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Manuscripts

Every book written by hand on flexible material and intended to be placed in a library is called a manuscript. We must therefore set aside from the study of manuscripts (1) books graven on stone or brick (Library of Assurbanipal at Ninive; graven documents discovered at Cnossus or Phæstos in Crete); (2) all public acts (diplomas, charters, etc.), the study of which constitutes the object of diplomatics. Manuscripts have been composed from the most remote antiquity (Egyptian papyri of the memphite epoch) down to the period of the invention of printing. However, Greek manuscripts were still copied until the end of the sixteenth century, and in the monasteries of the East (Mount Athos, Syria, Mesopotamia, etc.), the copying of manuscripts continued well into the nineteenth century. On the other hand the most recent Western manuscripts date from the last years of the fifteenth century.

I. MATERIALS AND FORM OF MANUSCRIPTS

The principal materials employed in the making of manuscripts have been papyrus, parchment, and paper. In exceptional cases other materials have been used (e.g. the linen books of Etruria and Rome, a specimen of which was found on an Egyptian mummy in the museum of Agram ; the silken books of China, etc.). Besides, in ancient time and during the Middle Ages tablets dipped in wax on which characters were traced with a stylus were made us of for fugitive writings, accounts, etc.; these might be folding in two ( diptychs ), or in three (triptychs), etc. Papyrus ( charta ægyptica ) was obtained from a long-stemmed plant terminating in a large and elegant umbrella; this was the Cyperus Papyrus, which grew in the marshes of Egypt and Abyssinia. The stem was cut in long strips which were placed one beside the other. On the vertical strips others were placed horizontally; then after they had been wet with the water of the Nile they were submitted to strong pressure, dried in the sun, and rubbed with shells to render them solid. To make a book the separate pages ( selides , paginæ ) were first written on, then they were put end to end, the left margin of each page being made to adhere to the right margin of the preceding page. A roll ( volumen ) was thus secured, of which the dimensions were sometimes considerable. Some Egyptian rolls are forty-six feet long by nine or ten inches wide, and the great Harris papyrus (British Museum) is one hundred and forty-one feet long. The end of the last page was fastened to a cylinder of wood or bone ( omphalos , umbilicus ), which gave more consistency to the roll. The page having been ruled, the writing was done with a sharpened reed on the horizontal portion of the fibres. From being almost exclusively used in Egypt, the use of papyrus spread to Greece about the fifth century, then to Rome and throughout the West. Its price remained very high; in 407 B.C. a roll of twenty leaves was worth twenty-six drachmas, or about five dollars (Corp. Insc. Attic., I, 324). Pliny the Elder (Hist. Nat., XIII, 11-13) gives a list of its various grades ( charta Augusta, Liviana , etc.). Egypt retained the monopoly of the manufacture, which furthermore belonged to the State. Alexandria was the principal market. In the first centuries of the Middle Ages it was exported to the West by the "Syrians", but the conquest of Egypt by the Arabs (640) stopped the trade. However it still continued to be used for diplomas (at Ravenna until the tenth century; in the papal chancery until 1057). The Arabs had attempted to cultivate the plant in Sicily.

Parchment ( charta pergamena ), made of the skin of sheep, goats, calves ( vellum ), asses, etc., was used by the Ionians and the Asiatics as early as the sixth century B.C. (Herodotus, V, 58); the anecdote related by Pliny (Hist. Nat., XIII, 11), according to which it was invented at Pergamus, seems legendary; it would seem that its manufacture was simply perfected there. Imported to Rome in ancient times, parchment supplanted papyrus but slowly. It was only at the end of the third century A.D. that it was preferred to papyrus for the making of books. Once prepared, the parchment ( membrana ) was cut into leaves which were folded in two; four leaves together formed a book of eight folios ( quaternio ); all the books formed a codex . There was no paging before the fifteenth century; writers merely numbered first the books (signature), then the folios. The dimensions of the leaves varied; the most in use for literary texts was the large quarto. An Urbino catalogue (fifteenth century) mentions a manuscript so large that it required three men to carry it (Reusens, "Paléographie", 457); and there is preserved at Stockholm a gigantic Bible written on ass-skin, the dimensions of which have won for it the name of "Gigas librorum". The page was ruled in dry point so deeply that the mark was visible on the other side. Parchments were written on both sides (opistographs). As parchment became very rare and costly during the Middle Ages, it became the custom in some monasteries to scratch or wash out the old text in order to replace it with new writing. These erased manuscripts are called palimpsests. With the aid of reacting chemicals the old writing has been made to reappear and lost texts have been thus discovered (the Codex Vaticanus 5757 contains under a text of St. Augustine the "De Republica" of Cicero; recovered by Cardinal Mai ). Manuscripts thus treated have been nearly always incomplete or mutilated; a complete work has never been recovered on a palimpsest. Finally, by sewing strips of parchment together, rolls ( rotuli ) were made similar to those formed of papyrus (e.g. Hebrew Pentateuch of Brussels, ninth century, on fifty-seven sewn skins, forty yards in length; "rolls of the dead", used by the associations of prayer for the dead in the abbeys ; administrative and financial rolls used especially in England to transcribe the decrees of Parliament, etc.)

Paper is said to have been invented in China in A.D. 105 by a certain Tsai-Louen (Chavannes, "Journ. Asiatique", 1905, 1). Specimens of paper of the fourth century A.D. have been found in Eastern Turkestan (expeditions of Stein and Sven Hedin). It was after the taking of Samarkand (704) that the Arabs learned to make paper, and introduced it to Bagdad (795), and to Damascus ( charta damascena ). It was known in Europe as early as the end of the eleventh century, and at this early date it was used in the Norman chancery of sicily; in the twelfth century it began to be used for manuscripts. It was sold even then in quires and reams (Arabic, razmah ) and in the thirteenth century appeared the filigranes or watermarks. According to chemical analyses, the paper of the Middle Ages was made of hempen or linen rags. The expression "charta Bombycina" comes from the Arab manufactory of Bombyce, between Antioch and Aleppo. The copyist of the Middle Ages used chiefly black ink, incaustum , composed of a mixture of gall nuts and vitrol. Red ink was reserved from ancients times for titles. Gold and silver ink were used for manuscripts de luxe (see EVANGELIARIA). The method of binding codices has varied little since ancient times. The books were sewn on ox sinews placed in rows of five or six on the back. These sinews ( chordæ ) served to attach to the volume wooden covers, which were covered with parchment or dyed skin. Covers of the manuscripts de luxe were made of ivory or brass, ornamented with carvings, precious stones, cut and uncut.

II. PAPYRI

Montfaucon (Palæographia græca, 15) confesses that he never saw a papyrus manuscript. There were such, nevertheless, in some archives, but it was only in the eighteenth century, after the discover of the papyri of Herculaneum (1752) that attention was devoted to this class of documents. The first discovery took place in Egypt at Gizeh in 1778, then from 1815 the discoveries in the tombs have succeeded one another without interruption, especially since 1880. The hieroglyphic, demotic, Greek, and Latin papyri are at present scattered among the great libraries (Turin, Rome, Paris, Leyden, Strasburg, Berlin, London, etc.). The publication of the principal collections has been begun (see below) and the edition of a "Corpus papyrorum" is projected, which my be one of the greatest undertakings of erudition of the twentieth century. The importance of these discoveries may be estimated from the consideration of the chief kinds of papyrus published today.

(1) Egyptian Papyri

The greater number are religious documents relating to the veneration of the dead and the future life. The most ancient date from the epoch of Memphis (2500-2000 B.C.), the most recent belong to the Roman period. One of the most celebrated is the "Book of the Dead", of which several copies have been recovered. Moral and philosophical treatises have also been found (the Prisse Papyrus, in the Bibliothèque Nat., Paris ) as well as scientific treatises, romances and tales, and popular songs.

(2) Greek Papyri

They are distributed over ten centuries (third century B.C.-seventh century A.D.) and contain registers from archives (giving a very exact idea of the administration of Egypt under the Ptolemies and the Roman and Byzantine emperors; their study has given rise to a new diplomatic science ), literary works (the finest discovered are the orations of Hyperides found on papyri in the British Museum in 1847, 1858, 1891, and in the Louvre in 1889; Aristotle's "Republic of Athens " on a papyrus of the British Museum in 1891; the "Mimes" of Herondas, lyric poems of Bacchylides and Timotheus; and lastly, in 1905, 1300 verses by Menander at Kom Ishkaou by G. Lefebvre ), and religious documents (fragments of Gospels, of which some remain unidentified, religious poems, hymns, edifying treatises, etc., e.g.: the Greek Psalter of the British Museum, of the third century A.D., which is one of the most ancient Biblical manuscripts we possess; the "Logia" of Jesus, published by Grenfell and Hunt; a hymn in honour of the Holy Trinity similar to the "Te Deum", discovered on a papyrus of the sixth century; etc.).

(3) Latin Papyri

These are rare, at Herculaneum as well as in Egypt, and we possess only fragments. A papyrus of Ravenna dated 551 (Library of Naples ) is in Ostragothic writing (Catal. of Latin papyri in Traube, "Biblioth. Ecole des Chartes", LXIV, 455).

Chief Collections

Louvre (Brunet de Presle, "Not. et ext. des manuscripts", XVIII), Turin (ed. Peyron, 1826-27); Leyden (ed. Leemans, 1843); British Museum (ed. Kenyon, 1898); Flinders Petrie (ed. Mahaffy, Dublin, 1893-94); University of California (Tebtunis Papyrus, ed. Grenfell and Hunt, London and New York, 1902); berlin (Berlin, 1895-98); Archduke Renier (ed. Wessely, Vienna, 1895); Strasburg (ed. Keil, 1902); Oxyrhyncos excavations (Grenfell and Hunt, London, since 1898); Th. Reinach (Paris, 1905).

III. THE MAKING OF MANUSCRIPTS

In ancient times the copyists of manuscripts were free workmen or slaves. Athens, which was before Alexandria a great library center, had its Bibliographos , copyists, who were at the same time librarians. At Rome Pomponius Atticus thought of competing with booksellers by training slaves, for the most part Greeks, to copy manuscripts, their work to be afterwards sold. Some booksellers were at once copyists, calligraphers, and even painters. to the great libraries founded by the emperors were attached rooms for copyists; in 372 Valens attached to that of Constantinople four Greek and three Latin copyists (Theod. code, XIV, ix, 2). The edict of Diocletian fixing the maxima of prices sets down the monthly salary of the librarius at fifty denarii (Corp. Inscript. Latin, III(2) 831). Unfortunately, except for the Egyptian papyri, none of the works copied in ancient times has come down to us, and our oldest manuscripts date only from the beginning of the fourth century. The copyists of this century, several of whom were Christian priests, seem to have displayed great activity. It was by transcribing on parchment the works hitherto written on papyrus and in danger of being destroyed (Acacius and Euzoïus at Cæsarea; cf. St. Jerome, "Epist.", cxli), that they assured the preservation of ancient literature and prepared the work of the copyists of the Middle Ages . The most ancient and the most precious manuscripts of our collection date from this period; Biblical manuscripts: Codex Sinaiticus, a Greek fourth century manuscript discovered by Tischendorf at the monastery of St. Catherine of Sinai (1844-59), now at St. Petersburg; Codex Alexandrinus, a Greek Bible executed at Alexandria in the beginning of the fifth century, now in the British Museum; Codex Ephræmi Rescriptus, a palimpsest of the Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris, containing fragments of a New Testament written in the fifth century; Latin Bible of Quedlinburg, fourth century, in the Library of Berlin ; Fragments of the Cotton Latin Bible (Brit. Mus.), fifth century. Profane authors: The seven manuscripts of Virgil in capitals [the most famous is that of the Vatican (Lat. 3225), fourth century]; the "Iliad" of the Ambrosian Library, fifth century; the Terence of the Vatican (Lat. 3226) in capitals, fifth century, the "Calendar" of Philocalus written in 354, known only by modern copies (Brussels, Vienna, etc.).

The barbarian invasions of the fifth and sixth centuries brought about the destruction of the libraries and the scattering of the books. However, in the midst of barbarism, there were a certain number of privileged refuges, in which the copying of books went on. It is to these copyists of the Middle Ages that moderns owe the preservation of the Sacred Books as well as the treasures of classical antiquity; they veritably saved civilization. The chief of these copying centres were: Constantinople, where the library and schools continued to exist; the monasteries of the East and West, where the copying of books was regarded as one of the essential labours of monastic life ; the synagogues and schools of the Jews, to which we owe the Hebrew manuscripts of the Bible, the most ancient of which date only from the ninth century (British Museum, manuscripts Orient, 4445, ninth century; Codex Babylonicaus of St. Petersburg, copied in 916); the Mussulman schools ( Medressehs ), provided with large libraries (that at Cordova had 400,000 vols.) and copying rooms, in which were transcribed not only the Koran but also theological works and Arabic translations of Greek authors ( Aristotle, Ptolemy, Hippocrates, etc.). The most important works undoubtedly was done by the monasteries ; its history is identical with the history of the transmission of sacred and profane texts of antiquity.

(1) Oriental Christendom

From the very beginning of Egyptian monasticism copying rooms were installed in the monasteries, as is shown by the Coptic chronicle on papyrus studied by Strzygowski ("Eine Alexandrinische Weltchronik", Vienna, 1905). In Palestine, Syria, Ethiopia, and Armenia, in Melchite, Jacobite, or Nestorian monasteries, the copying of manuscripts was held in esteem. We know the name of one scribe, Emmanuel, of the monastery of Qartamin on the Tigris, who copied with his own hand seventy manuscripts (one of them the Berlin Nestorian Evangeliarium; Sachau, 304, tenth century). At the Nestorian school of Nisibis the students copied the Holy Scripture , the text of which was afterwards explained to them. Indeed the Bible was copied by preference, hence the numerous Biblical manuscripts, whether Syriac (text of the "Peshitto" preserved at Milan ; end of the fifth century), Coptic (fragments discovered by Maspero at Akhmin ; see "Journal Asiatique", 1892, 126), Armenian (Gospel in capitals, Institute Lazarev of Moscow, dated 887; the most ancient complete Bible belongs to the twelfth century), Ethiopian, etc. Commentaries on Holy Scripture , liturgical books , translations from the Greek Fathers, theological or ascetical treatises, and some universal chronicles constitute the greater number of these manuscripts, from which the classic writers are excluded.

(2) Greek Church

In the Greek monasteries St. Basil also recommended the copying of manuscripts and his treatise "On the usefulness of reading profane authors" bears sufficient witness that side by side with the religious texts the Basilian monks assigned an important place to the copying of classical authors. That a large number of texts have perished is not the fault of the monks, but is due to the custom of Byzantine scholars of composing "Excerpta" from the principal authors, and afterwards neglecting the originals (e.g. Encyclopedia of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, in the library of Photius. See Krumbacher, "Gesch. der Syzant. litter.", p. 505). Wars, and especially the taking of Constantinople in 1204 also brought about the destruction of a great number of libraries. The work of the Byzantine copyists from the sixth to the fifteenth centuries was considerable; and to convince ourselves it is enough to peruse the list of three thousand names of known copyists recovered by Maria Vogel and Gardthausen from Greek manuscripts ("Beihefte zum Zentralblatt für Bibliothekwesen", XXXIII, Leipzig, 1909). It will be seen that the greater number of copyists are monks ; at the end of the manuscript they often place their signature and the name of their monaster. Some of them through humility preserve anonymity: Graphe tis; oide theos ("Who wrote this? God knows"). Others on the contrary inform posterity concerning the rapidity with which they have completed their task. The scribe Theophilus wrote in thirty days the Gospel of St. John (985). A manuscript of St. Basil begun on Pentecost (28 May) of 1105 was ended 8 August of the same year. With the monks there were some secular copyists known as notarii , tabularii , among them a tax collector of the eleventh century (Montfaucon, "Palæog. gr.", 511), a judge of the Morea (Cod. paris, gr. 2005, written at Mistra in 1447), and even emperors. Theodosius II (408-450) had earned the surname of "Calligrapher" (Codinus ed. of Bonn, 151) and John V Cantacuzenus, having in 1355 retired to a monastery, copied manuscripts. Among copyists is also mentioned the Patriarch Methodius (843-847), who in one week copied seven psalters for the seven weeks of Lent (Pat. Gr. G. 1253).

The monasteries of Constantinople remain the chief centres for the copying of manuscripts. From them perhaps proceeded in the sixth century the beautiful Gospels on purple parchment in letters of gold (see MANUSCRIPTS, ILLUMINATED). In the ninth century the reform of the Studites was accompanied by a veritable renascence of calligraphy. St. Plato, uncle and master of Theodore of Studion, and Theodore himself copied many books, and their biographies extol the beauty of their writing. Theodore installed at Studion a scriptorium, at the head of which was a "protocalligrapher" charged with preparing the parchment and distributing to each one his task. In Lent the copyists were dispensed from the recitation of the Psalter, but rigorous discipline reigned in the work-room. A stain on a manuscript, an inexactness in copy was severely punished. All the monasteries which came under the influence of Studion also adopted its method of copying; all had their libraries and their copying rooms. In the eleventh century St. Christodoulos, another monastic reformer, found of the convent of St. John of Patmos, ordained that all monks "skillful in the art of writing should with the authorization of the hegoumenos make use of the talents with which they had been endowed by nature ". There has been preserved a catalogue of the library of Patmos, dated 1201; it comprised two hundred and sixty-seven manuscripts on parchment, and sixty-three on paper. The majority are religious works, among them twelve Evangeliaries, nine Psalters, and many Lives of the saints. Among the seventeen profane manuscripts are works on medicine and grammar, the "Antiquities" of Josephus, the "Categories" of Aristotle, etc.

In the monasteries located at the extremities of the Hellenic world are found the same occupations. The monastic colony of Sinai, which has existed since the fourth century, formed an admirable library, of which the present remains (1220 manuscripts) afford but a faint idea. In Byzantine Italy from the tenth to the twelfth century, the Basilian monks also cultivated calligraphy at Grottaferrata, at St. Salvatore at Messina, at Stilo in Calabria, at the monastery of Cassola, near Otranto, at St. Elias at Carbone, and especially at the Patir of Rossano, founded in the eleventh century by St. Bartholomew, who bought books at Constantinople and copied several manuscripts. The library of Rossano became one of the sources from which the manuscripts of the Vatican library were drawn. Besides, from the end of the tenth century the great monasteries of Mt. Athos, the great laura of St. Athanasiu, Vatopedi, Esphigmenou, etc., became most important centres for the copying of manuscripts. Without speaking of the treasures of sacred and profane literature which are still preserved there, there is not a library of Greek manuscripts which does not possess some examples of their work. Finally the monasteries founded in the Slav countries, in Russia, Bulgaria, Servia, on the model of the Greek convents, also had their copying rooms, in which were translated into the Slavonic language, with the help of the alphabet invented in the ninth century by St. Cyril, the Holy Scripture and the most important works of the ecclesiastical literature of the Greeks. It was also in these monastic study halls that the first monuments of the national literature of the Slavs were copied, such as the "Chronicle of Nestor", the "Song of Igor", etc.

(3) The West

The work of the Western copyists begins with St. Jerome (340-420), who in his solitude of Chalcis and later in his monastery of Bethlehem, copied books and commended this exercise as one most becoming to monastic life (Ep. cxxiii). At the same time St. Martin of Tours introduced this rule into his monastery. The copying of manuscripts appears as one of the occupations of all the founders of monastic institutions, of St. Honoratus and St. Capresius at Lérins, of Cassian at St. Victor's at Marseilles, of St. Patrick in the monasteries of Ireland, of Cassiodorus in his monasteries of Scyllacium (Squillace). In his treatise "De Institutione divinarum litterarum" (543-545) Cassiodorus has left a description of his library with its nine armaria for manuscripts of the Bible ; he also describes the copying room, the scriptorium, directed by the antiquarius . He himself set the example by copying the Scriptures and he believed that "each word of the Saviour written by the copyist is a defeat inflicted on Satan " ("De Institut.", I, 30). The work of the copyists was also considered meritorious by St. Benedict. In the sixth century copying rooms existed in all the monasteries of the West.

Since the time of Damasus, the popes had a library which was probably provided with a copying room. The missionaries who left Rome to evangelize the Germanic peoples, such as Augustine in 597, brought with them manuscripts which they were to reproduce in the monasteries founded by them. In the seventh century Benedict Biscop made four journeys to Rome and brought thence numerous manuscripts; in 682 he founded the monastery of Jarrow which became one of the chief intellectual centres of England. Theodore of Tarsus (668-680) accomplished a similar work when he reorganized the Anglo-Saxon Church. The first period of monastic activity (sixth-seventh centuries) is represented in our libraries by a large number of Biblical manuscripts, many of which come from Ireland ("Liber Armachanus" of Dublin ), England ("Codex Amiatinus" of Florence, copied at Wearmouth under Wilfred, and offered to the pope in 716; "Harley Evangeliary", Brit. Mus., seventh century), some from Spain ("Palimpsest of Leon ", cathedral archives, seventh century). Finally the library of the University of Upsala possesses the "Codex Argenteus", on purple parchment, written in the fifth century, which contains the Bible of Ulphilas, the first translation into a Germanic language of the Holy Scripture .

At the end of the seventh and during the eighth century Gaul became more and more barbarous; monasteries were destroyed or ravaged, culture disappeared, and when Charlemagne undertook the reorganization of Europe he addressed himself to the countries in which culture was still flourishing in the monasteries, to England, Ireland, Lombardy. The Carolingian renaissance, as the movement has been called, had as its principle, the establishment of copying rooms at the imperial court itself and in the monasteries. One of the most active promoters of the movement was Alcuin (735-804), who after having directed the library and school of York, became in 793 Abbot of St. Martin of Tours . Here he founded a school of calligraphy which produced the most beautiful manuscripts of the Carolingian epoch. Several specimens distributed by Charlemagne among the various monasteries of the empire became the models which were imitated everywhere, even in Saxony, where the new monasteries founded by Charlemagne became the foremost centres of Germanic culture. M.L. Delisle (Mém. de l'Acad. des Inscript., XXXII, 1) has compiled a list of twenty-five manuscripts which proceeded from this school of Tours (Bible of Charles the Bald, Paris, Bib. Nat., Lat. No. 1; Bible of Alcuin, Brit. Mus., 10546; manuscripts at Quedlinburg relating to the life of St. Martin; Sacramentaries of Metz and Tours of the Paris Bibliothèque Nationale, etc.)

Among the works proceeding from the imperial scriptorium attached to the Palatine School is mentioned the Evangeliary copied for Charlemagne by the monk Godescalc in 781 (now at the Bibliothèque Nationale), and the Psalter of Dagulf presented to Adrian I (now at the Imperial Library of Vienna ). Other important scriptoria were established at Orléans by Bishop Theodulfe (whence issued the two beautiful Bibles now kept in the treasury of the cathedral of Puy Amand (where the copyist Hucbald-Amand contributed eighteen volumes to the library ), at St. Gall, under the Abbots Grimaldus (841-872) and Hardmut (872-883), who caused the making of a complete Bible in nine volumes; there are extant ten Biblical manuscripts written or corrected by Hardmut. At St. Gall and in many other monasteries the influence of Irish monks is very marked (manuscripts of Tours, Würzburg, Berne, Bobbio, etc.). Besides numerous Biblical manuscripts there are found among the works of the Carolingian epoch many manuscripts of the classical authors. Hardmut had had copied Josephus, Justin, Martianus Capella, Orosius, Isidore of Seville ; one of the most beautiful manuscripts of the school of Tours is the Virgil of the library of Berne, copied by the deacon Bernon. Many of these works were even translated into the vulgar tongue: at St. Gall there were Irish translations of Galen and Hippocrates, and at the end of the ninth century King Alfred (849-900) translated into English the works of Boethius, Orosius, Bede, etc. At this epoch many monasteries possessed libraries of considerable size; when in 906 the monks of Novalaise (near Susa ) fled before the Saracens they carried to Turin a library of six thousand manuscripts.

The period of the eleventh and twelfth centuries may be considered as the golden age of monastic manuscript writing. In each monastery there was a special hall, called the "scriptorium", reserved for the labours of the copyists. On the ancient plan of St. Gall it is shown beside the church. In the Benedictine monasteries there was a special benediction formula for this hall ( Ducange, Glossar. mediæ et inf. latin.", s.v. Scriptorium ). Absolute silence reigned there. At the head of the scriptorium the bibliothecarius distributed the tasks, and, once copied, the manuscripts were carefully revised by the correctores . In the schools the pupils were often allowed as an honour to copy manuscripts (for instance at Fleury-sur-Loire). Everywhere the monks seem to have given themselves with great ardour to the labour which was considered one of the most edifying works of the monastic life. At St. Evroult (Normandy) was a monk who was saved because the number of letters copied by him equalled the number of his sins (Ordericus Vitalis, III, 3). In the "explicit" which concluded the book the scribe often gave his name and the date on which he wrote "for the salvation of his soul " and commended himself to the prayers of the reader. Division of labour seems as yet not to have been fully established, and there were monks who were both scribes and illuminators (Ord. Vital., III, 7). The Bible remained the book which was copied by preference. The Bible was copied either entire ( bibliotheca ) or in part ( Pentateuch, the Psalter, Gospels and Epistles, Evangeliaria, in which the Gospels followed the order of the feasts ). Then came the commentaries on the Scriptures, the liturgical books, the Fathers of the Church, works of dogmatic or moral theology, chronicles, annals, lives of the saints, histories of churches or monasteries, and lastly profane authors, the study of which never ceased entirely. Rather a large number of them are found among the ne thousand manuscripts in the library of Cluny. At St. Denis even Greek manuscripts were copied (Paris, Bib. Nation., gr. 375, copied in 1033). The newer religious orders, Cistercians, Carthusians, etc., manifested the same zeal as the Benedictines in the copying of manuscripts.

Then beginning with the thirteenth century the labour of copyists began to be secularized. About the universities such as that of Paris were a large number of laymen who gained a livelihood by copying; in 1275 those of Paris were admitted as agents of the university ; in 1292 we find at Paris twenty-four booksellers who copied manuscripts or caused them to be copied. Colleges such as the Sorbonne also had their copying rooms. On the other hand at the end of the thirteenth century in the greater number of monasteries the copying of manuscripts ceased. Although there were still monks who were copyists, such as Giles of Mauleon, who copied the "Hours" of Queen Jeanne of Burgundy (1317) at St. Denis, the copying and the illumination of manuscripts became a lucrative craft. At this juncture kings and princes began to develop a taste for books and to form libraries ; that of St. Louis was one of the earliest. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries these amateurs had in their pay veritable armies of copyists. Thenceforth it was they who directed the movement of the production of manuscripts. The most famous were Popes John XXII (1316-34), Benedict XII (1334-42); the poet Petrarch (1304-74), who was not satisfied with purchasing the manuscripts in convents but himself formed a school of copyists in order to have accurate texts, the King of France, Charles V (1364-1380), who collected in the Louvre a library of twelve hundred volumes, the French princes Jean, Duke of Berry, a forerunner of modern bibliophiles (1340-1416), Louis Duke of Orléans (1371-1401) and his son Charles of Orléans (d. 1467), the dukes of Burgandy, the kings of Naples, and Matthias Corvinus. Also worthy of mention are Richard of Bury, Chancellor of England, Louis of Bruges (d. 1492), and Cardinal Georges d'Amboise (1460-1510).

The copying rooms were made more perfect, and Trithemius, Abbot of Spanheim (1462-1513), author of "De laude scriptorum manualium", shows the well-established division of labour in a studio (preparation and polishing of parchment, ordinary writing, red ink titles, illumination, corrections, revision, each task was given to a specialist). Among those copies religious manuscripts, Bibles, Psalters, Hours, lives of the saints, were always represented, but an increasingly important place was accorded the ancient authors and the works of national literature. In the fifteenth century a great many Greek refugees fleeing before the Turks came to Italy and copied the manuscripts they brought with them to enrich the libraries of the collectors. A number of them were in the service of Cardinal Bessarion (d. 1472), who after collecting five hundred Greek manuscripts, bequeathed them to the Republic of Venice. Even after the invention of printing, Greek copyists continued to work, and their names are found on the most beautiful Greek manuscripts of our libraries, for instance Constantine Lascaris (1434-1501), who lived a long time at Messina ; John Lascaris (1445-1535), who came to France under Charles VIII; Constantine Palæocappa, a former monk of Athos, who entered the service of Cardinal de Lorraine ; John of Otranto, the most skilful copyist of the sixteenth century.

But the copying of manuscripts had ceased long before in consequence of the invention of printing. The copyists who had toiled for long centuries had completed their tasks in bequeathing to the modern world the sacred and profane works of antiquity.

IV. PRESENT LOCATION OF MANUSCRIPTS

Save for some exceptions, which are becoming more and more rare, the manuscripts copied during the Middle Ages are at present stored in the great public libraries. The private collections which have been formed since the sixteenth century (Cotton, Bodley, Christina of Sweden, Peiresc, Gaignières, Colbert, etc.) have eventually been fused with the great repositories. The suppression of a great number of monasteries (England and Germany in the sixteenth century, France in 1790) has also augmented the importance of storehouses of manuscripts, the chief of which are,

  • Italy: Rome, Vatican Library, founded by Nicholas V (1447-55), which has acquired successively the manuscripts of the Elector Palatine (given by Tilly to Gregory XV ), of the Duke of Urbino (1655), of Christina of Sweden, of the Houses of Caponi and Ottoboni, in 1856 the collections of Cardinal Mai, and in 1891 of the Borghese library : 45,000 manuscripts (codices Vaticani and according to their particular foundation, Palatini, Urbinates, etc.); Florence: Laurentian Library, ancient collection of the Medici ; 9693 manuscripts largely of the Greek and Latin classical authors (Codices Laurentiani); National Library (formerly the Uffizi), founded in 1860, 20,028 manuscripts; Venice, Marcian Library (collection of Petrarch, 1362, of Bessarion, 1468, etc.), 12,096 manuscripts (Codices Marciani); Verona : Chapter Library, 1114 manuscripts; Milan, Ambrosian Library, founded 1609 by Cardinal Federigo Borromeo, 8400 manuscripts (Codices Ambrosiani); Turin, National Library, founded in 1720, collection of the Dukes of Savoy. In Jan. 1904 a fire destroyed most of its 3979 manuscripts, nearly all of them of the first rank (Codices Taurienses); Naples, National Library (ancient collection of the Bourbon family ), 7990 manuscripts.
  • Spain: Library of the Escorial, founded in 1575 (one of the principal constituents is the collection of Hurtado de Mendoza, formed at Venice by the ambassador of Philip II ), 4927 manuscripts (Codices Escorialenses).
  • France: National Library (had its origin in the royal collections gathered at Fontainebleau as early as Francis I, and contains the libraries of Mazarin, Colbert, etc., and those of the monasteries confiscated in 1790), 102,000 manuscripts (Codices Parisini).
  • England: British Museum (contains the collections of Cotton, Sloane, Harley, etc.), founded in 1753, 55,000 manuscripts; Oxford, Bodleian Library, founded in 1597 by Sir Thomas Bodley, 30,000 manuscripts
  • Belgium: Brussels, Royal Library, founded in 1838 (the principal basis is the library of the Dukes of Burgandy), 28,000 manuscripts
  • Holland: Leyden, Library of the University, founded in 1575, 6400 manuscripts
  • Germany: Berlin Royal Library, 30,000 manuscripts; Göttingen University, 6000 manuscripts; Leipzig, Albertina Library, founded in 1543, 4000 manuscripts; Dresden, Royal Library, 60,000 manuscripts
  • Austria: Vienna, Imperial Library, founded in 1440 (collections of Matthias Corvinus and of Prince Eugene), 27,000 manuscripts
  • Scandinavian countries: Stockholm, royal Library, 10,435 manuscripts; Upsala, University, 13,637 manuscripts; Copenhagen, Royal Library, 20,000 manuscripts
  • Russia: St. Petersburg, Imperial Library, 35,350 manuscripts; Moscow, Library of the Holy Synod, 513 Greek manuscripts, 1819 Slavic manuscripts
  • United States: New York Public Library, founded 1850 (Astor collection, 40 manuscripts; Lenox collection 500 manuscripts); Pierpont Morgan collection, 115 manuscripts, illuminated miniatures.
  • Orient: Constantinople, Library of the Seraglio (cf. Ouspensky, Bulletin of the Russian Archeological Institute, XII, 1907); Monasteries of Athos (13,000 manuscripts), of Smyrna, of St. John of Patmos at Athens, the Library of the Senate -- at Cairo, the Library of the Khedive (founded in 1870, 14,000 Arabic manuscripts) and the Patriarchal Library (Greek and Coptic manuscripts). The Library of the Monastery of St. Catherine of Sinai, the patriarchal libraries of Etschmaidzin (Armenian manuscripts) and of Mossoul (Syriac manuscripts).
The dangers of all kinds which threaten manuscripts have induced the greater number of these libraries to undertake the reproduction in facsimile of their most precious manuscripts. In 1905 an international congress assembled at Brussels to study the best practical means of reproduction. This is a great undertaking, the accomplishment of which depends on the progress of photography and of colour photography. By this means will the works of the copyists of the Middle Ages be preserved. (See LIBRARIES.)

More Volume: M 993

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1

Mâcon, Ancient Diocese of

(MATISCONENSIS) Located in Burgundy. The city of Mâcon, formerly the capital of the ...

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Ménard, Léon

Writer, b. at Tarrascon, 12 Sept., 1706; d. in Paris, 1 Oct., 1767. When he had completed his ...

Ménard, Nicolas-Hugues

Of the Congregation of St. Maur, b. in Paris, 1585; d. 21 Jan., 1644. His father was was private ...

Ménard, René

Missionary, b. at Paris, 1604, d. about 10 August, 1661, in what is now Wisconsin. After the ...

Méndez and Gualaquiza

Vicariate Apostolic established by Leo XIII on 3 February, 1893, in the southern part of the ...

Mérida

(EMERITENSIS IN INDIIS) A suffragan see of Santiago of Venezuela or Caracas, comprises the ...

Mérode, Frédéric-François-Xavier Ghislain de

A Belgian prelate and statesman, born at Brussels, 1820; died at Rome, 1874. The son of ...

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1

Mège, Antoine-Joseph

A Maurist Benedictine, born in 1625 at Clermont ; died 15 April, 1691, at the monastery of St. ...

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1

Möhler, Johann Adam

Theologian, b. at Igersheim (Würtemberg), 6 April, 1796; d. at Munich, 12 April, 1838. The ...

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9

Mühlbacher, Engelbert

An historian, born at Gresten, Austria, 4 Oct., 1843; died at Vienna, 17 July, 1903. He received ...

Müller, Adam Heinrich

Publicist and political economist , convert, b. at Berlin, 30 June, 1779; d. at Vienna, 17 Jan., ...

Müller, Johann

Physiologist and comparative anatomist, b. at Coblenz, 14 July, 1801; d. at Berlin, 28 April, ...

Müller, Johann

(Regiomontanus). German astronomer, b. in or near Königsberg, a small town in lower ...

Müller, Karl

Professor at Düsseldorf, b. at Darmstadt, 29 Oct., 1818; d. at Neuenahr, 15 Aug., 1893, ...

Münch-Bellinghausen, Baron Eligius Franz Joseph von

(Pseudonym: FRIEDRICH HALM) An Austrian dramatist, born at Cracow, 2 April, 1806; died at ...

Münster

D IOCESE OF M ÜNSTER (M ONASTERIENSIS ). Diocese in the Prussian Province of ...

Münster, University of

The town of Münster in Westphalia obtained its university in 1771 through the initiative ...

Müntz, Eugène

French savant and historian; b. at Soulz-sous--Forêts, near Mülhausen, Alsace, 11 ...

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Ma 464

Maassen, Friedrich Bernard Christian

Professor of law, born 24 September, 1823, at Wismar (Mecklenburg); died 9 April, 1900, at ...

Mabillon, Jean

Benedictine monk of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Saint-Pierremont between Mouzon and ...

Mabinogion

A collection of medieval Welsh tales in prose. The word is a derivation of the mab , "son", ...

Macao

(MACAOENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Goa, founded 23 January, 1575, by the Bull "Super ...

Macarius

The name of two celebrated contemporary Nitrian monks of the fourth century: Macarius the ...

Macarius Magnes

A Christian apologist of the end of the fourth century. Some authorities regard the words ...

Macarius of Antioch

A Patriarch, deposed in 681. Macarius's dignity seems to have been a purely honorary one, for ...

Macarius, Saint

Bishop of Jerusalem (312-34). The date of Macarius's accession to the episcopate is found in ...

Maccabee, Judas

Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the ...

Maccabees, The

(Greek Hoi Makkabaioi ; Latin Machabei ; most probably from Aramaic maqqaba ="hammer"). ...

Maccabees, The Books of

The title of four books, of which the first and second only are regarded by the Church as ...

MacCaghwell, Hugh

(Cavellus). Archbishop and theologian, born at Saul, Co. Down, 1571; died 22 September, 1626. He ...

MacCarthy, Bartholomew

Irish scholar and chronologist, b. at Conna, Ballynoe, Co. Cork, 12 Dec., 1843; d. at ...

MacCarthy, Denis Florence

Well-known Irish poet of the nineteenth century, born in Lower O'Connell Street, Dublin, 26 ...

MacCarthy, Nicholas Tuite

Called the Abbé de Lévignac, born in Dublin on 19 May, 1769; died at Annécy, ...

MacCuilenan, Cormac

(836-908). An Irish bishop and King of Cashel, Cormac MacCquilenan was of the race of ...

MacDonald, John

Laird of Glenaladale and Glenfinnan, philanthropist, colonizer, soldier, born in Glenaladale, ...

MacDonell, Alexander

First Bishop of Kingston, Ontario, Canada, b. 17 July 1760, at Inchlaggan in Glengarry, ...

Mace

(1) A short, richly ornamented staff, often made of silver, the upper part furnished with a knob ...

Macedo, Francisco

Known as a S. Augustino, O.F.M., theologian, born at Coimbra, Portugal, 1596; he entered the ...

Macedonians

(Macedonians) A heretical sect which flourished in the countries adjacent to the Hellespont ...

Macerata and Tolentino

Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...

MacFarland, Francis Patrick

Third Bishop of Hartford born at Franklin, Pennsylvania, 16 April, 1819; died at Hartford, ...

MacGeoghegan, James

Born at Uisneach, Westmeath, Ireland, 1702; died at Paris, 1763. He came of a long family long ...

Machabees, The

(Greek Hoi Makkabaioi ; Latin Machabei ; most probably from Aramaic maqqaba ="hammer"). ...

Machabees, The Books of

The title of four books, of which the first and second only are regarded by the Church as ...

Machabeus, Judas

Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the ...

MacHale, John

Born March 6, 1791 at Tubbernavine, Co. Mayo, Ireland ; died at Tuam, November 4, 1881. He ...

Machiavelli

Historian and statesman, b. at Florence, 3 May, 1469; d. there, 22 June, 1527. His family is ...

Machpelah

The burial-place in the vicinity of ancient Hebron which Abraham bought from Ephron the Hethite ...

Machutus, Saint

(Maclovius; Malo). Born about the year 520 probably in Wales and baptized by St. Brendan . ...

Mackenzie

This vicariate which was detached from the Athabaska-Mackenzie Vicariate in 1901 and intrusted to ...

Maclovius, Saint

(Maclovius; Malo). Born about the year 520 probably in Wales and baptized by St. Brendan . ...

MacMahon, Heber

( Also EMER or EVER). Bishop of Clogher, Ireland, and patriotic leader, born at Farney, ...

MacMahon, Marie-Edmé-Patrice-Maurice de

Duc de Magenta, Marshal of France, President of the French Republic; born at Sully, ...

MacNeven, William James

Distinguished Irish-American physician and medical educator, b. at Ballynahowna, near Aughrim, ...

Macri

(or MACRAS?) A titular see in Mauretania Sitifiensis. This town figures only in the "Notitia ...

Macrina the Elder, Saint

Our knowledge of the life of the elder Macrina is derived mainly from the testimony of the ...

Macrina the Younger, Saint

Born about 330; died 379. She was the eldest child of Basil and Elder Emmelia, the granddaugher of ...

Mactaris

A titular see of the Byzantine Empire. This town is not spoken of by any ancient geographers ...

Madagascar

On the second day of March, 1500, a fleet of thirteen ships, commanded by Pedro Alvarez Cabral, ...

Madaurus

A titular see of Numidia. It was an old Numidian town which, having once belonged to the Kingdom ...

Maderna, Carlo

(1556-1629) known principally by his extension of St. Peter's, at the command of the pope, from ...

Maderno, Stefano

(1576-1636), a sculptor of the Roman School and of the era just preceding Bernini, his ...

Madianites

(In Authorized Version M IDIANITES ). An Arabian tribe ( Septuagint Madienaîoi ...

Madras

(MADRASPATAM; MADRASPATANA) Archdiocese in India. Its area is about 40,350 square miles, and ...

Madrid-Alcalá

(M ATRITENSIS -A LACHENSIS, or C OMPLUTENSUS : Complutum being the name given by the Romans ...

Madruzzi, Christopher

Born of a noble family of Trent, 5 July, 1512; died at Tivoli, Italy, 5 July, 1578. He studied ...

Madura Mission

As shown in the "Atlas Geographicus S.J.", the ancient Jesuit missions in India under the ...

Maedoc, Saint

(MOEDHOG, MOGUE, ÆDDAN FOEDDOG, AIDUS, HUGH) First Bishop of Ferns, in Wexford, b. ...

Maelruan, Saint

(Maolruain, Melruan, Molruan). Founder and first Abbot of Tamalcht (Tallacht), in the County of ...

Maelrubha, Saint

(MA-RUI, MOLROY, ERREW, SUMMARYRUFF, also SAGART-RUADH) An abbot and martyr, founder of ...

Maerlant, Jacob van

The greatest Flemish poet of the Middle Ages, b. about 1235; d. after 1291. Of his life little ...

Maestro di Camera del Papa

In former times there were four so-called palace prelates ( prelati palatini ): the Major ...

Maffei, Bernardino

Poet, orator, and antiquarian, b. at Bergamo, 27 Jan., 1514; d. at Rome, 1 Aug., 1549. He studied ...

Maffei, Francesco

Italian painter, b. at Vicenza ; d. at Padua, 1660. His influence upon the art of his own and ...

Maffei, Marchese Francesco Scipione

Italian littérateur and archaeologist, b. at Verona, 1 June, 1675; d. there, 11 Feb., ...

Maffei, Raffaelo

Humanist, historian and theologian, b. 17 February, 1451; d. 25 January, 1522. He was a native of ...

Magaud, Antoine-Dominique

French painter, b. at Marseilles 1817; d. there, 1899. He studied in Paris under Léon ...

Magdala

( Hebrew Migdal = tower, fortress; Aramaic Magdala ; Greek Magdala ). It is perhaps the ...

Magdalens

The members of certain religious communities of penitent women who desired to reform their ...

Magdeburg

Capital of the Prussian Province of Saxony, situated on the Elbe; pop. 241,000; it is noted for ...

Mageddo

Chanaanite city, called in Hebrew, Megiddo ; in Septuagint, Mageddó(n) ; in ...

Magellan, Ferdinand

(Portuguese Fernão Magalhaes ). The first circumnavigator of the real world; born ...

Magi

(Plural of Latin magus ; Greek magoi ). The "wise men from the East" who came to adore ...

Magin Catalá

Born at Montblanch, Catalonia, Spain, 29 or 30 January, 1761; died at Santa Clara, California, ...

Maginn, Edward

Coadjutor Bishop of Derry, b. at Fintona, Ireland, 16 Dec., 1802; d. at Derry, 17 January, ...

Magisterium and Tradition

The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...

Magistris, Simone de

Born in 1728; died 6 October, 1802; a priest of the Oratorio di S. Filippo Neri, at Rome, whom ...

Magliabechi, Antonio

Italian scholar and librarian, b. 20 Oct., 1633, at Florence ; d. there, 4 July, 1714. He was ...

Magna Carta

The charter of liberties granted by King John of England in 1215 and confirmed with ...

Magnesia

A titular see in Lydia, suffragan of Ephesus, lying about 40 miles north-east of Smyrna and ...

Magnien, Alphonse

An educator of the clergy, born at Bleymard, in the Diocese of Mende , France, 9 June, 1837; ...

Magnificat

The title commonly given to the Latin text and vernacular translation of the Canticle (or Song) ...

Magnus, Olaus

Swedish historian and geographer, b. at Skeninge, Sweden, 1490; d. at Rome, 1 Aug., 1558 [or ...

Magnus, Saint

(MAGNOALDUS, MAGINALDUS, popularly known as ST. MANG) An apostle of the Algäu, d. about ...

Magnus, Valerianus

(M AGNI ) Born at Milan, 1586, presumably of the noble family of de Magni; died at ...

Magrath, John Macrory

Born in Munster, Ireland, in the fifteenth century; date and place of death unknown. Like many ...

Magydus

A titular see of Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perga. It was a small town with no history, on ...

Mahony, Ven. Charles

Irish Franciscan martyr ; b. after 1639; d. at Ruthin, Denbighshire, 12 August, 1679. The British ...

Mai, Angelo

Roman cardinal and celebrated philologist, b. at Schilpario, in the Diocese of Bergamo, 7 March ...

Maignan, Emmanuel

French physicist and theologian ; b. at Toulouse, 17 July, 1601; d. at Toulouse, 29 October, ...

Mailla, Joseph-Anna-Marie de Moyria de

Jesuit missionary; b. 16 Dec., 1669, at Château Maillac on the Isère; d. 28 June, ...

Maillard, Antoine-Simon

Missionary b. in France (parentage, place and date of birth unknown); d. 12 August, 1762. He ...

Maillard, Oliver

Celebrated preacher, b. at Juignac, (?), Brittany, about 1430; d. at Toulouse, 22 July, 1502. He ...

Maimbourg, Louis

French church historian, b. at Nancy, 10 January, 1610; d. at Paris, 13 August, 1686. In 1626 he ...

Maimonides, Teaching of Moses

Moses ben Maimun (Arabic, Abu Amran Musa), Jewish commentator and philosopher, was born of ...

Maina Indians

(Also M AYNA ) A group of tribes constituting a distinct linguistic stock, the Mainan, ...

Maine

Maine is commonly known as the Pine Tree State, but is sometimes called the Star in the East. ...

Maine de Biran, François-Pierre-Gonthier

A philosopher ; born at Grateloup near Bergerac, Dordogne, France, 29 November, 1766; died at ...

Maintenon, Françoise, Marquise de

Born at Niort, 28 November 1635; died at Saint-Cyr, 15 April 1719. She was the granddaughter of ...

Mainz

German town and bishopric in Hesse [now Rhineland-Palatine -- Ed. ]; formerly the seat of an ...

Maipure Indians

(Maypure) A former important group of tribes on the Upper Orinoco River, from above the Meta ...

Maisonneuve, Paul de Chomedey de

Founder of Montreal, b. in Champagne, France, early in the seventeenth century; d. in Paris, 9 ...

Maistre, Joseph-Marie, Comte de

French philosophical writer, b. at Chambéry, in Savoy, in 1753, when Savoy did not ...

Maistre, Xavier de

French romance writer, younger brother of Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre , b. at Chambery, ...

Maitland

(MAITLANDENSIS) Located in New South Wales. Maitland, the principal settlement on Hunter ...

Majano, Benedetto da

A well-known Florentine sculptor and architect of the Renaissance, b. at Majano, Tuscany. ...

Majella, St. Gerard

Born in Muro, about fifty miles south of Naples, in April, 1726; died 16 October, 1755; ...

Majorca and Iviza

(MAJORICENSIS ET IBUSENSIS) A suffragan of Valencia, with the episcopal residence at Palma on ...

Majordomo

(Latin, Major domus ; Italian, Maggiordomo ). The majordomo or chief steward of the ...

Majority

( Latin majoritas ) Majority, the state of a person or thing greater, or superior, in ...

Majunke, Paul

Catholic journalist, born at Gross-Schmograu in Silesia, 14 July, 1842; died at Hochkirch near ...

Malabar

In its narrower application Malabar was the name of a district of India stretching about 145 ...

Malabar Rites

A conventional term for certain customs or practices of the natives of South India, which the ...

Malacca

(Malacensis) The Diocese of Malacca comprises the southern portions of the Malay Peninsula, ...

Malachias

( Hebrew Mál'akhî ), one of the twelve minor prophets. I. PERSONAGE AND NAME It ...

Malachy, Saint

St. Malachy, whose family name was O'Morgair, was born in Armagh in 1094. St. Bernard describes ...

Malaga

Diocese of Malaga (Malacitana). Diocese in Spain, by the Concordat of 1851 made a suffragan ...

Malagrida, Gabriel

A Jesuit missionary to Brazil, b. 18 September or 6 December, 1689, at Menaggio, in Italy ; ...

Malatesta, House of

The name of an Italian family prominent in the history of the fourteenth and fifteenth ...

Malchus

(Málchos). Greek form of M ALLUCH (i.e. counsellor), a name common in the Semitic ...

Maldonado, Juan

(MALDONATUS) A theologian and exegete, b. in 1533 at Casas de Reina, in the district of ...

Malebranche, Nicolas

A philosopher and theologian, priest of the Oratory of St. Philip Neri ; b. at Paris, 6 ...

Malediction (in Scripture)

Four principal words are rendered maledictio in the Vulgate, "curse" in Douay Version : (1) ...

Malherbe, François

French poet, b. at Caen, Normandy, in 1555; d. at Paris, 16 October, 1628. He was the eldest son ...

Maliseet Indians

Also MALECITE, MALESCHITE and AMALECITE, the last being the official Canadian form. A tribe ...

Mallard, Ernest-François

A French mineralogist, b. 4 February, 1833, at Châteauneuf-sur-Cher; d. 6 July, 1894, in ...

Mallinckrodt, Herman von

German parliamentarian; born 5 Feb., 1821, at Minden, Westphalia ; died 26 May, 1874, at Berlin. ...

Mallinckrodt, Pauline

A sister of the Catholic political leader Hermann Mallinckrodt , and foundress of the Sisters ...

Malling Abbey

An abbey of Benedictine nuns, at West Malling in the County of Kent, England. The earliest ...

Mallory, Stephen Russell

An American statesman; born in the Island of Trinidad, W. I., 1813; died at Pensacola, Florida, ...

Mallus

A titular see of Cilicia Prima, suffragan of Tarsus. According to legend, Mallus founded by ...

Malmesbury

A small decayed market town in Wiltshire, England, ninety-five miles west of London, formerly the ...

Malmesbury, The Monk of

Supposed author of a chronicle among the Cottonian manuscripts in the British Museum (Vesp. D. ...

Malo, Saint

(Maclovius; Malo). Born about the year 520 probably in Wales and baptized by St. Brendan . ...

Malone, William

Jesuit missioner and writer; born according to the best authorities, in 1585; died at Seville, ...

Malory, Sir Thomas

Of Malory no single biographical statement is beyond conjecture save that he was a knight, that ...

Malpighi, Marcello

Founder of comparative physiology, b. at Crevalcore, 10 March, 1628; d. at Rome, 29 Sept., 1694. ...

Malta

The group of Maltese islands, including Malta (91.5 sq. m.), Gozo (24 3/4 sq. m.), Comine (1 sq. ...

Malta, Knights of

(Also known as K NIGHTS OF M ALTA ). The most important of all the military orders, both ...

Maltret, Claude

(Or M ALTRAIT ) French Jesuit, b. at Puy, 3 Oct., 1621; d. Toulouse, 3 Jan., 1674. He entered ...

Malvenda, Thomas

An exegete and historical critic, b. at Jativa, Valencia, 1566; d. 7 May, 1628. He entered the ...

Malvern

Located in Worcestershire, England, a district covered by a lofty range between the Severn and ...

Mamachi, Thomas Maria

Dominican theologian and historian, born at Chios in the Archipelago, 4 December, 1713; died at ...

Mame, Alfred-Henri-Amand

Printer and publisher, b. at Tours, 17 Aug., 1811; d. at Tours, 12 April, 1893. The founder ...

Mameluco

(From the Arabic, memluk , "slave", the household cavalry of the former sultans of Egypt, ...

Mamertine Prison

The so-called "Mamertine Prison ", beneath the church of S. Giuseppe dei Falegnami, via di ...

Mamertus, Claudianus

(The name Ecdicius is unauthorized). A Gallo-Roman theologian and the brother of St. ...

Mamertus, Saint

Bishop of Vienne, date of birth unknown; died shortly after 475. Concerning the life of ...

Mammon

Mamona ; the spelling Mammona is contrary to the textual evidence and seems not to occur in ...

Man

(Anglo-Saxon man =a person, human being; supposed root man =to think; German, Mann , ...

Manahem

(From a Hebrew meaning "the consoler"; Septuagint, Manaem ; Aquila, Manaen .) Manahem ...

Manahen, Saint

( Manaen ) A member of the Church of Antioch , foster-brother, or household-friend ( ...

Manasses

The name of seven persons of the Bible , a tribe of Israel , and one of the apocryphal ...

Mance, Jeanne

Foundress of the Montreal Hôtel-Dieu, and one of the first women settlers in Canada, b. ...

Manchester

(MANCHESTERIENSIS) A suffragan of the Archdiocese of Boston, U.S.A. The city of Manchester is ...

Manchuria

A north-eastern division of the Chinese Empire and the cradle of the present [1910] imperial ...

Mandan Indians

A formerly important, but now reduced, tribe occupying jointly with the Hidatsa (Minitari or ...

Mandeville, Jean de

(MAUNDEVILLE, MONTEVILLA) The author of a book of travels much read in the Middle Ages, died ...

Manfredonia

(SIPONTINA) The city of Manfredonia is situated in the province of Foggia in Apulia, Central ...

Mangalore

(M ANGALORENSIS ) Diocese on the west coast of India, suffragan of Bombay. It comprises the ...

Mangan, James Clarence

Irish poet, b. in Dublin, 1 May, 1803; d. there, 20 June, 1849. He was the son of James Mangan, ...

Manharter

A politico-religious sect which arose in Tyrol in the first half of the nineteenth century. Its ...

Manichæism

Manichæism is a religion founded by the Persian Mani in the latter half of the third ...

Manifestation of Conscience

(RATIO CONSCIENTIÆ) A practice in many religious orders and congregations, by which ...

Manila

(DE MANILA) This archdiocese comprises the city of Manila, the provinces of Bataan, Bulacan, ...

Manila Observatory

Founded by Father Frederic Faura, S.J., in 1865; constituted officially The Philippine Weather ...

Maniple

Form, Material, and Use The maniple is an ornamental vestment in the form of a band, a little ...

Manitoba

One of the smallest, but economically and historically one of the most important, of the Canadian ...

Mann, Theodore Augustine

English naturalist and historian, b. in Yorkshire, 22 June, 1735; d. at Prague in Bohemia, 23 ...

Manna

(Greek man, manna ; Latin man, manna ). The food miraculously sent to the Israelites ...

Manning, Henry Edward

Cardinal Priest of Sts. Andrew and Gregory on the Coelian Hill and second Archbishop of ...

Mannyng, Robert

Poet. He came from Bourne in Lincolnshire, England. From his own account he entered the house of ...

Mansard, François

(Also spelled Mansart ). French architect, born in Paris, probably of Italian stock, in ...

Mansard, Jules

French architect, grand-nephew of François, was originally Jules Hardouin, but took the ...

Mansi, Gian Domenico

Italian prelate and scholar born at Lucca, of a patrician family, 16 February, 1692; died ...

Mantegna, Andrea

Italian painter ; born according to some authorities, at Vicenza, according to others at ...

Mantelletta

An outer vestment reaching to the knees, open in front, with slits instead of sleeves on the ...

Mantua

Diocese of Mantua (Mantuana), in Lombardy. The city is situated on the Mincio River, which ...

Mantuanus, Baptista

(Or SPAGNOLI). Carmelite and Renaissance poet, born at Mantua, 17 April, 1447, where he also ...

Manu, The Laws of

"The Laws of Manu" is the English designation commonly applied to the "Manava Dharma-sastra", a ...

Manuel Chysoloras

First teacher of Greek in Italy, born at Constantinople about the middle of the fourteenth ...

Manuscripts

Every book written by hand on flexible material and intended to be placed in a library is called ...

Manuscripts of the Bible

Manuscripts are written, as opposed to printed, copies of the original text or of a version ...

Manuscripts, Illuminated

I. ORIGIN A large number of manuscripts are covered with painted ornaments which may be ...

Manuterge

The name given to the towel used by the priest when engaged liturgically. There are two kinds of ...

Manutius, Aldus

(Aldo Manuzio). Scholar and printer; born in 1450, at Sermoneta, near Rome ; died in 1515. He ...

Manzoni, Alessandro

Italian poet and novelist, b. at Milan, 7 March, 1785; d. 22 May, 1873. He was the son of Pietro ...

Map, Walter

(Sometimes wrongly written M APS ) Archdeacon of Oxford, b. at, or in the vicinity of, ...

Maphrian

The Syriac word mafriano signifies one who fructifies, a consecrator. It is used to designate ...

Maréchal, Ambrose

The third Archbishop of Baltimore ; born at Ingres near Orléans, France, 28 August, ...

Maran, Prudentius

A learned Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. 14 October, 1683, at Sezanne, in the ...

Marash

An Armenian Catholic Diocese. The ancient name of this village was most probably Germanicia, ...

Maratta, Carlo

An Italian painter, b. at Camerino, in the Rome, 15 December, 1713. From very early years ...

Marbodius

Bishop of Rennes, ecclesiastical writer and hymnologist, b. about 1035 at Angers, France, d. ...

Marca, Pierre de

French bishop and scholar, b. at Gan in Béarn, 24 Jan., 1594, of a family distinguished ...

Marcellian and Mark, Saints

Martyred at Rome under Diocletian towards the end of the third century, most likely in 286. ...

Marcellina, Saint

The only sister of St. Ambrose of Milan , b. about 330-5; d. about 398. She was older than St. ...

Marcellinus Comes

Latin chronicler of the sixth century. He was an Illyrian by birth, but spent his life at the ...

Marcellinus of Civezza, O.F.M.

(In the world PITRO RANISE) Modern Franciscan author, born at Civezza in Liguria, Italy, 29 ...

Marcellinus, Flavius

Date of birth unknown; died 12 September, 413. He was a high official ( tribunus et notarius ) ...

Marcellinus, Pope

Date of birth unknown; elected 30 June, 296; died 304. According to the "Liber Pontificalis" he ...

Marcello, Benedetto

Born in Venice in 1696; died at Brescia in July, 1739. Marcello's life was a strange mixture of ...

Marcellus I, Saint, Pope

His date of birth unknown; elected pope in May or June, 308; died in 309. For some time after ...

Marcellus II, Pope

(MARCELLO CERVINI DEGLI SPANNOCHI) Born 6 May, 1501, at Montepulciano in Tuscany ; died 6 ...

Marcellus of Ancyra

One of the bishops present at the Councils of Ancyra and of Nicaea, a strong opponent of ...

March, Auzias

A Catalan poet, b. perhaps in the last quarter of the fourteenth century, at Valencia ; d. there ...

Marchand, Jean Baptiste

Second principal in order of succession of the Sulpician College of Montreal and missionary of ...

Marchant, Peter

A theologian, b. at Couvin, a village in the principality of Liège, in 1585; d. at ...

Marchesi, Pompeo

A Lombard sculptor of the neoclassic school, born at Saltrio, near Milan, 7 August, 1790; ...

Marchi, Giuseppe

An archeologist, born at Tolmezzo near Udine, 22 Feb., 1795; died at Rome, 10 Feb., 1860. He ...

Marcian

(M ARCIANUS, Markiânos ) Roman Emperor at Constantinople, b. in Thrace about 390; d. ...

Marciane

A titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra. It figures in the "Notitiae episcopatuum" from ...

Marcianopolis

A titular see in Lower Maesia, on the right bank of the Danube, so called by Trajan after his ...

Marcionites

Heretical sect founded in A.D. 144 at Rome by Marcion and continuing in the West for 300 ...

Marco Polo

Traveller; born at Venice in 1251; died there in 1324. His father Nicolo and his uncle Matteo, ...

Marcopois

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Edessa. The native name of this city is not known, ...

Marcosians

A sect of Valentinian Gnostics, founded by Marcus and combated at length by Irenaeus (Haer. ...

Marcoux, Joseph

A missionary among the Iroquois, b. in Canada, 16 March, 1791; d. there 29 May, 1855. He was ...

Marcus

The name of three leading Gnostics. I. The founder of the Marcosians and elder contemporary ...

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus

Roman Emperor, A.D. 161-180, born at Rome, 26 April, 121; died 17 March, 180. HIS EARLY LIFE ...

Marcus Diadochus

( Markos ho diadochos ) An obscure writer of the fourth century of whom nothing is known but ...

Marcus Eremita

( Markos ho eremites , or monachos , or asketes ). A theologian and ascetic writer ...

Marcus, Pope Saint

Date of birth unknown; consecrated 18 Jan., 336; d. 7 Oct., 336. After the death of Pope ...

Mardin

A residential Armenian archbishopric, a Chaldean bishopric, and a residential Syrian bishopric ...

Marenco

(1) Carlo Italian dramatist, born at Cassolo (or Cassolnuovo) in Piedmont in 1800; died at ...

Marenzio, Luca

Musical composer, born in 1550 at Coccaglia, near Brescia ; died at Rome 1599. His chief legacy ...

Margaret Clitherow, Saint

Martyr, called the "Pearl of York", born about 1556; died 25 March 1586. She was a daughter of ...

Margaret Colona, Blessed

Poor Clare, born in Rome, date uncertain; died there, 20 September, 1284. Her parents died in ...

Margaret Haughery

Margaret Haughery, "the mother of the orphans ", as she was familiarly styled, b. in Cavan, ...

Margaret Mary, Saint

Religious of the Visitation Order. Apostle of the Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, born ...

Margaret of Cortona, Saint

A penitent of the Third Order of St. Francis, born at Laviano in Tuscany in 1247; died at ...

Margaret of Hungary, Blessed

Daughter of King Bela I of Hungary and his wife Marie Laskaris, born 1242; died 18 Jan., 1271. ...

Margaret of Lorraine, Blessed

Duchess d'Alencon, religious of the order of Poor Clares, born in 1463 at the castle of ...

Margaret of Savoy, Blessed

Marchioness of Montferrat, born at Pignerol in 1382; died at Alba, 23 November, 1464. She was the ...

Margaret of Scotland, Saint

Born about 1045, died 16 Nov., 1092, was a daughter of Edward "Outremere", or "the Exile", by ...

Margaret of the Blessed Sacrament

Carmelite nun, b. in Paris, 6 March, 1590; d. there 24 May, 1660. She was the second daughter of ...

Margaret Pole, Blessed

Countess of Salisbury, martyr ; b. at Castle Farley, near Bath, 14 August, 1473; martyred at ...

Margaret, Saint

Virgin and martyr ; also called M ARINA ; belonged to Pisidian Antioch in Asia Minor, where ...

Margaritae

(DECRETI DECRETORUM DECRETALIUM). The canonists of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries who ...

Margil, Antonio

Born at Valencia, Spain, 18 August, 1657; died at Mexico, 6 Aug., 1726. He entered the ...

Margotti, Giacomo

A Catholic publicist, born 11 May, 1823; died 6 May, 1887. He was a native of San Remo, where ...

Maria de Agreda

(Or, according to her conventual title, Maria of Jesus) A discalced Franciscan nun ; born ...

Maria Theresa

Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria, Roman-German Empress, born 1717; died ...

Maria-Laach

(Abbatia Beatæ Marle Virginis ad lacum, or Beatæ Marle lacensis) A Benedictine ...

Mariales, Kantes

A Dominican, born about 1580; died at Venice in April, 1660. He was of a noble Venetian ...

Marian Priests

This term is applied to those English priests who being ordained in or before the reign of ...

Mariana

Archdiocese of Mariana (Marianensis). Mariana, situated in the centre of Minas Geraes, the ...

Mariana Islands

The Marianas Archipelago (also called the Ladrone Islands) is a chain of fifteen islands in the ...

Mariana, Juan

Author and Jesuit, b. at Talavern, Toledo, Spain, probably in April, 1536; d. at Toledo, 16 ...

Mariannhill, Congregation of the Missionaries of

Mariannhill is located in Natal, near Pinetown, 15 miles from Durban, and 56 from ...

Marianus of Florence

A Friar Minor and historian, born at Florence about the middle of the fifteenth century, exact ...

Marianus Scotus

There were two Irish scholars of this name who attained distinction in the eleventh century. Both ...

Marie Antoinette

Queen of France. Born at Vienna, 2 November, 1755; executed in Paris, 16 October, 1793. She was ...

Marie Christine of Savoy, Blessed

Born at Cagliari, Sardinia, 14 November, 1812; died at Naples, 31 January, 1836. She was the ...

Marie de France

A French poetess of the twelfth century. She has this trait in common with the other ...

Marie de l'Incarnation, Blessed

Known also as Madame Acarie, foundress of the French Carmel, born in Paris, 1 February, 1566; died ...

Marie de l'Incarnation, Venerable

(In the world, MARIE GUYARD). First superior of the Ursulines of Quebec , born at Tours, ...

Marienberg

A Benedictine abbey of the Congregation of St. Joseph near Mals, Tyrol (in Vintschau). The ...

Marignolli, Giovanni de'

Born at Florence about 1290; place and date of death unknown. When quite a youth he received the ...

Marina

(DE MARINIS) The name of an ancient and noble family of the Republic of Genoa, distinguished ...

Marina, Saint

Virgin and martyr ; also called M ARINA ; belonged to Pisidian Antioch in Asia Minor, where ...

Marini, Luigi Gaetano

A natural philosopher, jurist, historian, archeologist, born at Sant' Orcangelo (pagus ...

Marinus I, Pope

(882-884) There is reason for believing that Marinus I was elected on the very day of the ...

Marinus II, Pope

Reigned 942-946; died in April or May, 946. A Roman, and a cardinal of the title of St. ...

Mariotte, Edme

French physicist, b. at Dijon, France, about 1620; d. at Paris, 12 May, 1684. His residence was ...

Maris, Martha, Audifax, and Abachum, Saints

All martyred at Rome in 270. Maris and his wife Martha, who belonged to the Persian nobility, ...

Marisco, Adam de

(or ADAM MARSH) A Franciscan who probably came from the county of Somerset, but the date ...

Mariscotti, Saint Hyacintha

A religious of the Third Order of St. Francis and foundress of the Sacconi; born 1585 of a noble ...

Marius Aventicus, Saint

(Or AVENTICENSIS) Bishop of Avenches (Switzerland) and chronicler, born about 530 in the ...

Marius Maximus, Lucius Perpetuus Aurelianus

Roman historian, lived c. 165-230. No connected account of his life exists, but he is frequently ...

Marius Mercator

Ecclesiastical writer, born probably in Northern Africa about 390; died shortly after 451. In 417 ...

Mark and Marcellian, Saints

Martyred at Rome under Diocletian towards the end of the third century, most likely in 286. ...

Mark of Lisbon

(Properly MARCOS DA SILVA). Friar minor, historian, and Bishop of Oporto in Portugal, b. at ...

Mark, Gospel of

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Contents, Selection and Arrangement of ...

Mark, Pope Saint

Date of birth unknown; consecrated 18 Jan., 336; d. 7 Oct., 336. After the death of Pope ...

Mark, Saint

(Greek Markos , Latin Marcus ). It is assumed in this article that the individual ...

Maroni, Paul

Missionary, b. 1 Nov., 1695. He entered the Austrian province of the Jesuits on 27 Oct., 1712, ...

Maronia

A titular see in the province of Rhodopis, suffragan of Trajanopolis. The town is an ancient ...

Maronites

This article will give first the present state of the Maronite nation and Church ; after which ...

Marquesas Islands

(INSULARUM MARCHESI) Located in Polynesia, includes all the Marquesas Islands, eleven in ...

Marquette (Michigan)

(SAULT STE. MARIE and MARQUETTE, MARIANOPOLITANA ET MARQUETTENSIS) The Diocese comprises the ...

Marquette League

A society founded in New York, in May, 1904, by Rev. H.G. Ganss, of Lancaster, Pa., with a ...

Marquette University

Marquette University of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is an outgrowth of Marquette College, which was ...

Marquette, Jacques

Jesuit missionary and discoverer of the Mississippi River, b. in 1636, at Laon, a town in north ...

Marriage Banns

(Latin bannum , pl. bann-a,-i from an Old English verb, bannan , to summon). In ...

Marriage, Civil

"Marriage", says Bishop, "as distinguished from the agreement to marry and from the act of ...

Marriage, History of

The word marriage may be taken to denote the action, contract, formality, or ceremony by which ...

Marriage, Mixed

(Latin Matrimonia mixta ). Technically, mixed marriages are those between Catholics and ...

Marriage, Moral and Canonical Aspect of

Marriage is that individual union through which man and woman by their reciprocal rights ...

Marriage, Mystical

In the Old and the New Testament , the love of God for man, and, in particular His relations ...

Marriage, Putative

Putative (Latin, putativus supposed) signifies that which is commonly thought, reputed, or ...

Marriage, Ritual of

The form for the celebration of the Sacrament of Matrimony, as it stands in the "Rituale Romanum" ...

Marriage, Sacrament of

That Christian marriage (i.e. marriage between baptized persons ) is really a sacrament of ...

Marriage, Validation of

Validation of marriage may be effected by a simple renewal of consent when its nullity arises ...

Marryat, Florence

Novelist and actress, b. 9 July, 1838, at Brighton, England ; d. 27 October 1899, in London, ...

Marseilles

Diocese of Marseilles (Massiliensis), suffragan of Aix, comprises the district of Marseilles in ...

Marshall Islands

(Vicariate Apostolic.) These islands, a German possession since 1885, lying in the Pacific ...

Marshall, Thomas William

Controversial writer, b. 1818; d. at Surbiton, Surrey, 14 Dec., 1877. He was son of John Marshall, ...

Marsi

(MARSORUM.) Diocese in the province of Aquila, Central Italy, with its seat at Pescina. With ...

Marsico Nuovo and Potenza

(MARSICENSIS ET POTENTINA) Suffragan diocese of Salerno. Marsico Nuevo is a city of the ...

Marsigli, Luigi Ferdinando, Count de

Italian geographer and naturalist, b. at Bologna 10 July, 1658; d. at Bologna 1 Nov., 1730. He ...

Marsilius of Padua

Physician and theologian, b. at Padua about 1270; d. about 1342. Contrary to the assertion of ...

Martène, Edmond

An historian and liturgist, born 22 December, 1654, at Saint-Jean-de-Losne near Dijon ; died 20 ...

Martín, Enrico

Date and place of birth unknown; d. in Mexico in 1632. According to some he was of Spanish ...

Martel, Charles

Born about 688; died at Quierzy on the Oise, 21 October, 741. He was the natural son of Pepin of ...

Martha, Maris, Audifax, and Abachum, Saints

All martyred at Rome in 270. Maris and his wife Martha, who belonged to the Persian nobility, ...

Martha, Saint

Mentioned only in Luke 10:38-42 ; and John 11, 12, sqq. The Aramaic form occurs in a ...

Martial, Saint

Bishop of Limoges in the third century. We have no accurate information as to the origin, ...

Martiall, John

(Or MARSHALL) Born in Worcestershire 1534, died at Lille, 3 April, 1597. He was one of the six ...

Martianay, Jean

Born 30 Dec., 1647, at Saint-Sever-Cap, Diocese of Aire ; died 16 June, 1717, at Saint ...

Martianus Capella

Roman writer of Africa who flourished in the fifth century. His work is entitled: "De nuptiis ...

Martigny, Joseph-Alexander

Canon of Belley, archaeologist; b. at Sauverny, Ain, in 1808; d at Belley, 19 August, 1880. He ...

Martin

Benedictine Abbot of the Schottenkloster of Vienna, b. about 1400; d. 28 July, 1464 (29 July ...

Martin I, Pope Saint

Martyr, born at Todi on the Tiber, son of Fabricius ; elected Pope at Rome, 21 July, 649, to ...

Martin II, Pope

Reigned 942-946; died in April or May, 946. A Roman, and a cardinal of the title of St. ...

Martin IV, Pope

(Simon de Brie). Born at the castle of Montpensier in the old French province of Touraine at ...

Martin of Braga

(Bracara; or, of Dumio). Bishop and ecclesiastical writer; b. about 520 in Pannonia; d. in ...

Martin of Leon, Saint

A priest and canon regular of the Augustinians ; b. at Leon in Spain ( Old Castile ) before ...

Martin of Tours, Saint

Bishop; born at Sabaria (today Steinamanger in German, or Szombathely in Hungarian ), Pannonia ...

Martin of Troppau

A chronicler, date of birth unknown; died 1278. His family name was Strebski, and, being by ...

Martin of Valencia, O.F.M.

(Juan Martin de Boil) Born at Villa de Valencia, Spain, about the middle of the fifteenth ...

Martin V, Pope

(Oddone Colonna) Born at Genazzano in the Campagna di Roma, 1368; died at Rome, 20 Feb., 1431. ...

Martin y Garcia, Luis

Twenty-fourth General of the Society of Jesus ; born of humble parentage at Melgar de ...

Martin, Felix

Antiquary, historiographer, architect, educationist, b. 4 October, 1804, at Auray, seat of the ...

Martin, Gregory

Translator of the Douai Version of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate ; b. in Maxfield, parish ...

Martin, Konrad

Bishop of Paderborn ; b. 18 May, 1812, at Geismar, Province of Saxony ; d. 16 July, 1879, at ...

Martin, Paulin

French Biblical scholar, born at Lacam, Lot, 20 July 1840; died at Amélie-les-Bains, ...

Martina, Saint

Roman virgin, martyred in 226, according to some authorities, more probably in 228, under the ...

Martini, Antonio

Archbishop of Florence, Biblical scholar; b. at Prato in Tuscany, 20 April, 1720; d. at ...

Martini, Martino

(Chinese name Wei ). Distinguished Austrian Jesuit missionary to the Chinese, in the ...

Martini, Simone

(Also known as SIMONE DI MARTINO, and as SIMONE MEMMI). Sienese painter, born in Siena, 1283; ...

Martinian and Processus, Saints

The dates of these martyrs are unknown. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" (ed. De ...

Martinique

(SANCTI PETRI ET ARCIS GALLICAÆ) Diocese ; Martinique is one of the French Lesser ...

Martinov, John

Born 7 October, 1821; died 26 April, 1894. Having passed through his university course at St. ...

Martinsberg

(Or P ANNONHALMA ) An important Benedictine abbey in Hungary about fourteen English miles ...

Martinuzzi, George

Monk, bishop, cardinal, b. at Kamicac, Dalmatia, 1482; d. 16 December, 1551. His real name was ...

Martyr

The Greek word martus signifies a witness who testifies to a fact of which he has knowledge ...

Martyr d'Anghiera, Peter

Historian of Spain and of the discoveries of her representatives, b. at Arona, near Anghiera, on ...

Martyrology

By martyrology is understood a catalogue of martyrs and saints arranged according to the ...

Martyropolis

A titular see, suffragan of Amida in the Province of Mesopotamia or Armenia Quarta. It was ...

Martyrs in China

The first Christian martyrs in China appear to have been the missionaries of Ili Bâliq ...

Martyrs, Acts of the

In a strict sense the Acts of the Martyrs are the official records of the trials of early ...

Martyrs, Japanese

There is not in the whole history of the Church a single people who can offer to the ...

Martyrs, The Ten Thousand

On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. On 18 March: ...

Maruthas, Saint

Bishop of Tagrit or Maypherkat in Mesopotamia, friend of St. John Chrysostom , d. before 420. ...

Mary Anne de Paredes, Blessed

Born at Quito, Ecuador, 31 Oct. 1618; died at Quito, 26 May, 1645. On both sides of her family ...

Mary de Cervellione

(or DE CERVELLO) Popularly styled "de Socos" (of Help). Born about 1230 at Barcelona ; ...

Mary de Sales Chappuis, Venerable

(MARIE-THÉRÈSE CHAPPUIS) Belonging to the Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary, ...

Mary Frances of the Five Wounds of Jesus, Saint

Of the Third Order of St. Francis , b. at Naples, 25 March, 1715; d. there, 6 October, 1791. ...

Mary Magdalen de' Pazzi, Saint

Carmelite Virgin, born 2 April, 1566; died 25 May, 1607. Of outward events there were very few in ...

Mary Magdalen, Saint

Mary Magdalen was so called either from Magdala near Tiberias, on the west shore of Galilee, or ...

Mary of Cleophas

This title occurs only in John, xix, 25. A comparison of the lists of those who stood at the foot ...

Mary of Egypt, Saint

Born probably about 344; died about 421. At the early age of twelve Mary left her home and came to ...

Mary of Romans 16:6

Unknown outside of this single verse ( omans 16:6 ). She had "laboured much among" the Roman ...

Mary Queen of Scots

Mary Stuart, born at Linlithgow, 8 December, 1542; died at Fotheringay, 8 February, 1587. She was ...

Mary Tudor

Queen of England from 1553 to 1558; born 18 February, 1516; died 17 November, 1558. Mary was the ...

Mary, Blessed Virgin, The

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. In general, the ...

Mary, Children of

The Sodality of Children of Mary Immaculate owes its origin to the manifestation of the Virgin ...

Mary, Devotion to the Heart of

As in the article on Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus , this subject will be considered ...

Mary, Devotion to the Virgin

Down to the Council of Nicaea Devotion to Our Blessed Lady in its ultimate analysis must be ...

Mary, Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary

The earliest document commemorating this feast comes from the sixth century. St.Romanus, the ...

Mary, Little Brothers of

Generally known as Marist School Brothers. This religious teaching institute is modern in its ...

Mary, Missionaries of the Company of

The Company of Mary was founded by Blessed Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort in 1713. As early as ...

Mary, Mother of John Mark

Mary, the mother of John, who was surnamed Mark ( Acts 12:12 ). We know nothing of her; but from ...

Mary, Name of

(In Scripture and in Catholic use) New Testament, Mariam and sometimes Maria — ...

Mary, Name of

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. The Hebrew ...

Mary, Society of (Marist Fathers)

(Initials S.M.) A religious order of priests, so called on account of the special devotion ...

Mary, Society of, of Paris

This society was founded in 1817 by Very Reverend William Joseph Chaminade at Bordeaux, France. ...

Mary, Tomb of the Blessed Virgin

The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...

Maryland

One of the thirteen English colonies which after the Revolution of 1776 became the original States ...

Masaccio

(T OMMASO ). Italian painter, born about 1402, at San Giovanni di Valdarno, a stronghold ...

Mascoutens Indians

A Wisconsin tribe of Algonquian stock of considerable missionary importance in the seventeenth ...

Masolino da Panicale

Son of Cristoforo Fini; b. in the suburb of Panicale di Valdese, near Florence, 1383; d. c. 1440. ...

Mason, Richard Angelus a S. Francisco

English — or Irish — Franciscan writer; b. in Wiltshire, 1599; d. at Douai, 30 ...

Masonry

The subject is treated under the following heads: I. Name and Definition;II. Origin and Early ...

Maspha

Name of several places in the Bible . The Septuagint transcribes Masphá, Massephá, ...

Massé, Enemond

One of the first Jesuits sent to New France ; born at Lyons, 1574; died at Sillery, l2 May, ...

Mass, Chapter and Conventual

As a general rule, churches in which the Divine office is to be said publicly every day must also ...

Mass, Liturgy of the

A. Name and Definition The Mass is the complex of prayers and ceremonies that make up the ...

Mass, Music of the

Under this heading will be considered exclusively the texts of the Mass (and not, therefore, the ...

Mass, Nuptial

"Missa pro sponso et sponsa", the last among the votive Masses in the Missal. It is composed of ...

Mass, Parochial

The parish is established to provide the parishioners with the helps of religion, especially ...

Mass, Sacrifice of the

The word Mass ( missa ) first established itself as the general designation for the ...

Massa Candida

Under the date 24 August, the "Martyrologium Romanum" records this commemoration: At Carthage, ...

Massa Carrara

DIOCESE OF MASSA CARRARA (MASSENSIS). Diocese in Central Italy (Lunigiana and Garfagnana). ...

Massa Marittima

(MASSANA) Massa Marittima, in the Province of Grosseto, in Tuscany, first mentioned in the ...

Massachusetts

One of the thirteen original United States of America . The Commonwealth of Massachusetts covers ...

Massacre, Saint Bartholomew's Day

This massacre of which Protestants were the victims occurred in Paris on 24 August, 1572 (the ...

Massaia, Guglielmo

A Cardinal, born 9 June, 1809, at Piova in Piedmont, Italy ; died at Cremona, 6 August, 1889. ...

Masses, Bequests for

"The efficacy of prayers for the dead ", remarks the Court of Appeals of the State of New York ...

Masses, Bequests for (Canada)

The law governing bequests, being concerned with "property and civil rights ", falls within ...

Masses, Bequests for (England)

Before the Reformation dispositions of property, whether real or personal, for the purposes of ...

Masses, Devises and Bequests for (United States)

Prior to the period of the Reformation in England in 1532, Masses for the repose of the souls ...

Massillon, Jean-Baptiste

A celebrated French preacher and bishop ; born 24 June, 1663; died 28 September, 1742. The son ...

Massorah

The textual tradition of Hebrew Bible, an official registration of its words, consonants, vowels ...

Massoulié, Antoine

Theologian, born at Toulouse, 28 Oct., 1632; died at Rome, 23 Jan., 1706. At an early age he ...

Massuet, René

Benedictine patrologist, of the Congregation of St. Maur; born 13 August, 1666, at St. Ouen de ...

Massys, Quentin

(MESSYS, METZYS) A painter, born at Louvain in 1466; died at Antwerp in 1530 (bet. 13 July ...

Master of Arts

An academic degree higher than that of Bachelor. The conferring of the degree of Master of Arts, ...

Master of Liesborn, The

A Westphalian painter, who in 1465 executed an altar-piece of note in the Benedictine monastery ...

Master of the Sacred Palace

This office (which has always been entrusted to a Friar Preacher) may briefly be described as ...

Mastrius, Bartholomew

Franciscan, philosopher and theologian, born near Forli, at Meldola, Italy, in 1602; died 3 ...

Mataco Indians

(Or Mataguayo). A group of wide tribes of very low culture, ranging over a great part of the ...

Mater

A titular bishopric in the province of Byzantium, mentioned as a free city by Pliny under the ...

Materialism

As the word itself signifies, Materialism is a philosophical system which regards matter as the ...

Maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the

Second Sunday in October. The object of this feast is to commemorate the dignity of the Mary ...

Mathathias

The name of ten persons of the Bible , variant in both Hebrew and Greek of Old Testament and in ...

Mathew, Theobald

Apostle of Temperance, born at Thomastown Castle, near Cashel, Tipperary, Ireland, 10 October, ...

Mathieu, François-Désiré

Bishop and cardinal, born 27 May, 1839; died 26 October, 1908. Born of humble family at ...

Mathusala

One of the Hebrew patriarchs, mentioned in Genesis 5. The word is variously given as Mathusale ...

Matilda of Canossa

Countess of Tuscany, daughter and heiress of the Marquess Boniface of Tuscany, and Beatrice, ...

Matilda, Saint

Queen of Germany, wife of King Henry I (The Fowler), b. at the Villa of Engern in Westphalia, ...

Matilda, Saint

(MATILDA VON HACKEBORN-WIPPRA). Benedictine; born in 1240 or 1241 at the ancestral castle of ...

Matins

I. NAME The word "Matins" ( Latin Matutinum or Matutinae ), comes from Matuta , the Latin ...

Matricula

A term having several meanings in the field of Christian antiquity. (1) The word is applied ...

Matteo da Siena

(Matteo di Giovanni di Bartolo). Painter, born at Borgo San Sepolcro, c. 1435; died 1495. His ...

Matteo di Termini

(Matteo Di Termini), born in the first half of the thirteenth century, at Termini, a village of ...

Matteo of Aquasparta

A celebrated Italian Franciscan, born at Aquasparta in the Diocese of Todi , Umbria, about ...

Matter

(Greek hyle ; Latin materia ; French matière ; German materie and stoff ), ...

Matteucci, Carlo

Physicist, born at Forli, in the Romagna, 21 June, 1811; died at Ardenza, near Leghorn, 25 July, ...

Matthew of Bassi

Founder and first Superior-General of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins, the principal branch ...

Matthew of Cracow

Renowned scholar and preacher of the fourteenth century, b. at Cracow about 1335, d. at Pisa, 5 ...

Matthew, Gospel of Saint

I. CANONICITY The earliest Christian communities looked upon the books of the Old Testament as ...

Matthew, Saint

Apostle and evangelist. The name Matthew is derived from the Hebrew Mattija , being ...

Matthew, Sir Tobie

English priest, born at Salisbury, 3 October, 1577, died at Ghent, 13 October, 1655. He was the ...

Matthias Corvinus

King of Hungary, son of Janos Hunyady and Elizabeth Szilagyi of Horogssey, was born at ...

Matthias of Neuburg

Also NEUENBURG (NEOBURGENSIS). Chronicler, born towards the close of the thirteenth century, ...

Matthias, Saint

Apostle. The Greek Matthias (or, in some manuscripts, Maththias ), is a name derived ...

Maundy Thursday

The feast of Maundy (or Holy) Thursday solemnly commemorates the institution of the Eucharist ...

Maunoury, Auguste-François

Hellenist and exegete, b. at Champsecret, Orne, France, 30 Oct., 1811; d. at Séez, ...

Maurice

(Matricius, Maurikios ). Roman Emperor, born in 539; died in November, 602. He sprang from ...

Maurice, Saint

Leader ( primicerius ) of the Theban Legion, massacred at Agaunum, about 287 (286, 297, 302, ...

Maurists, The

A congregation of Benedictine monks in France, whose history extends from 1618 to 1818. It ...

Maurus Magnentius Rabanus, Blessed

( Also Hrabanus, Reabanus). Abbot of Fulda, Archbishop of Mainz, celebrated theological ...

Maurus, Saint

Deacon, son of Equitius, a nobleman of Rome, but claimed also by Fondi, Gallipoli, Lavello ...

Maurus, Sylvester

Writer on philosophy and theology, b. at Spoleto, 31 Dec., 1619; d. in Rome, 13 Jan., 1687. He ...

Maury, Jean-Siffrein

Cardinal and statesman, born at Valréas, near Avignon, 26 June, 1746; died at Rome on ...

Maxentius, Joannes

Joannes Maxentius, leader of the so-called Scythian monks, appears in history at Constantinople ...

Maxentius, Marcus Aurelius

Roman Emperor 306-12, son of the Emperor Maximinianus Herculius and son-in-law of the chief ...

Maxfield, Venerable Thomas

( Vere Macclesfield) English priest and martyr, b. in Stafford gaol, about 1590, martyred ...

Maximianopolis

A titular see of Palestina Secunda, suffragan of Scythopolis. Its ancient name, Adad-Remmon, ...

Maximianus

(MARCUS AURELIUS VALERIUS MAXIMIANUS, surnamed HERCULIUS.) Roman Emperor, was adopted by ...

Maximilian

The name of several martyrs. (1) Maximilian of Antioch A soldier, martyred at Antioch, Jan. ...

Maximilian I

Duke of Bavaria, 1598-1622, Elector of Bavaria and Lord High Steward of the Holy Roman Empire, ...

Maximinus Thrax

Roman Emperor 235-8, son of a Goth and an Alanic mother. When the Emperor Septimius Severus was ...

Maximinus, Caius Valerius Daja

Under his uncle Augustus Galerius, the Caesar of Syria and Egypt, from the year 305; in 307 ...

Maximinus, Saint

Bishop of Trier, b. at Silly near Poitiers, d. there, 29 May, 352 or 12 Sept., 349. He was ...

Maximopolis

A titular see of Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. The true name of the city is Maximianopolis, and ...

Maximus of Constantinople, Saint

Known as the Theologian and as Maximus Confessor , born at Constantinople about 580; died in ...

Maximus of Turin, Saint

Bishop and theological writer, b. probably in Rhaetia, about 380; d. shortly after 465. Only ...

Maxwell, William

Fifth Earl of Nithsdale (Lord Nithsdale signed as Nithsdaill) and fourteenth Lord Maxwell, b. in ...

Maxwell, Winifred

Countess of Nithsdale, d. at Rome, May, 1749. She was the daughter of William, first Marquis of ...

Maya Indians

The most important of the cultured native peoples of North America, both in the degree of their ...

Mayer, Christian

Moravian astronomer, born at Mederizenhi in Moravia, 20 Aug., 1719, died at Heidelberg, 16 ...

Mayhew, Edward

Born in 1569; died 14 September, 1625. He belonged to the old English family of Mayhew or Mayow of ...

Mayne, Blessed Cuthbert

Martyr, b. at Yorkston, near Barnstaple, Devonshire ( baptized 20 March, 1543-4); d. at ...

Maynooth College

The National College of Saint Patrick, at Maynooth in County Kildare, about twelve miles from ...

Mayo Indians

An important tribe occupying some fifteen towns on Mayo and Fuerte rivers, southern Sonora and ...

Mayo, School of

(Irish Magh Eo , which means, according to Colgan, the Plain of the Oaks, and, according to ...

Mayor, John

(MAJOR, MAIR; also called JOANNES MAJORIS and HADDINGTONUS SCOTUS) A Scotch philosopher and ...

Mayoruna Indians

A noted and savage tribe of Panoan linguistic stock, ranging the forests between the Ucayali, the ...

Mayotte, Nossi-Bé, and Comoro

PREFECTURE APOSTOLIC OF MAYOTTE, NOSSI-BE, AND COMORO (MAYOTTÆ, NOSSIBEÆ, ET ...

Mayr, Beda

A Bavarian Benedictine philosopher, apologist, and poet, b. 15 January, 1742 at Daiting near ...

Mayron, Francis

(DE MAYRONIS) Born about 1280, probably at Mayronnes, Department of Basses-Alpes, he entered ...

Mazarin, Jules

Born either at Rome or at Piscina in the Abruzzi, of a very old Sicilian family, 14 July, 1602; ...

Mazatec Indians

An important Mexican tribe of Zapotecan linguistic stock, occupying the mountain region of ...

Mazenod, Charles Joseph Eugene de

Bishop of Marseilles, and founder of the Congregation of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, b. at ...

Mazzara del Vallo

DIOCESE OF MAZZARA DEL VALLO (MAZARIENSIS). The city is situated in the province of Trepani, ...

Mazzella, Camillo

Theologian and cardinal, born at Vitulano, 10 Feb., 1833; d. at Rome, 26 March, 1900. He ...

Mazzolini, Lodovico

(Also known as MAZZOLINI DA FERRARA, LODOVICO FERRARESA, and IL FERRARESE) Italian painter, b. ...

Mazzolini, Sylvester

(M OZOLINI, also P RIERIAS ) Theologian, b. at Priero, Piedmont, 1460; d. at Rome, ...

Mazzuchelli, Pietro Francesco

(Also known as IL MORAZZONE, MARAZZONE, and MORANZONE). Milanese painter, b. at Moranzone near ...

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Mb 1

Mbaya Indians

(Guaycurü) A predatory tribe formerly ranging on both sides of the Paraguay River, on the ...

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Mc 11

McCabe, Edward

Cardinal, born in Dublin, 1816; died at Kingstown, 11 February, 1885; he was the son of poor ...

McCarthy, Justin

Irish politician, journalist, novelist, and historian, b. at Cork, 22 Nov., 1830; d. at ...

McCloskey, William George

Bishop of Louisville, Kentucky, b. at Brooklyn, N.Y., 10 Nov., 1823; d. 17 September, 1909. He ...

McGee, Thomas D'Arcy

An editor, politician, and poet, born at Carlingford, Co. Louth, Ireland, 13 April, 1825; ...

McLoughlin, John

Physician and pioneer, born in the parish of La Riviere du Loup, Canada, 19 October, 1784; died ...

McMahon, Martin Thomas

Soldier, jurist; born at Laprairie, Canada, 21 March, 1838; died in New York, 21 April, 1906. His ...

McMaster, James Alphonsus

An editor, convert, born at Duanesburg, New York, U. S. A., 1 April, 1820; died in Brooklyn, New ...

McQuaid, Bernard John

The first Bishop of Rochester, U. S. A.; born in New York City, 15 December, 1823; died at ...

McSherry, James Jr.

Jurist, son of the author James McSherry ; born at Frederick, Maryland, 30 December, 1842; died ...

McSherry, James Sr.

Author; born at LibertyTown, Frederick County, Maryland, 29 July, 1819; died at Frederick City, ...

McSherry, Richard

Physician; born at Martinsburg, Virginia (now West Virginia ), 21 November, 1817; died ...

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Me 153

Meagher, Thomas Francis

Soldier, politician, b. at Waterford, Ireland, 3 August, 1823; accidentally drowned in the ...

Meath

(MIDENSIS). Diocese in Ireland, suffragan of Armagh. In extent it is the largest diocese in ...

Meaux

(Melsa). A Cistercian abbey about four miles east of Beverley in the East Riding of ...

Meaux, Diocese of

(MELDENSIS.) Meaux comprises the entire department of Seine and Marne, suffragan of Sens ...

Mecca

Mecca, the capital of Arabia and the sacred city of the Mohammedans, is situated in the district ...

Mechanism

There is no constant meaning in the history of philosophy for the word Mechanism. Originally, ...

Mechitar

(MECHITHAR, MEKHITAR, MCHITAR or MOCHTOR, a word which means "Comforter") Mechitar is the name ...

Mechitarists

Armenian Benedictines, founded by Mechitar in 1712. In its inception the order was looked upon ...

Mechlin

( Latin MECHLINIA; French MALINES; MECHLINIENSIS). Archdiocese comprising the two Belgian ...

Mechtel, Johann

Chronicler; b. 1562 at Pfalzel near Trier (Germany); d. after 1631, perhaps as late as 1653 at ...

Mechtild of Magdeburg

A celebrated medieval mystic, b. of a noble family in Saxony about 1210; d. at the ...

Mechtilde, Saint

(MATILDA VON HACKEBORN-WIPPRA). Benedictine; born in 1240 or 1241 at the ancestral castle of ...

Mecklenburg

A division of the German Empire, consists of the two Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and ...

Medaille, Jean Paul

Jesuit missionary; b. at Carcassonne, the capital of the Department of Aude, France, 29 ...

Medal of Saint Benedict

A medal, originally a cross, dedicated to the devotion in honour of St. Benedict. One ...

Medal, Miraculous

The devotion commonly known as that of the Miraculous Medal owes its origin to Zoe Labore, a ...

Medals, Devotional

A medal may be defined to be a piece of metal, usually in the form of a coin, not used as money, ...

Medardus, Saint

Bishop of Noyon, b. at Salency (Oise) about 456; d. in his episcopal city 8 June, about 545. His ...

Medea

A titular see of Thrace, suffragan of Heraclea. This name and the modern name (Midieh) are ...

Medellín

(MEDELLENSIS). Archdiocese in the Republic of Colombia, Metropolitan of Antioquia and ...

Media and Medes

( Medía, Mêdoi ). An ancient country of Asia and the inhabitants thereof. The ...

Mediator (Christ as Mediator)

The subject will be treated under the following heads: (1) Definition of the word mediator; (2) ...

Medices, Hieronymus

(DE MEDICIS) Illustrious as a scholastic of acumen and penetration, b. at Camerino in ...

Medici, Catherine de'

Born 13 April, 1519; died 5 January, 1589. She was the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici (II), Duke ...

Medici, House of

A Florentine family, the members of which, having acquired great wealth as bankers, rose in a ...

Medici, Maria de'

Queen of France ; b. at Florence, 26 April, 1573; d. at Cologne, 3 July, 1642. She was a ...

Medicine and Canon Law

In the early centuries the practice of medicine by clerics, whether secular or regular, was not ...

Medicine, History of

The history of medical science, considered as a part of the general history of civilization, ...

Medina, Bartholomew

Dominican theologian, b. at Medina, 1527; d. at Salamanca, 1581. With Dominico Soto , Melchior ...

Medina, Juan de

Theologian ; born 1490; died 1547; he occupied the first rank among the theologians of the ...

Medina, Miguel de

Theologian, born at Belalcazar, Spain, 1489; died at Toledo, May, 1578. He entered the Franciscan ...

Medrano, Francisco

A Spanish lyric poet, b. in Seville, not to be confounded with Sebastian Francisco de Medrano ...

Medulic, Andras

A Croatian painter and engraver, called by Italian authors Medola, Medula, Schiavone, Schiaon, ...

Meehan, Charles Patrick

Irish historical writer and translator, b. in Dublin, 12 July, 1812; d. there 14 March 1890. ...

Megara

A titular see, suffragan to Corinth, in Achaia. The city, which was built on an arid strip of ...

Megarians

The Megarian School is one of the imperfectly Socratic Schools, so called because they developed ...

Mehrerau

Formerly a Benedictine, now a Cistercian Abbey ; situated on Lake Constance, west of Bregenz, in ...

Meignan, Guillaume-René

Cardinal Archbishop of Tours, French apologist and Scriptural exegete, b. at Chauvigné, ...

Meilleur, Jean-Baptiste

French Canadian physician and educator, b. at St. Laurent, P.Q., 9 May, 1796; d. 7 Dec., 1878. He ...

Meinwerk, Blessed

Tenth Bishop of Paderborn, d. 1036: Meinwerk (Meginwerk) was born of the noble family of the ...

Meissen

A former see of north-east Germany. The present city of Meissen, situated in the Kingdom of ...

Meissonier, Ernest

French painter, b. at Lyons 21 February, 1815; d. at Paris, 31 January, 1891. If the Lyonese ...

Meléndez Valdés, Juan

Spanish poet and politician, b. at Ribera del Fresno (Badajoz) 11 March, 1754; d. in exile at ...

Melancthon, Philipp

Collaborator and friend of Luther, born at Bretten (in Unterpfalz, now Baden ), 16 February, ...

Melania (the Younger), Saint

Born at Rome, about 383; died in Jerusalem, 31 December, 439. She was a member of the famous ...

Melbourne

Archdiocese of Melbourne (Melburnen) Located in the state of Victoria, Southeastern ...

Melchers, Paul

Cardinal, Archbishop of Cologne, b. 6 Jan., 1813, at Münster, Westphalia ; d. 14 ...

Melchisedech

[Gr. Melchisedek , from the Hebrew meaning "King of righteousness (Gesenius)] was King of ...

Melchisedechians

A branch of the Monarchians, founded by Theodotus the banker. (See MONARCHIANS.) Another quite ...

Melchites

(Melkites). ORIGIN AND NAME Melchites are the people of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt who ...

Meletius of Antioch

Bishop, b. in Melitene, Lesser Armenia ; d. at Antioch, 381. Before occupying the see of ...

Meletius of Lycopolis

Meletius, Bishop of Lycopolis in Egypt, gave his name to a schism of short duration. There ...

Melfi and Rapolla

DIOCESE OF MELFI AND RAPOLLA (MELPHIENSIS ET RAPOLLENSIS) Diocese in the province of Potenza, ...

Meli, Giovanni

Sicilian poet, b. at Palermo, 4 March, 1740, d. 20 Dec., 1815. He was the son of a goldsmith of ...

Melia, Pius

Italian theologian, b. at Rome, 12 Jan., 1800; d. in London, June 1883. He entered the Society ...

Melissus of Samos

A Greek philosopher, of the Eleatic School, b. at Samos about 470 B.C. It is probable that he ...

Melitene

The residence of an Armenian Catholic see, also a titulary archbishopric. According to Pliny ...

Melito, Saint

Bishop of Sardis, prominent ecclesiastical writer in the latter half of the second century. Few ...

Melk, Abbey and Congregation of

(MOLCK, MELLICUM). Situated on an isolated rock commanding the Danube, Melk has been a noted ...

Melkites

(Melkites). ORIGIN AND NAME Melchites are the people of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt who ...

Melleray

(MELLEARIUM) Melleray, situated in Brittany (Loire-Inférieure), Diocese of Nantes, in ...

Mellifont Abbey

Located three miles from Drogheda, Co. Louth, Diocese of Armagh, it was the first Cistercian ...

Mellitus, Saint

Bishop of London and third Archbishop of Canterbury, d. 24 April, 624. He was the leader of ...

Melo

Located in Uruguay. It was decided in 1897 to erect two sees suffragan to Montevideo, one of ...

Melos

A titular see, suffragan of Naxos in the Cyclades. The name seems to have been derived from a ...

Melozzo da Forlí

An Italian painter of the Umbrian School, b. at Forlì, 1438; d. there 1494. Lanzi's ...

Melrose Abbey

The Abbey of Melrose, located in in Roxburghshire, founded in 1136 by King David I, was the ...

Melrose, Chronicle of

(CHRONICA DE MAILROS) It opens with the year 735, ends abruptly in 1270, and is founded solely ...

Melzi, Francesco

Born at Milan, about 1490; died 1568. He was a mysterious personage. He was a friend of Leonardo ...

Memberton

Principal chief of the Micmac Indians of Nova Scotia at the time of the establishment of the ...

Membre, Zenobius

Born 1645 at Bapaume, Department of Pas-de-Calais, France, he was a member of the Franciscan ...

Memling, Hans

Flemish painter, b. about 1430-35; d. at Bruges 11 August, 1494. This date was discovered ...

Memorial Brasses

Just when memorial brasses first came into use is not known; the earliest existing dated ...

Memory

(Latin memoria ) Memory is the capability of the mind, to store up conscious processes, ...

Memphis

Ancient capital of Egypt ; diocese of the province of Arcadia or Heptanomos, suffragan of ...

Men of Understanding

(HOMINES INTELLIGENTIAE). Name assumed by a heretical sect which in 1410-11 was cited before ...

Menéndez y Pelayo, Marcelino

Poet, historian and literary critic, b. at Santander, Spain, in 1856; d. at Santander in 1912. ...

Mena, Juan de

Spanish poet, born 1411 at Cordova ; died 1456 at Torrelaguna. Prominent at the court of Juan II ...

Menaion

( menaîon from mén, "month") The Menaion is the name of the twelve books, one ...

Menas, Saint

Martyr under Diocletian, about 295. According to the Greek Acts published with Latin translation ...

Mencius

(Latinized form of Chinese MENG-TZE, i.e. MENG THE SAGE). Philosopher, b. 371 or 372 B.C. He was ...

Mendíburu, Manuel de

Born at Lima, 29 October, 1805; died 21 January, 1885. He was educated in the University of S. ...

Mendaña de Neyra, Alvaro de

A Spanish navigator and explorer, born in Saragossa, 1541; died in Santa Cruz, Solomon ...

Mende

(MIMATENSIS) This diocese includes the department of Lozère, in France. Suffragan of ...

Mendel, Mendelism

Gregor Johann Mendel (the first name was taken on entrance to his order), b. 22 July, 1822, at ...

Mendes de Silva, João

Better known as Amadeus of Portugal, b. 1420, d. at Milan, 1482, began his religious life in ...

Mendicant Friars

Mendicant Friars are members of those religious orders which, originally, by vow of ...

Mendieta, Jerónimo

A Spanish missionary; born at Vitoria, Spain, 1525; died in the City of Mexico, 9 May, 1604. ...

Mendoza, Diego Hurtade de

A Spanish diplomat and writer, and one of the greatest figures in the history of Spanish ...

Mendoza, Francisco Sarmiento de

A Spanish canonist and bishop ; b. of a noble family at Burgos ; d. 1595, at Jaén. ...

Mendoza, Pedro Gonzalez de

Cardinal and Primate of Spain, b. at Guadalajara, 3 May, 1428; d. there, 11 January, 1495. He ...

Meneses, Osorio Francisco

Spanish painter, b. at Seville, 1630; d. probably in the same place, 1705. It is extraordinary ...

Menestrier, Claude-François

Antiquarian, b. at Lyons, 9 March, 1631; d. at Paris, 21 Jan., 1705. He inherited a taste for ...

Menevia

(MENEVENSIS) Menevia is said to be derived from Menapia , the name of an ancient Roman ...

Mengarini, Gregario

Pioneer missionary of the Flathead tribe and philologist of their language, b. in Rome, 21 July, ...

Mengs, Anthon Rafael

A Bohemian painter, usually regarded as belonging to the Italian or Spanish school, b. at ...

Mennas

Patriarch of Constantinople from 536 to 552. Early in 536 Pope St. Agapetus came to ...

Mennonites

A Protestant denomination of Europe and America which arose in Switzerland in the sixteenth ...

Menochio, Giovanni Stefano

Jesuit biblical scholar, b. at Padua, 1575; d. in Rome, 4 Feb., 1655. He entered the Society of ...

Menologium

Although the word Menologium (in English also written Menology and Menologe) has been in some ...

Menominee Indians

A considerable tribe of Algonquian linguistic stock, formerly ranging over north-eastern ...

Mensa, Mensal Revenue

( Latin, Mensa, table). The Latin word mensa has for its primitive signification "a table ...

Mensing, John

(MENSINGK) A theologian and celebrated opponent of Luther, born according to some at ...

Mental Reservation

The name applied to a doctrine which has grown out of the common Catholic teaching about lying and ...

Mentelin, Johannes

(MENTEL) Born c. 1410; died 12 Dec., 1478; an eminent German typographer of the fifteenth ...

Menzini, Benedetto

Priest and poet, b. at Florence, 1646; d. at Rome, 7 Sept., 1704. His family being poor, he ...

Mercadé, Eustache

French dramatic poet of the fifteenth century. The dates of his birth and death are not known. ...

Mercedarians

(Order of Our Lady of Mercy). A congregation of men founded in 1218 by St. Peter Nolasco, born ...

Mercier, Louis-Honoré

A French Canadian statesman, b. 15 October, 1840, at Ibervile, Quebec, of a family of farmers; ...

Mercuriali, Geronimo

Better known by his Latin name Mercurialis; famous philologist and physician, b. at Forli, 30 ...

Mercy, Brothers of Our Lady of

Founded at Mechlin in 1839 by Canon J.B. Cornelius Scheppers for the instruction and care of ...

Mercy, Corporal and Spiritual Works of

Mercy as it is here contemplated is said to be a virtue influencing one's will to have ...

Mercy, Sisters of

A congregation of women founded in Dublin, Ireland, in 1827, by Catherine Elizabeth McAuley, ...

Mercy, Sisters of, of St. Borromeo

Originally a pious association of ladies formed in 1626 for the care of the sick in the ...

Meredith, Edward

English Catholic controversialist, b. in 1648, was a son of the rector of Landulph, Cornwall. ...

Merici, Saint Angela

Foundress of the Ursulines, born 21 March, 1474, at Desenzano, a small town on the southwestern ...

Merit

By merit ( meritum ) in general is understood that property of a good work which entitles the ...

Mermillod, Gaspard

Bishop of Lausanne and cardinal, born at Carouge, Switzerland, 22 September, 1824; died in Rome, ...

Merneptah I

(1234?-1214 B.C.), the fourth king of the nineteenth Egyptian dynasty and the supposed Pharaoh ...

Mersenne, Marin

French theologian, philosopher, and mathematician; b. 8 September, 1588, near Oizé (now ...

Mesa

(Greek Mosá ; Moabite Stone, ms‘ ; Hebrew, mys‘ , meaning ...

Mesopotamia, Kurdistan, and Armenia

Created by Gregory XVI on 17 Dec., 1832. Mgr. Trioche, Archbishop of Babylon or Bagdad, became ...

Mesrob

(Also called MASHTOTS) One of the greatest figures in Armenian history, he was born about 361 ...

Messalians

( Praying folk; participle Pa'el of the Aramaic word meaning "to pray "). An heretical ...

Messene

A titular see, suffragan to Corinth, in Achaia. Under this name at least, the city dates only ...

Messias

(Or Messias .) The Greek form Messias is a transliteration of the Hebrew, Messiah , ...

Messina

(MESSINENSIS) Located in Sicily. The city is situated, in the shape of an amphitheatre, along ...

Messina, Antonello da

Born at Messina, about 1430; died 1497. After studying for some time in Sicily he crossed over ...

Messingham, Thomas

An Irish hagiologist, born in the Diocese of Meath, and studied in the Irish College, Paris, ...

Metalwork in the Service of the Church

From the earliest days the Church has employed utensils and vessels of metal in its liturgical ...

Metaphrastes, Symeon

( Sumeòn ’o metaphrástes ). The principal compiler of the legends of ...

Metaphysics

I. The Name. II. The Definition. III. The Rejection of Metaphysics.IV. Relation of Metaphysics to ...

Metastasio, Pietro

Italian poet, b. at Rome, 1698; d. at Vienna, 1782. Of humble origins, his father, once a ...

Metcalfe, Edward

Born in Yorkshire, 1792; died a martyr of charity at Leeds, 7 May, 1847. He entered the ...

Metellopolis

A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, in Asia Minor. The inscriptions make known a Phrygian town ...

Metempsychosis

(Greek meta empsychos , Latin metempsychosis : French metempsychose : German ...

Metham, Thomas

A knight, confessor of the Faith ; died in York Castle, 1573. He was eldest son of Thomas ...

Methodism

A religious movement which was originated in 1739 by John Wesley in the Anglican Church, and ...

Methodius and Cyril, Saints

(Or CONSTANTINE and METHODIUS). These brothers, the Apostles of the Slavs, were born in ...

Methodius I

Patriarch of Constantinople (842-846), defender of images during the second Iconoclast ...

Methodius of Olympus, Saint

Bishop and ecclesiastical author, date of birth unknown; died a martyr, probably in 311. ...

Methuselah

One of the Hebrew patriarchs, mentioned in Genesis 5. The word is variously given as Mathusale ...

Methymna

A titular see in the island of Lesbos. It was once the second city of the island, and enjoyed ...

Metrophanes of Smyrna

A leader of the faithful Ignatian bishops at the time of the Photian schism (867). Baronius ...

Metropolis

A titular episcopal see and suffragan of Ephesus. Strabo (XIV, 1, 2; XIV, 1, 15), who speaks of ...

Metropolitan

Metropolitan , in ecclesiastical language, refers to whatever relates to the metropolis, the ...

Metternich, Klemens Lothar Wenzel Von

Statesman; born at Coblenz, 15 May, 1773; died at Vienna, 11 June, 1859; son of Count Georg, ...

Metz

A town and bishopric in Lorraine. I. THE TOWN OF METZ In ancient times Metz, then known as ...

Meun, Jean Clopinel de

(Or MEUNG.) French poet, b. c. 1260 in the little city of Meung-sur-Loire; d. at Paris ...

Mexico

GEOGRAPHY The Republic of Mexico is situated at the extreme point of the North American ...

Mexico, Archdiocese of

(MEXICANA.) Boundaries The boundaries of the Diocese of Mexico were at first not well defined. ...

Mezger, Francis, Joseph, and Paul

Three brothers, learned Benedictines of the monastery of St. Peter in Salzburg, and professors ...

Mezzofanti, Giuseppe

A cardinal, the greatest of polyglots, born 19 September, 1774; died 15 March, 1849. He was the ...

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Mi 103

Miami Indians

An important tribe of Algonquian stock formerly claiming prior dominion over the whole of what ...

Michael Cærularius

( Keroulários ). Patriarch of Constantinople (1043-58), author of the second and ...

Michael de Sanctis, Saint

(DE LOS SANTOS). Born at, Vich in Catalonia, 29 September, 1591; died at Valladolid, 10 ...

Michael O'Loghlen

Born at Ennis, Co. Clare, Ireland, in 1789; died 1846. Educated at Ennis Academy, and Trinity ...

Michael of Cesena

(MICHELE FUSCHI) A Friar Minor, Minister General of the Franciscan Order, and theologian, ...

Michael Scotus

(SCOTT or SCOT) A thirteenth century mathematician, philosopher, and scholar. He was born in ...

Michael the Archangel, Saint

( Hebrew "Who is like God ?"). St. Michael is one of the principal angels ; his name was ...

Michael, Military Orders of Saint

(1) A Bavarian Order, founded in 1721 by Elector Joseph Clemens of Cologne, Duke of Bavaria, ...

Michaud, Joseph-François

Historian, born at Albens, Savoy, 1767; died at Passy, 30 September, 1839. He belonged to an ...

Micheas of Ephraim

Also called Michas. In Hebrew the complete form of the name is Mikhayahu or Mikhayehu ...

Micheas, Book of

Micheas (Hebr. Mikhah; Jeremiah 26:18 : Mikhayah keth.), the author of the book which holds the ...

Micheas, Son of Jemla

Also called Michas. In Hebrew the complete form of the name is Mikhayahu or Mikhayehu ...

Michel, Jean

A French dramatic poet of the fifteenth century, who revised and enlarged the mystery of the ...

Michelangelo Buonarroti

Italian sculptor, painter, and architect, b. at Caprese in the valley of the upper Arno, 6 March, ...

Michelians

A German Protestant sect which derives its name from "Michel", the popular designation of its ...

Michelis, Edward

A theologian, born in St. Mauritz, 6 Feb., 1813; died in Luxemburg, 8 June, 1855. After his ...

Michelozzo di Bartolommeo

An architect and sculptor, born at Florence circa 1391; died 1472. He exercised a quiet, but ...

Michigan

The State of Michigan is bounded on the north by Lake Superior, on the east by Canada, Lake Huron ...

Michoacan

(MICHOACANENSIS) Located in Mexico, the Diocese of Michoacan was established in 1536 by Pope ...

Mickiewicz, Adam

Born near Novogrodek, Lithuania, 1798; died at Constantinople, 1855. He studied at Novogrodek ...

Micmacs

( Souriquois of the early French ) The easternmost of the Algonquin tribes and probably ...

Micrologus

Either a "synopsis" or a "short explanation", and in the Middle Ages used as an equivalent for ...

Middendorp, Jakob

Theologian and historian; b. about 1537 at Oldenzaal, or, according to others, at Ootmarsum, ...

Middle Ages

A term commonly used to designate that period of European history between the fall of the Roman ...

Middlesbrough

(MEDIOBURGENSIS) In medieval history it was known as Myddilburga or Middilburga, with many ...

Midianites

(In Authorized Version M IDIANITES ). An Arabian tribe ( Septuagint Madienaîoi ...

Midrashim

The term commonly designates ancient rabbinical commentaries on the Hebrew Scriptures. It is the ...

Midwives

Midwives come under the canon law of the Church in their relation towards two of the sacraments, ...

Migazzi, Christoph Anton

Cardinal, Prince Archbishop of Vienna, b. 1714, in the Tyrol, d. 14 April, 1803, at Vienna. At ...

Mignard, Pierre

A French painter, born at Troyes, 7 November, 1612; died at Paris, 30 May, 1695. Though destined ...

Migne, Jacques-Paul

Priest, and publisher of theological works, born at Saint-Flour, 25 October, 1800; died at Paris, ...

Migration

The movement of populations from place to place is one of the earliest social phenomena history ...

Milan

(MEDIOLANENSIS) Located in Lombardy, northern Italy. The city is situated on the Orona River, ...

Milde, Vinzenz Eduard

Prince- Archbishop of Vienna, born at Brünn, in Moravia, in 1777; died at Vienna in ...

Miles Gerard, Venerable

Martyr ; born about 1550 at Wigan; executed at Rochester 13 (30?) April, 1590. Sprung perhaps ...

Miles, George Henry

A dramatist and man of letters, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 31 July, 1824; died near ...

Mileto

(MILETENSIS) Located in Calabria, in the province of Reggio, southern Italy. According to ...

Miletopolis

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Cyzicus. Miletopolis was a town north of Mysia, at ...

Miletus

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Aphrodisias, in Caria. Situated on the western coast ...

Miletus, Vitus

(Originally MÜLLER) A Catholic theologian, born at Gmünd, Swabia, 1549; died at ...

Milevum

A titular see of Numidia. In Ptolemy's "Geography", IV, iii, 7, the city is mentioned under the ...

Milic, Jan

A pre-Hussite reform preacher and religious enthusiast, born at Kremsier in Moravia, died 29 ...

Military Orders, The

Including under this term every kind of brotherhood of knights, secular as well as religious, ...

Millennium and Millenarianism

The fundamental idea of millenarianism, as understood by Christian writers, may be set forth ...

Miller, Ferdinand Von

Born at Fürstenfeldbruck, 1813; died at Munich, 1887. He laboured for the development of ...

Millet, Jean-François

French painter ; b. at Gruchy, near Cherbourg, 4 October, 1814; d. at Barbizon, 20 January, 1875. ...

Millet, Pierre

( Or Milet). A celebrated early Jesuit missionary in New York State, b. at Bourges, ...

Milner, John

Born in London, 14 October, 1752: died at Wolverhampton, 19 April, 1826. At the age of twelve ...

Milner, Venerable Ralph

Layman and martyr, born at Flacsted, Hants, England, early in the sixteenth century; suffered ...

Milo Crispin

Monk, and cantor of the Benedictine Abbey of Bec ; wrote the lives of five of its abbots : ...

Milopotamos

A titular see of Crete, suffragan of Candia. Certain historians and geographers identify ...

Miltiades, Pope Saint

The year of his birth is not known; he was elected pope in either 310 or 311; died 10 or 11 ...

Miltiz, Karl von

Papal chamberlain and nuncio, b. about 1480, the son of Sigismund von Miltiz, "Landvogt" of ...

Milwaukee

(MILWAUKIENSIS) Established as a diocese, 28 Nov., 1843; became an archbishopric, 12 ...

Mind

(Greek nous ; Latin mens , German Geist , Seele ; French ame esprit ). The word ...

Minden

Diocese of Minden (former see of Westphalia ). Minden on the Weser is first heard of in ...

Ming, John

A philosopher and writer, born at Gyswyl, Unterwalden, Switzerland, 20 Sept., 1838; died at ...

Minimi

Minimi (or M INIMS ) are the members of the religious order founded by St. Francis of Paula. ...

Minister

The term minister has long been appropriated in a distinctive way to the clergy. The language ...

Minkelers, Jean-Pierre

Inventor of illuminating gas; b. at Maastricht, Holland, 1748; d. there 4 July, 1824. At the age ...

Minnesota

One of the North Central States of the American Union, lies about midway between the eastern and ...

Mino di Giovanni

(Called DA FIESOLE.) Born 1431; died 1484. He is inscribed in the "Libro della Matricola" of ...

Minor

( Latin minor ), that which is less, or inferior in comparison with another, the term being ...

Minor Orders

( Latin Ordines Minores ). The lower degrees of the hierarchy are designated by the name of ...

Minorca

(Minoricensis). Suffragan of Valencia, comprises the Island of Minorca, the second in size of ...

Minsk

(MINCENSIS) A suffragan of Mohileff, in Western Russia. The city of Minsk is situated on ...

Mint, Papal

The right to coin money being a sovereign prerogative, there can be no papal coins of earlier ...

Minucius Felix

Christian apologist, flourished between 160 and 300; the exact date is not known. His ...

Mirabilia Urbis Romæ

The title of a medieval Latin description of the city of Rome, dating from about 1150. ...

Miracle

(Latin miraculum , from mirari , "to wonder"). In general, a wonderful thing, the word ...

Miracle Plays and Mysteries

These two names are used to designate the religious drama which developed among Christian ...

Miracles, Gift of

The gift of miracles is one of those mentioned by St. Paul in his First Epistle to the ...

Miraculous Medal

The devotion commonly known as that of the Miraculous Medal owes its origin to Zoe Labore, a ...

Miraeus, Aubert

(Also called Aubert le Mire). Ecclesiastical historian, born at Brussels, 30 Nov., 1573; died ...

Mirandola, Giovanni Francesco Pico della

Italian philosopher, nephew of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, b. about 1469; d. 1533. Though very ...

Mirandola, Giovanni Pico della

Italian philosopher and scholar, born 24 February, 1463; died 17 November, 1494. He belonged to a ...

Miridite, Abbey of

(MIRIDITARUM, or SANCTI ALEXANDRI DE OROSHI). The name of an abbatia nullius in Albania, ...

Miserere

The first word of the Vulgate text of Psalm 1 (Hebrew, li). Two other Psalms (lv and lvi) begin ...

Misericorde, Congregation of the Sisters of

A congregation of women founded 16 January, 1848, for the purpose of procuring spiritual and ...

Misocco and Galanca

(MESAUCINAE ET CALANCAE). This prefecture in the canton of Grisons, Switzerland, comprises the ...

Missa Pro Populo

The parish is established to provide the parishioners with the helps of religion, especially ...

Missal

(Latin Missale from Missa , Mass), the book which contains the prayers said by the priest ...

Mission Indians (of California)

A name of no real ethnic significance, but used as a convenient popular and official term to ...

Mission, Congregation of Priests of the

A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul. The ...

Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo, Congregation of

Founded by John Baptist Scalabrini, Bishop of Piacenza, Italy (d. 1 June, 1905); approved in ...

Missionaries of St. Francis de Sales of Annecy

Amid the many activities to which St. Francis devoted himself, he long had the desire to found a ...

Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle

Otherwise known as the "Paulist Fathers" A community of priests for giving missions and ...

Missions, California

I. LOWER CALIFORNIA California became known to the world through Hernando Cortés, the ...

Missions, Catholic

The history of Catholic missions would necessarily begin with the missionary labours of Christ, ...

Missions, Catholic Indian, of Canada

The French discoverers of Canada did not fail to impress the aborigines they met with a vague ...

Missions, Catholic Indian, of the United States

The spiritual welfare of the native tribes of America was a subject of deep concern to the ...

Missions, Catholic Parochial

This term is used to designate certain special exertions of the Church's pastoral agencies, ...

Mississippi

Mississippi, one of the United States of America , takes its name from the Mississippi River ...

Missouri

The State of Missouri was carved out of the Louisiana Territory, and derives its name from the ...

Missouri Test-Oath

In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...

Mithraism

A pagan religion consisting mainly of the cult of the ancient Indo-Iranian Sun-god Mithra. It ...

Mitre

Form, Material, and Use The mitre is a kind of folding-cap. It consists of two like parts, each ...

Mittarelli, Nicola Giacomo

(In religion GIAN BENEDETTO) A monastic historian, born 2 September, 1707, at Venice ; ...

Mitylene

A titulary archbishopric in the island of Lesbos. Inhabitated, first by the Pelasgians, then by ...

Mivart, St. George Jackson

Corresponding member of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia; Member of the Council of ...

Mixe Indians

(Also Mije, Latin Mi-she) A mountain tribe in southern Mexico, noted for their extreme ...

Mixed Marriage

(Latin Matrimonia mixta ). Technically, mixed marriages are those between Catholics and ...

Mixteca Indians

(Also Misteca, Latin Mish-te-ka) One of the most important civilized tribes of southern ...

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Mo 199

Moab, Moabites

In the Old Testament, the word Moab designates (1) a son of Lot by his elder daughter ( ...

Mobile

DIOCESE OF MOBILE ( French MOBILE, Spanish MAUBILA, Latin MOBILIENSIS). Suffragan of New ...

Mocissus

A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia. Procopius (De ædif., V, iv) informs us that this ...

Mocoví Indians

The name is also written Macobio, Mbocobi, Mocobio. They are a warlike and predatory tribe of the ...

Modalism (Monarchianism)

Heretics of the second and third centuries. The word, Monarchiani , was first used by Tertullian ...

Modena

ARCHDIOCESE OF MODENA (MUTINENSIS) Located in central Italy, between the rivers Secchia and ...

Modernism

Origin of the Word Theory of Theological Modernism The essential error of Modernism ...

Modestus, Vitus, and Crescentia, Saints

According to the legend, martyrs under Diocletian ; feast, 15 June. The earliest testimony for ...

Modigliana

DIOCESE OF MODIGLIANA (MUTILIANENSIS) Located in the Province of Florence, in Tuscany. The city ...

Modra

A titular see of Bithynia Secunda, suffragan of Nicæa. The city of Modra figures only in ...

Mohammed and Mohammedism

I. THE FOUNDER Mohammed, "the Praised One", the prophet of Islam and the founder of ...

Mohammedan Confraternities

The countries where Mohammedanism prevails are full of religious associations, more or less ...

Mohileff

(Mohyloviensis) Latin Catholic archdiocese and ecclesiastical province in Russia. For the ...

Mohr, Christian

Born at Andernach, 1823; died at Cologne, 1888. He practised his profession of sculptor chiefly ...

Mohr, Joseph

Born at Siegburg, Rhine Province, 11 Jan., 1834; died at Munich, 7 February, 1892. Father Mohr did ...

Moigno, François-Napoléon-Marie

Physicist and author, b. at Guéméné (Morbihan), 15 April, 1804; d. at ...

Molai, Jacques de

(DE MOLAY). Born at Rahon, Jura, about 1244; d. at Paris, 18 March, 1314. A Templar at Beaune ...

Molesme, Notre-Dame de

A celebrated Benedictine monastery in a village of the same name, Canton of Laignes ...

Molfetta, Terlizzi, and Giovinazzo

(MELPHICTENSIS, TERLITIENSIS ET JUVENACENSIS) Molfetta is a city of the province of Bari, in ...

Molière, Jean-Baptiste Poquelin

(Properly, JEAN-BAPTISTE POQUELIN, the name by which he became known to fame having been assumed ...

Molina, Antonio De

A Spanish Carthusian and celebrated ascetical writer, born about 1560, at Villanueva de los ...

Molina, Juan Ignacio

(Mol. or Molin). Naturalist and scientist ; b. 20 July, 1740, at Guaraculen near Talca ...

Molina, Luis de

One of the most learned and renown theologians of the Society of Jesus, b. of noble parentage at ...

Molinism

The name used to denote one of the systems which purpose to reconcile grace and free will. This ...

Molinos, Miguel de

Founder of Quietism, born at Muniesa, Spain, 21 December, 1640; died at Rome, 28 December, ...

Molitor, Wilhelm

(Pseudonyms, ULRIC RIESLER and BENNO BRONNER) A poet, novelist, canonist and publicist, born at ...

Molloy, Francis

(O'MOLLOY) A theologian, grammarian born in King's County, Ireland, at the beginning of the ...

Molloy, Gerald

A theologian and scientist, born at Mount Tallant House, near Dublin, 10 Sept., 1834; died at ...

Molo, Gasparo

(he wrote his name also MOLA and MOLI) A skilful Italian goldsmith and planisher, chiefly known ...

Moloch

( Hebrew Molech , king). A divinity worshiped by the idolatrous Israelites. The Hebrew ...

Molokai

An interesting island, one of the North Pacific group formerly known as the Sandwich Islands, or ...

Molyneux, Sir Caryll

Baronet of Sefton, and third Viscount Molyneux of Maryborough in Ireland, born 1624; died 1699. He ...

Mombritius, Bonino

A philologist, humanist, and editor of ancient writings, born 1424; died between 1482 and 1502. ...

Monaco, Principality and Diocese of

Situated on the Mediterranean Sea, on the skirts of the Turbie and the Tête de Chien ...

Monad

(From the Greek monas, monados ). Monad , in the sense of "ultimate, indivisible unit," ...

Monarchia Sicula

A right exercised from the beginning of the sixteenth century by the secular rulers of Sicily, ...

Monarchians

Heretics of the second and third centuries. The word, Monarchiani , was first used by Tertullian ...

Monasteries in Continental Europe, Suppression of

Under this title will be treated only the suppressions of religious houses (whether monastic in ...

Monasteries in England, Suppression of

From any point of view the destruction of the English monasteries by Henry VIII must be ...

Monasteries, Double

Religious houses comprising communities of both men and women, dwelling in contiguous ...

Monastery, Canonical Erection of a

A religious house (monastery or convent ) is a fixed residence of religious persons. It supposes, ...

Monasticism

Monasticism or monachism, literally the act of "dwelling alone" (Greek monos, monazein, monachos ...

Monasticism, Eastern

(1) Origin The first home of Christian monasticism is the Egyptian desert. Hither during ...

Monasticism, Pre-Chalcedonian

Egypt was the Motherland of Christian monasticism. It sprang into existence there at the ...

Monasticism, Western

(1) Pre-Benedictine Period The introduction of monasticism into the West may be dated from ...

Moncada, Francisco De

Count of Osona, Spanish historian, son of the Governor of Sardinia and Catalonia, born at ...

Mondino dei Lucci

Mondino (a diminutive for Raimondo; Mundinus) dei Lucci. Anatomist, b. probably at Bologna, ...

Mondoñedo

(Latin MONDUMETUM, or MINDON, MINDONIENSIS, also BRITONIENSIS, DUMIENSIS, and VILLABRIENSIS) ...

Mondovi

DIOCESE OF MONDOVÌ (MONTISREGALIS) Located in Piedmont, province of Cuneo, northern ...

Mone, Franz

A historian and archeologist, born at Mingolsheim near Bruchsal, Baden, 12 May, 1796; died at ...

Moneta

(MONETUS) A theologian, born at Cremona, Italy, date unknown; died at Bologna, 1240. He ...

Mongolia

The name used to designate an immense uneven plateau, part of the Chinese Empire, extending, ...

Mongus, Peter

( moggos , "stammerer", or "hoarse".) Intruded Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria (d. ...

Monica, Saint

Widow ; born of Christian parents at Tagaste, North Africa, in 333; died at Ostia, near Rome, ...

Monism

(From the Greek monos , "one", "alone", "unique"). Monism is a philosophical term which, ...

Monita Secreta

A code of instructions alleged to be addressed by Acquaviva, the fifth general of the Society, to ...

Monk

A monk may be conveniently defined as a member of a community of men, leading a more or less ...

Monk of Malmesbury, The

Supposed author of a chronicle among the Cottonian manuscripts in the British Museum (Vesp. D. ...

Monogram of Christ

By the Monogram of Christ is ordinarily understood the abbreviation of Christ's name formed by ...

Monomotapa

Whatever may be the etymological meaning of the word Monomotapa , the origin of which is much ...

Monophysites and Monophysitism

The history of this sect and of its ramifications has been summarized under E UTYCHIANISM (the ...

Monopoli, Diocese of

(MONOPOLITANA). A diocese in the Province of Bari, in Apulia, southern Italy. The city has a ...

Monopoly, Moral Aspects of

According to its etymology, monopoly ( monopolia ) signifies exclusive sale, or exclusive ...

Monotheism

Monotheism (from the Greek monos "only", and theos "god") is a word coined in comparatively ...

Monothelitism and Monothelites

(Sometimes written MONOTHELETES, from monotheletai , but the eta is more naturally ...

Monreale

Located in the province of Palermo, Sicily, on the skirts of Mount Caputo. The city is built in a ...

Monroe, James

A soldier, convert, born in Albemarle county, Virginia, U.S.A. 10 Sept., 1799; died at Orange, ...

Monsabré, Jacques-Marie-Louis

A celebrated pulpit orator, born at Blois, France, 10 Dec., 1827; died at Havre, 21 Feb., ...

Monseigneur

(From mon , "my" and seigneur , ("elder" or "lord," like Latin senior ) A French ...

Monsell, William, Baron Emly

Born 21 Sept., 1812; died at Tervoe, Co. Limerick, Ireland, 20 April, 1894. His father was ...

Monsignor

( Dominus meus; monseigneur , My Lord). As early as the fourteenth century it was the custom ...

Monstrance (Ostensorium)

(From ostendere , "to show"). Ostensorium means, in accordance with its etymology, a ...

Monstrelet, Enguerrand de

A French chronicler, born about 1390 or 1395; died in July, 1453. He was most probably a native of ...

Mont-St-Michel

A Benedictine Abbey, in the Diocese of Avranches, Normandy, France. It is unquestionably the ...

Montañés, Juan Martínez

A noted Spanish sculptor of the seventeenth century, died 1649, sometimes called "the Sevillian ...

Montagna, Bartolomeo

Italian painter, chief representative of the Vicenza School, b. at Orzinuovi about 1450; d. at ...

Montagnais Indians (Chippewayans)

A name given in error to the C HIPPEWAYANS , owing to a fancied resemblance to the ...

Montagnais Indians (Quebec)

French for "Mountaineers". The collective designation of a number of bands speaking dialects ...

Montaigne, Michel-Eyquen de

Writer, b. at the château of Montaigne, in Périgord, France, on 28 Feb., 1533; d. ...

Montalcino

DIOCESE OF MONTALCINO (ILCINENSIS) Montalcino is a small town about twenty miles from Siena, ...

Montalembert, Charles-Forbes-René

CHARLES-FORBES-RENÉ, COMTE DE MONTALEMBERT. Born in London, 15 April, 1810; died in ...

Montalto

DIOCESE OF MONTALTO (MONTIS ALTI) Located in Ascoli Piceno. The situation of the little town ...

Montana

The third largest of the United States of America , admitted to the Union 8 November, 1889; ...

Montanists

Schismatics of the second century, first known as Phrygians, or "those among the Phrygians" ( oi ...

Montanus, Benedictus Arias

Orientalist, exegete, and editor of the "Antwerp Polyglot", born at Frejenal de la Sierra in ...

Montauban

(MONTIS ALBANI) A suffragan of Toulouse, comprises the entire department of Tarn and Garonne. ...

Montault, Xavier Barbier De

Born at Loudun, 6 February, 1830; died at Blaslay, Vienne ( France ), 29 March, 1901. He came of ...

Montboissier, Blessed Peter of

(Better known as PETER THE VENERABLE). Born in Auvergne, about 1092; died at Cluny, 25 ...

Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de Louis-Joseph

A French general, born 28 Feb., 1712, at Candiac, of Louis-Daniel and Marie-Thérèse ...

Monte Cassino, Abbey of

An abbey nullius situated about eighty miles south of Rome, the cradle of the Benedictine ...

Monte Vergine

An abbey in the province of Naples, Italy, near the town of Avellino, commanding a magnificent ...

Montefeltro

(FERETRANA) Located in the province of Urbino, in the Marches, Central Italy. The earliest ...

Montefiascone

(MONTIS FALISCI) Located in the province of Rome. The city is situated nearly 2000 feet above ...

Montemayor, Jorge De

(MONTEMÔR) A writer, born at Montemôr, province of Coimbra, Portugal, about 1520; ...

Montenegro

A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea; the territory was in ...

Montepulciano

DIOCESE OF MONTEPULCIANO (MONTIS POLITIANI) Diocese in the province of Siena, in Tuscany. The ...

Monterey and Los Angeles

DIOCESE OF MONTEREY AND LOS ANGELES (MONTEREYENSIS ET ANGELORUM). Comprises that part of the ...

Montes Pietatis

Montes Pietatius are charitable institutions of credit that lend money at low rates of ...

Montesa, Military Order of

This order was established in the Kingdom of Aragon to take the place of the Order of the ...

Montesino, Antonio

A Spanish missionary, date of birth unknown; died in the West Indies, 1545. Of his early life ...

Montesinos, Luis de

Spanish theologian, date and place of birth unknown; d. 7 Oct., 1621. He entered the Dominican ...

Montesqieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de

French writer and publicist, b. in the Château de la Brède near Bordeaux, 18 ...

Monteverde, Claudio

A distinguished musician, born at Cremona, May, 1567; died at Venice, 29 Nov., 1643. He studied ...

Montevideo

(MONTISVIDEI) Located in Uruguay, comprises the whole of the republic. This territory was ...

Montfaucon, Bernard de

French scholar, b. in 1655, at the château de Soulatge, Department of Aude, arrondissement ...

Montfort, Simon de

An Earl of Leicester, date of birth unknown, died at Toulouse, 25 June, 1218. Simon (IV) de ...

Montgolfier, Joseph-Michel

Inventor; b. at Vidalon-lez-Annonay, Department of Ardèche, France, 26 August, 1740; d. ...

Months, Special Devotions for

During the Middle Ages the public functions of the Church and the popular devotions of the ...

Montmagny, Charles Huault De

The second French Governor of Canada, born in France towards the end of the sixteenth century, ...

Montmirail, John de

(MONTE-MIRABILI) Son of Andrew, Lord of Montmirail and Ferté-Gaucher, and Hildiarde ...

Montmorency, Anne, First Duke of

Born at Chantilly, 15 March, 1492; died at Paris, 12 November, 1567. He belonged to that family ...

Montor, Alexis-François Artaud De

A diplomat and historian, born at Paris, 31 July, 1772; died at Paris, 12 Nov., 1849. An ...

Montpellier

The Diocese of Montpellier (Montis Pessulani) comprises the department of Hérault, and is a ...

Montreal, Archdiocese of

Metropolitan of the ecclesiastical Province of Montreal. Suffragans: the Dioceses of ...

Montreuil

Charterhouse of Notre-Dame-des-Pres, at Montreuil, in the Diocese of Arras, Department of ...

Montreuil Abbey

A former convent of Cistercian nuns in the Diocese of Laon, now Soissons, France. Some ...

Montyon, Antoine-Jean-Baptiste-Robert Auget, Baron de

Famous French philanthropist; b. at Paris, 23 December, 1733; d. there 29 December, 1820. He was ...

Moore, Arthur

Count, b. at Liverpool, 1849; d. at Mooresfort, Tipperary, Ireland, 1904, was the son of ...

Moore, Michael

(Or MOOR) Priest, preacher, and professor, b. at Dublin, Ireland, 1640; d. at Paris, 22 ...

Moore, Thomas

Poet and biographer, b. 28 May, 1779, at Dublin, Ireland ; d. 26 February, 1852, at Devizes, ...

Mopsuestia

A titular see of Cilicia Secunda in Asia Minor and suffragan of Anazarbus. The founding of ...

Moréri, Louis

An encyclopaedist, b. at Bargemont in the Diocese of Fréjus, France, 25 March, 1643, d. at ...

Mor, Antonis Van Dashort

(MOOR) Commonly called ANTONIO MORO, or ANTHONIS MORE, a Dutch painter, b. at Utrecht in 1519; ...

Moral Theology

Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...

Morales, Ambrosio

Spanish historian, b. at Cordova, 1513; d. in 1591. After his studies at the University of ...

Morales, Christóbal

A composer, born at Seville, 2 Jan., 1512; died at Málaga, 14 June, 1553. From 1 Sept., ...

Morales, Juan Bautista

Missionary, b. about 1597 at Ecija in Andalusia, Spain ; d. Fu-ning, China, 17 Sept., 1664. He ...

Morales, Luis de

Spanish painter, b. at Badajoz in Estremadura about 1509; d. at Badajoz, 1586. His life was ...

Moralities

( Also: MORALITY PLAYS or MORAL PLAYS). Moralities are a development or an offshoot of the ...

Morality

It is necessary at the outset of this article to distinguish between morality and ethics , ...

Moran, Francis Patrick

Third Archbishop of Sydney, b. at Leighlinbridge, Ireland, 16 Sept., 1830; d. at Manly, Sydney, ...

Moratín, Leandro Fernandez de

Spanish poet and playwright, b. at Madrid, 10 March, 1760; at Paris, 21 June, 1828. He is ...

Moravia

( German MÄHREN). Austrian crown land east of Bohemia. In the century before the Christian ...

Moravian Brethren

(MORAVIAN BRETHREN, or UNITAS FRATRUM). DEFINITION AND DOCTRINAL POSITION "Bohemian Brethren" ...

Morcelli, Stefano Antonio

An Italian Jesuit and learned epigraphist; b. 17 January, 1737, at Chiari near Brescia ; d. ...

More, Helen

(DAME GERTRUDE.) Benedictine nun of the English Congregation; b. at Low Leyton, Essex, ...

More, Henry

Great-grandson of the martyred English chancellor ; b., 1586; d. at Watten in 1661. Having ...

More, Thomas, Saint

Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...

Morel, Gall

Poet, scholar, aesthete, and educationist, b. at St. Fiden, Switzerland, on 24 March, 1803; d. at ...

Morell, Juliana

Dominican nun, b. at Barcelona, Spain, 16 February, 1594; d. at the convent of the Dominican ...

Morelos, José María

Mexican patriot, b. at Valladolid (now called Morelia in his honour ), Mexico, on 30 September, ...

Moreto y Cabaña, Augustine

Spanish dramatist; b. at Madrid, 9 April, 1618, d. at Toledo, 28 Octoher, 1669. He received what ...

Morgagni, Giovanni Battista

Called by Virchow, the "Father of Modern Pathology", a distinguished Italian physician and ...

Morgan, Venerable Edward

Welsh priest, martyr, b. at Bettisfield, Hanmer, Flintshire, executed at Tyburn, London, 26 ...

Morghen, Raffaello

Italian engraver, b. at Portici, 19 June, 1768 (1761?); d. at Florence, 8 April, 1833. His ...

Moriarty, David

Bishop and pulpit orator, b. in Ardfert, Co. Kerry, in 1812; d. 1 October, 1877. He received ...

Morigi, Michaelangelo (Caravaggio)

A Milanese painter, b. at Caravaggio in 1569, d. at Porto d' Ercole in 1609. His family name was ...

Morimond, Abbey of

Fourth daughter of Cîteaux situated in Champagne, Diocese of Langres , France ; was ...

Morin, Jean

A French priest of the Oratory, b. at Blois, in 1591, d. at Paris, 28 Feb., 1659. According to ...

Mormons

( Also called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.) This religious body had ...

Morocco

(Prefecture Apostolic of Morocco). The country known as Morocco (from Marrakesh, the name of ...

Morone, Giovanni

Cardinal, Bishop of Modena, b. at Milan 25 Jan., 1509; d. at Rome, 1 Dec., 1580. He belonged ...

Moroni, Gaetano

The author of the well-known "Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica", b. at Rome, 17 ...

Moroni, Giovanni Battista

A painter, b. at Bondo, near Albino, in the territory of Bergamo, between 1520 and 1525; d. at ...

Morris, John

Canon, afterwards Jesuit, F.S.A., b. in India, 4 July, 1826; d. at Wimbledon, 22 Oct., 1893, ...

Morris, John Brande

Born at Brentford, Middlesex, 4 September, 1812; died at Hammersmith, London, 9 April, 1880; he ...

Morris, Martin Ferdinand

Lawyer and jurist, b. 3 December, 1834, at Washington, D.C.; d. 12 September, 1909, at Washington, ...

Morse

( Latin morsus ). Also called the MONILLE, FIRMULA, FIRMULE, PECTOIRALE, originally the ...

Morse, Venerable Henry

Martyr ; b. in 1595 in Norfolk; d. at Tyburn, 1 Feb., 1644. He was received into the church at ...

Mortification

One of the methods which Christian ascesticism employs in training the soul to virtuous and ...

Mortmain

(Old Fr., morte meyn ), dead-hand, or "such a state of possession of land as makes it ...

Morton, John

Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury, b. in Dorsetshire about 1420, d. at Knowle, Kent, 15 Sept., ...

Morton, Robert

English priest and martyr, b. at Bawtry, Yorks, about 1548; executed in Lincoln's Inn Fields, ...

Mosaic Legislation

The body of juridical, moral, and ceremonial institutions, laws and decisions comprised in the ...

Mosaics

Mosaics, as a term, according to the usual authorities is derived through generations of gradual ...

Moschus, Johannes

( ho tou Moschou , son of Moschus) A monk and ascetical writer, b. about 550 probably at ...

Moscow

(Russian Moskva ). The ancient capital of Russia and the chief city of the government ...

Moses

Hebrew liberator, leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian, lived in the thirteenth and early part ...

Moses Bar Cephas

A Syriac bishop and writer, b. at Balad about 813; d. 12 Feb., 903. He is known through a ...

Moses Maimonides, Teaching of

Moses ben Maimun (Arabic, Abu Amran Musa), Jewish commentator and philosopher, was born of ...

Moses of Chorene

(MOSES CHORENENSIS) Perhaps the best known writer of Armenia, called by his countrymen "the ...

Mossul

The seat of a Chaldean archdiocese, a Syrian diocese, and an Apostolic Mission. The origin of ...

Most Precious Blood, Archconfraternity of the

Confraternities which made it their special object to venerate the Blood of Christ first arose in ...

Most Precious Blood, Feast of the

For many dioceses there are two days to which the Office of the Precious Blood has been ...

Most Pure Heart of Mary, Feast of the

In its principal object this feast is identical with the feast of the "Inner Life of Mary", ...

Mostar and Markana-Trebinje

(MANDATRIENSIS, MARCANENSIS ET TRIBUNENSIS) When at the Berlin Congress (1878) ...

Mosynoupolis

Titular see, suffragan of Trajanopolis in Rhodope. A single bishop is known, Paul, who assisted ...

Motet

A short piece of music set to Latin words, and sung instead of, or immediately after, the ...

Motolinia, Toribio de Benavente

Franciscan missionary, b. at Benavente, Spain, at the end of the fifteenth century; d. in the ...

Motu Proprio

The name given to certain papal rescripts on account of the clause motu proprio (of his own ...

Mouchy, Antoine de

(Called DEMOCHARES.) Theologian and canonist, b. 1494, at Ressons-sur-Matz, near Beauvais, in ...

Moufang, Franz Christoph Ignaz

Theologian, b. at Mainz, 17 Feb., 1817; d. there, 27 Feb., 1890. His early studies were made at ...

Moulins

D IOCESE OF M OULINS (M OLINENSIS ). Suffragan of Sens -- comprises the entire ...

Mount Athos

Athos is a small tongue of land that projects into the Aegean Sea, being the eastern-most of the ...

Mount Calvary, Congregations of

I. DAUGHTERS OF MOUNT CALVARY Founded in 1619 by Virginia Centurione (d. 1651), daughter of the ...

Mount Carmel, Feast of Our Lady of

This feast was instituted by the Carmelites between 1376 and 1386 under the title ...

Mount Saint Mary's College

Mount St. Mary's College , the second oldest among the Catholic collegiate institutions in the ...

Movers, Franz Karl

Exegete and Orientalist, b. at Koesfeld, Westphalia, 17 July, 1806; d. at Breslau, 28 Sept., ...

Moxos Indians

(MOYOS INDIANS). According to one authority, they are named from Musu, their Quichua name; ...

Moy De Sons, Karl Ernst, Freiherr Von

A jurist, born 10 August, 1799, at Munich ; died 1 August, 1867, at Innsbruck (Tyrol). He ...

Moye, Ven. John Martin

Priest of the Diocese of Metz, founder of the Sisters of Divine Providence, missionary in China, ...

Moylan, Francis

Bishop of Cork, born at Cork, 1739; died in 1815. He was the son of a rich merchant. As the ...

Moylan, Stephen

An American patriot and merchant, born in Ireland in 1734; died at Philadelphia, 11 April, ...

Mozambique

(Mocambique) The former official and still usual name given to the Portuguese possessions on ...

Mozarabic Rite

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. History and Origin; II. Manuscripts and ...

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus

One of the greatest musical geniuses in history, born at Salzburg, Austria, 27 January, 1756; died ...

Mozetena Indians

A group of some half dozen tribes constituting a distinct linguistic stock upon the headwaters of ...

Mozzetta

A short, cape-shaped garment, covering the shoulders and reaching only to the elbow, with an open ...

Mozzi, Luigi

Controversialist, born at Bergamo, 26 May, 1746; died near Milan, 24 June, 1813. He entered the ...

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Mrak, Ignatius

The second Bishop of Marquette, U.S.A., born 16 October, 1818, in Hotovle, in the Diocese of ...

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Muchar, Albert Anton Von

An historian, born at Linez, Tyrol, 22 Nov., 1781; died at Graz, Styria, 6 June, 1849. He was ...

Mulhall, Michael George

Statistician, b. in Dublin, 29 September, 1829; d. there 13 Dec., 1900. He was educated at the ...

Mulholland, St. Clair Augustine

Born at Lisburn, Co. Antrium, Ireland, 1 April 1839; died at Philadelphia, 17 Feb., 1910. ...

Mullanphy, John

Merchant, philanthropist, b. near Enniskillen, Co. Fremanagh, Ireland, 1758; d. at St. Louis, ...

Mullock, John T.

Bishop of St. John's, Newfoundland, born in 1807 at Limerick, Ireland ; died at St. John's, ...

Mundwiler, Fintan

Abbot of the Benedictine monastery of St. Meinrad, Indiana, born at Dietikon in Switzerland, ...

Munich-Freising

ARCHDIOCESE OF MUNICH-FREISING (MONASENSIS ET FRISINGENSIS). An archdiocese in Bavaria. This ...

Munkács

Diocese in Hungary, of Greek Catholic Rite, suffragan of Gran. It dates from the fifteenth ...

Mura, Saint

Born in Co. Donegal, Ireland, about 550. He was appointed Abbot of Fahan by St. Columba. The ...

Muratori, Luigi Antonio

Librarian in Modena, one of the greatest scholars of his time, b. 21 Oct., 1672; d. 23 Jan., ...

Muratorian Canon

Also called the Muratorian Fragment, after the name of the discoverer and first editor, L. A. ...

Murder

( Latin homo , man; and caedere , to slay) Homicide signifies, in general, the killing of a ...

Muret, Marc-Antoine

French humanist, b. at Muret, near Limoges, in 1526; d. at Rome, in 1585. He studied at Poitiers ...

Muri

(MURI-GRIES) An abbey of monks of the Order of S. Benedict, which flourished for over ...

Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban

Spanish painter ; b. at Seville, 31 December, 1617; d. there 5 April, 1682. His family surname ...

Murner, Thomas

Greatest German satirist of the sixteenth century, b. at Oberehnheim, Alsace, 24 Dec., 1475; d. ...

Muro-Lucano

(MURANENSIS) Located in the province of Potenza, in Basilicata, southern Italy. The town is ...

Murray, Daniel

An Archbishop of Dublin, b. 1768, at Sheepwalk, near Arklow, Ireland ; d. at Dublin. He was ...

Murray, John O'Kane

Physician, historian, b. in County Antrim, Ireland, 12 Dec., 1847; d. at Chicago, Illinois, ...

Murray, Patrick

Theologian, b. Clones, County Monaghan, Ireland, 18 November, 1811; d. 15 Nov., 1882, in ...

Museums, Christian

Though applicable to collections composed of Christian objects representative of all epochs, ...

Mush

An Armenian Catholic see, comprising the sanjaks of Mush and Seert, in the vilayet of Bitlis. It ...

Mush, John

(Alias RATCLIFFE) A priest, b. in Yorkshire, 1551 or 1552; d. at Wenge, Co. Bucks, 1612 or ...

Music of the Mass

Under this heading will be considered exclusively the texts of the Mass (and not, therefore, the ...

Music, Ecclesiastical

By this term is meant the music which, by order or with the approbation of ecclesiastical ...

Musical Instruments in Church Services

For almost a thousand years Gregorian chant, without any instrumental or harmonic addition, was ...

Musso, Cornelius

Friar Minor Conventual, Bishop of Bitonto, prominent at the Council of Trent ; born at Piacenza ...

Musti

A titular see of Proconsular Africa, suffragan of Carthage. This town, which was a Roman ...

Musuros, Markos

A learned Greek humanist, born 1470 at Retimo, Crete; died 1517 at Rome. The son of a rich ...

Mutis, José Celestino

Eminent naturalist and scientist in South America, b. at Cadiz, Spain , 6 April, 1732; d. at ...

Muzzarelli, Alfonso

A learned Italian Jesuit, b. 22 August, 1749, at Ferrara ; d. 25 May, 1813, at Paris. He ...

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Mylasa

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Aphrodisias, or Stauropolis, in Caria. This city, the ...

Myndus

A titular see of Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis. This city, known through its coins and ...

Myra

A titular see of Lycia in Asia Minor. The city was from time immemorial one of the chief places ...

Myrina

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. Herodotus (I, 149) mentions it as one of the ...

Myriophytum

A titular see of Thracia Prima and suffragan of Heraclea. The early history of this city is ...

Mysore

(MAISOUR); DIOCESE OF MYSORE (MYSURIENSIS) Diocese in India, suffragan to Pondicherry, ...

Mysteries and Miracle Plays

These two names are used to designate the religious drama which developed among Christian ...

Mystery

(Greek mysterion , from myein , "to shut", "to close".) This term signifies in general ...

Mystical Body of the Church

The analogy borne by any society of men to an organism is sufficiently manifest. In every ...

Mystical Marriage

In the Old and the New Testament , the love of God for man, and, in particular His relations ...

Mystical Theology

Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...

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