et-Loire, and was re-established by the ...

Toustain, Charles-François

French Benedictine, and member of the Congregation of St-Maur, born at Repas in the Diocese of ...

Touttée, Antoine-Augustin

A French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. at Riom, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, ...

Tower of Babel

The "Tower of Babel" is the name of the building mentioned in Genesis 11:19 . History of the ...

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Tr 77

Tracy, Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de

Viceroy of New France, born in France, 1603, of noble parents ; died there in 1670. A soldier ...

Tradition and Living Magisterium

The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...

Traditionalism

A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude. ...

Traducianism

Traducianism ( tradux , a shoot or sprout, and more specifically a vine branch made to take root ...

Trajan

Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117. He ...

Trajanopolis

Titular metropolitan see of Rhodope. The city owes its foundation or restoration to Trajan. Le ...

Trajanopolis

A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. The only geographer who speaks ...

Tralles

A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. It was founded, it is said, by the Argians ...

Trani and Barletta

(T RANEN , et Barolen.) Diocese in Italy. The city of Trani is situated on the Adriatic in ...

Transcendentalism

The terms transcendent and transcendental are used in various senses, all of which, as a ...

Transept

A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica. It ...

Transfiguration

The Transfiguration of Christ is the culminating point of His public life, as His Baptism is ...

Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the

Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. ...

Transubstantiation

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

Transvaal

Vicariate apostolic ; lies between 23° 3' and 27° 30' S. lat., and 25° and 32° ...

Transylvania

(Also TRANSYLVANIENSIS or ERDELY). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Kalocsa Bács. The ...

Trapani

(TREPANENSIS). Diocese in Sicily, suffragan of Palermo. The city is the capital of a ...

Trapezopolis

A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan to Laodicea. Trapezopolis was a town of Caria ...

Trappists

The common name by which the Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de ...

Trasilla and Emiliana, Saints

Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...

Treason, Accusations of

A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics ...

Trebizond

(TRAPEZUNTINA). An Armenian Catholic diocese. The city owes its ancient name to the fact that ...

Trebnitz

A former abbey of Cistercian nuns, situated north of Breslau in Silesia. It was founded in ...

Tredway, Lettice Mary

(Called "Lady" Tredway) Born 1595; died Oct., 1677; daughter of Sir Walter Tredway, of Buckley ...

Tregian, Francis

Confessor, b. in Cornwall, 1548; d. at Lisbon, 25 Sept., 1608. He was son of Thomas Tregian of ...

Tremithus

Titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. The city is mentioned by Ptolemy (Geog., V, xiii, ...

Trent

(TRIDENTUM; TRIDENTINA). Diocese ; suffragan of Salzburg. Trent became universally known ...

Trent, Council of

The nineteenth ecumenical council opened at Trent on 13 December, 1545, and closed there on 4 ...

Trenton

(T RENTONENSIS ). Diocese created 15 July, 1881, suffragan of New York, comprises Atlantic, ...

Tresham, Sir Thomas

Knight Bachelor (in or before 1524), Grand Prior of England in the Order of Knights ...

Treviso

(TARVISINA). Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The capital is surrounded by the River ...

Tribe, Jewish

( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...

Tricarico, Diocese of

(TRICARICENSIS.) Located in the Province of Potenza in the Basilicata (Southern Italy ), near ...

Tricassin, Charles Joseph

One of the greatest theologians of the Capuchin Order, b. at Troyes ; d. in 1681. There is but ...

Tricca

Titular see, suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. It was an ancient city of Thessaly, near the River ...

Trichinopoly, Diocese of

(TRICHINOPOLITAN.) Located in India, suffragan of Bombay, comprises the south east portion of ...

Trichur

(TRICHURENSIS.) Vicariate Apostolic in India, one of the three vicariates of the Syro-Malabar ...

Tricomia

Titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palaestina Prima. It is mentioned in George of Cyprus ...

Triduum

(Three days). A time frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices, whether ...

Trier

(TREVIRENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Cologne; includes in the Prussian province of the ...

Triesnecker, Francis a Paula

Astronomer, b. at Kirchberg on the Wagram, in Lower Austria, 2 April, 1745; d. at Vienna 29 ...

Triest-Capo d'Istria

(TERGESTINA ET JUSTINOPOLITANA.) Suffragan diocese of Görz-Gradiska ; exists as a ...

Trincomalee

(TRINCOMALIENSIS.) Located in Ceylon, suffragan of Colombo, was created in 1893 by a division ...

Trinità di Cava dei Tirrenti, Abbey of

Located in the Province of Salerno. It stands in a gorge of the Finestre Hills near Cava dei ...

Trinitarians, Order of

The redemption of captives has always been regarded in the Church as a work of mercy, as is ...

Trinity College

An institution for the higher education of Catholic women, located at Washington, D.C., and ...

Trinity Sunday

The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity. In the early ...

Trinity, The Blessed

This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...

Triple-Candlestick

A name given along with several others (e.g. reed, tricereo, arundo, triangulum, lumen Christi ...

Trissino, Giangiorgio

Italian poet and scholar, b. of a patrician family at Vicenza in 1478; d. at Rome, 8 ...

Tritheists

(TRITHEITES). Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity. (1) Those who are ...

Trithemius, John

A famous scholar and Benedictine abbot, b. at Trittenheim on the Moselle, 1 February, 1462; d. at ...

Trivento

(Triventensis) Diocese in southern Italy. The earliest bishop was St. Castus of an uncertain ...

Trivet, Nicholas

(Or "Trevet" as he himself wrote it) B. about 1258; d. 1328. He was the son of Thomas Trevet, a ...

Troas

A suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespont. The city was first called Sigia; it was enlarged and ...

Trocmades

(Trocmada) Titular see of Galatia Secunda, suffragan of Pessinus. No geographer or historian ...

Trokelowe, John de

(THROWLOW, or THORLOW) A monastic chronicler still living in 1330, but the dates of whose birth ...

Trondhjem, Ancient See of

(NIDAROS). In Norway it was the kings who introduced Christianity, which first became ...

Trope

Definition and Description Trope, in the liturgico-hymnological sense, is a collective name ...

Tropology, Scriptural

The theory and practice of interpreting the figurative meaning of Holy Writ. The literal meaning, ...

Troy, John Thomas

Archbishop of Dublin ; b. in the parish of Blanchardstown, near Dublin, 10 May, 1739; d. at ...

Troyes

(TRECENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Aube. Re-established in 1802 as a suffragan ...

Truce of God

The Truce of God is a temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God ...

Truchsess von Waldburg, Otto

Cardinal-Bishop of Augsburg (1543-73), b. at Castle Scheer in Swabia, 26 Feb., 1514; d. at ...

Trudo, Saint

(TRON, TROND, TRUDON, TRUTJEN, TRUYEN). Apostle of Hasbein in Brabant; d. 698 (693). Feast 23 ...

Trudpert, Saint

Missionary in Germany in the seventh century. He is generally called a Celtic monk from ...

True Cross, The

(AND REPRESENTATIONS OF IT AS OBJECTS OF DEVOTION). (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult ; (2) ...

Trueba, Antonio de

Spanish poet and folklorist, b. at Montellana, Biscay, in 1821; d. at Bilbao, 10 March, 1889. In ...

Trujillo

Diocese comprising the Departments of Lambayeque, Libertad, Pinra, and the Province of Tumbes, ...

Trullo, Council in

This particular council of Constantinople, held in 692 under Justinian II, is generally known as ...

Trumpets, Feast of

The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...

Trumwin, Saint

(TRIUMWINI, TRUMUINI). Died at Whitby, Yorkshire, England, after 686. He was consecrated by ...

Trustee System

I In the exercise of her inherent right of administering property, the Church often appoints ...

Trusts and Bequests

A trust has been defined, in its technical sense, as the right enforceable solely in equity to ...

Truth

Truth (Anglo-Saxon tréow, tryw, truth, preservation of a compact, from a Teutonic base ...

Truth Societies, Catholic

This article will treat of Catholic Truth Societies in the chronological order of their ...

Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...

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Ts 2

Tschiderer zu Gleifheim, Johann Nepomuk von

Bishop of Trent, b. at Bozen, 15 Feb., 1777; d. at Trent, 3 Dec., 1860. He sprang from a family ...

Tschupick, John Nepomuk

A celebrated preacher, b. at Vienna, 7 or 12 April, 1729; d. there, 20 July, 1784. He entered the ...

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Tu 27

Tuam

(TUAMENSIS). The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly ...

Tuam, School of

(Irish, Tuaim da Ghualann , or the "Mound of the two Shoulders"). The School of Tuam was ...

Tubunae

A titular see in Mauretania Caesariensis, according to the "Gerachia cattolica", or in Numidia ...

Tucson

(T UCSONENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe. It comprises the State of ...

Tucumán

(T UCUMANENSIS ). Suffragan to Buenos Aires, erected from the Diocese of Salta on 15 ...

Tudela

(TUTELÆ, TUTELENSIS). Diocese in Spain. The episcopal city has a population of 9213. ...

Tuguegarao

(TUGUEGARAONENSIS). Diocese in the Philippines ; situated in the north-eastern section of ...

Tulancingo

(D E T ULANCINGO ). Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of Mexico. Its area is ...

Tulasne, Louis-René

A noted botanist, b. at Azay-le-Rideau, Dept of Indre-et-Loire, France, 12 Sept., 1815; d. at ...

Tulle

(TUTELENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Corrèze. It was suppressed by the ...

Tunic

By tunic is understood in general a vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper ...

Tunis

French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa. About the twelfth century before Christ ...

Tunja

(T UNQUENENSIS ). Diocese established in 1880 as a suffragan of Bogotá, in the ...

Tunkers

( German tunken , to dip) A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite. ...

Tunstall, Cuthbert

Bishop of London, later of Durham, b. at Hackforth, Yorkshire, in 1474; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...

Tunstall, Venerable Thomas

Martyred at Norwich, 13 July, 1616. He was descended from the Tunstalls of Thurland, an ancient ...

Tunsted, Simon

English Minorite, b. at Norwich, year unknown; d. at Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369. Having joined the ...

Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques

Baron de L' Aulne, French minister, born at Parish, 10 May, 1727; died there, 20 March, 1781. ...

Turin

(Turino; Taurinensis) The City of Turin is the chief town of a civil province in Piedmont and ...

Turin, Shroud of

This name is primarily given to a relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that ...

Turin, University of

The University of Turin was founded in 1404, when the lectures at Piacenza and Pavia were ...

Turkestan

I. CHINESE TURKESTAN When Jenghiz Khan died (1227) his second son, Djagatai, had the greater part ...

Turkish Empire

Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the ...

Turnebus, Adrian

Philologist, b. at Andely in Normandy in 1512; d. in Paris, 12 June, 1565. The accounts of the ...

Turpin

Archbishop of Reims, date of birth uncertain; d. 2 Sept., 800. He was a monk of St. Denis ...

Tuscany

Tuscany, a division of central Italy, includes the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, ...

Tuy

(Tudensis.) Suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Santiago, comprises the civil provinces ...

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Tw 2

Twenge, Saint John

Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...

Twiketal of Croyland

(THURCYTEL, TURKETUL). Died July, 975. He was a cleric of royal descent, who is said to have ...

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Ty 7

Tyana

A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Prima. The city must first have been called Thoana, ...

Tychicus

A disciple of St. Paul and his constant companion. He was a native of the Roman province of ...

Tynemouth Priory

Tynemouth Priory, on the east coast of Northumberland, England, occupied the site of an earlier ...

Types in Scripture

Types, though denoted by the Greek word typoi , are not coextensive with the meaning of this ...

Tyrannicide

Tyrannicide literally is the killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a ...

Tyre

(TYRUS.) Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese. The city is called in Hebrew, Zor , ...

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