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Thomism

In a broad sense, Thomism is the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. Thomas Aquinas in philosophical and theological questions. In a restricted sense the term is applied to a group of opinions held by a school called Thomistic, composed principally, but not exclusively, of members of the Order of St. Dominic, these same opinions being attacked by other philosophers or theologians, many of whom profess to be followers of St. Thomas.

  • To Thomism in the first sense are opposed, e.g., the Scotists, who deny that satisfaction is a part of the proximate matter ( materia proxima ) of the Sacrament of Penance. Anti-Thomists, in this sense of the word, reject opinions admittedly taught by St. Thomas.
  • To Thomism in the second sense are opposed, e.g. the Molinists, as well as all who defend the moral instrumental causality of the sacraments in producing grace against the system of physical instrumental causality, the latter being a doctrine of the Thomistic School.
Anti-Thomism in such cases does not necessarily imply opposition to St. Thomas: It means opposition to tenets of the Thomistic School. Cardinal Billot, for instance, would not admit that he opposed St. Thomas by rejecting the Thomistic theory on the causality of the sacraments. In the Thomistic School, also, we do not always find absolute unanimity. Baflez and Billuart do not always agree with Cajetan, though all belong to the Thomistic School. It does not come within the scope of this article to determine who have the best right to be considered the true exponents of St. Thomas.

The subject may be treated under the following headings:

I. Thomism in general, from the thirteenth century down to the nineteenth;
II. The Thomistic School;
III. Neo-Thomism and the revival of Scholasticism.IV. Eminent Thomists

I. THE DOCTRINE IN GENERAL

A. Early Opposition Overcome

Although St. Thomas (d. 1274) was highly esteemed by all classes, his opinions did not at once gain the ascendancy and influence which they acquired during the first half of the fourteenth century and which they have since maintained. Strange as it may appear, the first serious opposition came from Paris, of which he was such an ornament, and from some of his own monastic brethren. In the year 1277 Stephen Tempier, Bishop of Paris, censured certain philosophical propositions, embodying doctrines taught by St. Thomas, relating especially to the principle of individuation and to the possibility of creating several angels of the same species. In the same year Robert Kilwardby, a Dominican, Archbishop of Canterbury, in conjunction with some doctors of Oxford, condemned those same propositions and moreover attacked St. Thomas's doctrine of the unity of the substantial form in man. Kilwardby and his associates pretended to see in the condemned propositions something of Averroistic Aristoteleanism, whilst the secular doctors of Paris had not fully forgiven one who had triumphed over them in the controversy as to the rights of the mendicant friars. The storm excited by these condemnations was of short duration. Blessed Albertus Magnus, in his old age, hastened to Paris to defend his beloved disciple. The Dominican Order, assembled in general chapter at Milan in 1278 and at Paris in 1279, adopted severe measures against the members who had spoken injuriously of the venerable Brother Thomas. When William de la Mare, O.S.F., wrote a "Correptorium fratris Thom~", an English Dominican, Richard Clapwell (or Clapole), replied in a treatise "Contra corruptorium fratris Thomae". About the same time there appeared a work, which was afterwards printed at Venice (1516) under the title, "Correctorium corruptorii S. Thomae", attributed by some to Ægidius Romanus, by others to Clapwell, by others to Father John of Paris. St. Thomas was solemnly vindicated when the Council of Vienna (1311-12) defined, against Peter John Olivi, that the rational soul is the substantial form of the human body (on this definition see Zigliara, "De mente Conc. Vicnn.", Rome, 1878). The canonization of St. Thomas by John XXII, in 1323, was a death-blow to his detractors. In 1324 Stephen de Bourret, Bishop of Paris, revoked the censure pronounced by his predecessor, declaring that "that blessed confessor and excellent doctor, Thomas Aquinas, had never believed, taught, or written anything contrary to the Faith or good morals ". It is doubtful whether Tempier and his associates acted in the name of the University of Paris , which had always been loyal to St. Thomas. When this university, in 1378, wrote a letter condemning the errors of John de Montesono, it was explicitly declared that the condemnation was not aimed at St. Thomas: "We have said a thousand times, and yet, it would seem, not often enough, that we by no means include the doctrine of St. Thomas in our condemnation." An account of these attacks and defences will be found in the following works: Echard, "Script. ord. prad.", I, 279 (Paris, 1719); De Rubeis, "Diss. crit.", Diss. xxv, xxvi, I, p. cclxviii; Leonine edit. Works of St. Thomas; Denifle, "Chart. univ. Paris" (Paris, 1890-91), I, 543, 558, 566; II, 6, 280; Duplessis d'Argentré, "Collectio judiciorum de novis erroribus" (3 vols., Paris, 1733-36), 1, 175 sqq.; Du Boulay , "Hist. univ. Par.", IV, 205, 436, 618, 622, 627; Jourdain, "La phil. de S. Thomas d'Aquin" (Paris, 1858), II, i; Douais, "Essai sur l'organization des études dans l'ordre des ff. prêcheurs" (Paris and Toulouse, 1884), 87 sqq.; Mortier, "Hist. des maîtres gén. de l'ordre des ff. prêch.", II, 115142, 571; "Acta cap. gen. ord. praed.", ed. Reichert (9 vols., Rome, 1893-1904, II; Turner, "Hist. of Phil." (Boston, 1903), xxxix.

B. Progress of Thomism

The general chapter of the Dominican Order, held at Carcassonne in 1342, declared that the doctrine of St. Thomas had been received as sound and solid throughout the world (Douais, op. cit., 106). His works were consulted from the time they became known, and by the middle of the fourteenth century his "Summa Theologica" had supplanted the "Libri quatuor sententiarum", of Peter Lombard as the text-book of theology in the Dominican schools. With the growth of the order and the widening of its influence Thomism spread throughout the world; St. Thomas became the great master in the universities and in the studia of the religious orders (see Encyc. "Aeterni Patris" of Leo XIII ). The fifteenth and sixteenth centuries saw Thomism in a triumphal march which led to the crowning of St. Thomas as the Prince of Theologians, when his "Summa was laid beside the Sacred Scriptures at the Council of Trent, and St. Pius V, in 1567, proclaimed him a Doctor of the Universal Church. The publication of the "Piana" edition of his works, in 1570, and the multiplication of editions of the "Opera omnia" and of the "Summa" during the seventeenth century and part of the eighteenth show that Thomism flourished during that period. In fact it was during that period that some of the great commentators (for example, Francisco Suárez, Sylvius, and Billuart) adapted his works to the needs of the times.

C. Decline of Scholasticism and of Thomism

Gradually, however, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, there came a decline in the study of the works of the great Scholastics. Scholars believed that there was need of a new system of studies, and, instead of building upon and around Scholasticism, they drifted away from it. The chief causes which brought about the change were Protestantism, Humanism, the study of nature, and the French Revolution. Positive theology was considered more necessary in discussions with the Protestants than Scholastic definitions and divisions. Elegance of dietion was sought by the Humanists in the Greek and Latin classics, rather than in the works of the Scholastics, many of whom were far from being masters of style. The discoveries of Copernicus (d. 1543), Kepler (d. 1631), Galileo (d. 1642), and Newton (d. 1727) were not favourably received by the Scholastics. The experimental sciences were in honour ; the Scholastics including St. Thomas, were neglected (cf. Turner, op cit., 433). Finally, the French Revolution disorganized all ecclesiastical studies, dealing to Thomisn a blow from which it did not fully recover until the last quarter of the nineteenth century. At the time when Billuart (d. 1757) published his "Summa Sancti Thoma hodiernis academiarum moribus accomodata" Thomism still held an important place in all theological discussion. The tremendous upheaval which disturbed Europe from 1798 to 1815 affected the Church as well as the State. The University of Louvain, which had been largely Thomistic, was compelled to close its doors, and other important institutions of learning were either closed or seriously hampered in their work. The Dominican Order , which naturally had supplied the most ardent Thomists, was crushed in France, Germany, Switzerland, and Belgium. The province of Holland was almost destroyed, whilst the provinces of Austria and Italy were left to struggle for their very existence. The University of Manila (1645) continued to teach the doctrines of St. Thomas and in due time gave to the world Cardinal Zephyrinus González, O.P., who contributed in no small degree to the revival of Thomism under Leo XIII .

D. Distinctive Doctrines of Thomism in General

(1) In Philosophy

  • The angels and human souls are without matter, but every material composite being ( compositum ) has two parts, prime matter and substantial form. In a composite being which has substantial unity and is not merely an aggregate of distinct units, there can be but one substantial form. The substantial form of man is his soul ( anima rationalis ) to the exclusion of any other soul and of any other substantial form. The principle of individuation, for material composites, is matter with its dimensions: without this there can be no merely numerical multiplication: distinction in the form makes specific distinction: hence there cannot be two angels of the same species.
  • The essences of things do not depend on the free will of God, but on His intellect, and ultimately on His essence, which is immutable. The natural law, being derived from the eternal law, depends on the mind of God, ultimately on the essence of God ; hence it is intrinsically immutable. Some actions are forbidden by God because they are bad: they are not bad simply because He forbids them [see Zigliara, "Sum. phil." (3 vols., Paris, 1889), ccx, xi, II, M. 23, 24, 25].
  • The will moves the intellect quoad exercitium , i.e. in its actual operation: the intellect moves the will quoad specificationem , i.e. by presenting objects to it: nil volitum nisi praecognitum . The beginning of all our acts is the apprehension and desire of good in general ( bonum in communi ). We desire happiness ( bonum in communi ) naturally and necessarily, not by a free deliberate act. Particular goods ( bona particularia ) we choose freely; and the will is a blind faculty, always following the last practical judgment of the intellect (Zigliara, 51).
  • The senses and the intellect are passive, i.e. recipient, faculties; they do not create, but receive (i.e. perceive) their objects (St. Thomas, I, Q. lxxviii, a. 3; Q. lxxix, a. 2; Zigliara, 26, 27). If this principle is borne in mind there is no reason for Kant's "Critique of Pure Reason". On the other hand those faculties are not like wax, or the sensitive plate used by photog raphers, in the sense that they are inert and receive impressions unconsciously. The will controls the exercise of the faculties, and the process of acquiring knowledge is a vital process: the moving cause is always within the living agent.
  • The Peripatetic axiom: " Nihil est in intellectu quod non prius in sensu " (Nothing is in the intellect that was not first in the senses), is admitted; but St. Thomas modifies it by saying: first, that, once the sense objects have been perceived, the intellect ascends to the knowledge of higher things, even of God ; and, secondly, that the soul knows its own existence by itself (i.e. by its own act), although it knows its own nature only by refiection on its acts. Knowledge begins by sense perception, but the range of the intellect is far beyond that of the senses. In the soul as soon as it begins to act are found the first principles ( prima principia ) of all knowledge, not in the form of an objective illumination, but in the form of a subjective inclination to admit them on account of their evidence. As soon as they are proposed we see that they are true ; there is no more reason for doubting them than there is for denying the existence of the sun when we see it shining (see Zigliara, op. cit., pp. 32-42).
  • The direct and primary object of the intellect is the universal, which is prepared and presented to the passive intellect ( intellectus possibilis ) by the active intellect ( intellectus agens ) which illuminates the phantasmata, or mental images, received through the senses, and divests them of all individuating conditions. This is called abstracting the universal idea from the phantasmata, but the term must not be taken in a matrialistic sense. Abstraction is not a transferring of something from one place to another; the illumination causes all material and individuating conditions to disappear, then the universal alone shines out and is perceived by the vital action of the intellect (Q. lxxxiv, a. 4; Q. lxxxv, a. 1, ad lum, 3um, 4um). The process throughout is so vital, and so far elevated above material conditions and modes of action, that the nature of the acts and of the objects apprehended proves the soul to be immaterial and spiritual.
  • The soul, by its very nature, is immortal. Not only is it true that God will not annihilate the soul, but from its very nature it will always continue to exist, there being in it no principle of disintegration (Zigliara, p. 9). Hence human reason can prove the incorruptibility (i.e. immortality ) of the soul.
  • The existence of God is not known by an innate idea, it cannot be proved by arguments a priori or a simultaneo ; but it can be demonstrated by a posteriori arguments. Ontologism was never taught by St. Thomas or by Thomists (see Lepidi, "Exam. phil. theol. de ontologismo", Louvain, 1874, c. 19; Zigliara, Theses I, VIII).
  • There are no human (i.e. deliberate) acts indifferent in individuo .

(2) In Theology

  • Faith and science, i.e. knowledge by demonstration, cannot co-exist in the same subject with regard to the same object (Zigliara, O, 32, VII); and the same is true of knowledge and opinion.
  • The metaphysical essence of God consists, according to some Thomists, in the intelligere actualissimum , i.e. fulness of pure intellection, according to others in the perfection of aseitas , i.e. in dependent existence (Zigliara, Th. VIII, IX).
  • The happiness of heaven, formally and in the ultimate analysis, consists in the vision, not in the fruition, of God.
  • The Divine attributes are distinguished from the Divine nature and from each other by a virtual distinction, i.e. by a distinctio rationis cum fundamento a parte rei . The distinctio actualis formalis of Scotus is rejected.
  • In attempting to explain the mystery of the Trinity -- in as far as man can conceive it -- the relations must be considered perfectiones simpliciter simplices , i.e. excluding all imperfection. The Holy Ghost would not be distinct from the Son if He did not proceed from the Son as well as from the Father.
  • The angels, being pure spirits, are not, properly speaking, in any place; they are said to be in the place, or in the places, where they exercise their activity (Summa, I, Q. lii, a. 1). Strictly speaking, there is no such thing as an angel passing from place to place; but if an angel wishes to exercise its activity first in Japan and afterwards in America, it can do so in two instants (of angelic time ), and need not pass through the intervening space (Q. liii). St. Thomas does not discuss the question "How many angels can dance on the point of a needle?" He reminds us that we must not think of angels as if they were corporeal, and that, for an angel, it makes no difference whether the sphere of his activity be the point of a needle or a continent (Q. lii, a. 2). Many angels cannot be said to be in the same place at the same time, for this would mean that whilst one angel is producing an effect others could be producing the same effect at the same time. There can be but one angel in the same place at the same time (Q. lii, a. 3). The knowledge of the angels comes through ideas ( species ) infused by God (QQ. lv, a.2, lvii, a.2, lviii, a.7). They do not naturally know future contingents, the secrets of souls, or the mysteries of grace (Q. lvii, aa. 3, 45). The angels choose either good or evil instantly, and with full knowledge ; hence their judgment is naturally final and irrevocable (Q. lxiv, a. 2).
  • Man was created in the state of sanctifying grace. Grace was not due to his nature, but God granted it to him from the beginning (I, Q. xcv, a. 1). So great was the per fection of man in the state of original justice, and so perfect the subjection of his lower faculties to the higher, that his first sin could not have been a venia] sin (I-II, Q. lxxxix, a. 3).
  • It is more probable that the Incarnation would not have taken place had man not sinned (III, Q. i, a. 3). In Christ there were three kinds of knowledge : the scientia beata , i.e. the knowledge of things in the Divine Essence ; the scientia infusa , i.e. the knowledge of things through infused ideas ( species ), and the scientia acquisita , i.e. acquired or experimental knowledge, which was nothing more than the actual experience of things which he already knew. On this last point St. Thomas, in the "Summa" (Q. ix, a. 4), explicitly retracts an opinion which he had once held (III Sent., d. 14, Q. iii, a. 3).
  • All sacraments of the New Law, including confirmation and extreme unction, were instituted immediately by Christ. Circumcision was a sacrament of the Old Law and conferred grace which removed the stain of original sin. The children of Jews or of other unbelievers may not be baptized without the consent of their parents (III, Q. lxviii, a. 10; 11-Il, Q. x, a. 12; Denzinger -Bannwart, n. 1481). Contrition, confession, and satisfaction are the proximate matter ( materia proxima ) of the Sacrament of Penance . Thomists hold, against the Scotists, that when Transubstantiation takes place in the Mass the Body of Christ is not made present per modum adduclionis , i.e. is not brought to the altar, but they do not agree in selecting the term which should be used to express this action (cf. Billuart, "De Euchar.", Diss. i, a. 7). Cardinal Billot holds ("Dc cccl. sacr.", Rome, 1900, Th. XI, "Dc euchar.", p. 379) that the best, and the only possible, explanation is the one given by St. Thomas himself: Christ becomes present by transubstantiation, i.e. by the conversion of the substance of bread into the substance of His body (III, Q. lxxv, a. 4; Sent., d. XI, Q. i, a. 1, q. 1). After the consecration the accidents ( accidentia ) of the bread and wine are preserved by Almighty God without a subject (Q. lxxxvii, a. 1). It was on this question that the doctors of Paris sought enlightenment from St. Thomas (see Vaughan, "Life and Labours of St. Thomas", London, 1872, II, p. 544). The earlier Thomists, following St. Thomas (Suppl., Q. xxxvii, a. 2), taught that the sub-diaconate and the four minor orders were partial sacraments. Some recent Thomists -- e.g., Billot (op. cit., p. 282) and Tanquerey (De ordine, n. 16) -- defend this opinion as more probable and more in conformity with the definitions of the councils. The giving of the chalice with wine and of the paten with bread Thomists generally held to be an essential part of ordination to the priesthood. Some, however, taught that the imposition of hands was at least necessary. On the question of divorce under the Mosaic Law the disciples of St. Thomas, like the saint himself (Suppl., Q. lxvii, a. 3), wavered, some holding that a dispensation was granted, others teaching that divorce was merely tolerated in order to avoid greater evils.

THE THOMISTIC SCHOOL

The chief doctrines distinctive of this school, composed principally of Dominican writers, are the following:

A. In Philosophy
  • The unity of substantial form in composite beings, applied to man, requires that the soul be the substantial form of the man, so as to exclude even the forma corporeitatis , admitted by Henry of Ghent, Scotus, and others (cf. Zigliara, P. 13; Denzinger -Bannwart, in note to n. 1655).
  • In created beings there is a real distinction between the essentia (essence) and the existentia (existence); between the essentia and the subsistentia ; between the real relation and its foundation; between the soul and its faculties; between the several faculties. There can be no medium between a distinctio realis and a distinctio rationis , or conceptual distinction; hence the distinctio formalis a parte rei of Scotus cannot be admitted. For Thomistic doctrines on free will, God's knowledge, etc., see below.
  • B. In Theology
  • In the beatific vision God's essence takes the place not only of the species impressa , but also of the species expressa .
  • All moral virtues, the acquired as well as the infused, in their perfect state, are interconneted.
  • According to Billuart (De pecc., diss. vii, a. 6), it has been a matter of controversy between Thomists whether the malice of a mortal sin is absolutely infinite.
  • In choosing a medium between Rigorism and Laxism, the Thomistic school has been Antiprobabilistic and generally has adopted Probabiliorism. Some defended Equiprobabilism, or Probabilism cum compensatione . Medina and St. Antoninus are claimed by the Probabilists.
  • Thomistic theologians generally, whilst they defended the infallibility of the Roman pontiff, denied that the pope had the power to dissolve a matrimonium ratum or to dispense from a solemn vow made to God. When it was urged that some popes had granted such favours, they cited other pontiffs who declared that they could not grant them (cf. Billuart, "De matrim.", Diss. v, a. 2), and said, with Dominic Soto, "Factum pontificium non facit articulum fidei" (The action of a pope does not constitute an article of faith, in 4 dist., 27, Q. i, a. 4). Thomists of today are of a different mind, owing to the practice of the Church.
  • The hypostatic union, without any additional grace, rendered Christ impeccable. The Word was hypostatically united to the blood of Christ and remained united to it, even during the interval between His death and resurrection ( Denzinger -Bannwart, n. 718). During that same interval the Body of Christ had a transitory form, called forma cadaverica (Zigliara, P. 16, 17, IV).
  • The sacraments of the New Law cause grace not only as instrumental moral causes, but by a mode of causality which should be called instrumental and physical. In the attrition required in the Sacrament of Penance there should be at least a beginning of the love of God ; sorrow for sin springing solely from the fear of hell will not suffice.
  • Many theologians of the Thomistic School, especially before the Council of Trent, opposed the doctrine of Mary's Immaculate Conception, claiming that in this they were following St. Thomas. This, however, has not been the opinion either of the entire school or of the Dominican Order as a body. Father Rouard de Card, in his book "L'ordre des freres precheurs et l'Immaculée Conception "(Brussels, 1864), called attention to the fact that ten thousand professors of the order defended Mary's great privilege. At the Council of Trent twenty-five Dominican bishops signed a petition for the definition of the dogma. Thousands of Dominicans, in taking degrees at the University of Paris, solemnly pledged themselves to defend the Immaculate Conception.
  • The Thomistic School is distinguished from other schools of theology chiefly by its doctrines on the difficult questions relating to God's action on the free will of man, God's foreknowledge, grace, and predestination. In the articles on these subjects will be found an exposition of the different theories advanced by the different schools in their effort to explain these mysteries, for such they are in reality. As to the value of these theories the following points should be borne in mind:
    • No theory has as yet been proposed which avoids all difficulties and solves all doubts ;
    • on the main and most difficult of these questions some who are at times listed as Molinists -- notably Bellarmine, Francisco Suárez, Francis de Lugo, and, in our own days, Cardinal Billot ("De deo uno et trino", Rome, 1902, Th. XXXII) -- agree with the Thomists in defending predestination ante praevisa merita . Bossuet, after a long study of the question of physical premotion, adapted the Thomistic opinion ("Du libre arbitre", c. viii).
    • Thomists do not claim to be able to explain, except by a general reference to God's omnipotence , how man remains free under the action of God, which they consider necessary in order to preserve and explain the universality of God's causality and the independent certainty of His foreknowledge. No man can explain, except by a reference to God's infinite power, how the world was created out of nothing, yet we do not on this account deny creation, for we know that it must be admitted. In like manner the main question put to Thomists in this controversy should be not "How will you explain man's liberty?" but "What are your reasons for claiming so much for God's action?" If the reasons assigned are insufficient, then one great difficulty is removed, but there remains to be solved the problem of God's foreknowledge of man's free acts. If they are valid, then we must accept them with their necessary consequences and humbly confess our inability fully to explain how wisdom "reacheth . . . from end to end mightily, and ordereth all things sweetly" ( Wisdom 8:1 ).
    • Most important of all, it must be clearly understood and remembered that the Thomistic system on predestination neither saves fewer nor sends to perdition more souls than any other system held by Catholic theologians. In regard to the number of the elect there is no unanimity on either side; this is not the question in dispute between the Molinists and the Thomists. The discussions, too often animated and needlessly sharp, turned on this point: How does it happen that, although God sincerely desires the salvation of all men, some are to be saved, and must thank God for whatever merits they may have amassed, whilst others will be lost, and will know that they themselves, and not God, are to be blamed? -- The facts in the case are admitted by all Catholic theologians. The Thomists, appealing to the authority of St. Augustine and St. Thomas, defend a system which follows the admitted facts to their logical conclusions. T he elect are saved by the grace of God, which operates on their wills efficaciously and infallibly without detriment to their liberty; and since God sincerely desires the salvation of all men, He is prepared to grant that same grace to others, if they do not, by a free act, render themselves unworthy of it. The faculty of placing obstacles to Divine grace is the unhappy faculty of sinning ; and the existence of moral evil in the world is a problem to be solved by all, not by the Thomists alone. The fundamental difficulties in this mysterious question are the existence of evil and the non-salvation of some, be they few or be they many, under the rule of an omnipotent, all-wise, and all-merciful God, and they miss the point of the controversy who suppose that these difficulties exist only for the Thomists. The truth is known to lie somewhere between Calvinism and Jansenism on the one hand, and Semipelagianism on the other. The efforts made by theologians and the various explanations offered by Augustinians, Thomists, Molinists, and Congruists show how difficult of solution are the questions involved. Perhaps we shall never know, in this world, how a just and merciful God provides in some special manner for the elect and yet sincerely loves all men. The celebrated Congregatio de Auxiliis did not forever put an end to the controversies, and the question is not yet settled.
  • III. NEO-THOMISM AND THE REVIVAL OF SCHOLASTICISM

    When the world in the first part of the nineteenth century began to enjoy a period of peace and rest after the disturbances caused by the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, closer attention was given to ecclesiastical studies and Scholasticism was revived. This movement eventually caused a revival of Thomism, because the great master and model proposed by Leo XIII in the encyclical "Aeterni Patris" (4 Aug., 1879) was St. Thomas Aquinas. . . . The Thomistic doctrine had received strong support from the older universities. Among these the Encyclical "Aeterni Patris" mentions Paris, Salamanca, Alcalá Douai, Toulouse, Louvain, Padua, Bologna, Naples, and Coimbra as "the homes of human wisdom where Thomas reigned supreme, and the minds of all, teachers as well as taught, rested in wonderful harmony under the shield and authority of the Angelic Doctor ". In the universities established by the Dominicans at Lima (1551) and Manila (1645) St. Thomas always held sway. The same is true of the Minerva school at Rome (1255), which ranked as a university from the year 1580, and is now the international Collegio Angelico. Coming down to our own times and the results of the Encyclical, which gave a new impetus to the study of St. Thomas's works, the most important centres of activity are Rome, Louvain, Fribourg (Switzerland), and Washington. At Louvain the chair of Thomistic philosophy, established in 1880, became, in 1889-90, the "Institut supérieur de philosophie" or "Ecole St. Thomas d'Aquin," where Professor Mercier, now Cardinal Archbishop of Mechlin, ably and wisely directed the new Thomistic movement (see De Wulf, " Scholasticism Old and New", tr. Coffey, New York, 1907, append., p. 261; "Irish Ecel. Record", Jan. 1906). The theological department of the University of Fribourg, Switzerland, established in 1889, has been entrusted to the Dominicans. By the publication of the "Revue thomiste" the professors of that university have contributed greatly to a new knowledge and appreciation of St. Thomas. The Constitution of the Catholic University of America at Washington enjoins special veneration for St. Thomas; the School of Sacred Sciences must follow his leadership ("Const. Cath. Univ. Amer.", Rome, 1889, pp. 38, 43). The University of Ottawa and Laval University are the centres of Thomism in Canada. The appreciation of St. Thomas in our days, in Europe and in America, is well set forth in Perrier's excellent "Revival of Scholastic Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century" (New York, 1909).

    IV. EMINENT THOMISTS

    After the middle of the fourteenth century the vast majority of philosophical and theological writers either wrote commentaries on the works of St. Thomas or based their teachings on his writings. It is impossible, therefore, to give here a complete list of the Thomists: only the more important names can be given. Unless otherwise noted, the authors belonged to the Order of St. Dominic. Those marked (*) were devoted to Thomism in general, but were not of the Thomistic School. A more complete list will be found in the works cited at the end of this article.

    Thirteenth Century

    Thomas de Cantimpré (1270); Hugh of St. Cher (1263); Vincent of Bauvais (1264); St. Raymond de Pennafort (1275); Peter of Tarentaise ( Pope Innocent V -- 1276); Giles de Lassines (1278); Reginald de Piperno (1279); William de Moerbeka (1286); Raymond Marti (1286); Bernard de Trilia (1292); Bernard of Hotun, Bishop of Dublin (1298); Theodoric of Apoldia (1299); Thomas Sutton (1300).

    Fourteenth Century

    Peter of Auvergne (1301); Nicholas Boccasini, Benedict XI (1304); Godfrey of Fontaines (1304); Walter of Winterburn (1305); Ægidius Colonna (Aigidius Romanus), O.S.A (1243-1316); William of Paris (1314); Gerard of Bologna, Carmelite (1317); four biographers, viz Peter Calo (1310); William de Tocco (1324); Bartolommeo of Lucca (1327); Bernard Guidonis * (1331); Dante (1321); Natalis Hervieus (1323); Petrus de Palude (Paludanusi -- 1342); Thomas Bradwardin, Archbishop of Canterbury (1349); Robert Holkott (1349); John Tauler (1361); Bl. Henry Suso (1365); Thomas of Strasburg, O.S.A. (1357); Jacobus Passavante (1357); Nicholas Roselli (1362); Durandus of Aurillac (1382), sometimes called Durandulus, because he wrote against Durandus a S. Portiano*, who was first a Thomist, afterwards an independent writer, attacking many of St. Thomas's doctrines; John Bromyard (1390); Nicholas Eymeric (1399).

    Fifteenth Century

    Manuel Calecas (1410); St. Vincent Ferrer (1415); Bl. John Dominici (1419); John Gerson *, chancellor of the University of Paris (1429); Luis of Valladolid (1436); Raymond Sabunde (1437); John Nieder (1437); Capreolus (1444), called the "Prince of Thomists"; John de Montenegro (1445); Fra Angelico (1455); St. Antoninus (1459); Nicholas of Cusa *, of the Brothers of the Common Life (1464); John of Torquemada (de Turrecrematai, 1468); Bessarion, Basilian (1472); Alanus de Rupe (1475); John Faber (1477); Petrus Niger (1471); Peter of Bergamo (1482); Jerome Savonarola (1498).

    Sixteenth Century

    Felix Faber (1502); Vincent Bandelli (1506); John Tetzel (1519); Diego de Deza (1523); Sylvester Mazzolini (1523); Francesco Silvestro di Ferrara (1528); Thomas de Vio Cajetan (1534) (commentaries by these two are published in the Leonine edition of the works of St. Thomas); Conrad Koellin (1536); Chrysostom Javelli (1538); Santes Pagnino (1541); Francisco de Vitoria (1546); Franc. Romseus (1552); Ambrosius Catherinus* (Lancelot Politi, 1553); St. Ignatius of Loyola (1556) enjoined devotion to St. Thomas; Matthew Ory (1557); Dominic Soto (1560); Melchior Cano (1560); Ambrose Pelargus (1561); Peter Soto (1563); Sixtus of Siena (1569); John Faber (1570); St. Pius V (1572); Bartholomew Medina (1581); Vincent Justiniani (1582); Maldonatus * (Juan Maldonado, 1583); St. Charles Borromeo * (1584); Salmerón* (1585); Ven. Louis of Granada (1588); Bartholomew of Braga (1590); Toletus* (1596); Bl. Peter Canisius* (1597); Thomas Stapleton *, Doctor of Louvain (1598); Fonseca (1599); Molina* (1600).

    Seventeenth Century

    Valentia* (1603); Domingo Baflez (1604); Vásquez* (1604); Bart. Ledesma (1604); Sánchez* (1610); Baronius * (1607); Capponi a Porrecta (1614); Aur. Menochio * (1615); Petr. Ledesma (1616); Francisco Suárez * (1617); Du Perron, a converted Calvinist, cardinal (1618); Bellarmine * (1621); St. Francis de Sales * (1622); Hieronymus Medices (1622); Lessius * (1623); Becanus* (1624); Malvenda (1628); Thomas de Lemos (1629); Alvarez; Laymann * (1635); Joann. Wiggers*, doctor of Louvain (1639); Gravina (1643); John of St. Thomas (1644); Serra (1647); Ripalda*, S.J. (1648); Sylvius (Du Bois), doctor of Douai (1649); Petavius * (1652); Goar (1625); Steph. Menochio, S.J. * (1655); Franc. Pignatelli * (1656); De Lugo * (1660); Bollandus* (1665); Jammy (1665); Vallgornera (1665); Labbe * (1667); Pallavicini* (1667); Busenbaum * (1668); Nicolni* (1673); Contenson (1674); Jac. Pignatelli * (1675); Passerini* (1677); Gonet (1681); Bancel (1685); Thomassin * (1695); Goudin (1695); Sfrondati* (1696); Quetif (1698); Rocaberti (1699); Casanate (1700). To this period belong the Carmelite Salmanticenses , authors of the "Cursus theologicus" (1631-72).

    Eighteenth Century

    Guerinois (1703); Bossuet, Bishop of Meaux; Norisins, O.S.A. (1704); Diana (1705); Thyrsus González* (1705); Massoulié (1706); Du hamel* (1706); Wigandt (1708); Piny (1709); Lacroix* (1714); Carrières * (1717); Natalis Alexander (1724); Echard (1724); Tourney*, doctor of the Sorbonne (1729); Livarius de Meyer* (1730); Benedict XIII * (1730); Graveson (1733); Th. du Jardin (1733); Hyacintha Serry (1738); Duplessis d'Argentré* (1740); Gotti (1742); Drouin* (1742); Antoine* (1743); Lallemant* (1748); Milante* (1749); Preingue (1752); Concina (1759); Billuart (1757); Benedict XIV * (1758); Cuiliati (1759); Orsi (1761); Charlevoix * (1761); Reuter* (1762); Baumgartner* (1764); Berti * (1766); Patuzzi (1769); De Rubeis (1775); Touron (1775); Thomas de Burgo (1776); Gener* (1781); Roselli (1783); St. Aiphonsus Liguori (1787); Mamachi (1792); Richard (1794).

    Nineteenth Century

    In this century there are few names to be recorded outside of those who were connected with the Thomistic revival either as the forerunners, the promoters, or the writers of the Neo-Scholastic period.

    More Volume: T 528

    Click/Touch the sub-volume below to view encyclopedia articles within the sub-volume.

    1

    Tænarum

    Tænarum, a titular see in Greece, suffragan of Corinth. Tænarum, or Tænarus, ...

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    1

    Téllez, Gabriel

    Spanish priest and poet, better known by his pseudonym of Tirso de Molina, b. at Madrid, c. ...

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    1

    Tübingen, University of

    Located in Würtemberg ; founded by Count Eberhard im Bart on 3 July, 1477, after Pope ...

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    Ta 91

    Tabæ

    Titular see in Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis ; according to Strabo (XII, 570, 576) it was ...

    Tabasco

    (TABASQUENSIS) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of the Archbishopric of ...

    Tabb, John Bannister

    An American poet and educator, born at "The Forest" near Richmond, 1845; died at Ellicott City, ...

    Tabbora

    A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Tabbora or Talbora has been ...

    Tabernacle

    (TABERNACULUM). Tabernacle signified in the Middle Ages sometimes a ciborium-altar, a ...

    Tabernacle

    (Latin tabernaculum , tent). Tabernacle in Biblical parlance usually designates the ...

    Tabernacle Lamp

    In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should ...

    Tabernacle Societies

    The Association of Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament and of work for poor churches ...

    Tabernacle Society

    Notre Dame Convent, Philadelphia; a society of persons affiliated with the Association of ...

    Tabernacles, Feast of

    One of the three great feasts of the Hebrew liturgical calendar, even the greatest, according ...

    Tabor, Mount

    The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...

    Tacana Indians

    The collective designation for a group of tribes constituting the Tacanan linguistic stock in ...

    Tacapæ

    Titular see of Tripolitana in northern Africa. The official list of titular sees of the ...

    Taché, Alexandre-Antonin

    First Archbishop of St. Boniface, Manitoba, missionary, prelate, statesman, and writer of ...

    Taché, Etienne-Pascal

    Statesman, b. at St. Thomas (Montmagny, Province of Quebec ), 5 Sept., 1795, son of Charles, and ...

    Tadama

    A titular see in Mauretania Cæsariensis, of which nothing, is known. Its bishop David is ...

    Taensa Indians

    A tribe of Muskhogean stock and somewhat superior culture, living when first known on the west ...

    Tahiti

    Tahiti, the most important of the Society Islands, has an area of 600 square miles and a ...

    Taigi, Ven. Anna Maria

    ( Maiden name Giannetti.) Venerable Servant of God, born at Siena, Italy, 29 May, 1769; ...

    Tait Indians

    ( Te-it , "Those up river"). A collective term for those members of the Cowichan tribe, of ...

    Takkali

    (More proper Takhehi, plural Takhehlne). The hybrid name by which the Carrier Indians of the ...

    Talbot, James

    Fourth son of George Talbot and brother of the fourteenth Earl of Shrewsbury (b. 1726; d. ...

    Talbot, John

    English Catholic layman, b. 1535(?); d. 1607(?). Only son and heir of Sir John Talbot, of ...

    Talbot, Peter

    Archbishop of Dublin, 1669-1680; b. at Malahide, Dublin, in 1620. At an early age he entered ...

    Talbot, Thomas Joseph

    Born 14 February, 1727; died at Hotwells, near Bristol, 24 April, 1795. Brother of the fourteenth ...

    Tallagaht, Monastery of

    The name Tallaght (Irish Tamlachta ), derived from tam , plague, and lecht , stone ...

    Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles-Maurice de

    Prince of Benevento, Bishop of Autun, French minister and ambassador, born in Paris, 13 ...

    Tallis, Thomas

    English composer, born about 1514; died 23 November, 1585. He was a chorister at Saint ...

    Talmud

    1. DEFINITION Talmud was a post-Biblical substantive formation of Pi'el ("to teach"), and ...

    Talon, Jean

    First intendant in exercise of New France , b. at Châlons-sur-Marne, 1625, of Philippe ...

    Talon, Nicolas

    French Jesuit, historian, and ascetical writer, b. at Moulins, 31 August, 1605; d. at Paris, 29 ...

    Talon, Pierre

    A French-Canadian explorer, b. at Quebec, 1676, of Lucien and Isabelle Planteau; d. in France ...

    Tamanac Indians

    A formerly important tribe of Cariban linguistic stock occupying the territory about the Cuchivero ...

    Tamassus

    A titular see in Cyprus, suffragan of Salamis, was situated in the great central plain of the ...

    Tamaulipas

    (CIVTTATIS VICTORIÆ SIVE TAMAULIPENSIS) Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of ...

    Tamburini, Michelangelo

    Fourteenth General of the Society of Jesus , born at Modena, 27 Sept., 1648; died 28 Feb., ...

    Tamburini, Thomas

    Moral theologian, born at Caltanisetta in Sicily, 6 March, 1591; died at Palermo 10 October, ...

    Tametsi

    ("ALTHOUGH") The first word of Chapter 1, Session 24 ( De Ref. Matr. ), of the Council of ...

    Tamisier, Marie-Marthe-Baptistine

    (Called by her intimates EMILIA) Initiator of international Eucharistic congresses, born at ...

    Tanagra

    A titular see in Hellas, suffragan of Corinth ; it was a town of Bœotia, in a fertile ...

    Tancred

    Prince of Antioch, born about 1072; died at Antioch, 12 Dec., 1112. He was the son of Marquess ...

    Taney, Roger Brooke

    (Pronounced Tawney ) Fifth chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, ...

    Tanguay, Cyprien

    Genealogist, born at Quebec, 1819; died 1902. After a course of classics and theology at Quebec ...

    Tanis

    A titular see, suffragan of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima, capital of the fourteenth district ...

    Tanner, Adam

    Controversialist, born at Innsbruck in 1571; died at Unken, 25 May, 1632. He entered the Society ...

    Tanner, Conrad

    Abbot of Einsiedeln, born at Arth in the Canton of Schwyz, 28 Dec., 1752; died 7 April, 1825. He ...

    Tanner, Edmund

    Bishop of Cork and Cloyne, Ireland, 1574-1579; born about 1526; died 1579. The statement in ...

    Tanner, Matthias

    Born at Pilsen in Bohemia, 28 Feb., 1630; died at Prague, 8 Feb., 1692. He entered the Society ...

    Tantum Ergo

    The opening words of the penultimate stanza of the Vesper hymn (see PANGE LINGUA GLORIOSI, II) ...

    Tanucci, Bernardo

    Marchese, Italian statesman, born at Stia in Tuscany, of poor family, in 1698 died at Naples, 29 ...

    Taoism

    (TAO-KIAO.) Taoism is the second of the three state religions ( San-kiao ) of China. ...

    Taos Pueblo

    An important town of the Pueblo group, inhabited by Indians speaking the Tigua language of ...

    Taparelli, Aloysius

    (D'AZEGLIO, christened PROSPERO) Philosopher and writer on sociological subjects, born at ...

    Tapestry

    A word of French origin naming a fabric in which the two processes of weaving and embroidering ...

    Tapis, Esteban

    Born at Santa Coloma de Farnes, Catalonia, Spain, 25 Aug., 1754; died 3 Nov., 1825. He entered ...

    Tarabotti, Helena

    Nun and authoress, b. at Venice, 1605; d. there 1652. Obliged by her father, who was descended ...

    Tarachus, Probus, and Andronicus, Saints

    Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...

    Taranto

    DIOCESE OF TARANTO (TARENTINA) Diocese in southern Italy, on a bay in the Gulf of Taranto. The ...

    Tarapacá

    VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF TARAPACA (DE TARAPACA). Situated in Chile, bounded on the north by the ...

    Tarasius, Saint

    Patriarch of Constantinople, date of birth unknown; died 25 February, 806. He was the son of the ...

    Tarazona

    DIOCESE OF TARAZONA (TURIASONENSIS) The Diocese of Tarazona comprises the Spanish provinces of ...

    Tarbes

    DIOCESE OF TARBES (TARBIA) The Diocese of Tarbes comprises the Department of the ...

    Tarentaise

    (TARANTASIENSIS) Tarentaise comprises the arrondissement of Moutiers in the Department of ...

    Targum

    Targum is the distinctive designation of the Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the Old ...

    Tarisel, Pierre

    Master-mason to the king, b. about 1442; d. in August, 1510. (In 1555 the title of architect was ...

    Tarkin, Saint

    (Talarican.) Bishop of Sodor (including the western islands of Scotland ), was probably of ...

    Tarnow

    DIOCESE OF TARNOW (TARNOVIENSIS). Diocese in western Galicia, Austria. The See of Posen, ...

    Tarquini, Camillus

    Cardinal, Jesuit canonist and archaeologist, b. at Marta in the diocese of Montefiascone, ...

    Tarragona

    ARCHDIOCESE OF TARRAGONA (TARRACONENSIS) Bounded on the north by Barcelona and Lérida, ...

    Tarsicius, Saint

    Martyr. The only positive information concerning this Roman martyr is found in the poem composed ...

    Tarsus

    A metropolitan see of Cilicia Prima. It appears to have been of Semitic origin and is ...

    Tartaglia, Nicolò

    (T ARTALEA ). Italian mathematician, b. at Brescia, c. 1500; d. at Venice, 13 December, ...

    Tartini, Giuseppe

    Violinist, composer, and theorist, b. at Pirano, Italy, 12 April, 1692; d. at Padua, 16 Feb., ...

    Taschereau, Elzéar-Alexandre

    Archbishop of Quebec and first Canadian cardinal, b. 17 February, 1820, at la Beauce, Province ...

    Tassé, Joseph

    Writer and journalist, born at Montreal, 23 Oct., 1848; died 17 Jan., 1895; son of Joseph, and ...

    Tassach, Saint

    Irish saint, born in the first decade of the fifth century; died about 497. He was one of St. ...

    Tassin, René-Prosper

    French historian, belonging to the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Lonlay, in ...

    Tasso, Torquato

    Italian poet, born at Sorrento near Naples in 1544; died at Rome, in 1595; son of Bernardo ...

    Tassoni, Alessandro

    Italian poet, born at Modena in 1565; died there in 1635. He spent his life in the service of ...

    Tatian

    A second-century apologist about whose antecedents and early history nothing can be affirmed ...

    Tatwin, Saint

    (TATUINI) Archbishop of Canterbury ; died 30 July, 734. A Mercian by birth, he became a ...

    Taubaté

    (DE TAUBATÉ) Diocese in Brazil, South America, established on 29 April, 1908, as a ...

    Tauler, John

    German Dominican, one of the greatest mystics and preachers of the Middle Ages, born at ...

    Taunton, Ethelred

    Writer, born at Rugeley, Staffordshire, England, 17 Oct., 1857; died in London, 9 May, 1907. He ...

    Taverner, John

    Composer, b. in the County of Norfolk, England, about 1475; d. at Boston, England, 1535 or 1536. ...

    Tavistock Abbey

    Tavistock Abbey, on the Tavy River in Devonshire, England, founded for Benedictine monks in ...

    Tavium

    A titular see in Galatia Prima, suffragan of Ancyra. Tavium, or Tavia, was the chief city of ...

    Taxa Innocentiana

    A Decree issued by Innocent XI, 1 Oct., 1678, regulating the fees that may be demanded or ...

    Taxster, John de

    (TAYSTER) John de Taxster, sometimes erroneously called Taxter or Taxston, was a ...

    Taylor, Frances Margaret

    (MOTHER M. MAGDALEN TAYLOR) Superior General, and foundress of the Poor Servants of the Mother ...

    Taylor, Ven. Hugh

    English martyr, born at Durham ; hanged, drawn, and quartered at York, 25 (not 26) November, ...

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    Te 69

    Te Deum, The

    An abbreviated title commonly given both to the original Latin text and the translations of a ...

    Te Lucis Ante Terminum

    The hymn at Compline in the Roman Breviary. The authorship of St. Ambrose, for which Pimont ...

    Tebaldeo, Antonio

    Italian poet, born at Ferrara, in 1463; died in 1537. His family name (Tebaldi) he changed to ...

    Tegernsee

    Called Tegrinseo in 817, Tegernsee in 754. A celebrated Benedictine abbey of Bavaria that ...

    Tehuantepec

    (Tehuantepecensis) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of Oaxaca. Its area covers ...

    Teilo, Saint

    (Eliud.) "Archbishop" of Llandaff, born at Eccluis Gunniau, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died at ...

    Tekakwitha, Blessed Kateri

    (Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha/Takwita.) Known as the "Lily of the Mohawks", and the ...

    Teleology

    (From Greek telos , end, and logos , science). Teleology is seldom used according to its ...

    Telepathy

    ( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...

    Telese

    (TELESINENSIS) Telese, a small town in the Province of Benevento, Southern Italy, is situated ...

    Telesio, Bernardino

    Italian humanist and philosopher born of a noble family at Cosenza, near Naples, 1508; died ...

    Telesphorus of Cosenza

    (THEOPHORUS, THEOLOPHORUS). A name assumed by one of the pseudo-prophets during the time of ...

    Telesphorus, Pope Saint

    (Lived about 125-136.) St. Telesphorus was the seventh Roman bishop in succession from the ...

    Tell el-Amarna Tablets, The

    The Tell el-Amarna Tablets are a collection of some 350 clay tablets found in 1887 amid the ruins ...

    Tellier, Michel Le

    Born 19 April, 1603; died at Paris, 30 Oct., 1685. He was commissioned by Cardinal Mazarin to ...

    Telmessus

    Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Telmessus (or incorrectly Telmissis) was a flourishing ...

    Temiskaming

    The Vicariate Apostolic of Temiskaming, suffragan of Ottawa, Canada, is bounded on the north by ...

    Temnus

    A titular see in Asia, a suffragan of Ephesus. Temnus was a little town of Æolia, near ...

    Tempel, Wilhelm

    (ERNEST LEBERECHT) German astronomer, b. 4 December, 1821, at (Nieder-) Cunnersdorf near ...

    Temperance

    (Latin temperare , to mingle in due proportions; to qualify). Temperance is here considered ...

    Temperance Movements

    EUROPE Reasons for a temperance movement exist to a greater or less degree in all the countries ...

    Templars, The Knights

    The Knights Templars were the earliest founders of the military orders, and are the type on which ...

    Temple

    The Latin form, templum , from which the English temple is derived, originally signified an ...

    Temple of Jerusalem

    The word "temple" is derived from the Latin templum , signifying an uncovered place affording a ...

    Temple, Sisters of the

    The Sisters of the Temple (whose full title is S ISTERS OF THE F INDING OF J ESUS IN THE T ...

    Temptation

    ( Latin tentare , to try or test). Temptation is here taken to be an incitement to sin ...

    Temptation of Christ

    In the Catholic translation of the Bible , the word "temptation" is used in various senses, ...

    Ten Commandments, The

    Called also simply THE COMMANDMENTS, COMMANDMENTS OF GOD, or THE DECALOGUE (Gr. deka , ten, ...

    Ten Thousand Martyrs, The

    On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. On 18 March: ...

    Tencin, Pierre-Guérin de

    French statesman and cardinal, b. at Grenoble, 22 August, 1680; d. at Lyons, 2 March, 1758. ...

    Tenebræ

    Tenebræ is the name given to the service of Matins and Lauds belonging to the last three ...

    Tenebrae Hearse

    The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...

    Tenedos

    A titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades. The island, called in Turkish ...

    Teneriffe

    DIOCESE OF TENERIFFE (TENERIFENSIS). Suffragan of Seville, formerly called Nivariensis from ...

    Teniers, David

    The name of two eminent Flemish landscape painters ; the elder, born at Antwerp in 1582; ...

    Tennessee

    The State of Tennessee lies between 35° and 36°30' N. lat. and 81°37' and 90°38' ...

    Tenney, William Jewett

    An author, editor, born at Newport, Rhode Island, 1814; died at Newark, New Jersey, 20 Sept., ...

    Tentyris

    (TENTYRA) Seat of a titular suffragan see of Ptolemais in Thebaid Secunda. The city was ...

    Tenure, Ecclesiastical

    I. In the feudal system an ecclesiastical fief followed all the laws laid down for temporal ...

    Teos

    Titular see ; suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. A city of Caria situated on a peninsula ...

    Tepic

    DIOCESE OF TEPIC (TEPICENSIS) A diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the ...

    Tepl

    A Premonstratensian abbey in the western part of Bohemia, included in the Archdiocese of Prague ...

    Teramo

    Diocese in southern Italy. In the past the city was injured by earthquakes. It is situated at ...

    Terce

    The origin of Terce, like that of Sext and None, to which it bears a close relationship, dates ...

    Terenuthis

    Titular see, suffragan of Antinoë in Thebais Prima. Le Quien (Oriens christ., II, 611) ...

    Teresa of Avila, Saint

    Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada Born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at ...

    Teresa of Lisieux, Saint

    (Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

    Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed

    Guillotined at the Place du Trône Renversé (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 ...

    Terill, Anthony

    English theologian, b. at Canford, Dorsetshire, in 1623; d. at Liège, 11 Oct., 1676. His ...

    Termessus

    A titular see, suffragan of Perge in Pamphylia Secunda. This is one of the most ancient cities ...

    Termoli

    (THERMULARUM) Located on the Italian coast of the Adriatic, having a small harbour near the ...

    Ternan, Saint

    Bishop of the Picts, flourished in the sixth century. Much obscurity attaches to his history, and ...

    Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

    (TERRACINENSIS, SETINENSIS ET PRIVERNENSIS) Located in the Province of Rome. The city of ...

    Terrasson, André

    A French preacher, born at Lyons in 1669; died at Paris, 25 April, 1723. He was the eldest son ...

    Terrestrial Paradise

    ( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

    Terrien, Jean-Baptiste

    Dogmatic theologian, born at St-Laurent-des-Autels, Maine-et-Loire, 26 Aug., 1832; d. at ...

    Tertiaries

    (From the Latin tertiarius , the relative adjective of tertius , third ). Tertiaries, or ...

    Tertullian

    (Q UINTUS S EPTIMIUS F LORENS T ERTULLIANUS ). Ecclesiastical writer in the second and ...

    Teruel

    (TUROLENSIS) A suffragan of Saragossa, comprises the civil province of the same name, ...

    Test-Oath, Missouri

    In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...

    Testament, New

    I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...

    Testament, Old

    I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...

    Testem Benevolentiae

    An Apostolic Letter of Leo XIII addressed to Cardinal Gibbons, 22 January, 1899. It opens by ...

    Tetzel, Johann

    First public antagonist of Luther, b. at Pirna in Meissen, 1465; d. at Leipzig, 11 Aug., 1519. ...

    Teuchira

    A titular see in Libyan Pentapolis. Teuchira ( Teucheira ) neuter plural, was a city on the ...

    Teutonic Order

    A medieval military order modelled on the Hospitallers of St. John, which changed its residence ...

    Tewdrig

    (THEODORIC) A Welsh saint, son of King Ceithfalt of Morganwg or Southern Wales, flourished ...

    Texas

    S TATE OF T EXAS . The name, Texas, is probably derived from Tejas, the name of a ...

    Textual Criticism

    The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...

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    Th 147

    Thænæ

    A titular see in Africa Byzacena. It is mentioned in numerous ancient geographical documents ...

    Thébaud, Augustus

    Jesuit educator and publicist, b. at Nantes, France, 20 Nov., 1807; d. at St. John's College, ...

    Thénard, Louis-Jacques, Baron

    Chemist, b. at Louptière, near Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube, France, on 4 May, 1777; d. at Paris, ...

    Théophane Vénard

    (JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...

    Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint

    (Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

    Thabor, Mount

    The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...

    Thabraca

    A titular see of Numidia near the sea, between the Armua and the Tusca. Thabraca was the last ...

    Thacia Montana

    A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. An inscription discovered in the ...

    Thagaste

    (TAGASTE) Thagaste, a titular see in Numidia, was a rather important municipality. It is ...

    Thagora

    (Tagora) Titular see in Numidia, mentioned by the "Rabula Peutingeriana", which calls it ...

    Thais, Saint

    (THAISIS or THAISIA). A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century. In the Greek menology her ...

    Thalberg, Sigismond

    Musical composer and pianist, b. at Geneva, 1812; d. at Posilipo, Italy, 27 April, 1871. The ...

    Thalhofer, Valentin

    German theologian, b. at Unterroth, near Ulm, 21 January, 1825; d. at the same place, 17 ...

    Thangmar

    (THANKMAR) Historian, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. probably at Hildesheim ...

    Thanksgiving before and after Meals

    The word grace , which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English ...

    Thanksgiving Day

    A civil holiday observed annually in the United States of America on the last Thursday in ...

    Thapsus

    A titular see in Byzacene Africa. It was a Phoenician market on the coast of Byzacium in ...

    Thasos

    A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. The island of Thasos was anciently ...

    Thaumaci

    A titular see in Thessaly, suffragan of Larissa, commanding the defile of Coele at the ...

    Thayer, John

    Missionary, convert, first native of New England ordained to the priesthood, b. Boston, ...

    Theatines

    (CLERICS REGULAR) A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo ...

    Theatre, The

    Considering the tone of what is preserved to us of the works of the Greek tragedians and even of ...

    Thebaid

    The valley of the Nile, under Roman domination, was divided into four provinces: Lower and Upper ...

    Thebes

    (THEBAE) A metropolitan titular see of Achaia Secunda. The city was founded by the ...

    Thebes

    (THEBAE) Titular see of Thebais Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais, and the seat of a Coptic ...

    Thecla, Saint

    Benedictine Abbess of Kitzingen and Ochsenfurt; date of birth unknown; d. at Kitzingen about 790 ...

    Thecla, Saints

    I. Thecla of Iconium The reputed pupil of the Apostle Paul , who is the heroine of the ...

    Theft

    Theft is the secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other. ...

    Thegan (Degan) of Treves

    Chronicler, d. about 850. Very little is known of his life; all that is certain is that he was ...

    Theiner, Augustin

    Theologian and historian, b. at Breslau, 11 April, 1804; d. at Civitavecchia, 8 Aug., 1874. He was ...

    Thelepte

    A titular see in Byzacene. From an inscription we learn that it was a colony. An important ...

    Themiscyra

    A titular see, suffragan of Amasea in the Hellespont. There was a town of this name near the ...

    Themisonium

    A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. Themisonium was a city of Phrygia, ...

    Thennesus

    A titular suffragan see of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima. Cassian (Collat., XI, 1-3) gives a ...

    Theobald

    (T EDBALD .) Archbishop of Canterbury ; d. 18 April, 1161. He was a Norman by descent and ...

    Theobald, Saint

    Born at Provins in the Province of Champagne, France, in 1017; died at Salanigo in Italy 30 June, ...

    Theocracy

    A form of civil government in which God himself is recognized as the head. The laws of the ...

    Theodard, Saint

    Archbishop of Narbonne, b. at Montauban about 840; d. at the same place 1 May, 893. He seems to ...

    Theodicy

    Etymologically considered theodicy ( théos díe ) signifies the justification of ...

    Theodore I, Pope

    Pope from 642 to 649; the date of his birth is unknown. He was a Greek of Jerusalem and the ...

    Theodore II, Pope

    Son of Photius. His pontificate lasted only twenty days; neither the date of his birth nor of his ...

    Theodore of Amasea, Saint

    Surnamed Tyro (Tiro), not because he was a young recruit, but because for a time he belonged to ...

    Theodore of Gaza

    A fifteenth-century Greek Humanist and translator of Aristotle, b. at Thessalonica early in ...

    Theodore of Studium, Saint

    A zealous champion of the veneration of images and the last geat representative of the unity ...

    Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

    Seventh Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Tarsus in Cilicia about 602; d. at Canterbury 19 ...

    Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia

    Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer; b. at Antioch about 350 (thus also ...

    Theodoret

    Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457. He says ...

    Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

    A Platonist philosopher of the twelfth century, b. in France at the beginning of the twelfth ...

    Theodoric the Great

    King of the Ostrogoths, born A.D. 454 (?); died 26 August, 526. He was an illegitimate son of ...

    Theodorus and Theophanes, Saints

    (Called Grapti , "written upon", graptoi ) Theodorus, b. about 775; d. about 842-43; ...

    Theodorus Lector

    A lector attached to the Church of St. Sophia of Constantinople in the early part of the sixth ...

    Theodosiopolis

    A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Prima. In the beginning the city was called Apros, or ...

    Theodosius Florentini

    Born at Münster, in the Grisons, Switzerland, 23 May, 1808; died at Heiden, in Appenzell, ...

    Theodosius I

    Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 ...

    Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint

    Martyr. On 18 May the Roman Martyrology says: "At Ancyra, in Galatia, the martyr Saint Theodotus ...

    Theodulf

    (Theodulfus, Theodulfe), Bishop of Orléans, a writer skilled in poetic forms and a ...

    Theology of Christ (Christology)

    Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ. In its full extent ...

    Theology, Ascetical

    Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of ...

    Theology, Dogmatic

    Dogmatic theology is that part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith ...

    Theology, History of Dogmatic

    The imposing edifice of Catholic theology has been reared not by individual nations and men, ...

    Theology, Moral

    Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...

    Theology, Mystical

    Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...

    Theology, Pastoral

    Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...

    Theonas

    Bishop of Alexandria from about 283 to 301 ( Eusebius, "Chronicle", Ann. Abr. 2299, St. Jerome's ...

    Theophanes Kerameus

    ( Kerameus , potter). Archbishop of Rossano in Calabria (1129-52), a celebrated homiletic ...

    Theophanes, Saint

    Chronicler, born at Constantinople, about 758; died in Samothracia, probably 12 March, 817, on ...

    Theophilanthropists

    ("Friends of God and Man") A deistic sect formed in France during the latter part of the ...

    Theophilus

    Bishop of Antioch. Eusebius in his "Chronicle" places the name of Theophilus against that of ...

    Theophilus

    Patriarch of Alexandria (385-412). Concerning the extraction and early life of Theophilus we ...

    Theosophy

    ( Theosophia = "wisdom concerning God ") Theosophy is a term used in general to designate ...

    Theotocopuli, Domenico

    One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

    Thera (Santorin)

    DIOCESE OF THERA (SANTORINO) Diocese in the Cyclades. About the year 2000 B.C., the ...

    Thermae Basilicae

    A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. The Greek "Notitiae episcopatuum" ...

    Thermopylae

    A titular see and suffragan of Athens in Achaia Prima. It is the name of a defile about 4 ...

    Thessalonians, Epistles to the

    Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul. This article will treat the Church of ...

    Thessalonica

    (SALONIKI) Titular metropolis in Macedonia. It was at first a village called Alia, situated ...

    Theveste

    Titular see of Numidia. The city seems to have had some importance even prior to Christianity. ...

    Thibaris

    Titular see in Byzacena ( Africa ), not mentioned by any ancient author. The official list of ...

    Thibaut de Champagne

    Thibaut IV, count of Champagne and King of Navarre, a French poet, b. 1201, at Troyes ; d. 8 ...

    Thierry of Freburg

    ( Or Thierry of Saxony). A philosopher and physician of the Middle Ages, and a member of ...

    Thiers, Louis-Adolphe

    French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic, b. at Marseilles, ...

    Thignica

    A titular see in Numidia. The Roman Curia's official list of titular sees places Thignica in ...

    Thijm, Joseph Albert Alberdingk

    Born at Amsterdam, 8 July, 1820; d. there, 17 March, 1889. After finishing his studies in his ...

    Thijm, Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk

    Brother of Joseph Alberdingk Thijm , b. at Amsterdam, 21 Oct., 1827, d. at Louvain, 1 Feb., ...

    Thimelby, Richard

    ( Alias ASHBY) Missionary priest, b. in Lincolnshire, England, 1614; d. at St. Omer's, ...

    Third Orders

    I. GENERAL Third Orders signify in general lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women ...

    Thirty Years War

    The Thirty Years War (1618-48), though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance ...

    Thmuis

    A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium ; a city of Lower Egypt, on the ...

    Thomas á Jesu

    (Diaz Sanchez de Avila). Discalced Carmelite, writer on mystical theology, born at Baeza, ...

    Thomas à Kempis

    Author of the "Imitation of Christ" , born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; ...

    Thomas Abel, Blessed

    (Also ABLE, or ABELL.) Priest and martyr, born about 1497; died 30 July, 1540. He was ...

    Thomas Alfield, Venerable

    (AUFIELD, ALPHILDE, HAWFIELD, OFFELDUS; alias BADGER). Priest, born at Gloucestershire; ...

    Thomas Aquinas, Saint

    Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church ( Angelicus Doctor ), patron of Catholic ...

    Thomas Atkinson, Venerable

    Martyred at York, 11 March, l6l6. He was born in the East Riding of Yorkshire, was ordained ...

    Thomas Becket, Saint

    Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, born at London, 21 December, 1118 (?); died at Canterbury, 29 ...

    Thomas Belchiam, Venerable

    A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537. He ...

    Thomas Christians, Saint

    An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent ...

    Thomas Cottam, Blessed

    Martyr, born 1549, in Lancashire; executed at Tyburn, 30 May, 1582. His parents, Laurence cottam ...

    Thomas Ford, Blessed

    Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...

    Thomas Garnet, Saint

    Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...

    Thomas Johnson, Blessed

    Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...

    Thomas More, Saint

    Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...

    Thomas of Beckington

    (BEKYNTON.) Bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Beckington, Somerset, about 1390; died at ...

    Thomas of Bradwardine

    (BRAGWARDIN, BRANDNARDINUS, BREDWARDYN, BRADWARDYN, DE BREDEWARDINA). Born about 1290; died in ...

    Thomas of Cantimpré

    Medieval writer, preacher, and theologian, born of noble parentage at Leuw St. Pierre near ...

    Thomas of Celano

    Friar Minor, poet, andhagiographical writer, born at Celano in the Province of the Abruzzi, about ...

    Thomas of Dover

    Martyr ; died 2 or 5 August, 1295. On the above date the French ravaged Dover with fire and ...

    Thomas of Hereford

    (THOMAS DE CANTELUPE). Born at Hambledon, Buckinghamshire, England, about 1218; died at ...

    Thomas of Jesus

    (THOMAS DE ANDRADA). Reformer and preacher, born at Lisbon, 1529; died at Sagena, Morocco, 17 ...

    Thomas of Jorz

    (Often but erroneously called JOYCE and frequently referred to as ANGLUS or ANGLICUS). ...

    Thomas of Strasburg

    A fourteenth-century scholastic of the Augustinian Order, born, according to some writers, at ...

    Thomas of Villanova, Saint

    Educator, philanthropist, born at Fuentellana, Spain, 1488; died at Valencia, 8 September, 1555. ...

    Thomas Percy, Blessed

    Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...

    Thomas Sherwood, Blessed

    Martyr, born in London, 1551; died at Tyburn, London, 7 February, 1578. His parents also ...

    Thomas the Apostle, Saint

    Little is recorded of St. Thomas the Apostle, nevertheless thanks to the fourth Gospel his ...

    Thomas Thwing, Venerable

    Martyr. Born at Heworth Hall, near York, in 1635; suffered at York, 23 Oct., 1680. His father was ...

    Thomas Woodhouse, Blessed

    Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...

    Thomas, Charles L.A.

    French composer, born at Metz, 5 August, 1811; died at Paris, 12 February, 1896. He gained the ...

    Thomassin, Louis

    Theologian and French Oratorian, b. at Aix-en-Provence 28 Aug., 1619; d. in Paris, 24 Dec., ...

    Thomism

    In a broad sense, Thomism is the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. ...

    Thompson River Indians

    (THOMPSON INDIANS). An important tribe of British Columbia of Salishan linguistic stock, also ...

    Thompson, Blessed James

    (Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...

    Thompson, Edward Healy and Harriet Diana

    The name of two English converts : (1) Edward Healy and (2) Harriet Diana. Edward Healy ...

    Thompson, Francis

    Poet, b. at Preston, Lancashire, 18 Dec., 1859; d. in London, 13 Nov., 1907. He came from the ...

    Thompson, Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David

    Jurist and first Catholic Premier of Canada, b. at Halifax, Nova Scotia , 10 Nov., 1844; d. ...

    Thonissen, Jean-Joseph

    Professor of law at the University of Louvain, minister in the Belgian Government, b. at ...

    Thorlaksson, Arni

    An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297. While a deacon, he visited ...

    Thorney Abbey

    (i.e. "the isle of thorns", anciently called ANCARIG). Thorney Abbey, in Cambridgeshire, ...

    Thorns, Crown of

    Although Our Saviour's Crown of Thorns is mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded ...

    Thorns, Feast of the Crown of

    The first feast in honour of the Crown of Thorns ( Festum susceptionis coronae Domini ) was ...

    Thorpe, Venerable Robert

    Priest and martyr, b. in Yorkshire; suffered at York, 15 May, 1591. He reached the English ...

    Thou, Jacques-Auguste de

    French historian, b. at Paris, 8 October, 1553; d. there, 7 May, 1617. The son of Christophe de ...

    Thou, Nicolas de

    Bishop of Chartres, uncle of the historian Jacques-Auguste de Thou, b. at Paris, 1528; d. at ...

    Three Chapters

    The Three chapters ( trîa kephálaia ) were propositions anathematizing : (1) the ...

    Three Rivers

    DIOCESE OF THREE RIVERS (TRIFLUVIANENSIS) Formed from the Archdiocese of Quebec , to which it ...

    Throne

    (Latin thronus, cathedra, sedes episcopalis ), the seat the bishop uses when not engaged at ...

    Thuburbo Minus

    A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Thuburbo Minus is mentioned in ...

    Thugga

    Titular see of Numidia, perhaps the Numidian fortress of Tocai mentioned about 305 B.C. by ...

    Thugut, Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula

    Austrian statesman, born at Linz, 31 March, 1736; died at Vienna, 28 May, 1818. He was the son of ...

    Thulis, Venerable John

    English martyr, born at Up Holland, Lancashire, probably about 1568; suffered at Lancaster, 18 ...

    Thun-Hohenstein, Count Leo

    Austrian statesman, b. at the family castle of Tetschen in Bohemia, 7 April, 1811; d. at Vienna, ...

    Thundering Legion

    ( Legio fulminata , or fulminea , not fulminatrix ). The story of the Thundering Legion ...

    Thuringia

    The name Thuringia is given to a large part of Central Germany, bounded on the west by the ...

    Thurmayr, Johannes

    (Called AVENTINUS from the place of his birth) Born at Abensberg, Bavaria, 4 July, 1477; died ...

    Thyatira

    A titular suffragan see of Sardes in Lydia. According to Stephanus Byzantius, the name was ...

    Thynias

    A titular see, suffragan of Nicomedia, in Bithynia Prima. It is an island situated in the Black ...

    Thyräus, Hermann

    German Jesuit, b. at Neuss on the Rhine, 1532; d. at Mainz, 26 October, 1591. He studied first ...

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    Ti 45

    Tiara

    The papal crown, a costly covering for the head, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, ...

    Tibaldi, Pellegrino

    Known also as Pellegrino da Bologna and as Pellegrino Pellegrini; decorator, mural painter, and ...

    Tiberias

    Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda. The town of Tiberias was founded on ...

    Tiberias, Sea of

    So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1 ), otherwise known as "the sea of Galilee" ( Matthew 4:18 ; Mark ...

    Tiberiopolis

    Titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana. Tiberiopolis is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, 2, 25); Socrates ...

    Tiberius

    The second Roman emperor ( A. D. 14-37), b. 16 November, 42 B. C. , d. 16 March, A. D. 37. ...

    Tibet

    A vast plateau, about 463,320 square miles, about 1240 miles in its greatest length from east to ...

    Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints

    Roman martyrs, feast 11 August. The story is related in the legend of St. Sebastian that ...

    Ticelia

    Titular see, suffragan of Cyrene, in the Libya Pentapolis. Under this name it is not found in any ...

    Tichborne, Ven. Nicholas

    Martyr, b. at Hartley Mauditt, Hampshire; suffered at Tyburn, London, 24 Aug., 1601. He was a ...

    Tichborne, Ven. Thomas

    Born at Hartley, Hampshire, 1567; martyred at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1602. He was educated ...

    Ticonius

    (Also TYCONIUS, TYCHONIUS, etc.) An African Donatist writer of the fourth century who ...

    Ticuna Indians

    A tribe of Indians of some importance, constituting a distinct linguistic stock, inhabiting the ...

    Tieffentaller, Joseph

    Jesuit missionary and noted geographer in Hindustan, b. at Bozen in the Tyrol, 27 August, 1710; ...

    Tiepolo

    Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Tiepolo Born in Venice in 1696; died at Madrid, 27 March, 1770. ...

    Tierney, Mark Aloysius

    Born at Brighton, Sept., 1795; died at Arundel, 19 Feb., 1862. After his early schooling with the ...

    Tigris, Saint

    Irish saint, sister of St. Patrick. Much obscurity attaches to her life, and she has been ...

    Tillemont, Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de

    French historian and priest, b. at Paris, 30 November, 1637; d. there, 10 January, 1698; he was ...

    Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of

    Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632. He was a member of a noble family of ...

    Timbrias

    A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. It is called Thymbrium in the official lists ...

    Time

    The problem of time is one of the most difficult and most keenly debated in the field of natural ...

    Timothy and Symphorian, Saints

    Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August. During the pontificate of Melchiades (311-13), ...

    Timothy and Titus, Epistles to

    (T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

    Timucua Indians

    A principal group or confederacy of Ancient Florida, notable for the successful missions ...

    Tincker, Mary Agnes

    Novelist, born at Ellsworth, Maine, 18 July, 1833; died at Boston, Massachusetts, 4 December, ...

    Tingis

    A titular see of Mauretania Tingitana (the official list of the Roman Curia places it in ...

    Tinin

    SEE OF TININ (KNIN). Located in Dalmatia ; suffragan to Kalocsa-Bacs. Knin is a town on ...

    Tinos and Mykonos

    DIOCESE OF TINOS AND MYKONOS (TINENSIS ET MYCONENSIS) A Latin diocese of the Cyclades, ...

    Tintern Abbey

    This abbey, in Monmouthshire, England [actually Wales -- Ed. ], was founded in 1131 by ...

    Tintoretto, Il

    (J ACOPO R OBUSTI ) Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594. His father was a ...

    Tipasa

    A titular see of Numidia. The Phoenician word signifies passage. Early in its history we find ...

    Tiraboschi, Girolamo

    Italian scholar, b. in the region of Bergamo, 1731; d. 3 June, 1794. At an early age he entered ...

    Tiraspol

    DIOCESE OF TIRASPOL (or CHERSONESE) (TIRASPOLENSIS; CHERSONENSIS) Diocese in Southern Russia ...

    Tisio da Garofalo, Benvenuto

    An Italian painter of the Ferrarese school ; b. in 1481 at Garofalo, whence, as was the ...

    Tissot, James

    (JOSEPH-JACQUES TISSOT) French draughtsman and painter, b. at Nantes, 15 Oct., 1836; d. at ...

    Tithes

    (Anglo-Saxon teotha , a tenth). Generally defined as "the tenth part of the increase arising ...

    Tithes, Lay

    Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...

    Titian

    (T IZIANO V ECELLI , called T ITIAN ). The greatest of Venetian painters, born at Pieve ...

    Titopolis

    (TITIOPOLIS) Titular see, suffragan of Seleucia Trachaea in Isauria. Le Quien (Oriens ...

    Titulus

    In pagan times titulus signified an inscription on stone, and later the stone which marked ...

    Titus

    Roman Emperor 79-81, b. 30 Dec., 41; d. 13 Sept., 81; son of the Emperor Vespasian, and from the ...

    Titus and Timothy, Epistles to

    (T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

    Titus, Bishop of Bostra

    Born about 362-371. Sozomen (Hist. eccl., III, xiv) names Titus among the great men of the time ...

    Tius

    (TIUM) Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in Honorias. According to Strabo (542, 545) the ...

    Tivoli

    DIOCESE OF TIVOLI (TIBURTINA) Diocese in the Province of Rome. The city in situated where the ...

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    Tl 2

    Tlaxcala

    (TLAXCALENSIS) A former diocese of the colony of New Spain. It was the fifth diocese ...

    Tlos

    A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Tlos was one of the six cities forming the Lycian ...

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    To 56

    Toaldo, Giuseppe

    Priest and physicist, b. at Pianezze, 1719; d. at Padua, 1797. In his fourteenth year he entered ...

    Toba Indians

    One of the few still unconquered savage tribes of the great Chaco wilderness of South America, and ...

    Tobias

    We shall first enumerate the various Biblical persons and then treat the book of this name. I. ...

    Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de

    (CHARLES-ALEXIS-HENRI-MAURICE-CLEREL DE TOCQUEVILLE) Writer and statesman, b. at Verneuil, ...

    Todi

    (T UDERTINA ). Diocese in Central Italy ; immediately dependent on the Holy See. The city ...

    Tokio

    (Tokiensis) Archdiocese comprising 21 provinces or 15 departments with a population of over ...

    Toledo (Ohio)

    (Toletana in America) A diocese in Ohio, U.S.A. formed out of the Diocese of Cleveland and ...

    Toledo (Spain)

    ARCHDIOCESE OF TOLEDO (TOLETANENSIS) Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost ...

    Toledo, Francisco

    Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, son of an actuary, b. at Córdova, 4 Oct., 1532; d. ...

    Tolentino and Macerata

    Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...

    Toleration, History of

    In any attempt to deal historically with the attitude of the Church towards religious toleration ...

    Toleration, Religious

    Toleration in general signifies patient forbearance in the presence of an evil which one is ...

    Tolomei, John Baptist

    A distinguished Jesuit theologian and cardinal, born of noble parentage, at Camberaia, between ...

    Tomb

    A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons, ...

    Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

    The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...

    Tomb, Altar

    A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having ...

    Tomi

    A titular metropolitan see in the Province of Scythia, on the Black Sea. It was a Greek colony ...

    Tommasi, Blessed Giuseppe Maria

    A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...

    Tongerloo, Abbey of

    Located near Antwerp, Belgium, founded in 1128 in honour of the Blessed Virgin, by de ...

    Tongiorgi, Salvator

    Philosopher, born at Rome, Italy, 25 December, 1820; d. there, 12 November, 1865. At the age of ...

    Tongues, Gift of

    (Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...

    Tonica Indians

    (Or TUNICA). A small tribe constituting a distinct linguistic stock living, when first known ...

    Tonkawa Indians

    A tribal group or confederacy, of low culture status and constituting a distinct linguistic stock, ...

    Tonsure

    ( Latin tondere , "to shear") A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized ...

    Tootell, Hugh

    Commonly known as Charles Dodd. Historian, b. in 1671 or 1672, at Durton-in-Broughton, ...

    Torah

    I. USE OF WORD Torah, (cf. Hiph. of ), signifies first "direction, instruction", as, for ...

    Torbido, Francesco

    Often called IL MORO (The Moor). Veronese painter and engraver, b. at Verona about 1486; ...

    Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint

    Archbishop of Lima ; b. at Mayorga, León, Spain, 1538; d. near Lima Peru, 23 March ...

    Tornielli, Girolamo Francesco

    Italian Jesuit, preacher and writer, b. at Cameri, 1 Febreuary, 1693, of a distinguished family ...

    Torone

    A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. Torone was a colony of Chalcideans from ...

    Toronto

    (TORONTINA). Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada. When constituted a diocese, it ...

    Torquemada, Tomás de

    First Grand Inquisitor of Spain, born at Valladolid in 1420; died at Avila, 16 September, ...

    Torres Naharro, Bartolemé de

    Spanish poet and dramatist, b. at Torres, near Badajoz, towards the end of the fifteenth ...

    Torres, Francisco

    (TURRIANUS.) Hellenist and polemicist, born in Herrera, Palencia, about 1509; died at Rome, ...

    Torricelli, Evangelista

    Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 ...

    Torrubia, José

    Born towards the end of the seventeenth century at Granada, Spain ; died in 1768 in the ...

    Tortona

    DIOCESE OF TORTONA (DERTONENSIS) Diocese in Piedmont, Italy. The city is situated on the ...

    Tortosa

    DIOCESE OF TORTOSA (DERTHUSENSIS, DERTUSA). Located in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; ...

    Toscanella and Viterbo

    (VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...

    Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo

    Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer, b. at Florence in 1397; d. there, 10 May, 1482. ...

    Tosephta

    ( Hebrew = addition, supplement ) Tosephta is the name of compilation of ...

    Tostado, Alonso

    (ALONSO TOSTATUS) Exegete, b. at Madrigal, Castile, about 1400; d. at Bonilla de la Sierra, ...

    Tosti, Luigi

    Benedictine historian, b. at Naples 13 Feb., 1811; d. at Monte Cassino, 24 Sept., 1897. His ...

    Totemism

    Totemism from ote , root ot , possessive form otem , in the Ojibway dialect of the ...

    Totonac Indians

    One of the smaller cultured nations of ancient Mexico, occupying at the time of the Spanish ...

    Touchet, George Anselm

    Born at Stalbridge, Dorset; died about 1689. He was second son of Mervyn, twelfth Lord Audley, ...

    Toulouse

    A RCHDIOCESE OF T OULOUSE (T OLOSENSIS ) Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne. As ...

    Tournély, Honoré

    Theologian, b. Antibes, Provence, 28 August, 1658; d. at Paris, 26 December 1729. His parents ...

    Tournai

    DIOCESE OF TOURNAI (Latin TURNACUM, TORNACUM; Flemish, DOORNIJK — TORNACENSIS) Diocese ...

    Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de

    French botanist, b. at Aix in Provence, 5 June, 1656; d. at Paris, 28 Dec., 1708. After his ...

    Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de

    Papal legate to India and China, cardinal, born of a noble Savoyard family at Turin, 21 ...

    Touron, Antoine

    Dominican biographer and historian, born at Graulhet, Tarn, France, on 5 September, 1686; died ...

    Tours

    (TURONENSIS.) Comprises the Department of Indre-et-Loire, and was re-established by the ...

    Toustain, Charles-François

    French Benedictine, and member of the Congregation of St-Maur, born at Repas in the Diocese of ...

    Touttée, Antoine-Augustin

    A French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. at Riom, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, ...

    Tower of Babel

    The "Tower of Babel" is the name of the building mentioned in Genesis 11:19 . History of the ...

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    Tr 77

    Tracy, Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de

    Viceroy of New France, born in France, 1603, of noble parents ; died there in 1670. A soldier ...

    Tradition and Living Magisterium

    The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...

    Traditionalism

    A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude. ...

    Traducianism

    Traducianism ( tradux , a shoot or sprout, and more specifically a vine branch made to take root ...

    Trajan

    Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117. He ...

    Trajanopolis

    Titular metropolitan see of Rhodope. The city owes its foundation or restoration to Trajan. Le ...

    Trajanopolis

    A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. The only geographer who speaks ...

    Tralles

    A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. It was founded, it is said, by the Argians ...

    Trani and Barletta

    (T RANEN , et Barolen.) Diocese in Italy. The city of Trani is situated on the Adriatic in ...

    Transcendentalism

    The terms transcendent and transcendental are used in various senses, all of which, as a ...

    Transept

    A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica. It ...

    Transfiguration

    The Transfiguration of Christ is the culminating point of His public life, as His Baptism is ...

    Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the

    Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. ...

    Transubstantiation

    In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

    Transvaal

    Vicariate apostolic ; lies between 23° 3' and 27° 30' S. lat., and 25° and 32° ...

    Transylvania

    (Also TRANSYLVANIENSIS or ERDELY). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Kalocsa Bács. The ...

    Trapani

    (TREPANENSIS). Diocese in Sicily, suffragan of Palermo. The city is the capital of a ...

    Trapezopolis

    A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan to Laodicea. Trapezopolis was a town of Caria ...

    Trappists

    The common name by which the Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de ...

    Trasilla and Emiliana, Saints

    Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...

    Treason, Accusations of

    A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics ...

    Trebizond

    (TRAPEZUNTINA). An Armenian Catholic diocese. The city owes its ancient name to the fact that ...

    Trebnitz

    A former abbey of Cistercian nuns, situated north of Breslau in Silesia. It was founded in ...

    Tredway, Lettice Mary

    (Called "Lady" Tredway) Born 1595; died Oct., 1677; daughter of Sir Walter Tredway, of Buckley ...

    Tregian, Francis

    Confessor, b. in Cornwall, 1548; d. at Lisbon, 25 Sept., 1608. He was son of Thomas Tregian of ...

    Tremithus

    Titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. The city is mentioned by Ptolemy (Geog., V, xiii, ...

    Trent

    (TRIDENTUM; TRIDENTINA). Diocese ; suffragan of Salzburg. Trent became universally known ...

    Trent, Council of

    The nineteenth ecumenical council opened at Trent on 13 December, 1545, and closed there on 4 ...

    Trenton

    (T RENTONENSIS ). Diocese created 15 July, 1881, suffragan of New York, comprises Atlantic, ...

    Tresham, Sir Thomas

    Knight Bachelor (in or before 1524), Grand Prior of England in the Order of Knights ...

    Treviso

    (TARVISINA). Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The capital is surrounded by the River ...

    Tribe, Jewish

    ( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...

    Tricarico, Diocese of

    (TRICARICENSIS.) Located in the Province of Potenza in the Basilicata (Southern Italy ), near ...

    Tricassin, Charles Joseph

    One of the greatest theologians of the Capuchin Order, b. at Troyes ; d. in 1681. There is but ...

    Tricca

    Titular see, suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. It was an ancient city of Thessaly, near the River ...

    Trichinopoly, Diocese of

    (TRICHINOPOLITAN.) Located in India, suffragan of Bombay, comprises the south east portion of ...

    Trichur

    (TRICHURENSIS.) Vicariate Apostolic in India, one of the three vicariates of the Syro-Malabar ...

    Tricomia

    Titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palaestina Prima. It is mentioned in George of Cyprus ...

    Triduum

    (Three days). A time frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices, whether ...

    Trier

    (TREVIRENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Cologne; includes in the Prussian province of the ...

    Triesnecker, Francis a Paula

    Astronomer, b. at Kirchberg on the Wagram, in Lower Austria, 2 April, 1745; d. at Vienna 29 ...

    Triest-Capo d'Istria

    (TERGESTINA ET JUSTINOPOLITANA.) Suffragan diocese of Görz-Gradiska ; exists as a ...

    Trincomalee

    (TRINCOMALIENSIS.) Located in Ceylon, suffragan of Colombo, was created in 1893 by a division ...

    Trinità di Cava dei Tirrenti, Abbey of

    Located in the Province of Salerno. It stands in a gorge of the Finestre Hills near Cava dei ...

    Trinitarians, Order of

    The redemption of captives has always been regarded in the Church as a work of mercy, as is ...

    Trinity College

    An institution for the higher education of Catholic women, located at Washington, D.C., and ...

    Trinity Sunday

    The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity. In the early ...

    Trinity, The Blessed

    This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...

    Triple-Candlestick

    A name given along with several others (e.g. reed, tricereo, arundo, triangulum, lumen Christi ...

    Trissino, Giangiorgio

    Italian poet and scholar, b. of a patrician family at Vicenza in 1478; d. at Rome, 8 ...

    Tritheists

    (TRITHEITES). Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity. (1) Those who are ...

    Trithemius, John

    A famous scholar and Benedictine abbot, b. at Trittenheim on the Moselle, 1 February, 1462; d. at ...

    Trivento

    (Triventensis) Diocese in southern Italy. The earliest bishop was St. Castus of an uncertain ...

    Trivet, Nicholas

    (Or "Trevet" as he himself wrote it) B. about 1258; d. 1328. He was the son of Thomas Trevet, a ...

    Troas

    A suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespont. The city was first called Sigia; it was enlarged and ...

    Trocmades

    (Trocmada) Titular see of Galatia Secunda, suffragan of Pessinus. No geographer or historian ...

    Trokelowe, John de

    (THROWLOW, or THORLOW) A monastic chronicler still living in 1330, but the dates of whose birth ...

    Trondhjem, Ancient See of

    (NIDAROS). In Norway it was the kings who introduced Christianity, which first became ...

    Trope

    Definition and Description Trope, in the liturgico-hymnological sense, is a collective name ...

    Tropology, Scriptural

    The theory and practice of interpreting the figurative meaning of Holy Writ. The literal meaning, ...

    Troy, John Thomas

    Archbishop of Dublin ; b. in the parish of Blanchardstown, near Dublin, 10 May, 1739; d. at ...

    Troyes

    (TRECENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Aube. Re-established in 1802 as a suffragan ...

    Truce of God

    The Truce of God is a temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God ...

    Truchsess von Waldburg, Otto

    Cardinal-Bishop of Augsburg (1543-73), b. at Castle Scheer in Swabia, 26 Feb., 1514; d. at ...

    Trudo, Saint

    (TRON, TROND, TRUDON, TRUTJEN, TRUYEN). Apostle of Hasbein in Brabant; d. 698 (693). Feast 23 ...

    Trudpert, Saint

    Missionary in Germany in the seventh century. He is generally called a Celtic monk from ...

    True Cross, The

    (AND REPRESENTATIONS OF IT AS OBJECTS OF DEVOTION). (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult ; (2) ...

    Trueba, Antonio de

    Spanish poet and folklorist, b. at Montellana, Biscay, in 1821; d. at Bilbao, 10 March, 1889. In ...

    Trujillo

    Diocese comprising the Departments of Lambayeque, Libertad, Pinra, and the Province of Tumbes, ...

    Trullo, Council in

    This particular council of Constantinople, held in 692 under Justinian II, is generally known as ...

    Trumpets, Feast of

    The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...

    Trumwin, Saint

    (TRIUMWINI, TRUMUINI). Died at Whitby, Yorkshire, England, after 686. He was consecrated by ...

    Trustee System

    I In the exercise of her inherent right of administering property, the Church often appoints ...

    Trusts and Bequests

    A trust has been defined, in its technical sense, as the right enforceable solely in equity to ...

    Truth

    Truth (Anglo-Saxon tréow, tryw, truth, preservation of a compact, from a Teutonic base ...

    Truth Societies, Catholic

    This article will treat of Catholic Truth Societies in the chronological order of their ...

    Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

    Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...

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    Ts 2

    Tschiderer zu Gleifheim, Johann Nepomuk von

    Bishop of Trent, b. at Bozen, 15 Feb., 1777; d. at Trent, 3 Dec., 1860. He sprang from a family ...

    Tschupick, John Nepomuk

    A celebrated preacher, b. at Vienna, 7 or 12 April, 1729; d. there, 20 July, 1784. He entered the ...

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    Tu 27

    Tuam

    (TUAMENSIS). The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly ...

    Tuam, School of

    (Irish, Tuaim da Ghualann , or the "Mound of the two Shoulders"). The School of Tuam was ...

    Tubunae

    A titular see in Mauretania Caesariensis, according to the "Gerachia cattolica", or in Numidia ...

    Tucson

    (T UCSONENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe. It comprises the State of ...

    Tucumán

    (T UCUMANENSIS ). Suffragan to Buenos Aires, erected from the Diocese of Salta on 15 ...

    Tudela

    (TUTELÆ, TUTELENSIS). Diocese in Spain. The episcopal city has a population of 9213. ...

    Tuguegarao

    (TUGUEGARAONENSIS). Diocese in the Philippines ; situated in the north-eastern section of ...

    Tulancingo

    (D E T ULANCINGO ). Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of Mexico. Its area is ...

    Tulasne, Louis-René

    A noted botanist, b. at Azay-le-Rideau, Dept of Indre-et-Loire, France, 12 Sept., 1815; d. at ...

    Tulle

    (TUTELENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Corrèze. It was suppressed by the ...

    Tunic

    By tunic is understood in general a vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper ...

    Tunis

    French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa. About the twelfth century before Christ ...

    Tunja

    (T UNQUENENSIS ). Diocese established in 1880 as a suffragan of Bogotá, in the ...

    Tunkers

    ( German tunken , to dip) A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite. ...

    Tunstall, Cuthbert

    Bishop of London, later of Durham, b. at Hackforth, Yorkshire, in 1474; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...

    Tunstall, Venerable Thomas

    Martyred at Norwich, 13 July, 1616. He was descended from the Tunstalls of Thurland, an ancient ...

    Tunsted, Simon

    English Minorite, b. at Norwich, year unknown; d. at Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369. Having joined the ...

    Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques

    Baron de L' Aulne, French minister, born at Parish, 10 May, 1727; died there, 20 March, 1781. ...

    Turin

    (Turino; Taurinensis) The City of Turin is the chief town of a civil province in Piedmont and ...

    Turin, Shroud of

    This name is primarily given to a relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that ...

    Turin, University of

    The University of Turin was founded in 1404, when the lectures at Piacenza and Pavia were ...

    Turkestan

    I. CHINESE TURKESTAN When Jenghiz Khan died (1227) his second son, Djagatai, had the greater part ...

    Turkish Empire

    Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the ...

    Turnebus, Adrian

    Philologist, b. at Andely in Normandy in 1512; d. in Paris, 12 June, 1565. The accounts of the ...

    Turpin

    Archbishop of Reims, date of birth uncertain; d. 2 Sept., 800. He was a monk of St. Denis ...

    Tuscany

    Tuscany, a division of central Italy, includes the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, ...

    Tuy

    (Tudensis.) Suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Santiago, comprises the civil provinces ...

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    Tw 2

    Twenge, Saint John

    Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...

    Twiketal of Croyland

    (THURCYTEL, TURKETUL). Died July, 975. He was a cleric of royal descent, who is said to have ...

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    Ty 7

    Tyana

    A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Prima. The city must first have been called Thoana, ...

    Tychicus

    A disciple of St. Paul and his constant companion. He was a native of the Roman province of ...

    Tynemouth Priory

    Tynemouth Priory, on the east coast of Northumberland, England, occupied the site of an earlier ...

    Types in Scripture

    Types, though denoted by the Greek word typoi , are not coextensive with the meaning of this ...

    Tyrannicide

    Tyrannicide literally is the killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a ...

    Tyre

    (TYRUS.) Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese. The city is called in Hebrew, Zor , ...

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