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Pope Alexander VI

Rodrigo Borgia, born at Xativa, near Valencia, in Spain, 1 January, 1431; died in Rome, 18 August, 1503. His parents were Jofre Lançol and Isabella Borja, sister of Cardinal Alfonso Borja, later Pope Callixtus III.

The young Rodrigo had not yet definitely chosen his profession when the elevation of his uncle to the papacy (1455) opened up new prospects to his ambition. He was adopted into the immediate family of Callixtus and was known henceforward to the Italians as Rodrigo Borgia. Like so many other princely cadets, he was obtruded upon the Church, the question of a clerical vocation being left completely out of consideration. After conferring several rich benefices on him, his uncle sent him for a short year to study law at the University of Bologna. In 1456, at the age of twenty-five, he was made Cardinal Deacon of St. Nicolo in Carcere , and held that title until 1471, when he became Cardinal-Bishop of Albano ; in 1476 he was made Cardinal-Bishop of Porto and Dean of the Sacred College (Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica, II, 12). His official position in the Curia after 1457 was that of Vice-Chancellor of the Roman Church , and though many envied him this lucrative office he seems in his long administration of the Papal Chancery to have given general satisfaction. Even Guicciardini admits that "in him were combined rare prudence and vigilance mature reflection, marvellous power of persuasion, skill and capacity for the conduct of the most difficult affairs". On the other hand, the list of archbishoprics, bishoprics, abbacies, and other dignities held by him, as enumerated by the Bishop of Modena in a letter to the Duchess of Ferrara (Pastor, History of the Popes, V, 533, English tr.) reads like the famous catalogue of Leparello; and since, notwithstanding the magnificence of his household and his passion for card-playing, he was strictly abstemious in eating and drinking, and a careful administrator, he became one of the wealthiest men of his time. In his twenty-ninth year he drew a scathing letter of reproof from Pope Pius II for misconduct in Sienna which had been so notorious as to shock the whole town and court (Raynaldus Ann. eccl. ad. an. 1460, n. 31). Even after his ordination to the priesthood, in 1468, he continued his evil ways. His contemporaries praise his handsome and imposing figure, his cheerful countenance, persuasive manner, brilliant conversation, and intimate mastery of the ways of polite society. The best portrait of him is said to be that painted by Pinturicchio in the Appartimento Borgia at the Vatican ; Yriarte (Autour des Borgia, 79) praises its general air of grandeur incontestable . Towards 1470 began his relations with the Roman lady, Vanozza Catanei, the mother of his four children: Juan, Caesar, Lucrezia and Jofre, born, respectively according to Gregorovius (Lucrezia Borgia 13) in 1474, 1476, 1480, and 1482.

Borgia, by a bare two-thirds majority secured by his own vote, was proclaimed Pope on the morning of 11 Aug., 1492, and took the name of Alexander VI. [For details of the conclave see Pastor, "Hist. of the Popes ", (German ed., Freiburg, 1895), III, 275-278; also Am. Cath. Quart. Review, April, 1900.] That he obtained the papacy through simony was the general belief (Pastor, loc. cit.) and is not improbable (Raynaldus, Ann. eccl. ad an. 1492, n. 26), though it would be difficult to prove it juridically, at any rate, as the law then stood the election was valid. There is no irresistible evidence that Borgia paid anyone a ducat for his vote; Infessura's tale of mule-loads of silver has long since been discredited. Pastor's indictment, on closer inspection, needs some revision, for he states (III, 277) that eight of the twenty-three electors, viz. della Rovere, Piccolomini, Medici, Caraffa, Costa, Basso, Zeno, and Cibò, held out to the end against Borgia. If that were true, Borgia could not have secured a two-thirds majority. All we can affirm with certainty is that the determining factor of this election was the accession to Borgia of Cardinal Ascanio Sforza's vote and influence, it is almost equally certain that Sforza's course was dictated not by silver, but by the desire to be the future Pontiff's chief adviser.

The elevation to the papacy of one who for thirty-five years had conducted the affairs of the Roman chancery with rare ability and industry met with general approbation ; we find no evidence of the "alarm and horror" of which Guicciardini speaks. To the Romans especially, who had come to regard Borgia as one of themselves, and who predicted a pontificate at once splendid and energetic, the choice was most acceptable; and they manifested their joy in bonfires, torchlight processions, garlands of flowers, and the erection of triumphal arches with extravagant inscriptions. At his coronation in St. Peter's (26 Aug.), and during his progress to St. John Lateran, he was greeted with an ovation, "greater", says the diarist, "than any Pontiff had ever received". He proceeded at once to justify this good opinion of the Romans by putting an end to the lawlessness which reigned in the city, the extent of which we can infer from the statement of Infessura that within a few months over two hundred and twenty assassinations had taken place. Alexander ordered investigations to be made, every culprit discovered to be hanged on the spot and his house to be razed to the ground. He divided the city into four districts, placing over each a magistrate with plenary powers for the maintenance of order; in addition, he reserved the Tuesday of each week as a day on which any man or woman could lay his or her grievances before himself personally; "and", says the diarist, "he set about dispensing justice in an admirable manner." This vigorous method of administering justice soon changed the face of the city, and was ascribed by the grateful populace to "the interposition of God."

Alexander next turned his attention to the defence and embellishment of the Eternal City. He changed the Mausoleum of Adrian into a veritable fortress capable of sustaining a siege. By the fortification of Torre di Nona, he secured the city from naval attacks. He deserves to be called the founder of the Leonine City, which he transformed into the most fashionable quarter of Rome. His magnificent Via Alessandrina, now called Borgo Nuovo, remains to the present day the grand approach to St. Peter's. Under his direction, Pinturicchio adorned the Appartimento Borgia in the Vatican, pointing the way to his immortal disciple, Raphael. In addition to the structures erected by himself, his memory is associated with the many others built by monarchs and cardinals at his instigation. During his reign Bramante designed for Ferdinand and Isabella that exquisite architectural gem, the Tempietto, on the traditional site of St. Peter's martyrdom. If not Bramante, some other great architect, equally attracted to Rome by the report of the Pope's liberality, built for Cardinal Riario the magnificent palace of the Cancellaria. In 1500, the ambassador of Emperor Maximilian laid the cornerstone of the handsome national church of the Germans, Santa Maria dell' Anima. Not to be outdone, the French Cardinal Briçonnet erected SS. Trinità dei Monti, and the Spaniards Santa Maria di Monserrato. To Alexander we owe the beautiful ceiling of Santa Maria Maggiore, in the decoration of which tradition says he employed the first gold brought from America by Columbus.

Although he laid no great claim to learning, he fostered literature and science. As cardinal he had written two treatises on canonical subjects and a defence of the Christian faith. He rebuilt the Roman University and made generous provision for the support of the professors. He surrounded himself with learned men and had a special predilection for jurists. His fondness for theatrical performances encouraged the development of the drama. He loved pontifical ceremonies, to which his majestic figure lent grace and dignity. He listened to good sermons with a critical ear, and admired fine music. In 1497, Alexander decreed that the "Praefectus Sacrarii Pontificii", commonly called "Sacristan of the Pope ", but virtually parish - priest of the Vatican and keeper of the Pope's conscience, should be permanently and exclusively a prelate chosen from the Augustinian Order, an arrangement that still endures.

Alexander earned the enmity of Spain, the obloquy of many narrow minded contemporaries, and the gratitude of posterity, by his tolerant policy towards the Jews, whom he could not be coerced into banishing or molesting. The concourse of pilgrims to Rome in the Jubilee year, 1500, was a magnificent demonstration of the depth and universality of the popular faith. The capacity of the city to house and feed so many thousands of visitors from all parts of Europe was taxed to the utmost, but Alexander spared no expense or pains to provide for the security and comfort of his guests. To maintain peace among Christians and to form a coalition of the European Powers against the Turks was the policy he had inherited from his uncle. One of the first of his public acts was to prevent a collision between Spain and Portugal over their newly-discovered territories, by drawing his line of demarcation, an act of truly peaceful import, and not of usurpation and ambition [Civiltà Cattolica (1865), I, 665-680]. He did his best to dissuade Charles VIII of France from his projected invasion of Italy ; if he was unsuccessful, the blame is in no slight degree due to the unpatriotic course of that same Giuliano della Rovere who later, as Julius II, made futile efforts to expel the "barbarians" whom he himself had invited. Alexander issued a wise decree concerning the censorship of books, and sent the first missionaries to the New World.

Notwithstanding these and similar actions, which might seem to entitle him to no mean place in the annals of the papacy, Alexander continued as Pope the manner of life that had disgraced his cardinalate (Pastor, op. cit., III, 449 152). A stern Nemesis pursued him till death in the shape of a strong parental affection for his children. The report of the Ferrarese ambassador, that the new Pope had resolved to keep them at a distance from Rome, is quite credible, for all his earlier measures for their advancement pointed towards Spain. While still a cardinal, he had married one daughter, Girolama, to a Spanish nobleman. He had bought for a son, Pedro Luis, from the Spanish monarch the Duchy of Gandia, and when Pedro died soon after he procured it for Juan, his oldest surviving son by Vanozza. This ill-starred young man was married to a cousin of the King of Spain, and became grandfather to St. Francis Borgia, whose virtues went a great way towards atoning for the vices of his kin. The fond father made a great mistake when he selected his boy Caesar as the ecclesiastical representative of the Borgias. In 1480, Pope Innocent VIII made the child eligible for Orders by absolving him from the ecclesiastical irregularity that followed his birth de episcopo cardinali et conjugatâ , and conferred several Spanish benefices on him, the last being the Bishopric of Pampeluna, in the neighbourhood of which, by a strange fatality, he eventually met his death. A week after Alexander's coronation he appointed Caesar, now eighteen years old, to the Archbishopric of Valencia; but Caesar neither went to Spain nor ever took Orders. The youngest son, Jofre, was also to be inflicted upon the Church of Spain. A further evidence that the Pope had determined to keep his children at a distance from court is that his daughter Lucrezia was betrothed to a Spanish gentleman, the marriage, however, never took place. It had already become the settled policy of the popes to have a personal representative in the Sacred College, and so Alexander chose for this confidential position Cardinal Giovanni Borgia, his sister's son. The subsequent abandonment of his good resolutions concerning his children may safely be ascribed to the evil counsels of Ascanio Sforza, whom Borgia had rewarded with the vice-chancellorship, and who was virtually his prime minister. The main purpose of Ascanio's residence at the papal court was to advance the interests of his brother, Lodovico il Moro, who had been regent of Milan for so many years, during the minority of their nephew Gian Galeazzo, that he now refused to surrender the reins of government, though the rightful duke had attained his majority. Gian Galeazzo was powerless to assert his rights ; but his more energetic wife was granddaughter to King Ferrante of Naples, and her incessant appeals to her family for aid left Lodovico in constant dread of Neapolitan invasion. Alexander had many real grievances against Ferrante, the latest of which was the financial aid the King had given to the Pope's vassal, Virginio Orsini, in the purchase of Cervetri and Anguillara, without Alexander's consent. In addition to the contempt of the papal authority involved in the transaction, this accession of strength to a baronial family already too powerful could not but be highly displeasing. Alexander was, therefore, easily induced to enter a defensive alliance with Milan and Venice ; the league was solemnly proclaimed, 25 April, 1493. It was cemented by the first of Lucrezia's marriages. Her first husband was a cousin of Ascanio, Giovanni Sforza, Lord of Pesaro. The wedding was celebrated in the Vatican in the presence of the Pope, ten cardinals, and the chief nobles of Rome with their ladies, the revelries of the occasion, even when exaggerations and rumours are dismissed, remain a blot upon the character of Alexander. Ferrante talked of war, but, through the mediation of Spain, he came to terms with the Pope and, as a pledge of reconciliation, gave his granddaughter, Sancia, in marriage to Alexander's youngest son Jofre, with the principality of Squillace as dower. Caesar Borgia was created Cardinal 20 September. Ferrante's reconciliation with the Pope came none too soon.

A few days after peace had been concluded, an envoy of King Charles VIII arrived in Rome to demand the investiture of Naples for his master. Alexander returned a positive refusal, and when Ferrante died, January, 1494, neglecting French protests and threats, he confirmed the succession of Ferrante's son, Alfonso II, and sent his nephew, Cardinal Giovanni Borgia, to Naples to crown him. The policy of Alexander was dictated not only by a laudable desire to maintain the peace of Italy, but also because he was aware that a strong faction of his cardinals, with the resolute della Rovere at their head, was promoting the invasion of Charles as a means towards deposing him on the twofold charge of simony and immorality. In September, 1494, the French crossed the Alps; on the last day of that year they made their entry into Rome, needing no other weapon in their march through the peninsula, as Alexander wittily remarked (Commines vii, 15), than the chalk with which they marked out the lodgings of the troops. The barons of the Pope deserted him one after the other. Colonna and Savelli were traitors from the beginning, but he felt most keenly the defection of Virginio Orsini, the commander of his army. Many a saintlier pope than Alexander VI would have made the fatal mistake of yielding to brute force and surrendering unconditionally to the conqueror of Italy ; the most heroic of the popes could not have sustained the stability of the Holy See at this crucial moment with greater firmness. From the crumbling ramparts of St. Angelo, the defences of which were still incomplete, he looked calmly into the mouth of the French cannon; with equal intrepidity he faced the cabal of della Rovere's cardinals, clamorous for his deposition. At the end of a fortnight it was Charles who capitulated. He acknowledged Alexander as true Pope, greatly to the disgust of della Rovere, and "did his filial obedience", says Commines, "with all imaginable humility "; but he could not extort from the Pontiff an acknowledgment of his claims to Naples. Charles entered Naples, 22 February, 1495, without striking a blow. At his approach the unpopular Alfonso abdicated in favour of his son Ferrantino, the latter, failing to receive support, retired to seek the protection of Spain. Whilst Charles wasted over two months in fruitless attempts to induce the Pope by promises and threats to sanction his usurpation, a powerful league, consisting of Venice, Milan, the Empire, Spain, and the Holy See, was formed against him. Finally, on 12 May, he crowned himself, but in the following July he was cutting his way home through the ranks of the allied Italians. By the end of the year the French had re-crossed into France. No one wished for their return, except the restless della Rovere, and the adherents of Savonarola. The story of the Florentine friar will be related elsewhere, here it suffices to note that Alexander's treatment of him was marked by extreme patience and forbearance.

The French invasion was the turning point in the political career of Alexander VI. It had taught him that if he would be safe in Rome and be really master in the States of the Church, he must curb the insolent and disloyal barons who had betrayed him in his hour of danger. Unfortunately, this laudable purpose became more and more identified in his mind with schemes for the aggrandizement of his family. There was no place in his programme for a reform of abuses. Quite the contrary; in order to obtain money for his military operations he disposed of civil and spiritual privileges and offices in a scandalous manner. He resolved to begin with the Orsini, whose treason at the most critical moment had reduced him to desperate straits. The time seemed opportune; for Virginio, the head of the house, was a prisoner in the hands of Ferrantino. As commander of his troops he selected his youthful son Juan, Duke of Gandia. The struggle dragged on for months. The minor castles of the Orsini surrendered, but Bracciano, their main fortress, resisted all the efforts of the pontifical troops. They were finally obliged to raise the siege, and on 25 January, 1497, they were completely routed at Soriano. Both sides were now disposed to peace. On Payment of 50,000 golden florins the Orsini received back all their castles except Cervetri and Anguillara, which had been the original cause of their quarrel with the Pope. In order to reduce the strong fortress of Ostia, held by French troops for Cardinal della Rovere, Alexander wisely invoked the aid of Gonsalvo de Cordova and his Spanish veterans. It surrendered to the "Great Captain" within two weeks. Unsuccessful in obtaining for his family the possessions of the Orsini, the Pope now demanded the consent of his cardinals to the erection of Benevento, Terracina, and Pontecorvo into a duchy for the Duke of Gandia. Cardinal Piccolomini was the only member who dared protest against this improper alienation of the property of the Church. A more powerful protest than that of the Cardinal of Sienna reverberated through the world a week later when, on the sixteenth of June, the body of the young Duke was fished out of the Tiber, with the throat cut and many gaping wounds. Historians have laboured in vain to discover who perpetrated the foul deed, but that it was a warning from Heaven to repent, no one felt more keenly than the Pope himself. In the first wild paroxysm of grief he spoke of resigning the tiara. Then, after three days and nights passed without food or sleep, he appeared in consistory and proclaimed his determination to set about that reform of the Church "in head and members" for which the world had so long been clamouring. A commission of cardinals and canonists began industriously to frame ordinances which foreshadowed the disciplinary decrees of Trent. But they were never promulgated. Time gradually assuaged the sorrow and extinguished the contrition of Alexander. From now on Caesar's iron will was supreme law. That he aimed high from the start is evident from his resolve, opposed at first by the Pope, to resign his cardinalate and other ecclesiastical dignities, and to become a secular prince. The condition of Naples was alluring. The gallant Ferrantino had died childless and was succeeded by his uncle Federigo, whose coronation was one of Caesar's last, possibly also one of his first, ecclesiastical acts. By securing the hand of Federigo's daughter, Carlotta, Princess of Tarento, he would become one of the most powerful barons of the kingdom, with ulterior prospects of wearing the crown. Carlotta's repugnance, however, could not be overcome. But in the course of the suit, another marriage was concluded which gave much scandal. Lucrezia's marriage with Sforza was declared null on the ground of the latter's impotence, and she was given as wife to Alfonso of Biseglia, an illegitimate son of Alfonso II.

Meanwhile, affairs in France took an unexpected turn which deeply modified the course of Italian history and the career of the Borgias. Charles VIII died in April, 1498, preceded to the tomb by his only son, and left the throne to his cousin, the Duke of Orléans, King Louis XII, who stood now in need of two papal favours. In his youth he had been coerced into marrying Jane of Valois, the saintly but deformed daughter of Louis XI. Moreover, in order to retain Brittany, it was essential that he should marry his deceased cousin's widow, Queen Anne. No blame attaches to Alexander for issuing the desired decree annulling the King's marriage or for granting him a dispensation from the impediment of affinity. The commission of investigation appointed by him established the two fundamental facts that the marriage with Jane was invalid, from lack of consent, and that it never had been consummated. It was the political use made by the Borgias of their opportunity, and the prospective alliance of France and the Holy See, which now drove several of the Powers of Europe to the verge of schism. Threats of a council and of deposition had no terrors for Alexander, whose control of the Sacred College was absolute. Della Rovere was now his agent in France. Ascanio Sforza was soon to retire permanently from Rome. Louis had inherited from his grandmother, Valentina Visconti, strong claims to the Duchy of Milan, usurped by the Sforzas, and he made no secret of his intention to enforce them. Alexander cannot be held responsible for the second "barbarian" invasion of Italy, but he was quick to take advantage of it for the consolidation of his temporal power and the aggrandizement of his family. On 1 October, 1498, Caesar, no longer a cardinal, but designated Duke of Valentinois and Peer of France set outs from Rome to bring the papal dispensation to King Louis, a cardinal's hat to his minister D'Amboise, and to find for himself a wife of high degree. He still longed for the hand of Carlotta, who resided in France, but since that princess persisted in her refusal, he received instead the hand of a niece of King Louis, the sister of the King of Navarre, Charlotte D'Albret. On 8 October, 1499, King Louis, accompanied by Duke Caesar and Cardinal della Rovere made his triumphal entry into Milan. It was the signal to begin operations against the petty tyrants who were devastating the States of the Church. Alexander would have merited great credit for this muchneeded work, had he not spoiled it by substituting his own family in their place. What his ultimate intentions were we cannot fathom. However, the tyrants who were expelled never returned, whilst the Borgian dynasty came to a speedy end in the pontificate of Julius II . In the meantime Caesar had carried on his campaign 80 successfully that by the year 1501 he was master of all the usurped papal territory and was made Duke of Romagna by the Pope, whose affection for the brilliant young general was manifested in still other ways. During the war, however, and in the midst of the Jubilee of 1500 there occurred another domestic murder. On 15 July of that year the Duke of Biseglia, Lucretia's husband was attacked by five masked assassins, who grievousiy wounded him. Convinced that Caesar was the instigator of the deed, he made an unsuccessful attempt, on his recovery, to kill his supposed enemy, and was instantly dispatched by Caesar's bodyguard. The latter, having completed, in April, 1501, the conquest of the Romagna, now aspired to the conquest of Tuscany ; but he was soon recalled to Rome to take part in a different enterprise. On 27 June of that year the Pope deposed his chief vassal, Federigo of Naples, on the plea of an alleged alliance with the Turks to the detriment of Christendom, and approved the secret Treaty of Granada, by the terms of which the Kingdom of Naples was partitioned between Spain and France.

Alexander's motive in thus reversing his former policy with respect to foreign interference was patent. The Colonna, the Savelli, the Gaetani and other barons of the Patrimony had always been supported in their opposition to the popes by the favour of the Aragonese dynasty, deprived of which they felt themselves powerless. Excommunicated by the Pontiff as rebels, they offered to surrender the keys of their castles to the Sacred College, but Alexander demanded them for himself. The Orsini, who might have known that their turn would come next, were so shortsighted as to assist the Pope in the ruin of their hereditary foes. One after another, the castles were surrendered. On 27 July, Alexander left Rome to survey his conquest; at the same time he left the widowed Lucrezia in the Vatican with authority to open his correspondence and conduct the routine business of the Holy See. He also erected the confiscated Possessions of the aforesaid families into two duchies, bestowing one on Rodrigo, the infant son of Lucrezia, the other on Juan Borgia, born to him a short while after the murder of Gandia, and to whom was given the latter's baptismal name (Pastor, op. cit., III 449). Lucrezia, now in her twenty-third year, did not long remain a widow ; her father destined her to be the bride of another Alfonso, son and heir of Duke Ercole of Ferrara. Although both father and son at first spurned the notion of a matrimonial alliance between the proud house of Este and the Pope's illegitimate daughter, they were favourably influenced by the King of France. The third marriage of Lucrezia, celebrated by proxy in the Vatican (30 December, 1501), far exceeded the first in splendour and extravagance. If her father meant her as an instrument in her new position for the advancement of his political combinations, he was mistaken. She is known henceforth, and till her death in 1519, as a model wife and princess, lauded by all for her amiability, her virtue, and her charity. Nothing could well be more different from the fiendish Lucrezia Borgia of the drama and the opera than the historical Duchess of Ferrara. Caesar, however, continued his infamous career of simony, extortion, and treachery, and by the end of 1502 had rounded out his possessions by the capture of Camerino and Sinigaglia. In October of that year the Orsini conspired with his generals to destroy him. With coolness and skill Caesar decoyed the conspirators into his power and put them to death . The Pope followed up the blow by proceeding against the Orsini with greater success than formerly. Cardinal Orsini, the soul of the conspiracy, was committed to Castle St. Angelo -- twelve days later he was a corpse. Whether he died a natural death or was privately executed, is uncertain Losing no time, Caesar returned towards Rome, and so great was the terror he inspired that the frightened barons fled before him, says Villari (I, 356), "as from the face of a hydra". By April nothing remained to the Orsini except the fortress of Bracciano and they begged for an armistice. The humiliation of the Roman aristocracy was complete; for the first time in the history of the papacy the Pope was, in the fullest sense, ruler of his States.

Alexander, still hale and vigorous in his seventy-third year, and looking forward to many mere years of reign, proceeded to strengthen his position by repleting his treasury in ways that were more than dubious. The Sacred College now contained so many of his adherents and countrymen that he had nothing to fear from that quarter. He enjoyed and laughed at the scurrilous lampoons that were in circulation in which he was accused of incredible crimes, and took no steps to shield his reputation. War had broken out in Naples between France and Spain over the division of the spoils. Alexander was still in doubt which side he could most advantageously support, when his career came to an abrupt close. On 6 August, 1503, the Pope, with Caesar and others, dined with Cardinal Adriano da Corneto in a villa belonging to the Cardinal and very imprudently remained in the open air after nightfall. The entire company paid the penalty by contracting the pernicious Roman fever. On the twelfth the Pope took to his bed. On the eighteenth his life was despaired of; he made his confession, received the last sacraments, and expired towards evening. The rapid decomposition and swollen appearance of his corpse gave rise to the familiar suspicion of poison. Later the tale ran that he had drunk by mistake a poisoned cup of wine which he had prepared for his host. Nothing is more certain than that the poison which killed him was the deadly microbe of the Roman campagna [Pastor, op. cit., III, 469-472; Creighton, Hist. of the Papacy (London 1887), IV, 44]. His remains lie in the Spanish national church of Santa Maria di Monserrato.

An impartial appreciation of the career of this extraordinary person must at once distinguish between the man and the office. "An imperfect setting", says Dr. Pastor (op. cit., III, 475), "does not affect the intrinsic worth of the jewel, nor does the golden coin lose its value when it passes through impure hands. In so far as the priest is a public officer of a holy Church, a blameless life is expected from him, both because he is by his office the model of virtue to whom the laity look up, and because his life, when virtuous, inspires in onlookers respect for the society of which he is an ornament. But the treasures of the Church, her Divine character, her holiness, Divine revelation, the grace of God, spiritual authority, it is well known, are not dependent on the moral character of the agents and officers of the Church. The foremost of her priests cannot diminish by an iota the intrinsic value of the spiritual treasures confided to him." There have been at all times wicked men in the ecclesiastical ranks. Our Lord foretold, as one of its severest trials, the presence in His Church not only of false brethren, but of rulers who would offend, by various forms of selfishness, both the children of the household and "those who are without". Similarly, Ho compared His beloved spouse, the Church, to a threshing floor, on which fall both chaff and grain until the time of separation. The most severe arraignments of Alexander, because in a sense official, are those of his Catholic contemporaries, Pope Julius II (Gregorovius, VII, 494) and the Augustinian cardinal and reformer, Aegidius of Viterbo, in his manuscript "Historia XX Saeculorum", preserved at Rome in the Bibliotheca Angelica. The Oratorian Raynaldus (d. 1677), who continued the semi-official Annals of Baronius, gave to the world at Rome ( ad an . 1460, no. 41) the above-mentioned paternal but severe reproof of the youthful Cardinal by Pius II, and stated elsewhere ( ad an . 1495, no. 26) that it was in his time the opinion of historians that Alexander had obtained the papacy partly through money and partly through promises and the persuasion that ho would not interfere with the lives of his electors. Mansi, the scholarly Archbishop of Lucca editor and annotator of Raynaldus, says (XI, 4155) that it is easier to keep silence than to write write moderation about this Pope. The severe judgment of the late Cardinal Hergenröther , in his "Kirchengeschichte", or Manual of Church History (4th. ed., Freiburg, 1904, II, 982-983) is too well known to need more than mention.

So little have Catholic historians defended him that in the middle of the nineteenth century Cesare Cantù could write that Alexander VI was the only Pope who had never found an apologist. However, since that time some Catholic writers, both in books and periodicals, have attempted to defend him from the most grievous accusations of his contemporaries. Two in particular may be mentioned: the Dominican Ollivier, "Le Pape Alexandre VI et les Borgia" (Paris, 1870), of whose work only one volume appeared, dealing with the Pope's cardinalate ; and Leonetti "Papa Alessandro VI secondo documenti e carteggi del tempo" (3 vols., Bologna, 1880). These and other works were occasioned, partly by a laudable desire to remove a stigma from the good repute of the Catholic Church, and partly by the gross exaggerations of Victor Hugo and others who permitted themselves all licence in dealing with a name so helpless and detested. It cannot be said, however, that these works have corresponded to their authors' zeal. Dr. Pastor ranks them all as failures. Such is the opinion of Henri de l'Epinois in the "Revue des questions historiques" (1881), XXIX, 147, a study that even Thuasne, the hostile editor of the Diary of Burchard, calls "the indispensable guide of all students of Borgia history". It is also the opinion of the Bollandist Matagne, in the same review for 1870 and 1872 (IX, 466-475; XI, 181-198), and of Von Reumont, the Catholic historian of medieval Rome, in Bonn. Theol. Lit. Blatt (1870), V. 686. Dr. Pastor considers that the publication of the documents in the supplement to the third volume of Thuasne's edition of the Diary of Burchard (Paris, 1883) renders "forever impossible" any attempts to save the reputation of Alexander VI. There is all the less reason, therefore, says Cardinal Hergenröther (op. cit., II, 583), for the false charges that have been added to his account, e.g. his attempt to poison Cardinal Adriano da Corneto and his incest relations with Lucrezia (Pastor, op. cit., III, 375, 450-451, 475). Other accusations, says the same writer, have been dealt with, not unsuccessfully, by Roscoe in his "Life of Leo the Tenth"; by Capefigue in his "Eglise pendant les quatre derniers siècles" (I, 41-46), and by Chantrel, "Le Pape Alexandre VI" (Paris, 1864). On the other hand, while immoral writers have made only too much capital out of the salacious paragraphs scattered through Burchard and Infessura, there is no more reason now than in the days of Raynaldus and Mansi for concealing or perverting the facts of history. "I am a Catholic ", says M. de l'Epinois (loc. cit.), "and a disciple of the God who hath a horror of lies. I seek the truth, all the truth, and nothing but the truth Although our weak eyes do not see at once the uses of it, or rather see damage and peril, we must proclaim it fearlessly." The same good principle is set forth by Leo XIII in his Letter of 8 September, 1889, to Cardinals De Luca, Pitra, and Hergenröther on the study of Church History : "The historian of the Church has the duty to dissimulate none of the trials that the Church has had to suffer from the faults of her children, and even at times from those of her own ministers." Long ago Leo the Great (440-461) declared, in his third homily for Christmas Day, that "the dignity of Peter suffers no diminution even in an unworthy successor" ( cujus dignitas etiam in indigno haerede non deficit ). The very indignation that the evil life of a great ecclesiastic rouses at all times (nobly expressed by Pius II in the above-mentioned letter to Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia) is itself a tribute to the high spiritual ideal which for so long and on so broad a scale the Church has presented to the world in so many holy examples, and has therefore accustomed the latter to demand from priests. "The latter are forgiven nothing", says De Maistre in his great work, "Du Pape", "because everything is expected from them, wherefore the vices lightly passed over in a Louis XIV become most offensive and scandalous in an Alexander VI" (II, c. xiv).

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Pápago Indians

An important tribe of Shoshonean linguistic stock, speaking a dialect of the Pima language and ...

Pázmány, Peter

A famous Hungarian ecclesiastic of the seventeenth century; died 19 March, 1637. He was born of ...

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Pérez de Hita, Ginés

Spanish writer, born at Murcia. Little is known of his life except that he lived during the ...

Périgueux

(PETROCORICENSIS) Comprises the Department of Dordogne and is suffragan to the Archbishopric of ...

Pétau, Denis

(DIONYSIUS PETAVIUS) One of the most distinguished theologians of the seventeenth century, ...

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Pacandus

Titular see, recorded under "Pacanden." Among the titular sees in the official list of the Curia ...

Pacca, Bartolommeo

Cardinal, scholar, and statesman, b. at Benevento, 27 Dec., 1756; d. at Rome, 19 Feb., 1844; ...

Pachomius, Saint

Died about 346. The main facts of his life will be found in MONASTICISM (Section II: Eastern ...

Pachtler, George Michael

Controversial and educational writer, b. at Mergentheim, Wurtemberg, 14 Sept., 1825; d. at ...

Pacificus

A disciple of St. Francis of Assisi, born probably near Ascoli, Italy, in the second half of ...

Pacificus of Ceredano, Blessed

(Also known as Pacificus of Novara, or Novariensis ). Born 1420 at Cerano, in the Diocese ...

Pacificus of San Severino, Saint

Born at San Severino, in the parents died soon after his confirmation when three years old; he ...

Pacioli, Lucas

(Paciuolo.) Mathematician, born at Borgo San Sepolco, Tuscany, toward the middle of the ...

Paderborn

(Paderbornensis) Suffragan diocese of Cologne, includes: the District of Minden, ...

Padilla, Juan de

Friar Minor, protomartyr of the United States of America , member of the Andalusian province, ...

Padua

(Patavina) Diocese in northern Italy. The city is situated on a fertile plain and is ...

Padua, University of

The University of Padua dates, according to some anonymous chronicles (Muratori, "Rer. Ital. ...

Paganism

Paganism, in the broadest sense includes all religions other than the true one revealed by God, ...

Pagano, Mario

Jurisconsult and man of letters, born in Brienza, Province of Salerno, 8 Dec., 1748; died at ...

Page, Venerable Anthony

English martyr, born at Harrow-on-the-Hill, Middlesex, 1571; died at York, 20 or 30 April, 1593. ...

Pagi, Antoine

French ecclesiastical historian. Born 31 March, 1624, at Rognes in the Department of ...

Pagi, François

French ecclesiastical historian, nephew of Antoine Pagi. Born 7 September, 1654, at Lambesc in ...

Pagnino, Santes

(Or XANTES) A Dominican, born 1470 at Lucca, Tuscany ; died 24 Aug., 1541, at Lyons, one of ...

Painting, Religious

Painting has always been associated with the life of the Church. From the time of the ...

Pakawá Indians

(Also written Pacoá) One of a group of cognate tribes, hence designated the ...

Palæography

( palaia , "ancient", graphe , "writing") The art of deciphering ancient writing in ...

Palæontology

( logos ton palaion onton ) Palæ ontology, or the science of fossils, deals with ...

Palafox y Mendoza, Juan de

Bishop of La Puebla de Los Angeles, b. at Fitero in Navarre, 24 June, 1600; d. at Osma in ...

Palasor, Venerable Thomas

( Or Palliser). English martyr, born at Ellerton-upon-Swale, parish of Catterick, North ...

Palatinate, Rhenish

( German Rheinpfalz ). A former German electorate. It derives its name from the title of a ...

Palatini

( Latin palatium , palace) The designation, primarily, of certain high officials in the ...

Palawan

Prefecture Apostolic in the Philippine Islands ; comprises Palawan, Cuyo, Culion, Twahig, and ...

Palencia

(PALENTINA) This Diocese comprises the civil provinces of Palencia, Santander, Valladolid, ...

Paleopolis

(Palæopolis) A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. The history of this ...

Paleotti, Gabriele

Cardinal and Archbishop of Bologna. Born at Bologna, 4 October, 1522; died at Rome, 22 July, ...

Palermo

Archdiocese of Palermo (Panormitana), in Sicily. The city is built on an inlet of the ...

Palermo, University of

The Convent of St. Dominic of Palermo may be considered the nucleus of the future University of ...

Palestrina

(PBÆNESTINENSIS) The town of Palestrina, in the province of Rome, central Italy, is the ...

Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da

The greatest composer of liturgical music of all time, born at Palestrina (ancient ...

Paley, Frederick Apthorp

Classical scholar, born at Easingwold near York, 14 Jan., 1815; died at Bournemouth, 9 December, ...

Pall

A heavy, black cloth, spread over the coffin in the church at a funeral, or over the catafalque ...

Pall, Funeral

A black cloth usually spread over the coffin while the obsequies are performed for a deceased ...

Palladio, Andrea

Italian architect, born at Vicenza 1508; died at Venice, 19 August, 1580. There is a tradition ...

Palladius

( Palladios ) Born in Galatia, 368; died probably before 431. The identity of the author of ...

Palladius, Saint

First bishop sent by Pope Celestine to Ireland (431). The chronicle of the contemporary St. ...

Pallavicino, Pietro Sforza

A cardinal, born 28 Nov., 1607; died 5 June, 1667. Descended from the line of Parma of the ...

Pallium

Form and Use of the Modern Pallium The modern pallium is a circular band about two inches wide, ...

Pallotti, Vincent Mary

The founder of the Pious Society of Missions , born at Rome, 21 April, 1798 [other sources say ...

Palm in Christian Symbolism

In pre-Christian times the palm was regarded as a symbol of victory (Aulus Gellius, "Noct. Att.", ...

Palm Sunday

The sixth and last Sunday of Lent and beginning of Holy Week, a Sunday of the highest rank, ...

Palma Vecchio

(JACOPO NIGRETI) Born at Serinalta near Bergamo, about 1480; d. at Venice, 30 July 1528. ...

Palmer, William

Born at Mixbury, Oxfordshire, 12 July, 1811; died at Rome, 4 April, 1879; the elder brother of ...

Palmieri, Domenico

A theologian, born at Piacenza, Italy, 4 July, 1829; died in Rome, 29 May, 1909. He studied in ...

Palmieri, Luigi

Physicist and meteorologist, b. at Faicchio, Benevento, Italy, 22 April, 1807; d. in Naples, 9 ...

Palmyra

Titular metropolitan see in Phoenicia Secunda. Solomon ( 1 Kings 9:18 ) built Palmira (A. V. ...

Palou, Francisco

A Friar Minor, born at Palma, Island of Majorca, about 1722; died in 1789 or 1790. He entered the ...

Paltus

A titular see and suffragan of Seleucia Pieria in Syria Prima. The town was founded by a ...

Paludanus, Peter

(PETRUS DE PALUDE) A theologian and archbishop, born in the County of Bresse, Savoy, about ...

Pamelius

(Jacques de Joigny De Pamele). Belgian theologian, born at Bruges, Flanders, 13 May, 1536; ...

Pamiers

(APAMÆA) A Diocese comprising the Department of Ariège, and suffragan of ...

Pammachius, Saint

Roman senator, d. about 409. In youth he frequented the schools of rehetoric with St. Jerome. In ...

Pamphilus of Cæsarea, Saint

Martyred 309. Eusebius's life of Pamphilus is lost, but from his "Martyrs of Palestine" we ...

Pamplona

(PAMPILONENSIS) This Diocese comprises almost all of Navarre and part of Guipuzcoa. This ...

Panama

Located in Central America, occupies the Isthmus of Panama, or Darien, which extends east and west ...

Pancratius and Domitilla, Nereus and Achilleus, Saints

The commemoration of these four Roman saints is made by the Church on 12 May, in common, and ...

Pandects

(PANDECTÆ, or DIGESTA) This part of Justinian's compilation was his most important ...

Pandulph

A papal legate and Bishop of Norwich, died at Rome, 16 Sept., 1226. He is commonly but ...

Panemotichus

A titular see of Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perge. Panemotichus coined money during the ...

Pange Lingua Gloriosi

The opening words of two hymns celebrating respectively the Passion and the Blessed Sacrament. ...

Panigarola, Francesco

A preacher and controversialist, Bishop of Asti, born at Milan, 6 Feb., 1548; died at Asti, 31 ...

Pannartz, Arnold

See also KONRAD SWEYNHEIM . Both printers; Pannartz died about 1476, Sweinheim in 1477. ...

Pano Indians

A former important mission tribe on the middle Ucayali River, Peru, being the principal of a group ...

Panopolis

A titular see, suffragan of Antinoe in Thebais Prima; the ancient Apu or Khimmin which the ...

Panpsychism

(Greek pan , all; psyche , soul ) Panpsychism is a philosophical theory which holds ...

Pantænus

Head of the Catechetical School of Alexandria about 180 ( Eusebius, "Hist. eccl.", V, x), still ...

Pantaleon, Saint

Martyr, died about 305. According to legend he was the son of a rich pagan, Eustorgius of ...

Pantheism

(From Greek pan , all; theos , god). The view according to which God and the world are ...

Panvinio, Onofrio

Historian and archaeologist, born at Verona, 23 February, 1530; died at Palermo, 7 April, 1568. ...

Panzani, Gregorio

Bishop of Mileto, died early in 1662. He was a secular priest of Arezzo, having left the ...

Paoli, Venerable Angelo

Born at Argigliano, Tuscany, 1 Sept., 1642; died at Rome, 17 January, 1720. The son of Angelo ...

Papacy, The

This term is employed in an ecclesiastical and in an historical signification. In the former of ...

Papal Arbitration

An institution almost coeval with the papacy itself. The principle of arbitration presupposes ...

Papal Elections

For current procedures regarding the election of the pope, see Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic ...

Papal Mint

The right to coin money being a sovereign prerogative, there can be no papal coins of earlier ...

Papal Rescripts

( Latin re-scribere , "to write back") Rescripts are responses of the pope or a Sacred ...

Papal States

( Italian Lo Stato della Chiese ) Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years ...

Paphnutius

I The most celebrated personage of this name was bishop of a city in the Upper Thebaid in the ...

Paphos

A titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. There were two towns of this name, Old Paphos ...

Papias, Saint

Bishop of Hierapolis (close to Laodicea and Coloss Colossae aelig; in the valley of the ...

Papiensis, Bernardus

An Italian canonist of the thirteenth century; died 18 Sept., 1213. He was born at Pavia, ...

Papini, Nicholas

An historian, born at San Giovanni Valdarno, between Florence and Arezzo, about 1751; died at ...

Parætonium

Parætonium, a titular see of Lybia Secunda or Inferior (i.e. Marmarica), suffragan of ...

Paré, Ambroise

French surgeon, born at Bourg-Hersent, near Laval, department of Maine, 1517; died 20 ...

Parœcopolis

A titular see of Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. It is mentioned by Ptolemy (III, 13, ...

Para du Phanjas, François

Writer, b. at the castle of Phanja Champsaur, Basses-Alpes, 1724; d. at Paris, 1797. After his ...

Parables

The word parable (Hebrew mashal ; Syrian mathla , Greek parabole ) signifies in general ...

Parabolani

paraboloi, parabalanoi The members of a brotherhood who in the Early Church voluntarily ...

Paracelsus, Theophrastus

Celebrated physician and reformer of therapeutics, b. at the Sihlbrücke, near Einsiedeln, ...

Paraclete

Paraclete, Comforter (L. Consolator ; Greek parakletos ), an appellation of the Holy Ghost. ...

Paradise, Terrestrial

( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

Paraguay

One of the inland republics of South America, separated from Spain and constituted as an ...

Parahyba

(PARAHYBENESIS) Located in the State of Parahyba, Brazil, suffragan of Bahia, founded 27 ...

Paralipomenon, Books of

( Paraleipomenon ; Libri Paralipomenon ). Two books of the Bible containing a summary of ...

Parallelism

The balance of verse with verse, an essential and characteristic feature in Hebrew poetry. Either ...

Parallelism, Psycho-Physical

A doctrine which states that the relation between mental processes, on the one hand, and ...

Paralus

A titular see, suffragan of Cabasa in Ægyptus Secunda. One of the seven mouths of the ...

Paraná

(PARANENSIS) Suffragan of Buenos Aires, in Argentina until recently, comprised two civil ...

Parasceve

(Gr. paraskevé ); seems to have supplanted the older term prosábbaton , used ...

Paray-le-Monial

A town of five thousand inhabitants in the Department of Sâone-Loire, Diocese of Autun , ...

Pardies, Ignace-Gaston

French scientist, b. at Pau, 5 Sept., 1636; d. of fever contracted whilst ministering to the ...

Pardons of Brittany

Pardon, from the Latin perdonare , — assimilated in form to donum , a gift, middle ...

Paredes, Blessed Mary Anne de

Born at Quito, Ecuador, 31 Oct. 1618; died at Quito, 26 May, 1645. On both sides of her family ...

Pareja, Francisco

Missionary, probably born at Auñon in the Diocese of Toledo, Spain, date unknown; died ...

Parents

( Latin parere , to beget) I. DUTIES OF PARENTS TOWARDS THEIR CHILDREN In the old pagan ...

Parenzo-Pola

(PARENTINA-POLENSIS) The little town of Parenzo is picturesquely situated on a promontory ...

Parini, Giuseppe

Italian poet, born at Bosisio, 23 May, 1729; died at Milan, 15 Aug., 1799. Parini was early ...

Paris

ARCHDIOCESE OF PARIS (PARIBIENSIS) See also UNIVERSITY OF PARIS . Paris comprises the ...

Paris Commune, Martyrs of the

The secular priests and the religious who were murdered in Paris, in May 1871, on account of ...

Paris, Alexis-Paulin

Philologist, born at Avenay, Marne, France, 25 March, 1800; died 13 Feb., 1881. Having finished ...

Paris, Gaston-Bruno-Paulin

A French philologist, son of Paulin, born at Avenay (Marne), 9 August, 1839; died at Cannes, 6 ...

Paris, Matthew

Benedictine monk and chronicler, b. about 1200; d. 1259. There seems no reason to infer from the ...

Paris, University of

See also ARCHDIOCESE OF PARIS . Origin and Early Organization Three schools were especially ...

Parish

(Latin par&ligcia, parochia , Greek paroikia , a group of neighbouring dwellings). I. ...

Parium

Titular see, suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespontus. The Acts of the martyr St. Onesiphorus ...

Park, Abbey of the

Located half a mile south of Louvain, Belgium, founded in 1129 by Duke Godfrey, surnamed ...

Parkinson, Anthony

An historian, born in England, 1667; died there 30 January, 1728. In 1692 he was appointed ...

Parlais

A titular see of Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. As a Roman colony it was called Julia Augusta ...

Parlatore, Filippo

Italian botanist, b. at Palermo, 8 Aug., 1816; d. at Florence, 9 Sept., 1877, a devout and ...

Parma

Located in central Italy. The city is situated on the river of the same name, an affluent of the ...

Parmentier, Antoine-Augustin

An agriculturist, born at Montdidier, 17 August, 1737; died in Paris, 13 Dec., 1813. Left an orphan ...

Parmigiano, Il

(THE PARMESAN) The current name of FRANCESCO MAZZUOLA, MAZZOLA, MAZZUOLI, or MAZZOLI, Italian ...

Parnassus

A titular see in Cappadocia Secunda, suffragan of Mocessus. Situated between Ancyra and ...

Parochial Mass

The parish is established to provide the parishioners with the helps of religion, especially ...

Parochial Missions, Catholic

This term is used to designate certain special exertions of the Church's pastoral agencies, ...

Parrenin, Dominique

Born at Russey, near Besançon, 1 Sept., 1665; died at Pekin, 29 Sept., 1741. He entered ...

Parsis

(PARSEES). A small community in India, adherents of the Zoroastrian religion and originally ...

Particular Judgment

A. Dogma of Particular Judgment The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that ...

Partnership

Partnership, an unincorporated association of two or more persons, known as partners, having for ...

Paruta, Paolo

Venetian historian and statesman, born at Venice, 14 May, 1540; died there, 6 Dec., 1598. Of a ...

Pascal Baylon, Saint

Born at Torre-Hermosa, in the Kingdom of Aragon, 24 May, 1540, on the Feast of Pentecost, called ...

Pascal, Blaise

Born at Clermont-Ferrand, 19 June 1623; died in Paris, 19 August 1662. He was the son of Etienne ...

Pasch

Jews of all classes and ways of thinking look forward to the Passover holidays with the same ...

Paschal Candle

The blessing of the "paschal candle ", which is a column of wax of exceptional size, usually ...

Paschal I, Pope

(817-824) The date of his birth is unknown; he died in April, May, or June, 824. He was the ...

Paschal II, Pope

(RAINERIUS). Succeeded Urban II, and reigned from 13 Aug., 1099, till he died at Rome, 21 ...

Paschal III (Antipope)

(GUIDO OF CREMA) The second antipope in the time of Alexander III. He was elected in 1164 ...

Paschal Lamb

A lamb which the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as a part of the ...

Paschal Tide

I. LITURGICAL ASPECT The fifty days from Easter Sunday to Pentecost are called by the older ...

Paschasius Radbertus, Saint

Theologian, b. at Soissons, 786; d. in the Monastery of Corbie, c. 860 (the date 865 is ...

Paschasius, Saint

A deacon of the Roman Church about 500; died after 511. Almost all that is known of Paschasius ...

Passaglia, Carlo

Born at Lucca, 9 May, 1812; died at Turin, 12 March, 1887. He entered the Society of Jesus in ...

Passau

(PASSAVIENSIS) Located in Bavaria, suffragan of Munich-Freising, including within its ...

Passerat, Joseph, Venerable

Born 30 April, 1772, at Joinville, France ; died 30 October, 1858. The difficulties he had to ...

Passignano, Domenico

(known as IL CRESTI, or IL PASSIGNANO, Cresti being his family name) A Venetian painter, ...

Passion Music

Precisely when, in the development of the liturgy, the history of the Passion of Our Lord ...

Passion of Christ, Commemoration of the

A feast kept on the Tuesday after Sexagesima. Its object is the devout remembrance and honour ...

Passion of Jesus Christ

See also THE PASSION OF CHRIST IN THE GOSPELS . The sufferings of Our Lord, which culminated ...

Passion of Jesus Christ in the Four Gospels

See also DEVOTION TO THE PASSION OF CHRIST . We have in the Gospels four separate accounts ...

Passion Offices

The recitation of these offices, called also Of the Instruments of the Passion, was first granted ...

Passion Plays

The modern drama does not originate in the ancient, but in the religious plays of the Middle ...

Passion Sunday

The fifth Sunday of Lent, a Sunday of the first class, not permitting the celebration of any ...

Passionei, Domenico

A cardinal, theologian, born at Fossombrone, 2 Dec., 1682; died 5 July, 1761. Educated in the ...

Passionists

The full title of the Passionist institute is: The Congregation of Discalced Clerks of the Most ...

Passions

By passions we are to understand here motions of the sensitive appetite in man which tend ...

Passiontide

The two weeks between Passion Sunday and Easter. The last week is Holy Week, while the first ...

Passos

(Or, more fully, Santos Passos ) The Portuguese name locally used to designate certain ...

Passover

Jews of all classes and ways of thinking look forward to the Passover holidays with the same ...

Pasteur, Louis

Chemist, founder of physio-chemistry, father of bacteriology, inventor of bio-therapeutics; born ...

Pasto, Diocese of

(PASTENSIS, PASTOPOLITANA). A Colombian see, suffragan of Popayan, from which it was separated ...

Pastor

This term denotes a priest who has the cure of souls ( cura animarum ), that is, who is ...

Pastoral Epistles (Timothy and Titus)

(T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

Pastoral Staff

(Or PASTORAL STAFF). The crosier is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops ...

Pastoral Theology

Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...

Pastoureaux, Crusade of the

One of the most curious of the popular movements inspired by a desire to deliver the Holy Land. ...

Patagonia

Patagonia is the name given to the southernmost extremity of South America. Its boundary on the ...

Patara

Titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra, formerly a large cornmercial town, opposite Rhodes. ...

Paten

The eucharistic vessel known as the paten is a small shallow plate or disc of precious metal upon ...

Patenson, Venerable William

Venerable William Patenson, English martyr , born in Yorkshire or Durham ; died at Tyburn, 22 ...

Pater Noster

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

Pathology, Mental

This subject will be considered under the following headings: I. Localization of Mental ...

Patmore, Coventry

One of the major poets of the nineteenth century, in spite of the small bulk of his verse, born at ...

Patmos

A small volcanic island in the Ægean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor, to the south of Samos ...

Patras

A metropolitan see in Achaia. It was one of the twelve ancient cities of Achaia, built near ...

Patriarch

The word patriarch as applied to Biblical personages comes from the Septuagint version, where ...

Patriarch and Patriarchate

Names of the highest ecclesiastical dignitaries after the pope, and of the territory they rule. ...

Patrician Brothers

(Or BROTHERS OF SAINT PATRICK). This Brotherhood was founded by the Right Rev. Dr. Daniel ...

Patrick's Purgatory, Saint

Lough Derg, Ireland. This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal, in the Diocese of Clogher, dates ...

Patrick, Saint

Apostle of Ireland, born at Kilpatrick, near Dumbarton, in Scotland, in the year 387; died at ...

Patrizi, Francis Xavier

Jesuit exegete, b. at Rome, 19 June, 1797; d. there 23 April, 1881. He was the eldest son and ...

Patrology

Patrology, the study of the writings of the Fathers of the Church, has more commonly been known ...

Patron and Patronage

I By the right of patronage ( ius patronatus ) is understood a determinate sum of rights ...

Patron Saints

A patron is one who has been assigned by a venerable tradition, or chosen by election, as a ...

Patronage of Our Lady, Feast of the

It was first permitted by Decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, 6 May, 1679, for all the ...

Patti, Diocese of

(PACTENSIS) Patti, in the Province of Messina (Sicily), on the western shore of the gulf of ...

Paul and John, Saints

Martyred at Rome on 26 June. The year of their martyrdom is uncertain according to their ...

Paul I, Pope

(757-67) Date of birth unknown; died at Rome, 28 June, 767. He was a brother of Stephen II. ...

Paul II, Pope

(PIETRO BARBO) Born at Venice, 1417; elected 30 August, 1464; died 26 July, 1471; son of ...

Paul III, Pope

(A LESSANDRO F ARNESE ). Born at Rome or Canino, 29 Feb., 1468; elected, 12 Oct., 1534; ...

Paul IV, Pope

(G IOVANNI P IETRO C ARAFFA ). Born near Benevento, 28 June, 1476; elected 23 May, ...

Paul of Burgos

(PAUL DE SANTA MARIA; Jewish name, SOLOMON HA-LEVI) A Spanish archbishop, lord chancellor and ...

Paul of Middelburg

A scientist and bishop, born in 1446 at Middelburg, the ancient capital of the province of ...

Paul of Samosata

Bishop of Antioch. Several synods, probably three, were held against him about 264-66. St. ...

Paul of the Cross, Saint

Paul Francis Daneii, born at Ovada, Genoa, Italy, 3 January, 1694; died in Rome, 18 October, 1775. ...

Paul the Deacon

(Paulus Diaconus; also called Casinensis, Levita, and Warnefridi). Historian, born at ...

Paul the Hermit, Saint

There are three important versions of the Life of St. Paul: (1) the Latin version ( H ) of St. ...

Paul the Simple, Saint

The story of Paul, as Palladius heard it from men who had known St. Anthony, was as follows: ...

Paul V, Pope

(CAMILLO BORGHESE). Born at Rome, 17 Sept., 1550; elected 16 May, 1605; died 28 Jan., 1621. ...

Paul, Saint

I. PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS A. Apocryphal Acts of St. Paul Professor Schmidt has published a ...

Paul-without-the-Walls, Saint

( San Paolo fuori le mura ). An abbey nullius. As early as 200 the burial place of the ...

Paula, Saint

Born in Rome, 347; died at Bethlehem, 404. She belonged to one of the first families of Rome. ...

Pauli, Johannes

Born about 1455; died after 1530 in the monastery at Thann in Alsace. What little is known of ...

Paulicians

A dualistic heretical sect, derived originally from Manichaeism. The origin of the name ...

Paulinus a S. Bartholomaeo

(PHILIP WESDIN). Missionary and Orientalist, b. at Hoff in Lower Austria, 25 Apr., 1748; d. ...

Paulinus II, Saint

Born at Premariacco, near Cividale, Italy, about 730-40; died 802. Born probably of a Roman ...

Paulinus of Pella

Christian poet of the fifth century; b. at Pella in Macedonia, but of a Bordelaise family. He ...

Paulinus, Saint

Archbishop of York, died at Rochester, 10 October, 644. He was a Roman monk in St. Andrew's ...

Paulinus, Saint

(Pontius Meropius Anicius Paulinus). Born at Bordeaux about 354; died 22 June, 431. He ...

Paulist Fathers

Otherwise known as the "Paulist Fathers" A community of priests for giving missions and ...

Paulists

From the time that the abode and virtues of St. Paul the first hermit were revealed to St. ...

Paulus Diaconus

(Paulus Diaconus; also called Casinensis, Levita, and Warnefridi). Historian, born at ...

Paulus Venetus

Theologian of the Hermits of the Order of Saint Augustine, born according to the chroniclers of ...

Pavia

(PAPIA) Located in Lombardy, Northern Italy. It is situated in a fertile plain; the city is ...

Pavia, University of

Pavia was, even in Roman times, a literary centre (Ennodius); as the capital of the Lombard ...

Pavillon, Nicolas

Bishop of Alet, b. at Paris 1597; d. at Alet, 1677. He joined the community of St-Lazare, ...

Pax

(Osculatorium, Tabula Pacis, Lapis Pacis). A tablet to be kissed. The primitive usage in the ...

Pax in the Liturgy

Pax vobis (or vobiscum ), like the other liturgical salutations (e.g. Dominus vobiscum ), ...

Payeras, Mariano

Born 10 Oct., 1769, at Inca, Island of Majorca; died 28 April, 1823. He received the habit of St. ...

Payne, Blessed John

Born in the Diocese of Peterborough ; died at Chelmsford, 2 April, 1582. He went to Douai in ...

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Pe 170

Peña, Francisco

(PEGNA) A canonist, born at Villaroya de los Pinares, near Saragossa, about 1540; died at ...

Peñalver y Cardenas, Luis Ignatius

Bishop of New Orleans, Archbishop of Guatemala, son of a wealthy and noble family ; born ...

Peace Congresses

I. EARLY HISTORY The genesis of the idea of a meeting of representatives of different nations ...

Peace of the Church

This is the designation usually applied to the condition of the Church after the publication at ...

Peasants, War of the (1524-25)

A revolt of the peasants of southern and central Germany, the causes of which are disputed as a ...

Peba Indians

(Or Peva ) The principal of a small group of cognate tribes, comprising the Peba proper, ...

Pecham, John

(PECCHAM) Archbishop of Canterbury, born about 1240; died 6 December, 1292. His birthplace ...

Pecock, Reginald

(PEACOCK) Bishop of Chichester, born in North Wales about 1395; died at Thorney Abbey about ...

Pectoral

("Pectoral of judgment"). The original meaning of the Hebrew term has been lost, and little ...

Pectorale

( Crux Pectoralis ). The name of the cross used by the pope, cardinals, bishops, abbots, ...

Pectorius of Autun

The name with which the important document frequently known as the Inscription of Autun ...

Pednelissus

(Petnelissus). A titular see in Pamphylia Secunda, suffragan of Perge. In ancient times ...

Pedro de Cordova

Born at Cordova, Andalusia, Spain, about 1460; died on the Island of Santo Domingo, 1525. He ...

Pelagia

The name of several saints. The old Syrian martyrology gives the feast of a St. Pelagia of ...

Pelagius and Pelagianism

Pelagianism received its name from Pelagius and designates a heresy of the fifth century, which ...

Pelagius I, Pope

Date of birth unknown; died 3 March, 561, was a Roman of noble family ; his father, John, seems ...

Pelagius II, Pope

The date of whose birth is unknown, seemingly a native of Rome, but of Gothic descent, as his ...

Pelargus, Ambrose

Theologian, born at Nidda, Hesse, about 1488; died at Trier, 1557. Stork (Greek Pelargon , ...

Pelisson-Fontanier, Paul

French writer, born at Béziers in 1624 of Protestant parents ; died at Versailles, 7 ...

Pella

A titular see and suffragan of Scythopolis in Palaestina Secunda. According to Stephanus ...

Pelletier, Pierre-Joseph

Born in Paris, 22 March, 1788; died there, 19 July, 1842. His father, Bertrand Pelletier, a ...

Pellico, Silvio

Italian author and patriot, born at Saluzzio, Italy, 24 June, 1788; died at Turin 31 Jan., ...

Pellissier, Guillaume

(PELLICIER) Born at Melgueil in Languedoc, about 1490; died at the castle of Montferraud, ...

Pelotas

(PELOTASENSIS) Located in Brazil, suffragan to Porto Alegre. By a decree of Pius X, dated ...

Pelouze, Théophile-Jules

Scientist, b. at Valognes, La Manche, 26 Feb., 1807; d. in Paris, 31 May or 1 June, 1867. He began ...

Peltrie, Madeleine de la

née CHAUVIGNY A French noblewoman, and foundress, born at Caen, 1603; died at Quebec, ...

Pelusium

A titular metropolitan see of Augustamnica Prima in Egypt, mentioned in Ezech., xxx, 15 sq., ...

Pembroke

(PEMBROKIENSIS) A suffragan of Ottawa, in Canada. The town of Pembroke has a beautiful ...

Penal Laws

This article treats of the penal legislation affecting Catholics in English-speaking countries ...

Penance (as a Virtue)

Penance ( poenitentia ) designates (1) a virtue ; (2) a sacrament of the New Law; (3) a ...

Penance, Sacrament of

Penance is a sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins ...

Pendleton, Henry

Controversialist, born at Manchester ; died in London, September, 1557; educated at Brasenose ...

Penelakut Indians

A small tribe of Salishan stock, speaking a dialect of the Cowichan language and occupying a ...

Penitentes, Los Hermanos

(The Penitent Brothers), a society of flagellants existing among the Spanish of New Mexico and ...

Penitential Canons

Rules laid down by councils or bishops concerning the penances to be done for various sins. ...

Penitential Orders

A general name for religious congregations whose members are bound to perform extraordinary works ...

Penitents, Confraternities of

Congregations, with statutes prescribing various penitential works, such as fasting, the use of ...

Penne and Atri, Diocese of

(Pennensis et Atriensis). Penne is a city in the Province of Teramo, in the Abruzzi, central ...

Pennsylvania

One of the thirteen original United States of America , lies between 39° 43' and 42° 15' ...

Penobscot Indians

The principal tribe of the famous Abnaki confederacy of Maine, and the only one still keeping its ...

Pension, Ecclesiastical

The right to a certain sum of money to be paid yearly out of the revenues of a church or ...

Pentacomia

A titular see of Palestine, suffragan of Areopolis or Rabbah. It was never a residential see; ...

Pentapolis

The word, occurring in Wisdom, x, 6, designates the region where stood the five cities ( pente, ...

Pentateuch

Pentateuch , in Greek pentateuchos , is the name of the first five books of the Old ...

Pentecost

A feast of the universal Church which commemorates the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the ...

Pentecost (Jewish Feast)

The second in importance of the great Jewish feasts. The term, adopted from the ...

Peoria

(PEORIENSIS). Diocese comprising that part of Central Illinois south of the Counties of ...

Peoria Indians

A principal tribe of the confederated Illinois Indians (q.v.) having their chief residence, in the ...

Pepin the Short

Mayor of the Palace of the whole Frankish kingdom (both Austrasia and Neustria), and later King ...

Peppergrass, Paul

Novelist, lecturer, and priest, well known under the assumed name of "Paul Peppergrass", born in ...

Perboyre, Blessed Jean-Gabriel

Missionary and martyr, born at Puech, Diocese of Cahors, France, 6 January, 1802; martyred at ...

Percy, Blessed Thomas

Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...

Percy, John

( alias JOHN FISHER) Born at Holmeside, Durham, 27 Sep., 1569; died at London, 3 Dec., ...

Peregrinus

The canons of Priscillian, prefixed to the Epistles of St. Paul in many (chiefly Spanish) ...

Pereira, Benedict

(PEREYRA, PERERA, PERERIUS) Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, born about 1535, at Ruzafa, ...

Perez, Juan

Died before 1513. At one time he held the office of contador or accountant to the Queen of ...

Perfection, Christian and Religious

A thing is perfect in which nothing is wanting of its nature, purpose, or end. It may be perfect ...

Pergamus

A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus. This city was situated on the banks of the Selinus. It was ...

Perge

Titular metropolitan see in Pamphylia Secunda. Perge, one of the chief cities of Pamphylia, was ...

Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista

Born at Naples, 3 Jan., 1710; d. 16 March, 1736, at Pozzuoli, near Naples. This young man of ...

Pericui Indians

A rude and savage tribe, of unknown linguistic affinity, formerly occupying the extreme southern ...

Periodi

(P ETRI ) The name under which the Pseudo-Clementine writings are quoted by Epiphanius, ...

Periodical Literature, Catholic

The invention of printing, besides exerting a great influence on literature in general and on ...

Perjury

(Latin per , through and jurare , to swear) Perjury is the crime of taking a false oath. ...

Permaneder, Franz Michael

Canonist, b. at Traunstein, Bavaria, 12 Aug., 1794; d. at Ratisbon, 10 Oct., 1862. He studied ...

Pernter, Joseph Maria

Scientist, b. at Neumark, Tyrol, 15 March, 1848; d. at Arco, 20 Dec., 1908. He entered the ...

Perpetua and Felicitas, Saints

Martyrs, suffered at Carthage, 7 March 203, together with three companions, Revocatus, Saturus, ...

Perpetual Adoration

A term broadly used to designate the practically uninterrupted adoration of the Blessed ...

Perpetual Adoration, Religious of

(Belgium) A congregation with simple vows, founded at Brussels, 1857, by Anna de Meeus, ...

Perpetual Adoration, Religious of the

A contemplative religious congregation, founded in 1526 by Sister Elizabeth Zwirer (d. 1546), at ...

Perpetual Adoration, Sisters of the

(Quimper, France ). An institute of nuns devoted to perpetual adoration of the Blessed ...

Perpetual Adorers of the Blessed Sacrament

(Sacramentines.) Anton Le Quien, b. in Paris, 23 Feb., 1601, the founder of the first order ...

Perpetual Help, Our Lady of

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

Perpetual Help, Our Lady of, Sisters of

A congregation founded in the parish of St. Damien, Bellechasse, P.Q., Canada, 28 August, 1892, ...

Perpetual Succour, Our Lady of

( Or OUR LADY OF PERPETUAL HELP.) The picture of Our Lady of Perpetual Succour is painted ...

Perpetuus, Saint

Eighth Bishop of Tours, d. 1 January, or 8 December, 490, or 8 April, 491. He was a member of ...

Perpignan, Diocese of

(Perpinianum.) Comprises the Department of Pyrénées Orientales; created by the ...

Perpignan, University of

Peter IV of Aragon (1327-87), having conquered (1344) the town of Perpignan and reunited to his ...

Perraud, Adolphe

Cardinal and academician; b. at Lyons, France, 7 Feb., 1828; d. 18 Feb., 1906. He had a ...

Perrault, Charles

Writer, b. in Paris, 12 Jan., 1628; d. 16 May, 1703. His first literary attempts were a parody of ...

Perrault, Claude

Born at Paris, 1613; died there, 1688. He built the main eastern façade of the Louvre, ...

Perreyve, Henri

Born at Paris, 11 April, 1831; died there 18 June, 1865. His father was professor at the ...

Perrone, Giovanni

Jesuit theologian, b. at Chieri, Italy, 11 March, 1794; d. at Rome, 28 Aug., 1876. After studying ...

Perry, Stephen Joseph

Born in London, August, 1833; d. 27 Dec. 1889. He belonged to a well-known Catholic family. His ...

Persecution

GENERAL Persecution may be defined in general as the unlawful coercion of another's liberty or ...

Persecutions, Coptic

(ACCORDING TO GREEK AND LATIN SOURCES) During the first two centuries the Church of Alexandria ...

Perseverance, Final

( Perseverantia finalis ). Final perseverance is the preservation of the state of grace till ...

Persia

The history, religion, and civilization of Persia are offshoots from those of Media. Both Medes ...

Persian Rite

Also known as the Chaldean, Assyrian, or Persian Rite. History and Origin This rite is used by ...

Persico, Ignatius

A cardinal, born 30 Jan., 1823, at Naples, Italy ; died 7 Dec., 1896. He entered the Capuchin ...

Person

The Latin word persona was originally used to denote the mask worn by an actor. From this it ...

Person, Ecclesiastical

In its etymological sense this expression signifies every person who forms a part of the external ...

Personality

It is proposed in this article to give an account: (1) of the physical constituents of ...

Persons, Robert

(Also, but less correctly, P ARSONS ) Jesuit, b., at Nether Stowey, Somerset, 24 June, 1546; ...

Perth

(PERTHENSIS) Located in Western Australia, suffragan to Adelaide; bounded on the north by ...

Pertinax, Publius Helvius

Roman Emperor (31 Dec., 192), b. at Alba Pompeia, in Luguria, 1 August, 126; d. at Rome 28 ...

Peru

A republic on the west coast of South America, founded in 1821 after the war of independence, ...

Perugia

(PERUSINA) Located in Umbria, Central Italy. The city is situated on a hill on the right of ...

Perugia, University of

One of the "free" universities of Italy, was erected into a studium generale on 8 Sept., 1308, ...

Perugino

(PIETRO VANNUCCI) An Italian painter, founder of the Umbrian school, born at Città ...

Peruzzi, Baldassare

An architect and painter, born at Siena, 7 March, 1481; died at Rome, 6 Jan., 1537. He derived ...

Pesaro

(PESAURENSIS) Located in central Italy. The city is situated at the mouth of the river ...

Pescennius Niger

Emperor of Rome (193-194). He was a native of central Italy, and during the reigns of Marcus ...

Pesch, Tilman

A Jesuit philosopher, b. at Cologne, 1 Feb., 1836; d. at Valkenberg, Holland, 18 Oct., 1899. He ...

Pescia

(PISCIENSIS) Diocese in Tuscany, Italy, on the Rivers Pescia Maggiore and Pescia Minore, ...

Pessimism

I. A TEMPER OF MIND In popular language the term pessimist is applied to persons who ...

Pessinus

( Pessinous .) A titular see of Galatia Secunda. Pessinonte, on the southern slope of Mt. ...

Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, one of the greatest pioneers of modern education, born at Zurich, ...

Peter Baptist, Saint, and Twenty-Five Companions

Died at Nagasaki, 5 Feb., 1597. In 1593 while negotiations were pending between the Emperor of ...

Peter Canisius, Blessed

(Kannees, Kanys, probably also De Hondt). Born at Nimwegen in the Netherlands, 8 May, 1521; ...

Peter Cantor

Theologian, b. probably at Gisberoi near Beauvais, France ; d. at Long Pont Abbey, 22 Sept., ...

Peter Cellensis

(PETER DE LA CELLE). Bishop of Chartres, b. of noble parentage in Champagne; d. at Chartres, ...

Peter Chrysologus, Saint

Born at Imola, 406; died there, 450. His biography, first written by Agnellus (Liber pontificalis ...

Peter Claver, Saint

The son of a Catalonian farmer, was born at Verdu, in 1581; he died 8 September, 1654. He ...

Peter Comestor

Theological writer, b. at Troyes, date unknown; d. at Paris about 1178. He was first attached ...

Peter Damian, Saint

(Or Damiani). Doctor of the Church, Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia, b. at Ravenna "five years ...

Peter de Blois

A statesman and theologian, born at Blois about 1130; died about 1203. He appears to have ...

Peter de Honestis

Born at Ravenna about 1049; died, 29 March, 1119. Among his ancestors was the great St. Romuald, ...

Peter de Regalado, Saint

(REGALATUS) A Friar Minor and reformer, born at Valladolid, 1390; died at Aguilera, 30 ...

Peter de Vinea

(DE VINEIS, DELLA VIGNA) Born at Capua about 1190; died 1249. Peter's legal learning and the ...

Peter Faber, Saint

Born 13 April, 1506, at Villaret, Savoy ; died 1 Aug., 1546, in Rome. As a child he tended his ...

Peter Fourier, Saint

Known as LE BON PÈRE DE MATTAINCOURT, born at Mirecourt, Lorraine, 30 Nov., 1565 died at ...

Peter Fullo

Intruding Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch ; d. 488. He received the Greek surname Gnapheus ...

Peter Gonzalez, Saint

Popularly known as St. Elmo, b. in 1190 at Astorga, Spain ; d. 15 April, 1246, at Tuy. He was ...

Peter Igneus, Blessed

(Peter Aldobrandini.) An Italian monk of the Benedictine congregation of the ...

Peter Lombard

Theologian, b. at Novara (or perhaps Lumello), Italy, about 1100; d. about 1160-64. He studied ...

Peter Mongus

( moggos , "stammerer", or "hoarse".) Intruded Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria (d. ...

Peter Nolasco, Saint

Born at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, near Castelnaudary, France, in 1189 (or 1182); died at ...

Peter of Alcántara, Saint

Born at Alcántara, Spain, 1499; died 18 Oct., 1562. His father, Peter Garavita, was the ...

Peter of Alexandria, Saint

Became Bishop of Alexandria in 300; martyred Nov., 311. According to Philip of Sidetes he ...

Peter of Aquila

(SCOTELLUS). Friar Minor , theologian and bishop, b. at Aquila in the Abruzzi, Italy, towards ...

Peter of Arbues, Saint

(Correctly, PETER ARBUES). Born in 1441 (or 1442); died 17 Sept., 1485. His father, a ...

Peter of Auvergne

A philosopher and theologian ; died after 1310. He was a canon of Paris ; some biographers ...

Peter of Bergamo

(ALMADURA) A theologian, date of birth unknown; died at Placentia, in 1482. He entered the ...

Peter of Montboissier, Blessed

(Better known as PETER THE VENERABLE). Born in Auvergne, about 1092; died at Cluny, 25 ...

Peter of Poitiers

A French scholastic theologian, born at Poitiers or in its neighbourhood about 1130; died in ...

Peter of Sebaste, Saint

Bishop, b. about 340; d. 391. He belonged to the richly blest family of Basil and Emmelia of ...

Peter of Verona, Saint

Born at Verona, 1206; died near Milan, 6 April, 1252. His parents were adherents of the ...

Peter Snow, Venerable

English martyr, suffered at York, 15 June, 1598. He was born at or near Ripon and arrived at the ...

Peter the Hermit

Born at Amiens about 1050; d. at the monastery of Neufmoutier (Liège), in 1115. His ...

Peter Urseolus, Saint

(Orseolo) Born at Rivo alto, Province of Udina, 928; at Cuxa, 10 January, 987 (997 is less ...

Peter, Basilica of Saint

TOPOGRAPHY The present Church of St. Peter stands upon the site where at the beginning of the ...

Peter, Chair of

Under this head will be treated: I. The annual Feast of the Chair of Peter ( Cathedra Petri ) at ...

Peter, Saint

The life of St. Peter may be conveniently considered under the following heads: I. Until the ...

Peter, Saint, Epistles of

These two epistles will be treated under the following heads: I. Authenticity; II. Recipients, ...

Peter, Sarah

Philanthropist, b. at Chillicothe, Ohio, U.S.A. 10 May, 1800; d. at Cincinnati, 6 Feb., 1877. Her ...

Peter, Tomb of Saint

The history of the relics of the Apostles Peter and Paul is one which is involved in ...

Peter-Louis-Marie Chanel, Saint

The print version of the C ATHOLIC E NCYCLOPEDIA contains two articles on this saint. We ...

Peterborough

(PETERBOROUGHENSIS) Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada, comprises the Counties of ...

Peterspence

Peterspence, otherwise known to the Anglo-Saxons as "Romescot", is the name traditionally given to ...

Peterssen, Gerlac

(GERLACUS PETRI) Born at Deventer, 1377 or 1378; died 18 Nov., 1411. He entered the ...

Petinessus

(PITNISUS) A titular see in Galatia Secunda (Salutaris). This city is mentioned by Strabo, ...

Petit-Didier, Matthieu

A Benedictine theologian and ecclesiastical historian, born at Saint-Nicolas-du-Port in ...

Petitions to the Holy See

I. MODE OF PETITIONING Faculties, indults, dispensations, and other favours, the granting of ...

Petra

Titular metropolitan see of Palæstina Tertia. Under the name of Sela (the rock) this ...

Petrarch, Francesco

Italian poet and humanist, b. at Arezzo, 20 July, 1304; d. at Arquá, 19 July, 1374. His ...

Petre, Family of

The Petres are one of those staunch and constant families, which have played a great part in the ...

Petrobrusians

Heretics of the twelfth century so named from their founder Peter of Bruys. Our information ...

Petronilla, Saint

Virgin, probably martyred at Rome at the end of the first century. Almost all the sixth- and ...

Petronius, Saint

Bishop of Bologna, date of birth unknown; died before 450. The only certain historical ...

Petropolis

(Petropolitanensis). Diocese in the Province of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, erected 11 Feb., ...

Petrus Alfonsus

A converted Jew and controversialist, born at Huesca, in the former Kingdom of Aragon, 1062; ...

Petrus Bernardinus

Florentine heretic ; born at Florence about 1475; died 1502. His parents were common folk, and ...

Petrus de Natalibus

Bishop; author of a collection of lives of the saints; date of birth unknown; d. between 1400 and ...

Petrus Diaconus

The name of several men of note in ecclesiastical history and literature. (1) One of the ...

Petun Nation

One of the three great divisions of the Huron Indians, the other two being the Hurons proper, and ...

Peuerbach, George von

(Also Peurbach, Purbach, Purbachius) Austrian astronomer, b. at Peuerbach near Linz, 30 May, ...

Peutinger, Conrad

An antiquarian and humanist, born at Augsburg, 14 Oct., 1465; died 28 Dec., 1547. As a young ...

Peyto, William

(P ETO, P ETOW ). Cardinal ; d. 1558 or 1559. Though his parentage was long unknown, it is ...

Pez

(1) BERNHARD An historian, born 22 February, 1683, at Ybbs near Melk ; died 27 March, 1735, at ...

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Pf 5

Pfanner, Franz

An abbot, born at Langen, Vorarlberg, Austria, 1825; died at Emmaus, South Africa, 24 May, ...

Pfefferkorn, Johannes

A baptized Jew, b. probably at Nuremberg, 1469; d. at Cologne, between 1521 and 1524. In 1505, ...

Pfister, Adolf

An educationist, born at Hechingen in Hohenzollern, 26 Sept., 1810; died at Ober-Dischingen in ...

Pflug, Julius Von

The last Catholic Bishop of Naumburg-Zeitz, born at Eythra, near Leipzig, 1499; died at Zeits, ...

Pforta

A former Cistercian monastery (1137-1540), near Naumburg on the Saale in the Prussian province ...

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Ph 44

Phœnicia

Phœnicia is a narrow strip of land, about one hundred and fifty miles long and thirty miles ...

Phacusa

A titular see and suffragan of Pelusium, in Augustamnica Prima. Ptolemy (IV, v, 24) makes it ...

Pharao

(Prah, Par‘o, or, after a vowel, Phar‘o ; Greek Pharaó ; Latin Pharao). ...

Pharbætus

Titular see and suffragan of Leontopolis, in Augustamnica Secunda. This name is merely the ...

Pharisees

A politico-religious sect or faction among the adherents of later Judaism, that came into ...

Pharsalus

Titular see and suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. The city is mentioned for the first time after ...

Phaselis

Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. The city was a Doric colony on the Pamphylian Gulf. ...

Phasga

(A.V. Pisgah ). Whether the word in Hebrew is a proper or a common noun is not clear; ...

Phenomenalism

Phenomenalism ( phainomenon ) literally means any system of thought that has to do with ...

Philadelphia (Lydia)

A titular see in Lydia, suffragan of Sardes. The city was founded by Philadelphus, King of ...

Philadelphia (Pennsylvania)

(PHILADELPHIENSIS) A diocese established in 1808; made an archdiocese, 12 Feb., 1875, ...

Philanthropinism

The system of education educed from the ideas of Rousseau and of the German "Enlightenment", ...

Philastrius, Saint

Bishop of Brescia, died before 397. He was one of the bishops present at a synod held in ...

Philemon

A citizen of Coloss Colossæ, to whom St. Paul addressed a private letter, unique in the ...

Philip II

King of Spain, only son of the Emperor Charles V, and Isabella of Portugal, b. at Valladolid, 21 ...

Philip II (Augustus)

King of France, born 22 or 25 August, 1165; died at Mantes, 14 July, 1223, son of Louis VII ...

Philip IV

Surnamed Le Bel (the Fair) King of France, b. at Fontainebleau, 1268; d. there, 29 Nov., 1314; ...

Philip of Jesus, Saint

Born in Mexico, date unknown; died at Nagasaki early in February, 1597. Though unusually ...

Philip of the Blessed Trinity

(ESPRIT JULIEN). Discalced Carmelite, theologian, born at Malaucene, near Avignon, 1603; died ...

Philip Romolo Neri, Saint

THE APOSTLE OF ROME. Born at Florence, Italy, 22 July, 1515; died 27 May, 1595. Philip's ...

Philip the Apostle, Saint

Like the brothers, Peter and Andrew, Philip was a native of Bethsaida on Lake Genesareth ( John ...

Philip the Arabian

(Philippus) Emperor of Rome (244-249), the son of an Arab sheik, born in Bosra. He rose ...

Philippi

(Greek Phílippoi , Latin Philippi ). Philippi was a Macedonian town, on the ...

Philippi

A titular metropolitan see in Macedonia. As early as the sixth century B. C. we learn of a ...

Philippians, Epistle to the

I. HISTORICAL CIRCUMSTANCES, OCCASION, AND CHARACTER ( See also PHILIPPI ). The Philippians, ...

Philippine Islands

Situation and Area The Philippine Islands lie between 116° 40' and 126° and 34' E. long., ...

Philippopolis

A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Secunda. The city was founded by Philip of Macedon in 342 ...

Philippopolis

Titular see in Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. Its bishop, Hormisdas, was present at the Council ...

Philips, Peter

(Also known as PETRUS PHILIPPUS, PIETRO PHILLIPO.) Born in England about 1560; date and place ...

Philistines

( Septuagint phylistieim in the Pentateuch and Josue, elsewhere allophyloi , ...

Phillip, Robert

Priest, d. at Paris, 4 Jan., 1647. He was descended from the Scottish family of Phillip of ...

Phillips, George

A canonist, born at Königsberg, 6 Sept., 1804; died at Vienna, 6 September, 1872, was the son ...

Philo Judæus

Born about 25 B.C. . His family, of a sacerdotal line, was one of the most powerful of the ...

Philomelium

A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. According to ancient writers Philomelium was ...

Philomena, Saint

On 25 May, 1802, during the quest for the graves of Roman martyrs in the Catacomb of Priscilla, ...

Philosophy

I. Definition of Philosophy . II. Division of Philosophy . III. The Principal Systematic ...

Philoxenus

(AKHSENAYA) OF MABBOGH. Born at Tahal, in the Persian province of Beth-Garmai in the second ...

Phocæa

A titular see in Asia, suffragan of Ephesus. The town of Phocæa was founded in the ...

Photinus

A heretic of the fourth century, a Galatian and deacon to Marcellus, Metropolitan of Ancyra ...

Photius of Constantinople

Photius of Constantinople, chief author of the great schism between East and West, was b. at ...

Phylacteries

( Phulachterion — safeguard, amulet, or charm). The word occurs only once in the New ...

Physics, History of

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. A Glance at Ancient Physics; II. ...

Physiocrats

( physis , nature, kratein , rule) A school of writers on political and economic ...

Physiologus

An early Christian work of a popular theological type, describing animals real or fabulous ...

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Pi 89

Piacenza

DIOCESE OF PIACENZA (PLACENTINENSIS) Piacenza is a diocese in Emilia, central Italy. The city ...

Pianô Carpine, Giovanni da

Born at Pian di Carpine (now called della Magione), near Perugia, Umbria, 1182; died probably in ...

Pianciani, Giambattista

Scientist, b. at Spoleto, 27 Oct., 1784; d. at Rome, 23 March, 1862. He entered the Society of ...

Piatto Cardinalizio

An allowance granted by the pope to cardinals residing in curia or otherwise employed by ...

Piatus of Mons

(Secular name, JEAN-JOSEPH LOISEAUX), b. 5 Aug., 1815; d. in the Monastery of Ste. Claire, ...

Piauhy

(DE PIAUHY, PIAHUNENSIS) Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Belem do Para, in the State of ...

Piazza Armerina

(PLATIENSIS) Located in the province of Caltanissetta, Sicily. The city of Piazza Armerina is ...

Piazzi, Giuseppe

Astronomer, b. at Ponte in Valtellina, 16 July, 1746; d. at Naples, 22 July, 1826. He took the ...

Pibush, John

English martyr, born at Thirsk, Yorkshire; died at St Thomas's Waterings, Camberwell, 18 February, ...

Picard, Jean

Astronomer, b. at La Flêche, 21 July, 1620; d. at Paris, 12 Oct., 1682. He was a priest ...

Piccolomini, Alessandro

Littérateur, philosopher, astronomer, b. 13 June, 1508; d. 12 March, 1578. He passed his ...

Piccolomini-Ammannati, Jacopo

A cardinal, born in the Villa Basilica near Lucca, 1422; died at San Lorenzo near Bolsena, 10 ...

Pichler

A renowned Austrian family of gem-cutters who lived and died in Italy. ANTONIO (JOHANN ...

Pichler, Vitus

Distinguished canonist and controversial writer, b. at Grosberghofen, 24 May, 1670; d. at Munich, ...

Pickering, Ven. Thomas

Lay brother and martyr, a member of an old Westmoreland family, b. c. 1621; executed at Tyburn, ...

Piconio, Bernadine a

(HENRI BERNARDINE DE PICQUIGNY) Born at Picquigny, Picardy, 1633; died in Paris, 8 December, ...

Picquet, François

A celebrated Sulpician missionary in Canada, b. at Bourg, Bresse, France, 4 Dec., 1708; d. at ...

Picture Bibles

In the Middle Ages the Church made use of pictures as a means of instruction, to supplement ...

Pie Pelicane, Jesu, Domine

The sixth quatrain of Adoro Te Devote , sometimes used as a separate hymn at Benediction of ...

Pie, Louis-Edouard-Désiré

Cardinal, born at Pontgouin, Diocese of Chartres, 1815; died at Angoulême, 1880. He studied ...

Pieck, Saint Nicholas

(Also spelled PICK). Friar Minor and martyr, b. at Gorkum, Holland, 29 August, 1534; d. at ...

Piedmont

( Italian Piemonte ). A part compartimento of northern Italy, bounded on the north by ...

Piel, Peter

A pioneer in the movement for reform of church music, b. at Kessewick, near Bonn, 12 Aug., 1835; ...

Pierius

A priest and probably head master of the catechetical school at Alexandria conjointly with ...

Pierre de Castelnau, Blessed

Born in the Diocese of Montpellier , Languedoc, now Department of Hérault, France ; died ...

Pierre de Maricourt

Surnamed PETER THE PILGRIM ( Petrus Peregrinus ) A physician of the Middle Ages. Under the ...

Pierron, Jean

A missionary, born at Dun-sur-Meuse, France, 28 Sept., 1631; date and place of death unknown. He ...

Pierson, Philippe

Born at Ath, Hainaut (Belgium), 4 January, 1642; died at Lorette, Quebec, 1688. At the age of ...

Pietism

Pietism is a movement within the ranks of Protestantism, originating in the reaction against the ...

Pighius, Albert

A theologian, mathematician, and astronomer, born at Kampen, Overyssel, Holland, about 1490; ...

Pignatelli, Venerable Giuseppe Maria

Born 27 December, 1737, in Saragossa, Spain ; died 11 November, 1811. His family was of ...

Pike, William

Martyr, born in Dorsetshire; died at Dorchester, dec., 1591. He was a joiner, and lived at West ...

Pilar, Nuestra Señora del

"Our Lady of the Pillar", a celebrated church and shrine, at Saragossa, Spain, containing a ...

Pilate, Pontius

After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ...

Pilchard, Venerable Thomas

( Or PILCHER). Martyr, born at Battle, Sussex, 1557; died at Dorchester, 21 March 1586-7. ...

Pileolus

( zucca , head). The small, round skullcap of the ecclesiastic. The official name is ...

Pilgrimage of Grace

The name given to the religious rising in the north of England, 1536. The cause of this great ...

Pilgrimages

(Middle English, pilgrime, Old French, pelegrin, derived from Latin peregrinum, supposed ...

Piligrim

Bishop of Passau, date of birth unknown; died 20 May, 991. He was educated at the ...

Pillar of Cloud/Fire

(P ILLAR OF F IRE ). A cloud which accompanied the Israelites during their wandering. It ...

Pima Indians

An important tribe of Southern Arizona, centering along the middle Gila and its affluent, the ...

Pinar del Rio

(Pinetensis ad Flumen) Located in Cuba, erected by the Brief "Actum præclare" of Leo ...

Pinara

A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Pinara was one of the chief cities of the Lycian ...

Pindemonte, Ippolito

An Italian poet of noble birth, born at Verona, 13 Nov., 1753; died there, 18 Nov., 1828. He ...

Pineda, John de

Born in Seville, 1558; died there, 27 Jan., 1637. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1572, ...

Pinerolo

(PINEROLIENSIS) Located in the province of Turin, in Piedmont, Northern Italy, suffragan of ...

Pingré, Alexandre Guy

Born in Paris 11 September, 1711; died 1 May, 1796. He was educated in Senlis at the college ...

Pinna da Encarnaçao, Mattheus

A writer and theologian, born at Rio de Janeiro, 23 Aug., 1687; died there, 18 Dec., 1764. On 3 ...

Pinto, Fernão Mendes

A Portuguese traveller, born at Montemor-o-Velho near Coimbra, c. 1509; died at Almada near ...

Pinturicchio

(BERNARDINO DI BETTO, surnamed PINTURICCHIO) Born at Verona, about 1454; died at Siena, 11 ...

Pinzón, Martín Alonso

Spanish navigator and companion of Columbus on his first voyage to the New World, b. at Palos ...

Piombo, Sebastiano del

More correctly known as S EBASTIANO L UCIANI . Venetian portrait painter, b. at Venice, ...

Pionius, Saint

Martyred at Smyrna, 12 March, 250. Pionius, with Sabina and Asclepiades, was arrested on 23 ...

Pious Fund of the Californias, The

(Fondo Piadoso de las Californias) The Pious Fund of the Californias had its origin, in 1697, ...

Pious Society of Missions, The

Founded by Ven. Vincent Mary Pallotti in 1835. The members of the society are generally called ...

Piranesi, Giambattista

An Italian etcher and engraver, b. at Venice, 1720; d. in Rome, 9 Nov., 1778. His uncle ...

Pirhing, Ernricus

Born at Sigarthin, near Passau, 1606; died between 1678 and 1681. At the age of twenty-two he ...

Pirkheimer

Charitas Pirkheimer Abbess of the Convent of St. Clara, of the Poor Clares, in Nuremberg, and ...

Piro Indians

A tribe of considerable importance, ranging by water for a distance of three hundred miles along ...

Pisa

ARCHDIOCESE OF PISA (PISÆ) Archdiocese in Tuscany, central Italy. The city is situated ...

Pisa, Council of

Preliminaries. The great Schism of the West had lasted thirty years (since 1378), and none of ...

Pisa, University of

In the eleventh century there were many jurisconsults at Pisa who lectured on law ; prominent ...

Pisano, Andrea

Or ANDREA DA PISA (the name by which Andrea da Pontadera is known). An Italian sculptor and ...

Pisano, Niccola

Architect and sculptor, b. at Pisa about 1205-07; d. there, 1278. He was the father of modern ...

Piscataway Indians

A tribe of Algonquian linguistic stock formerly occupying the peninsula of lower Maryland ...

Piscina

(Latin from piscis, a fish, fish-pond, pool or basin, called also sacrarium, thalassicon, or ...

Pise, Charles Constantine

Priest, poet, and prose writer, b. at Annapolis, Maryland, 22 Nov., 1801; d. at Brooklyn, New ...

Pisidia

A country in the southwestern part of Asia Minor, between the high Phrygian tableland and the ...

Pistoia and Prato

(PISTORIENSIS ET PRATENSIS) Located in the Province of Florence. The city of Pistoia is ...

Pistoia, Synod of

Held 18 to 28 September, 1786, by Scipio de’ Ricci, Bishop of Pistoia and Prato. It marks ...

Pistorius, Johann

A controversialist and historian, born at Nidda in Hesse, 14 February, 1546; died at Freiburg, 18 ...

Pithou, Pierre

A writer, born at Troyes, 1 Nov. 1539; died at Nogent-sur-Seine, 1 Nov., 1596. His father, a ...

Pitoni, Joseph

A musician, born at Rieti, Perugia, Italy, 18 March, 1657; died at Rome, 1 Feb., 1743, and ...

Pitra, Jean-Baptiste-François

Cardinal, famous archeologist and theologian, b. 1 August, 1812, at Champforgeuil in the ...

Pitts, John

Born at Alton, Hampshire, 1560; died at Liverdun, Lorraine, 17 Oct., 1616. He was educated at ...

Pittsburgh

DIOCESE OF PITTSBURG/PITTSBURGH (PITTSBURGENSIS). Suffragan of Philadelphia, in the United ...

Pityus

A titular see in Pontus Polemoniacus, suffragan of Neocæsarea. Pityus was a large and ...

Pius I, Pope Saint

Date of birth unknown; pope from about 140 to about 154. According to the earliest list of the ...

Pius II, Pope

(Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini). Born at Corsignano, near Siena, 18 Oct., 1405; elected 19 ...

Pius III, Pope

(Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini). B. at Siena, 29 May, 1439; elected 22 Sept., 1503; d. in ...

Pius IV, Pope

(Giovanni Angelo Medici). B. 31 March, 1499, at Milan ; elected 26 December, 1559; d. in ...

Pius IX, Pope

(G IOVANNI M ARIA M ASTAI -F ERRETTI ). Pope from 1846-78; born at Sinigaglia, 13 May, ...

Pius V, Pope Saint

(MICHELE GHISLERI). Born at Bosco, near Alexandria, Lombardy, 17 Jan., 1504 elected 7 Jan., ...

Pius VI, Pope

(G IOVANNI A NGELICO B RASCHI ). Born at Cesena, 27 December, 1717; elected 15 ...

Pius VII, Pope

(B ARNABA C HIARAMONTI ). Born at Cesena in the Pontifical States, 14 August, 1740; ...

Pius VIII, Pope

(Francesco Xaverio Castiglione). B. at Cingoli, 20 Nov., 1761; elected 31 March, 1829; d. 1 ...

Pius X, Pope Saint

(Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto). Born 2 June, 1835, at Riese, Province of Treviso, in Venice. His ...

Piusverein

The name given to Catholic associations in various countries of Europe. I. THE PIUS ...

Pizarro, Francisco

Born in Trujillo, Estremadura, Spain, probably in 1471; died at Lima, Peru, 26 June, 1541. He ...

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Pl 27

Placidus, Saint

St. Placidus, disciple of St. Benedict, the son of the patrician Tertullus, was brought as a ...

Plagues of Egypt

Ten calamities inflicted on the Egyptians to overcome Pharao's obstinacy and force him to let ...

Plain Chant

By plain chant we understand the church music of the early Middle Ages, before the advent of ...

Plantaganet, Henry Beaufort

Cardinal, Bishop of Winchester, born c. 1377; died at Westminster, 11 April, 1447. He was the ...

Plantin, Christophe

Book-binder and publisher of Antwerp, b. 1514, at or near Tours ( France ); d. 1 July, 1589, at ...

Plants in the Bible

When Moses spoke to the people about the Land of Promise, he described it as a "land of hills ...

Plasencia

(PLACENTINA) Plasencia comprises the civil provinces of Cáceres, Salamanca, and ...

Plateau, Joseph-Antoine

Belgian physicist, b. at Brussels, 14 Oct., 1801; d. at Ghent, 15 Sept., 1883. His father, a ...

Platina, Bartolomeo

Originally named S ACCHI, b. at Piadena, near Mantua, in 1421; d. at Rome, 1481. He first ...

Plato and Platonism

I. LIFE OF PLATO Plato ( Platon , "the broad shouldered") was born at Athens in 428 or 427 ...

Play, Pierre-Guillaume-Frédéric Le

A French economist, born at La Rivière (Calvados), 11 April, 1806; died at Paris, 5 ...

Plegmund

Archbishop of Canterbury, died 2 August, 914. He was a Mercian, and spent his early life near ...

Plenarium

A book of formulae and texts. Plenarium or Plenarius ( Liber ) is any book that contains ...

Plenary Council

A canonical term applied to various kinds of ecclesiastical synods. The word itself, derived from ...

Plessis, Joseph-Octave

Bishop of Quebec, born at Montreal, 3 March, 1763; died at Quebec, 4 Dec., 1822. He studied ...

Plethon, Georgius Gemistus

Born in Constantinople about 1355, died in the Peloponnesus, 1450. Out of veneration for Plato ...

Plock

(PLOCENSIS) Located in Russian Poland, suffragan of Warsaw, includes the district of Plock ...

Plowden, Charles

Born at Plowden Hall, Shropshire, 1743; died at Jougne, Doubs, France, 13 June, 1821. He was ...

Plowden, Edmund

Born 1517-8; died in London, 6 Feb., 1584-5. Son of Humphrey Plowden of Plowden Hall, Shropshire, ...

Plowden, Francis

Son of William Plowden of Plowden Hall, b. at Shropshire, 8 June, 1749; d. at Paris, 4 Jan., ...

Plowden, Robert

Elder brother of Charles, born 27 January, 1740; died at Wappenbury, 27 June, 1823. He entered ...

Plowden, Thomas

( Alias Salisbury). Born in Oxfordshire, England, 1594; died in London, 13 Feb., 1664; ...

Plowden, Thomas Percy

Born at Shiplake, Oxfordshire, England, 1672; died at Watten, 21 Sept., 1745; joined the Society ...

Plumier, Charles

(botanical abbreviation, Plum .) A French botanist, born at Marseilles, 20 April, 1646; ...

Plunket, Blessed Oliver

[ Editor's Note: St. Oliver Plunkett was canonized by Pope Paul VI on October 10, 1975.] ...

Pluscarden Priory

Founded in 1230 by Alexander III , King of Scotland, six miles from Elgin, Morayshire, for ...

Plymouth

(PLYMUTHENSIS, PLYMUTHÆ) Plymouth consists of the County of Dorset, which formed a ...

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Pn 1

Pneumatomachi (Macedonians)

(Macedonians) A heretical sect which flourished in the countries adjacent to the Hellespont ...

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Po 120

Poetry, Hebrew, of the Old Testament

Since the Bible is divinely inspired, and thus becomes the "written word" of God, many devout ...

Poggio Bracciolini, Giovanni Francesco

An Italian humanist and historian; born at Terranuova, near Arezzo, in 1380; died at Florence, ...

Poggio Mirteto

DIOCESE OF POGGIO MIRTETO (MANDELENSIS) Diocese in the province of Perugia, central Italy. The ...

Pogla

( ta Pogla ) Titular see in Pamphylia Secunda. Pogla is mentioned only by Ptolemy, V, 5, ...

Poitiers

D IOCESE OF P OITIERS (P ICTAVENSIS ) The Diocese of Poitiers includes the Departments of ...

Poland

I. GEOGRAPHY The western part of the Sarmatian Plain together with the northern slopes of the ...

Polding, John Bede

Archbishop of Sydney, born at Liverpool, 18 Oct., 1794; died at Sydney, 16 March, 1877. In 1805 ...

Pole, Blessed Margaret

Countess of Salisbury, martyr ; b. at Castle Farley, near Bath, 14 August, 1473; martyred at ...

Pole, Reginald

Cardinal, b. at Stourton Castle, Staffordshire, England, in March, 1500; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...

Polemonium

Titular see in Pontus Polemoniacus, suffragan of Neocæsarea. At the mouth of the Sidenus, ...

Poleni, Giovanni

Marquess, physicist, and antiquarian; b. at Venice, 23 Aug., 1683; d. at Padua, 14 Nov., 1761; ...

Poles in the United States

Causes of Immigration There is good foundation for the tradition that a Pole, John of Kolno (a ...

Policastro

DIOCESE OF POLICASTRO (POLICASTRENSIS) Diocese in the province of Salerno, Southern Italy. The ...

Polignac, Melchior de

Cardinal, diplomatist, and writer, b. of an ancient family of Auvergne, at Le Puy, France, 11 ...

Polish Literature

The subject will be divided, for convenience of treatment, into historical periods. First ...

Politi, Lancelot

(In religion AMBROSIUS CATHARINUS) Born at Siena, 1483; died at Naples, 1553. At sixteen he ...

Politian

(ANGIOLO DE 'AMBROSINI DA MONTE PULCIANO) An Italian Humanist, born at Monte Pulciano in 1454; ...

Political Economy, Science of

S CIENCE OF P OLITICAL E CONOMY (E CONOMICS ). I. DEFINITIONS Political economy (Greek, ...

Pollajuolo, Antonio and Piero Benci

Antonio and Piero Benci Pollajuolo derived their surname, according to Florentine custom, from ...

Polo, Marco

Traveller; born at Venice in 1251; died there in 1324. His father Nicolo and his uncle Matteo, ...

Polybotus

A titular see in Phrygia Salutaris, suffragan of Synnada. This town is mentioned only in the ...

Polycarp, Saint

Martyr (A.D. 69-155). Our chief sources of information concerning St. Polycarp are: (1) the ...

Polycarpus

The title of a canonical collection in eight books composed in Italy by Cardinal Gregorius. It is ...

Polyglot Bibles

The first Bible which may be considered a Polyglot is that edited at Alcalá (in Latin ...

Polystylum

A titular see of Macedonia Secunda, suffragan of Philippi. When Philippi was made a ...

Polytheism

The belief in, and consequent worship of, many gods. See the various articles on national ...

Pomaria

A titular see in Mauretania Cæsarea. It is north of Tlemcen (capital of an arrondissement ...

Pombal, Marquis de

S EBASTIâO J OSÉ DE C ARVALHO E M ELLO The son of a country gentleman of ...

Pomerania

A Prussian province on the Baltic Sea situated on both banks of the River Oder, divided into ...

Pompeiopolis

A titular see in Paphlagonia. The ancient name of the town is unknown; it may have been ...

Pomponazzi, Pietro

(POMPONATIUS, also known as PERETTO on account of his small stature) A philosopher and ...

Ponce de León, Juan

Explorer, born at San Servas in the province of Campos, 1460; died in Cuba, 1521. He was ...

Ponce, John

A philosopher and theologian, born at Cork, 1603, died at Paris, 1670. At an early age he went ...

Poncet, Joseph Anthony de la Rivière

Missionary; b. at Paris, 17 May, 1610; d. at Martinique, 18 June, 1675. He entered the Jesuit ...

Pondicherry

(PONDICHERIANA OR PUDICHERIANA) Located in India, it is bounded on the east by the Bay of ...

Pontefract Priory

Located in Yorkshire, England, a Cluniac monastery dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, founded ...

Pontian, Pope Saint

Dates of birth and death unknown. The "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, 145) gives Rome ...

Pontifical Colleges

In earlier times there existed in Europe outside of the city of Rome a large number of ...

Pontifical Decorations

Pontifical decorations are the titles of nobility, orders of Christian knighthood and other ...

Pontifical Mass

Pontifical Mass is the solemn Mass celebrated by a bishop with the ceremonies prescribed in the ...

Pontificale

( Pontificale Romanum ). A liturgical book which contains the rites for the performance ...

Pontificalia

(PONTIFICALS). The collective name given for convenience sake to those insignia of the ...

Pontigny, Abbey of

Second daughter of Cîteaux, was situated on the banks of the Serain, present Diocese of ...

Pontius Carbonell

Born at Barcelona, c. ú died c. 1320. Pontius and Carbonell are names frequently met with ...

Pontius Pilate

After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ...

Pontus

In ancient times, Pontus was the name of the north-eastern province of Asia Minor , a long ...

Pools in Scripture

In the English Bibles, the word "pool" stands for three Hebrew words: (1) 'agam means properly ...

Poona

(PUNENSIS) Diocese in India, comprises that portion of the Bombay Presidency which lies on ...

Poor Brothers of St. Francis Seraphicus

A congregation of lay brothers of the Third Order of St. Francis, instituted for charitable ...

Poor Catholics

( Pauperes Catholici ) A religious mendicant order, organized in 1208, to reunite the ...

Poor Child Jesus, Sisters of the

A congregation founded at Aachen in 1844 for the support and education of poor, orphan, and ...

Poor Clares

(POOR LADIES, SISTERS OF ST. CLARE) The Second Order of St. Francis. The subject will be treated ...

Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ

A community founded by Catherine Kasper, a native of Dernbach, Germany. She was born 26 May, 1820, ...

Poor Handmaids of the Mother of God

A religious congregation founded in 1808 by Mother Mary Magdalen Taylor in conjunction with ...

Poor Laws

Poor Laws are those legal enactments which have been made at various periods of the world's ...

Poor, Care of, by the Church

I. OBJECTS, HISTORY, AND ORGANIZATION A. The care of the poor is a branch of charity. In the ...

Poor, Little Sisters of the

An active, unenclosed religious congregation founded at St Servan, Brittany, 1839, through the ...

Poor, Sisters of the, of St. Francis

A Congregation, founded by the Venerable Mother Frances Schervier at Aachen in the year 1845, ...

Popayán

(POPAYANENSIS) Popayán lies approximately between 1º 20' and 3º 2' north ...

Pope, Alexander

Poet, son of Alexander Pope and his second wife, Edith Turner, b. in London, England, 22 May, ...

Pope, The

( Ecclesiastical Latin papa from Greek papas , a variant of pappas father, in classical ...

Popes, Chronological Lists of the

See also POPE, LIST OF POPES, PAPAL ELECTIONS, ELECTION OF THE POPE. The historical lists ...

Popes, Election of the

For current procedures regarding the election of the pope, see Pope John Paul II's 1996 Apostolic ...

Popes, List of

See also POPE, PAPAL ELECTIONS, ELECTION OF THE POPE. St. Peter (32-67) St. Linus (67-76) ...

Poppo, Saint

Abbot, born 977; died at Marchiennes, 25 January, 1048. He belonged to a noble family of ...

Popular Devotions

Devotion, in the language of ascetical writers, denotes a certain ardour of affection in the ...

Population, Theories of

Down to the end of the eighteenth century, very little attention was given to the relation between ...

Porch (or Vestibule, in Architecture)

A hall projecting in front of the façade of a church, found from the fifth century both ...

Pordenone, Giovanni Antonio

Italian painter, b. at Pordenone, 1483; d. at Ferrara, January, 1539. He is occasionally referred ...

Pordenone, Ordric of

A Franciscan missionary of a Czech family named Mattiussi, born at Villanova near Pordenone, ...

Pormort, Ven. Thomas

English martyr, b. at Hull about 1559; d. at St. Paul's Churchyard, 20 Feb., 1592. He was probably ...

Porphyreon

Titular see, suffragan of Tyre in Phoenicia Prima. It is described in the "Notitia Episcopatuum" ...

Porphyrius, Saint

Bishop of Gaza in Palestine, b. at Thessalonica about 347; d. at Gaza, 26 February, 420. ...

Porrecta, Serafino

Family name Capponi, called a Porrecta from the place of birth, theologian, b. 1536; d. at Bologna, ...

Port Augusta

(PORTAUGUSTANA) This diocese is a suffragan of Adelaide, South Australia, created in ...

Port Louis

(PORTUS LUDOVICI) This diocese comprises the islands of Mauritius, Rodriguez, Chagos, and ...

Port of Spain

(PORTUS HISPANIÆ) An archiepiscopal and metropolitan see, including the Islands of ...

Port Victoria

(PORTUS VICTORIÆ SEYCHELLARUM.) Port Victoria comprises the Seychelles Islands in the ...

Port-au-Prince

(PORTUS PRINCIPIS) This archdiocese comprises the western part of the Republic of Haiti. Its ...

Port-Royal

A celebrated Benedictine abbey which profoundly influenced the religious and literary life of ...

Porta, Carlo

Poet, b. at Milan in 1775; d. there 5 January, 1821; educated by the Jesuits at Monza and ...

Porta, Giacomo della

Architect and sculptor, b. at Porlizza on Lake Lugano 1541; d. 1604. He was a pupil of ...

Portable Altar

A portable altar consists of a solid piece of natural stone which must be sufficiently hard to ...

Portalegre

Suffragan diocese of Lisbon, Portugal, established by Pope Julius III in 1550. Its first ...

Porter

(Also called DOORKEEPER. From ostiarius , Latin ostium , a door.) Porter denoted among ...

Porter, George

Archbishop of Bombay, b. 1825 at Exeter, England ; d. at Bombay, 28 September, 1889. Of ...

Portiuncula

(PORZIONCULA or PORZIUNCOLA). A town and parish situated about three-quarters of a mile from ...

Portland

Diocese in the State of Maine ; suffragan of Boston ; established by Pius IX, 8 Dec., 1854. ...

Porto Alegre

(PORTALEGRENSIS) Located in Eastern Brazil. Porto Alegre, the capital and chief port of the ...

Porto Alegre

(PORTALEGREN) Porto Alegre comprises the southern part of the State of Minas Geraes, and part ...

Porto and Santa-Rufina

(PORTUENSIS ET SANCTÆ RUFINÆ) This diocese was formed from the union of two ...

Porto Rico

(PUERTO RICO) The smallest and most easterly of the Greater Antilles, rectangular in shape, ...

Portoviejo

(PORTUS VETERIS). A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Quito, Republic of Ecuador. It was ...

Portraits of the Apostles

The earliest fresco representing Christ surrounded by the Apostles dates from the beginning of ...

Portsmouth

(PORTUS MAGNUS, or PORTEMUTHENSIS) This diocese was created by a Brief of Leo XIII , ...

Portugal

I. GEOGRAPHY AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Portugal is situated on the west of the Iberian ...

Portuguese East Africa

Portuguese East Africa consists of the Province of Mozambique. Portuguese activity on that ...

Portuguese Literature

The Portuguese language was developed gradually from the lingua rustica spoken in the countries ...

Portuguese West Africa

The name usually given to the Province of Angola. It has a coast line of 1015 miles from the ...

Positivism

Positivism is a system of philosophical and religious doctrines elaborated by Auguste Comte. As ...

Possenti, Blessed Gabriel

Passionist student; renowned for sanctity and miracles ; born at Assisi, 1 March, 1838; died ...

Possession, Demonical

( See also DEMONOLOGY, DEMONIACS, EXORCISM, EXORCIST.) Man is in various ways subject to the ...

Possevinus, Antonius

Theologian and papal envoy, b. at Mantua in 1533 or 1534; d. at Ferrara, 26 Feb., 1611. At ...

Possidius, Saint

Bishop of Calama in Numidia, author of a short life of St. Augustine and of an indiculus or ...

Postcommunion

The Communion act finishes the essential Eucharistic service. Justin Martyr (I Apol., lxv-lxvi) ...

Postgate, Nicholas

English martyr, b. at Kirkdale House, Egton, Yorkshire, in 1596 or 1597; d. at York, 7 August, ...

Postulant

Postulancy is a preliminary stage to the novitiate existing from the institution of monasticism. ...

Postulation

( Latin postulare, to request) A postulation is a petition presented to a competent ...

Potawatomi Indians

An important tribe of Algonquin linguistic stock, closely related dialectically to the Ojibwa ...

Pothier, Robert Joseph

A celebrated French lawyer, b. at Orléans, 9 January, 1699; d. there, 2 March, 1772. His ...

Pouget, Jean-François-Albert du

Marquis de Nadaillac, b. in 1817; d. at Rougemont, Cloyes, 1 October, 1904; the scion of an old ...

Pounde, Thomas

Lay brother, b. at Beaumond (or Belmony), Farlington, Hampshire, 29 May, 1538; d. there, 26 Feb., ...

Poussin, Nicolas

French painter, b. at Les Andelys near Rouen in 1594; d. at Rome, 19 November, 1666. His early ...

Poverty

I. THE MORAL DOCTRINE OF POVERTY Jesus Christ did not condemn the possession of worldly goods, or ...

Poverty and Pauperism

See also CARE OF THE POOR BY THE CHURCH In a legal and technical sense, pauperism denotes the ...

Powel, Philip

( alias M ORGAN, alias P ROSSER ) Martyr, b. at Tralon, Brecknockshire, 2 Feb., 1594; d. ...

Powell, Blessed Edward

With Blessed Thomas Abel there suffered Edward Powell, priest and martyr, b. in Wales about ...

Poynter, William

Born 20 May, 1762, at Petersfield, Hants; died 26 Nov., 1827, in London. He was educated at the ...

Pozzo, Andreas

(P UTEUS ) Italian painter and architect of the Baroque period, b. at Trent, 1642; d. at ...

Pozzuoli

(PUTEOLANA) The city of Pozzuoli in the province of Naples, southern Italy, on the gulf of ...

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Pr 155

Prémare, Joseph Henri Marie de

Joseph Henri Marie de Prémare, missionary and sinologist, born at Cherbourg, 17 July, 1666; ...

Prémontré, Abbey of

Located about twelve miles west of Laon, Department of Aisne, France ; founded by St. Norbert. ...

Prüm

A former Benedictine abbey in Lorraine, now in the Diocese of Trier, founded by a Frankish ...

Prades, Jean-Martin de

A theologian, born about 1720 at Castelsarrasin ( Diocese of Montauban ), died in 1782 at ...

Prado, Jerome de

Exegete, b. at Baeza in Spain, 1547; d. at Rome, 13 Jan., 1595. He entered the Society of ...

Praelatus Nullius

(i.e. Dioceseos) A prelate who exercises quasi-episcopal jurisdiction in a territory not ...

Pragmatic Sanction

( pragmatica sanctio , lex , jussio , also pragmatica or pragmaticum ) Pragmatic ...

Pragmatism

Pragmatism, as a tendency in philosophy, signifies the insistence on usefulness or practical ...

Prague

(PRAGENSIS). An archdiocese in Bohemia. From about the middle of the sixth century Slavonic ...

Prague, University of

The University of Prague was founded by Charles IV with the consent of the Estates on the model ...

Praxeas

An early anti- Montanist, is known to us only by Tertullian's book "Adversus Praxean". His name ...

Praxedes and Pudentiana

Martyrs of an unknown era. The seventh-century itineraries to the graves of the Roman martyrs ...

Pray Brethren

The exhortation (" Pray brethren that my sacrifice and yours be acceptable to God the Father ...

Pray, George

Abbot, canon, librarian of the University library of Buda, and important Hungarian historian, b. ...

Prayer

(Greek euchesthai , Latin precari , French prier , to plead, to beg, to ask earnestly). ...

Prayer of Christ, Feast of the

This feast occurs on the Tuesday after Septuagesima (double major). Its object is to ...

Prayer of Quiet

The Prayer of Quiet is regarded by all writers on mystical theology as one of the degrees of ...

Prayer, Lord's

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

Prayer-Books

By "prayer-books" usage generally understands a collection of forms of prayer intended for ...

Prayers for the Dead

This subject will be treated under the following three heads: I. General Statement and Proof of ...

Preacher Apostolic

A dignitary of the pontifical household. As a regular function, under special Regulations, this ...

Preachers, Order of

As the Order of the Friars Preachers is the principal part of the entire Order of St. Dominic, we ...

Preadamites

The supposed inhabitants of the earth prior to Adam. Strictly speaking, the expression ought to be ...

Prebend

The right of a member of a chapter to his share in the revenues of the cathedral ; also the ...

Precaria

( Preces , prayers ). A precaria is a contract granting to a petitioner the use and ...

Precedence

( Latin præcedere , to go before another). Precedence signifies the right to enjoy ...

Precentor

(Latin Præcentor , from præ , before- cantor singer). A word describing ...

Precept

( Precept: From the Latin præceptum from præcipere , to command). Precept , ...

Precious Blood

The blood of our Divine Saviour. Jesus, at the Last Supper, ascribes to it the same life-giving ...

Precious Blood, Archconfraternity of the Most

Confraternities which made it their special object to venerate the Blood of Christ first arose in ...

Precious Blood, Congregation of the Most

An association of secular priests living in community, whose principal aim is to give missions ...

Precious Blood, Congregations of the

I. BERNADINES OF THE PRECIOUS BLOOD A congregation of nuns, no longer in existence, founded by ...

Precious Blood, Feast of the Most

For many dioceses there are two days to which the Office of the Precious Blood has been ...

Precipiano, Humbert-Guillaume de, Count

Born at Besançon, 1626; died at Brussels, 7 June, 1711. Having studied the classics at ...

Preconization

(Latin præconizare , to publish, from præco , herald, public crier) This word ...

Predestinarianism

Predestinarianism is a heresy not unfrequently met with in the course of the centuries which ...

Predestination

Predestination ( Latin prœ , destinare ), taken in its widest meaning, is every Divine ...

Preface

( Latin Præfatio ). The first part of the Eucharistic prayers ( Anaphora or Canon) in ...

Prefect Apostolic

( Latin prœfectus, one put over or in charge of something) During the last few ...

Prefecture Apostolic (Supplemental List)

(SUPPLEMENTAL LIST) An account is here given of the prefectures Apostolic that have been ...

Prelate

Real Prelate, the incumbent of a prelature, i.e., of an ecclesiastical office with special and ...

Premonstratensian Canons

(C ANONICI R EGULARES P RÆMONSTRATENSES ). Founded in 1120 by St. Norbert at ...

Presbyterianism

Presbyterianism in a wide sense is the system of church government by representative assemblies ...

Presbytery

The part of the church reserved for the higher clergy was known in antiquity by various names, ...

Prescription

(Latin prœ , before, and scribere , to write, in later legal Latin involving the idea ...

Prescription in Civil Jurisprudence

Prescription "in some form and under some name" is said to have existed as a part of the municipal ...

Presence of God

Doctrinal All solid devotion and devotional practices must be founded upon the truths of ...

Presence, Real

In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

Presentation Brothers

In the early part of the nineteenth century when the Penal Laws were relaxed, and the ban which ...

Presentation of Mary, Congregation of the

This congregation, devoted to the education of young girls, was founded in 1796 at Theuyts, ...

Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the

The Protoevangel of James, the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, the Gospel of the Nativity of Mary, and ...

Presentation, Feast of the

Also called: Purification of the Blessed Virgin (Greek Hypapante ), Feast of the Presentation of ...

Presentation, Order of the

An Order founded at Cork, Ireland, by Nano (Honoria) Nagle (see below). In 1775 she entered with ...

Presentation, Religious Congregations of the

(1) Daughters of the Presentation , founded in 1627 by Nicolas Sanguin (b. 1580; d. 1653), ...

Presentation, Right of

Out of gratitude for the foundation or endowment of churches and benefices, the Church grants ...

Prester John

Name of a legendary Eastern priest and king. FIRST STAGE The mythical journey to Rome of a ...

Preston, Thomas

( Alias R OGER W IDDRINGTON ). Benedictine, d. in the Clink prison, 5 April, 1640. He ...

Preston, Thomas Scott

The Vicar-General of New York, prothonotary Apostolic, chancellor, distinguished convert, ...

Presumption

(Latin praesumere , "to take before", "to take for granted"). Presumption is here ...

Presumption

(IN CANON LAW) A term signifying a reasonable conjecture concerning something doubtful, drawn ...

Pretorium

This name is derived from the Latin prætorium, in later Greek tò ...

Pride

Pride is the excessive love of one's own excellence. It is ordinarily accounted one of the seven ...

Priene

A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. The foundation of the town of Priene dates ...

Priest

This word (etymologically "elder", from presbyteros , presbyter ) has taken the meaning of ...

Priest, Assistant

The assistant priest ( presbyter assistens , anciently called capellanus ) is the first and ...

Priest, High

The high-priest in the Old Testament is called by various names: the priest ( Numbers 3:6 ); ...

Priesthood

The word priest (Germ. Priester ; Fr. prêtre ; Ital. prete ) is derived from the ...

Priestly Perseverance, Association of

A sacerdotal association founded in 1868 at Vienna, and at first confined to that Archdiocese. ...

Priests' Communion League

An association of priests established at Rome on 20 July, 1906, in the Church of San ...

Priests' Eucharistic League

I. Object The Priests' Eucharistic League (Confraternitas sacerdotalis adorationis Sanctissimi ...

Priests, Confraternities of

Three confraternities of priests -- the Apostolic Union, the Priests' Eucharistic League, ...

Primacy

(Latin primatus, primus , first). The supreme episcopal jurisdiction of the pope as ...

Primadicci, James

(Or Primadizzi.) Born at Bologna; died in the same city in 1460. As early as the year 1426 he ...

Primate

(Lat. primas, from primus, "first"). In the Western Church a primate is a bishop ...

Prime

I. THE NAME The name Prime ( prima hora ) belongs with those of Terce, Sext, None, to the ...

Primer, The

The common English name for a book of devotions which from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century ...

Primicerius

(Etymologically primus in cera , sc. in tabula cerata , the first in a list of a class of ...

Primus and Felician, Saints

Suffered martyrdom about 304 in the Diocletian persecution. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" ...

Prince Albert, Diocese of

A suffragan see of St. Boniface, Manitoba, in the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Originally ...

Prior

A monastic superior. In the Rule of St. Benedict the term prior occurs several times, but ...

Prioress

(Priorissa, Praeposita). A superioress in a monastic community for women. The term prioress ...

Priory

A monastery whose superior is a prior. The Dominicans, Augustinian Hermits, Carthusians, ...

Prisca, Saint

She was a martyr of the Roman Church, whose dates are unknown. The name Prisca or Priscilla ...

Priscianus

Latin grammarian, born at Caesarea (Mauretania) , taught at Constantinople under Anastatius I ...

Priscilla and Aquila

( Or Prisca.) Jewish tentmakers, who left Rome (Aquila was a native of Pontus ) in the ...

Priscillianism

This heresy originated in Spain in the fourth century and was derived from the Gnostic - ...

Prisons

I. IN ANCIENT TIMES Many jurisconsults and Scriptural interpreters include imprisonment among ...

Prisons, Ecclesiastical

It is plain from many decrees in the "Corpus Juris Canonici" that the Church has claimed and ...

Privilege

( Latin, privilegium , like priva lex ) Privilege is a permanent concession made by a ...

Privileged Altar

An altar is said to be privileged when, in addition to the ordinary fruits of the Eucharistic ...

Privileges, Ecclesiastical

Ecclesiastical privileges are exceptions to the Law made in favour of the clergy or in favour ...

Proba, Faltonia

A Christian poetess of the fourth century. The name Faltonia is doubtful and is apparently due ...

Probabilism

Probabilism is the moral system which holds that, when there is question solely of the ...

Probus, Marcus Aurelius

Roman Emperor, 276-82, raised to the throne by the army in Syria to succeed Tacitus. Of humble ...

Probus, Tarachus, and Andronicus, Saints

Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...

Processional Cross

A processional cross is simply a crucifix which is carried at the head of a procession, and ...

Processional, Roman

Strictly speaking it might be said that the Processional has no recognized place in the Roman ...

Processions

Processions, an element in all ceremonial, are to be found, as we should expect, in almost every ...

Processus and Martinian, Saints

The dates of these martyrs are unknown. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" (ed. De ...

Proclus, Saint

Patriarch of Constantinople. Saint Proclus died in 446 or 447. Proclus came to the fore in the ...

Proconnesus

(PRŒCONNESUS) A titular see in Hellespont. Proconnesus was the name of an island ...

Procopius of Caesarea

Byzantine historian, b. in the latter years of the fifth century at Caesarea in Palestine , d. ...

Procter, Adelaide Anne

Poetess and philanthropist, b. in London, England, 30 October, 1825; d. in London, 2 February, ...

Procurator

A person who manages the affairs of another by virtue of a charge received from him. There are ...

Profession, Religious

HISTORICAL VIEW Profession may be considered either as a declaration openly made, or as a state ...

Promise, Divine

The term promise in Holy Writ both in its nominal and verbal form embraces not only promises ...

Promotor Fidei

(P ROMOTER OF THE F AITH ). An official of the Roman Congregation of Rites. The office ...

Promulgation

( Latin promulgare, to make known, to post in public). I. PROMULGATION IN GENERAL This is the ...

Proof

Proof is the establishment of a disputed or controverted matter by lawful means or arguments. ...

Propaganda, Sacred Congregation of

The Sacred Congregation de Propaganda Fide , whose official title is "sacra congregatio ...

Propagation of the Faith, The Society for the

This society is an international association for the assistance by prayers and alms of ...

Property

I. NOTION OF PROPERTY The proprietor or owner of a thing, in the current acceptation of the word, ...

Property, Ecclesiastical

Abstract Right of Ownership That the Church has the right to acquire and possess temporal ...

Property, Ecclesiastical, in the United States

The Third Plenary Council of Baltimore decreed (tit. IX, cap. i, n. 264): "We must hold, ...

Prophecy

As the term is used in mystical theology , it applies both to the prophecies of canonical ...

Prophecy, Prophet, and Prophetess

I. IN THE OLD TESTAMENT A. Introduction Yahweh had forbidden Israel all kinds of oracles in ...

Proprium

The Proprium de tempore and the Proprium Sanctorum form in the present liturgy the two ...

Proschko, Franz Isidor

A well-known Austrian author, born at Hohenfurt, Bohemia, 2 April, 1816; died at Vienna, 6 ...

Prose or Sequence

I. DEFINITION AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION The Sequence ( Sequentia )–or, more accurately as ...

Proselyte

( proselytos , stranger or newcomer; Vulgate, advena ). The English term "proselyte" ...

Proske, Karl

Born at Grobing in Upper Silesia, 11 Feb., 1794; died 20 Dec., 1861. He took his degree as Doctor ...

Prosper of Aquitaine, Tiro

The first sure date in the life of Prosper is that of his letter to St. Augustine written ...

Protasius and Gervasius, Saints

Martyrs of Milan, probably in the second century, patrons of the city of Milan and of ...

Protector, Altar

A cover made of cloth, baize or velvet which is placed on the table of the altar, during the ...

Protectorate of Missions

The right of protection exercised by a Christian power in an infidel country with regard to ...

Protectories

The institutions for the shelter and training of the young, designed to afford neglected or ...

Protestant Episcopal Church

The history of this religious organization divides itself naturally into two portions: the period ...

Protestantism

The subject will be treated under the following heads, viz.: I. Origin of the Name. II. ...

Prothonotary Apostolic

A member of the highest college of prelates in the Roman Curia, and also of the honorary ...

Protocol

The formula used at the beginning of public acts drawn up by notaries, e.g., mention of the reign, ...

Protopope

A priest of higher rank in the Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches, corresponding in ...

Protus and Hyacinth, Saints

Martyrs during the persecution of Valerian (257-9). The day of their annual commemoration is ...

Prout, Father

The name by which the Rev. Francis Sylvester Mahony (O'Mahony), author of "The Bells of ...

Provancher, Léon Abel

Naturalist, b. 10 March, 1820, in the parish of Béconcourt, Nicolet county, Province of ...

Proverbs, Book of

One of the Sapiential writings of the Old Testament placed in the Hebrew Bible among the ...

Providence, Congregations of (I)

Founded at Paris, by Madame Polaillon (Marie de Lumague), a devout widow. In 1643 Madame ...

Providence, Congregations of (II)

(St. Mary-of-the-Woods) Among the teaching religious orders that originated in France at ...

Providence, Congregations of (III)

SISTERS OF CHARITY The Sisters of xxyyyk.htm">Providence, known also as Sisters of ...

Providence, Congregations of (IV)

Founded at Turin in 1834 by the Marchesa Julia Falletti de Barolo for the care of children and ...

Providence, Congregations of (V)

SISTERS OF THE INSTITUTE OF CHARITY An offshoot from the Sisters of xxyyyk.htm">Providence, ...

Providence, Diocese of

(PROVIDENTIENSIS) Co-extensive with the State of Rhode Island . When erected (17 Feb., 1872) ...

Providence, Divine

( Latin, Providentia ; Greek, pronoia ). Providence in general, or foresight, is a ...

Province, Ecclesiastical

The name given to an ecclesiastical administrative district under the jurisdiction of an ...

Provincial

An officer acting under the superior general of a religious order, and exercising a general ...

Provincial Council

A deliberative assembly of the bishops of an ecclesiastical province, summoned and presided ...

Provision, Canonical

Canonical Provision is a term signifying regular induction into a benefice, comprising three ...

Provisors, Statute of

The English statute usually so designated is the 25th of Edward III, St. 4 (1350-1), otherwise ...

Provost

(Latin, prœpositus; French, prévôt; German, Probst ) Anciently (St. ...

Prudence

(Latin prudentia , contracted from providentia , seeing ahead). One of the four ...

Prudentius

(GALINDO) A Bishop of Troyes, born in Spain ; died at Troyes on 6 April, 861; celebrated ...

Prudentius, Aurelius Clemens

A Christian poet, born in the Tarraconensis, Northern Spain, 348; died probably in Spain, ...

Prusias ad Hypium

Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in the Honoriad. Memnon, the historian, says that Prusias ...

Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia at the present time covers 134,616 square miles and includes about 64.8 ...

Przemysl

(PREMISLIENSIS) Latin see in Galicia, suffragan of Lemberg. After conquering Halicz and ...

Przemysl, Sambor, and Sanok

(PREMISLIENSIS, SAMBORIENSIS, ET SANOCHIENSIS) A Græco-Ruthenian Uniat diocese of ...

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Ps 7

Psalms

The Psalter, or Book of Psalms, is the first book of the "Writings" ( Kethubhim or Hagiographa ...

Psalms, Alphabetic

Alphabetic psalms are so called because their successive verses, or successive parallel series, ...

Psalterium

The Psalterium, or Book of the Psalms, only concerns us here in so far as it was transcribed ...

Psaume, Nicholas

(also PSAULME, PREAUME, Latin PSALMÆUS) Bishop of Verdun, born at Chaumont-sur-Aire in ...

Psellus, Michael

( Michael ho Psellos ), Byzantine statesman, scholar, and author, born apparently at ...

Psychology

(Greek psyche, logos ; Latin psychologia; French psychologie; German Seelenkunde ) In ...

Psychotherapy

(from the Greek psyche , "mind", and therapeuo , "I cure") Psychotherapy is that ...

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Pt 3

Ptolemais

Ptolemais, a titular see in Egypt, metropolis of Thebais Secunda. Ptolemais owes its name to ...

Ptolemais

(SAINT-JEAN D'ACRE) Ptolemais, a titular metropolis in Phoenicia Prima, or Maritima. The ...

Ptolemy the Gnostic

A heretic of the second century and personal disciple of Valentinus. He was probably still ...

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Pu 31

Public Authority

Civil Authority is the moral power of command, supported (when need be) by physical coercion, ...

Public Honesty (Decency)

A diriment matrimonial impediment consisting in a relationship, which arises from a valid ...

Publican

Publican , in the Gospels, is derived from the publicanus of the Vulgate, and signifies a ...

Pueblo Indians

NAME From the Spanish word meaning "village" or "town". A term used collectively to designate ...

Puget, Pierre

A painter, sculptor, architect, and naval constructor, born at Marseilles, 31 Oct., 1622; died ...

Pugh, George Ellis

A jurist and statesman, born at Cincinnati, Ohio., 28 November, 1822; died there, 19 July, 1876. ...

Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmore

Architect and archeologist, born in London, 1 March, 1812; died at Ramsgate, 14 September, 1852; ...

Puiseux, Victor-Alexandre

French mathematician and astronomer, b. 16 April, 1820, at Argenteuil (Seine-et-Oise); d. 9 ...

Pulaski, Casimir

Patriot and soldier, b. at Winiary, Poland, 4 March, 1748; d. on the Wasp, in the harbour of ...

Pulati

(The Diocese of Pulati: Pulatensis or Polatinensis ). The ancient Pulati in Albania no ...

Pulcheria, Saint

Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire, eldest daughter of the Emperor Arcadius, b. 19 Jan., 399; d. ...

Pulci, Luigi

An Italian poet, born at Florence, 15 Aug., 1432; died at Padua in 1484. The Pulci gave many ...

Pullen, Robert

(POLENIUS, PULLAN, PULLEIN, PULLENUS, PULLY, LA POULE) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Died 1147 (?). ...

Pullus, Robert

(PULLEN, PULLAN, PULLY.) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Cardinal, English philosopher and ...

Pulpit

( Latin pulpitum , a stage or scaffold) An elevated stand to preach on. To elucidate the ...

Punishment, Capital

The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime. The ...

Puno

DIOCESE OF PUNO (PUNIENSIS) Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lima in Peru. Its jurisdiction ...

Purcell, John Baptist

Archbishop of Cincinnati, born at Mallow, Ireland, 26 Feb., 1800; died at the convent of the ...

Purgative Way

The word state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers. It may be ...

Purgatorial Societies

Pious associations or confraternities in the Catholic Church, which have as their purpose to ...

Purgatory

The subject is treated under these heads: I. Catholic Doctrine II. Errors III. Proofs IV. Duration ...

Purgatory, St. Patrick's

Lough Derg, Ireland. This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal, in the Diocese of Clogher, dates ...

Purim

(P HURIM ). The origin of the name is disputed: some derive it from the Persian pure ...

Puritans

One of the chief difficulties in studying the various movements loosely spoken of as Puritanism is ...

Pusey and Puseyism

Edward Bouverie Pusey, born at Pusey House, Berkshire, 22 Aug., 1800; died at Ascot Priory, ...

Pustet

The name of a family of well-known Catholic publishers. The original home of the Pustets was ...

Putative Marriage

Putative (Latin, putativus supposed) signifies that which is commonly thought, reputed, or ...

Puteanus, Erycius

(ERRIJCK DE PUT) Born at Venloo, in Dutch Limbourg, 4 Nov., 1574; died at Louvain, 17 Sept., ...

Putzer, Joseph

Theologian and canonist, b. at Rodaneck, Tyrol, 4 March, 1836; d. at Ilchester, Md., 15 May, ...

Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre

French painter, b. at Lyons, 14 Dec., 1824; d. at Paris, 24 Oct., 1898. Through his father ...

Puyallup Indians

An important tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, formerly holding the territory along the river of ...

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Py 4

Pyrker, Johann Ladislaus von Oberwart

(FELSÖ-EÖR) He was born at Langh near Stuhlweissenburg, Hungary, 2 Nov., 1772; died ...

Pyrrhonism

Pyrrhonism is a system of scepticism, the founder of which was Pyrrho, a Greek philosopher, ...

Pythagoras and Pythagoreanism

Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher and mathematician and founder of the Pythagorean school, ...

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