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Lutheranism

The religious belief held by the oldest and in Europe the most numerous of the Protestant sects, founded by the Wittenberg reformer, Martin Luther. The term Lutheran was first used by his opponents during the Leipzig Disputation in 1519, and afterwards became universally prevalent. Luther preferred the designation "Evangelical", and today the usual title of the sect is "Evangelical Lutheran Church ". In Germany, where the Lutherans and the Reformed have united (since 1817), the name Lutheran has been abandoned, and the state Church is styled the Evangelical or the Evangelical United.

I. DISTINCTIVE TEACHINGS

In doctrine official Lutheranism is part of what is called orthodox Protestantism, since it agrees with the Catholic and the Greek Churches in accepting the authority of the Scriptures and of the three most ancient creeds (the Apostles' Creed, the Nicene Creed, and the Athanasian Creed ). Besides these formulæ of belief, Lutheranism acknowledges six specific confessions which distinguish it from other churches:

These nine symbolical books (including the three Creeds ) constitute what is known as the "Book of Concord", which was first published at Dresden in 1580 by order of Elector Augustus of Saxony (see FAITH, PROTESTANT CONFESSIONS OF). In these confessions the Scriptures are declared to be the only rule of faith. The extent of the Canon is not defined, but the bibles in common use among Lutherans have been generally the same as those of other Protestant denominations (see CANON OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES). The symbols and the other writings not contained in Scripture do not possess decisive authority, but merely show how the Scriptures were understood and explained at particular times by the leading theologians (Form of Concord).

The chief tenet of the Lutheran creed, that which Luther called "the article of the standing and falling Church ", has reference to the justification of sinful man. Original sin is explained as a positive and total depravity of human nature, which renders all the acts of the unjustified, even those of civil righteousness, sinful and displeasing to God. Justification, which is not an internal change, but an external, forensic declaration by which God imputes to the creature the righteousness of Christ, comes only by faith, which is the confidence that one is reconciled to God through Christ. Good works are necessary as an exercise of faith, and are rewarded, not by justification (which they presuppose), but by the fulfilment of the Divine promises (Apology Aug. Conf.).

Other distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church are:

  • consubstantiation (although the symbols do not use this term), i.e. the real, corporeal presence of Christ's Body and Blood during the celebration of the Lord's Supper, in, with, and under the substance of bread and wine, in a union which is not hypostatic, nor of mixture, nor of local inclusion, but entirely transcendent and mysterious;
  • the omnipresence of the Body of Christ, which is differently explained by the commentators of the Symbolical Books.

Since the official formulæ of faith claim no decisive authority for themselves, and on many points are far from harmonious, the utmost diversity of opinion prevails among Lutherans. Every shade of belief may be found among them, from the orthodox, who hold fast to the confessions, to the semi-infidel theologians, who deny the authority of the Scriptures.

II. HISTORY

Lutheranism dates from 31 October, 1517, when Luther affixed his theses to the church door of the castle of Wittenberg. Although he did not break with the Catholic Church until three years later, he had already come substantially to his later views on the plan of salvation. The new teachings, however underwent a great change after Luther's return from Wartburg (1521). Before he died (18 Feb., 1546), his teachings had been propagated in many states of Germany in Poland, in the Baltic Provinces, in Hungary, transylvania, the Netherlands, Denmark and Scandinavia. From these European countries Lutheranism has been carried by emigration to the New World , and in the United States it ranks among the leading Protestant denominations.

(1) The Lutherans in Germany (a) First Period: From the appearance of Luther's Theses to the adoption of the Formula of Concord (1517-80)

Favoured by the civil rulers, Lutheranism spread rapidly in Northern Germany. After the Diet of Speyer (1526) the Elector of Saxony and other princes established Lutheran state Churches. An alliance between these princes was concluded at Torgau in 1526, and again at Smalkald in 1531. The Protestant League was continually increased by the accession of other states, and a religious war broke out in 1546, which resulted in the Peace of Augsburg (1555). This treaty provided that the Lutherans should retain permanently what they then possessed, but that all officials of ecclesiastical estates, who from that time forth should go over to Protestantism would be deposed and replaced by Catholics. This latter provision, known as the "Reservatum Ecclesiasticum", was very unsatisfactory to the Protestants, and its constant violation was one of the causes that lead up to the Thirty Years War (1618-48). At the time of the Peace of Augsburg Lutherans predominated in the north of Germany, while the Zwinglians or Reformed were very numerous in the south. Austria, Bavaria, and the territories subject to spiritual lords were Catholic, although many of these afterwards became Protestant. Several attempts were made to effect a reunion. In 1534 Pope Paul III invited the Protestants to a general council. Emperor Charles V arranged conferences between Catholic and Lutheran theologians in 1541, 1546, and 1547. His successor, Ferdinand I (1556-64), and many private individuals such as the Lutheran Frederick Staphylus and Father Contzen, laboured much for the same end. All these efforts, however, proved fruitless. Melanchthon, Crusius, and other Lutheran theologians made formal proposals of union to the Greek Church (1559, 1574, 1578), but nothing came of their overtures. From the beginning bitter hostility existed between the Lutherans and the Reformed. This first appeared in the Sacramentarian controversy between Luther and Zwingli (1524). They met in conference at Marburg in 1529, but came to no agreement. The hopes of union created by the compromise formula of 1536, known as the Concordia Wittenbergensis , proved delusive. Luther continued to make war on the Zwinglians until his death. The Sacramentarian strife was renewed in 1549 when the Zwinglians accepted Calvin's view of the Real Presence. The followers of Melanchthon, who favoured Calvin's doctrine (Philippists, Crypto-Calvinists), were also furiously denounced by the orthodox Lutherans. During these controversies the State Church of the Palatinate, where Philippism predominated, changed from the Lutheran to the Reformed faith (1560). From the beginning Lutheranism was torn by doctrinal disputes, carried on with the utmost violence and passion. They had reference to the questions of sin and grace, justification by faith, the use of good works, the Lord's Supper, and the Person and work of Christ. The bitterest controversy was the Crypto-Calvinistic. To effect harmony the Form of Concord, the last of the Lutheran symbols, was drawn up in 1577, and accepted by the majority of the state Churches. The document was written in a conciliatory spirit, but it secured the triumph of the orthodox party.

(b) Second Period: From the Adoption of the Form of Concord to the Beginning of the Pietistic Movement (1580-1689)

During this period Lutheranism was engaged in bitter polemics with its neighbours in Germany. Out of these religious discords grew the horrors of the Thirty Years War, which led many persons to desire better relations between the churches. A "charitable colloquy" was held at Thorn in 1645 by Catholic, Lutheran, and Calvinist theologians, but nothing was accomplished. The proposal of the Lutheran professor, George Calixtus, that the confessions organize into one church with the consensus of the first five centuries as a common basis ( Syncretism ), aroused a storm of indignation, and, by way of protest, a creed was accepted by the Saxon universities which expressed the views of the most radical school of Lutheran orthodoxy (1655). The Lutheran theologians of this period imitated the disorderly arrangement of Melanchthon's "Loci Theologici", but in spirit they were with few exceptions loyal supporters of the Form of Concord. Although the writings of Luther abound with diatribes against the speculative sciences, his followers early perceived the necessity of philosophy for controversial purposes. Melanchthon developed a system of Aristoteleanism, and it was not long before the Scholastic method, which Luther had so cordially detested, was used by the Evangelical theologians, although the new Scholasticism was utterly different from the genuine system. Lutheran dogmatics became a maze of refined subtleties, and mere logomachy was considered the chief duty of the theologian. The result was a fanatical orthodoxy, whose only activity was heresy-hunting and barren controversy. New attempts were made to unite the Evangelical Churches. Conferences were held in 1586, 1631, and 1661; a plan of union was proposed by the Heidelberg professor Pareus (1615); the Reformed Synod of Charenton (1631) voted to admit Lutheran sponsors in baptism. But again the doctrine of the Lord's Supper proved an obstacle, as the Lutherans would agree to no union that was not based upon perfect dogmatic consensus. By the Peace of Westphalia (1648) the concessions which had been made to the Lutherans in 1555 were extended to the Reformed.

(c) Third Period: From the Beginning of the Pietistic Movement to the Evangelical Union (1689-1817)

Pietism, which was a reaction against the cold and dreary formalism of Lutheran orthodoxy, originated with Philip Spener (1635-1705). In sermons and writings he asserted the claims of personal holiness, and in 1670, while dean at Frankfort-on-the-Main, he began to hold little reunions called collegia pietatis (whence the name Pietist ), in which devotional passages of the Scriptures were explained and pious conversation carried on by those present. His follower, August Francke, founded in 1694 the University of Halle, which became a stronghold of Pietism. The strict Lutherans accused the Pietists of heresy, a charge which was vigorously denied, although in fact the new school differed from the orthodox not only in practice, but also in doctrine. The first enthusiasm of the Pietists soon degenerated into fanaticism, and they rapidly lost favour. Pietism had exercised a beneficial influence, but it was followed by the Rationalistic movement, a more radical reaction against orthodoxy, which effected within the Lutheran, as in other Protestant communions, many apostasies from Christian belief. The philosophy of the day and the national literature, then ardently cultivated, had gradually undermined the faith of all classes of the people. The leaders in the Church adjusted themselves to the new conditions, and soon theological chairs and the pulpits were filled by men who rejected not only the dogmatic teaching of the Symbolical Books, but every supernatural element of religion. A notable exception to this growing infidelity was the sect of Herrnhuters or United Brethren, founded in 1722 by Count von Zinzendorf, a follower of the Pietistic school (see BOHEMIAN BRETHREN). The critical state of their churches caused many Protestants to long for a union between the Lutherans and the Reformed. The royal house of Prussia laboured to accomplish a union, but all plans were frustrated by the opposition of the theologians. There were for a time prospects of a reconciliation of the Hanoverian Lutherans with the Catholic Church. Negotiations were carried on between the Catholic Bishop Spinola and the Lutheran representative Molanus (1691). A controversy on the points at issue followed between Bossuet and Leibniz (1692-1701), but no agreement was reached.

(d) Fourth Period: From the Evangelical Union (1817) to the Present

The chief events in the Lutheran Churches in Germany during the nineteenth century were the Evangelical Union and the revival of orthodoxy. During the celebration of the tercentenary of the Reformation in 1817, efforts were made in Prussia to unite Lutherans and Reformed. Frederick William III recommended the use of a common liturgy by the two churches, and this proposal gradually won acceptance. There was much opposition, however, to the service-book published by royal authority in 1822. John Scheibel, deacon in Breslau, refused to accept it, and, being deposed from office, founded a separatist sect known as the "Old Lutherans" (1830). The Government used very oppressive measures against these nonconformists, but in 1845 the new king, Frederick William IV, recognized them as an independent Lutheran sect. In 1860 the Old Lutherans were greatly reduced in numbers by the defection of Pastor Diedrich, who organized the independent Immanuel Synod. There were also separatist movements outside of Silesia. Free Lutheran Churches were established by dissenters in Hesse, Hanover, Baden, and Saxony. A supernaturalist movement, which defended the Divinely inspired character of the Bible , started a reaction against the principle of rationalism in theology. The centenary jubilees of 1817 and the following years, which recalled the early days of Lutheranism, brought with them a revival of former orthodoxy. The theological faculties of several universities became strictly Lutheran in their teachings. Since then there has been a persistent and bitter struggle between rationalistic and Evangelical tendencies in the United and Free Churches.

(2) The Lutherans in Denmark and Scandinavia. (a) Denmark

By the Union of Calmar (1397), Sweden, Norway, and Denmark became a united kingdom under the King of Denmark. The despotic Christian II (1513-23) endeavoured to introduce the Reformation, but was overthrown by his barons. Frederick I of Schleswig-Holstein, his successor, openly professed Lutheranism in 1526. At the Diet of Odense (1527) he obtained a measure which guaranteed equal rights to his coreligionists, and two years later he proclaimed Lutheranism the only true religion. Under his successor, Christian III (1533-59), the Catholic bishops were deprived of their sees, and the Lutheran Church of Denmark was organized with the king as supreme bishop. The Diet of Copenhagen (1546) enacted penal laws , which deprived Catholics of civil rights and forbade priests to remain in Denmark under pain of death. The opposition of Iceland to the new religion was put down by force (1550). German rationalism was propagated in Denmark by Clausen. Among its opponents was Grundtvig, leader of the Grundtvigian movement (1824), which advocated the acceptance of the Apostles' Creed as the sole rule of faith. Freedom of religious worship was granted in 1849.

(b) Norway

Norway, which was united with Denmark, became Lutheran during the reigns of Frederick I and Christian III. Rationalism, introduced from Denmark, made great progress in Norway. It was opposed by Hauge and by Norwegian followers of Grundtvig. A Free Apostolic Church was founded by Adolph Lammers about 1850, but later reunited with the state church. Norway passed laws of toleration in 1845, but still excludes the Jesuits.

(c) Sweden

Sweden was freed from the Danish yoke by Gustavus Vasa in 1521, and two years later the liberator was chosen king. Almost from the outset of his reign he showed himself favourable to Lutherans, and by cunning and violence succeeded in introducing the new religion into his kingdom. In 1529 the Reformation was formally established by the Assembly of Orebro, and in 1544 the ancient Faith was put under the ban of the law. The reign of Eric XIV (1560-8) was marked by violent conflicts between the Lutherans and the Calvinists. The latter party was favoured by the king, and their defeat in 1568 was followed by Eric's dethronement. His successor, John III (1568-92), conferred with Gregory XIII on a reunion of Sweden with the Catholic Church, but, as the pope could not grant all the concessions demanded by the king, the negotiations were unsuccessful. The next king, Sigismund (1592-1604), was a Catholic, but, as he lived in Poland (of which he was king from 1587), the Government of Sweden was administered by his uncle Duke Charles of Sudermanland, a zealous Lutheran, who used the power at his command to secure his proclamation as King Charles IX in the Assembly of Nordkoeping (1604). The successor of Charles was the famous general and statesman, Gustavus Adolphus (1611-32). For the part he took in the Thirty Years War, he is venerated by Lutherans as the religious hero of their Church, but it is now admitted that reasons of state led Gustavus into that conflict. He was succeeded by his only daughter Christina, who became a Catholic and abdicated in 1654. By a law of 1686 all persons in the kingdom were required under severe penalties to conform to the state Church. A law passed in 1726 against religious conventicles was rigidly enforced against the Swedish Pietists ( Läsare ) from 1803 till its repeal in 1853. The law against religious dissidents was not removed from the statute books till 1873. The Swedish Church is entirely controlled by the state, and the strict orthodoxy which was enforced prevented at first any serious inroads of Rationalism. But since 1866 there has formed within the state Church a "progressive party", whose purpose is to abandon all symbols and to laicize the church. The two universities of Upsala and Lund are orthodox. The Grand Duchy of Finland, formerly united to Sweden, but now (since 1809) a Province of Russia, maintains Lutheranism as the national Church.

(3) Lutheranism in Other Countries of Europe (a) Poland

Lutheranism was introduced into Poland during the reign of Sigismund I (1501-48) by young men who had made their studies at Wittenberg. The new teachings were opposed by the king, but had the powerful support of the nobility. From Danzig they spread to the cities of Thorn and Elbing, and, during the reign of Sigismund II (1548-72), steadily gained ground. A union symbol was drawn up and signed by the Protestants at Sandomir in 1570, and three years later they concluded a religious peace with the Catholics, in which it was agreed that all parties should enjoy equal civil rights. The peace was not lasting, and during two centuries there was almost continual religious strife which finally led to the downfall of the kingdom. With the connivance of Poland, Lutheranism was established in the territories of the Teutonic Order, East Prussia (1525), Livonia (1539), and Courland (1561).

(b) Hungary, Transylvania and Silesia

The teachings of Luther were first propagated in these countries during the reign of King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia (1516-26). The king was strongly opposed to religious innovation, but after his death civil discords enabled the new doctrine to gain headway. In Silesia Lutheranism was protected by the dukes, and in 1524 it was established in Breslau, the capital, by the municipal council. Freedom of worship was granted in Transylvania in 1545, and in Hungary in 1606. The Lutherans were soon involved in quarrels with the Calvinists. The German element among the Protestants favoured the Augsburg Confession, but the Reformed faith had more adherents among the Hungarians and Czechs. In Silesia the Lutherans themselves were divided on the doctrine of justification and the Eucharist. Gaspar Schwenkfeld (died 1561), one of the earliest disciples of Luther, assailed his master's doctrine on these points, and as early as 1528 Schwenkfeldianism had many adherents among Lutherans. The memory of Schwenkfeld is still held in veneration in Silesia and in some Lutheran communities of Pennsylvania. Lutheranism made some gains in the hereditary states of Austria and in Bohemia during the reigns of Ferdinand 1 (1556-64) and Maximilian II (1564-76). The Lutherans of Bohemia rebelled against the imperial authority in 1618, but were defeated, and the Catholic Faith was preserved in the Hapsburg dominions. (See AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHY; HUNGARY.)

(c) Holland

Holland was one of the first countries to receive the doctrines of Luther. Emperor Charles V, anxious to avert the disorders which followed the Reformation in Germany, used great severity against those who propagated Lutheranism in the Netherlands. His son, Philip II of Spain (1556-98), was still more rigorous. The measures he employed were often despotic and unjust, and the people rose in a rebellion (1568), by which Holland was lost to Spain. Meanwhile the relations between the Lutherans and Calvinists were anything but cordial. The Reformed party gradually gained the ascendancy, and, when the republic was established, their political supremacy enabled them to subject the Lutherans to many annoying restrictions. The Dutch Lutherans fell a prey to Rationalism in the eighteenth century. A number of the churches and pastors separated from the main body to adhere more closely to the Augsburg Confession. The liberal party has a theological seminary (founded in 1816) at Amsterdam, while the orthodox provide for theological training by lectures in the university of the same city.

(4) Lutherans in America (a) Period of Foundation (1624-1742)

Lutherans were among the earliest European settlers on this continent. Their first representatives came from Holland to the Dutch colony of New Netherlands about 1624. Under Governor Stuyvesant they were obliged to conform to the Reformed services, but freedom of worship was obtained when New Amsterdam (New York) was captured by the English in 1664. The second distinct body of Lutherans in America arrived from Sweden in 1637. Two years later they had a minister and organized at Fort Christina (now Wilmington, Delaware ), the first Lutheran congregation in the New World. After 1771 the Swedes of Delaware and Pennsylvania dissolved their union with the Mother Church of Sweden. As they had no English-speaking ministers, they chose their pastors from the Episcopalian Church. Since 1846 these congregations have declared full communion with the Episcopalians. The first colony of German Lutherans was from the Palatinate. They arrived in 1693 and founded Germantown, now a part of Philadelphia. During the eighteenth century large numbers of Lutheran emigrants from Alsace, the Palatinate, and Würtemberg settled along the Hudson River. On the Atlantic coast, in New Jersey, Virginia, North and South Carolina, were many isolated groups of German Lutherans. A colony of Lutherans from Salzburg founded the settlement of Ebenezer, Georgia, in 1734. In Eastern Pennsylvania about 30,000 German Lutherans had settled before the middle of the eighteenth century. Three of their congregations applied to Europe for ministers, and Count Zinzendorf became pastor in Philadelphia in 1741.

(b) Period of Organization (1742-87)

In 1742 Rev. Henry Muhlenberg, a Hanoverian who is regarded as the patriarch of American Lutheranism, arrived in Philadelphia and succeeded Zinzendorf in the pastorate. During the forty-five years of his ministry in America, Muhlenberg presided over widely separated congregations and erected many churches. He began the work of organization among the Lutherans of America by the foundation of the Synod of Pennsylvania in 1748. He also prepared the congregational constitution of St. Michael's Church, Philadelphia, which became the model of similar constitutions throughout the country. His son, Rev. Frederick Muhlenberg, afterwards speaker in the first House of Representatives, was the originator of the Ministerium of New York, the second synod in America (1773).

(c) Period of Deterioration (1787-1817)

Muhlenherg and the other German pastors of his time were graduates of the University of Halle. The generation that succeeded them had made their studies in the same institution. But the Pietism of the founders of Halle had now made way for the destructive criticism of Semler. The result was soon manifest in the indifferentism of the American Churches. The Pennsylvania Ministerium eliminated all confessional tests in its constitution of 1792. The New York ministerium, led by Dr. Frederick Quitman, a decided Rationalist, substituted for the older Lutheran catechisms and hymn-books works that were more conformable to the prevailing theology. The agenda, or service-book adopted by the Pennsylvania Lutherans in 1818, was a departure from the old type of service and the expression of new doctrinal standards. The transition from the use of German to English caused splits in many congregations, the German party bitterly opposing the introduction of English in the church services. They even felt that they had more in common with the German-speaking Reformed than with the English-speaking Lutherans, and some of them advocated an Evangelical Union such as was then proposed in Prussia.

(d) Period of Revival and Expansion (1817-60)

To prevent the threatened disintegration, a union of all the Lutheran synods in America was proposed. In 1820 the General Synod was organized at Hagerstown, Pennsylvania, but a few of the district synods stood aloof. The new organization was regarded with suspicion by many, and in 1823 the mother synod of Pennsylvania itself withdrew from the general body. From the beginning there was a considerable element within the General Synod which favoured doctrinal compromise with the Reformed Church. To strengthen the conservative party, the Pennsylvania Synod returned to the General Synod in 1853. Meanwhile the General Synod had established the theological seminary at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (1825), and societies for home and foreign missions. In the West several ecclesiastical organizations were formed by Lutheran emigrants from Saxony, Prussia, Bavaria, and the Scandinavian countries. The Missouri Synod was founded by Rev. Carl Walther in 1847, and the same year opened a theological seminary at St. Louis. A band of Old Lutherans, who resisted the Prussian union, emigrated from Saxony in 1839, and two years later founded the Buffalo Synod. At first a union between the Missouri and the Buffalo synods was expected, but instead their leaders were soon engaged in doctrinal controversies which extended over many years. In 1854 a party within the Missouri Synod, dissatisfied with what it regarded as the extreme congregationalism of that body and its denial of open questions in theology, seceded and formed the Iowa Synod with its theological seminary at Dubuque. Ever since there has been conflict between these two synods. Travelling preachers of the Pennsylvania Ministerium founded in Ohio a conference in connexion with the mother synod in 1805. This conference was reorganized in 1818 into a synod which since 1833 has been known as the Joint Synod of Ohio. The earliest synods formed by Scandinavian emigrants were:

  • the Norwegian Hauge Synod (1846),
  • the Norwegian Synod (1863), and
  • the Scandinavian Augustana Synod (1860),

all in the states of the Middle West.

(e) Period of Reorganization (since 1860)

At the beginning of the Civil War the General Synod numbered two-thirds of the Lutherans in the United States, and hopes were entertained that soon all the organizations would be united in one body. These anticipations, however, were doomed to disappointment. In 1863 the General Synod lost the five southern district synods, which withdrew and formed the "General Synod of the Confederate States". A more serious break in the General Synod occurred three years later. The disagreements between the liberal and the conservative elements in that body had not abated with time. In 1864 the Ministerium of Pennsylvania established in Philadelphia a new seminary, thereby greatly reducing the attendance at the Gettysburg seminary of the General Synod. At the next convention (1866) it was declared that the Pennsylvania Synod was no longer in practical union with the General Synod. The Pennsylvania Ministerium at once sent out an invitation to all American and Canadian synods to join with it in forming a new general body. In response to this invitation a convention assembled at Reading the same year, and thirteen synods were consolidated into the "General Council". With the close of the Civil War the Southern Lutherans might have returned to fellowship with their Northern brethren, but the controversy between the Northern synods determined them to perpetuate their own organization. In 1886 they reorganized their general body, taking the name of the "United Synod in the South", and stating their doctrinal position, which is essentially the same as that of the General Council. A fourth general body was formed in 1872, the "Synodical Conference", at present the strongest organization among the Lutheran Churches of America. It takes as its basis the Formula of Concord of 1580, and comprises the Missouri and other Western synods. A controversy on predestination led to the withdrawal of the Ohio Synod in 1881, and of the Norwegian Synod in 1884. There are still many independent synods not affiliated with any of the general organizations. Thus the Lutherans of the United States are divided into various conflicting bodies, each claiming to be a truer exponent of Lutheranism than the others. The membership of the four principal organizations is almost exclusively of German descent. The main cause of separation is diversity of opinion regarding the importance or the interpretation of the official confessions.

III. ORGANIZATION AND WORSHIP

In the early days of the Reformation the prevalent form of government was that known as the episcopal, which transferred the jurisdiction of the bishops to the civil ruler. It was followed by the territorial system, which recognized the sovereign as head of the church, in virtue of his office, both in administrative and doctrinal matters. The collegial system of Pfaff (1719) asserts the sovereignty and independence of the congregation, which may, however, delegate its authority to the State. In the Lutheran state Churches the secular power is in fact the supreme authority. The practical determination of religious questions rests with the national legislature, or with a consistorium whose members are appointed by the government. No Divinely constituted hierarchy is recognized, and in orders all the clergy are considered as equals. The Lutheran bishops of Sweden and Denmark, like the "general superintendents" of Germany, are government officials entrusted with the oversight of the pastors and congregations. In Holland and the United States, as among the Free Churches of Germany, the form of organization is synodical, a system of church polity which in its main features has been derived from the Reformed Church. According to this plan, purely congregational matters are decided by the vote of the congregation, either directly or through the church council. In the United States the church council consists of the pastor and his lay assistants, the elders and deacons, all chosen by the congregation. Affairs of more general importance and disputed questions are settled by the district synod, composed of lay and clerical delegates representing such congregations as have accepted a mutual congregational compact. The congregations composing a district synod may unite with other district synods to form a more general body. The powers of a general organization of this kind, in relation to the bodies of which it is composed, are not, however, in all cases the same. The constitution of the Old Lutheran Church in Germany makes its General Synod the last court of appeal and its decisions binding. In the United States a different conception prevails, and in most instances the general assemblies are regarded simply as advisory conferences whose decisions require the ratification of the particular organizations represented.

Lutheran public worship is based on the service-book which Luther published in 1523 and 1526. He retained the first part of the Mass, but abolished the Offertory, Canon, and all the forms of sacrifice. The main Lutheran service is still known as "the Mass" in Scandinavian countries. The singing of hymns became a prominent part of the new service. Many Catholic sequences were retained, and other sacred songs were borrowed from the old German poets. Luther himself wrote hymns, but it is doubtful whether he is really the author of any of the melodies that are usually ascribed to him. Luther wished to retain the Elevation and the use of the Latin language, but these have been abandoned. The Collect, Epistle, and Gospel vary according to the Sundays of the year. The Creed is followed by a sermon on the Scripture lesson of the day, which is the principal part of the service. Ordinarily the Lord's Supper is administered only a few times during the year. It is preceded, sometimes the day before, by the service of public confession and absolution, which consists in the promise of amendment made by the intending communicants, and the declaration of the minister that such as are truly penitent are forgiven. Only two sacraments are recognized by Lutherans, Baptism and the Lord's Supper; but Confirmation, Ordination, and Confession as just described are regarded as sacred rites. There are also ceremonies prescribed for marriage and burial. Christmas, Easter, Pentecost, the feast of the Twelve Apostles, the Commemoration of the Reformation (31 Oct.) are observed with religious services. Pictures are permitted in the churches, and in Denmark vestments and lighted candles are used at the communion service. The first complete ritual or agenda was that prepared for the Duchy of Prussia in 1525. There is no uniform liturgy for the churches. In the United Evangelical Church of Germany the agenda of Frederick William III (1817) is the official form. The services of the American Lutherans were for many years chiefly extemporaneous, but since 1888 a common service based on the liturgies of the sixteenth century has been used by almost all English-speaking Lutherans in this country. It includes, besides the main service, matins and vespers.

IV. VARIOUS LUTHERAN ACTIVITIES

(1) Foreign Missions and Benevolent Organizations

Foreign missionary activity has never been a very prominent characteristic of the Lutheran Church. Its pioneer missionaries went from the University of Halle to the East Indies (Tanquebar) at the invitation of Frederick IV of Denmark in 1705. During the eighteenth century Halle sent about sixty missionaries to Tanquebar. In later years the mission was supplied by the Leipzig Lutheran Mission. Another Danish mission was that of Pastor Hans Egede among the Greenlanders in 1721. During the nineteenth century several societies for foreign missions were founded: the Berlin Mission Society (1824), the Evangelical Lutheran Missionary Association of Leipzig (1836), the Hermansburg Society (1854), and a number of similar organizations in the Scandinavian countries. In the United States a German Foreign Missionary Society was founded in 1837. The first Lutheran missionary from the United States was Dr. Heyer, who was sent to India in 1841. At present missions to the heathen in Oceania, India, and East Africa, are maintained under the auspices of various American synods. The sisterhood, known as the Lutheran Deaconesses, was founded by Pastor Fliedner at Kaiserwerth in 1833, its objects being the care of the sick, instruction, etc. They are now very numerous in some parts of Germany. They were introduced in the United States in 1849.

(2) Sacred Learning and Education

The study of exegetics, church history, and theology has been much cultivated by Lutheran scholars. Among the exegetes the following are well known: Solomon Glassius (Philologia Sacra, 1623); Sebastian Schmid (died 1696), translator and commentator; John H. Michaelis (Biblia Hebraica, 1720); John A. Bengel (Gnomon Novi Testamenti, 1752); Havernick (died 1845), Hegstenberg (died 1869), and Delitzsch (died 1890), commentators. Among the more important church historians may be mentioned: Mosheim (died 1755), sometimes called the "Father of Modern Church History ", Schrockle (died 1808), Neander (died 1850), Kurtz (died 1890), Hase (died 1890). The "Magdeburg Centuries" (1559) of Flacius Illyricus and his associates, the first church history written by Protestants, is very biased and has no historical value. Numerous dogmatic works have been written by Lutheran theologians. Among the dogmaticians most esteemed by Lutherans are: Melanchthon, whose "Loci Theologici" (1521) was the first Lutheran theology ; Martin Chemnitz (died 1586) and John Gerhard (died 1637), the two ablest Lutheran theologians ; Calovius (died 1686), champion of the strictest Lutheran orthodoxy ; Quenstedt (died 1688); Hollaz (died 1713); Luthardt (died 1902); Henry Schmid, whose dogmatic theology (1st ed., 1843) in its English translation has been much used in the United States. The Lutheran Church still produces many dogmatic works, but very few of the modern divines hold strictly to the old formulæ of faith.

The Lutheran Churches deserve great credit for the importance they have always attached to religious instruction, not only in their many universities, but also and especially in the schools of elementary instruction. In Lutheran countries the education of the children is supervised by the religious authorities, since Lutherans act on the principle that religious training is the most important part of education. The catechism, Biblical study, and church music have a prominent part in the everyday instruction. In the United States the parochial school has been developed with great success among the congregations that still use the German and Scandinavian languages. The Lutherans of Wisconsin and Illinois co-operated with the Catholics in 1890 in an organized resistance against legislation which would have proved injurious to the parochial schools.

V. INFLUENCE OF RATIONALISM IN THE LUTHERAN CHURCHES

The popular faith had been overthrown in the eighteenth century by the philosophy of Wolff (died 1754) and the criticism of Semler (died 1791). The principle of the supremacy of reason was used to tear down belief in the inspired character of Holy Writ . The lite

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Lérida

(ILERDENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Tarragona. La Canal says it was erected in 600, but ...

Lérins, Abbey of

Situated on an island of the same name, now known as that of Saint-Honorat, about a league from ...

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Lübeck

Lübeck, a free imperial state and one of the Hanse towns, is in area the second smallest and ...

Lütolf, Aloys

An ecclesiastical historian, born 23 July, 1824, in Gettnau near Willisau (Switzerland); died at ...

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L'Enfant, Pierre-Charles

Engineer, b. in France, August, 1755; d. near Bladensburg, Maryland, U.S.A. 14 June, 1825. He ...

L'Hospital, Michael de

Born at Aigueperse, about 1504; d. at Courdimanche, 13 March, 1573. While very young he went to ...

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La Bruyère, Jean de

Born at Paris in 1645; died at Chantilly in 1696. He was the son of a comptroller general of ...

La Chaise, François d'Aix de

( Also Chaize). Confessor of King Louis XIV, born at the mansion of Aix, in Forez, ...

La Crosse

(CROSSENSIS) Diocese erected in 1868; included that part of the State of Wisconsin , U.S.A. ...

La Fayette, Marie Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, Comtesse de

Author of memoirs and novels, born in Paris, 1634; died there, 1693 (al., 1696). She received a ...

La Fontaine, Jean de

French poet, b. at Chateau-Thierry, 8 July, 1621; d. at Paris, 13 April, 1695. He was the eldest ...

La Fosse, Charles de

Painter, b. in Paris, 15 June, 1636; d. in Paris, 13 December, 1716, and buried in the church of ...

La Harpe, Jean-François

A French critic and poet, b. at Paris, 20 November, 1739; d. February, 1803. He was ten years old ...

La Haye, Jean de

Franciscan Biblical scholar, b. at Paris, 20 March, 1593; d. there 15 Oct., 1661. He passed his ...

La Hire, Philippe de

Mathematician, astronomer, physicist, naturalist, and painter, b. in Paris, 18 March, 1640; d. ...

La Luzerne, César-Guillaume

French cardinal b. at Paris, 1738; d. there, 1821. He studied at the Collège de Navarre, ...

La Moricière, Louis-Christophe-Leon Juchault de

French general and commander-in-chief of the papal army, b. at Nantes, 5 February, 1806; d. ...

La Paz

DIOCESE OF LA PAZ (PACENSIS). Diocese of La Paz, in Bolivia. The city is the capital of the ...

La Plata

DIOCESE OF LA PLATA (DE PLATA). The city of La Plata, capital of the Argentine Province of ...

La Plata

ARCHDIOCESE OF LA PLATA/DE PLATA (OR CHARCAS) La Plata, besides being the metropolitan see of ...

La Richardie, Armand de

Born at Périgueux, 7 June, 1686; died at Quebec, 17 March, 1758. He entered the Society ...

La Roche Daillon, Joseph de

Recollect, one of the most zealous missionaries of the Huron tribe, d. in France, 1656. He ...

La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, The Duke of

(François-Alexandre-Frédéric). Born at La Roche-Guyon, on 11 January, 1747; ...

La Rochejacquelein, Henri-Auguste-Georges du Vergier, Comte de

French politician, b. at the château of Citran (Fironde), on 28 September, 1805; d. on 7 ...

La Rochelle

The Diocese of La Rochelle (Rupellensis), suffragan of Bordeaux, comprises the entire Department ...

La Rue, Charles de

One of the great orators of the Society of Jesus in France in the seventeenth century, b. at ...

La Salette

Located in the commune and parish of La Salette-Fallavaux, Canton of Corps, Department of Isere, ...

La Salette, Missionaries of

The Missionaries of La Salette were founded in 1852, at the shrine of Our Lady of La Salette , ...

La Salle, John Baptist de, Saint

Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools , educational reformer, and ...

La Salle, René-Robert-Cavelier, Sieur de

Explorer, born at Rouen, 1643; died in Texas, 1687. In his youth he displayed an unusual ...

La Serena, Diocese of

(De Serena, Serenopolitana). Embracing Atacama and Coquimbo provinces (Chile), suffragan of ...

La Trappe

This celebrated abbey of the Order of Reformed Cistercians is built in a solitary valley ...

La Valette, Jean Parisot de

Forty-eighth Grand Master of the Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem ; b. in 1494; d. ...

La Verna

An isolated mountain hallowed by association with St. Francis of Assisi, situated in the centre ...

Labadists

A pietist sect of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries founded by Jean de Labadie, who was ...

Laban

Son of Bathuel, the Syrian (Gen. xxviii, 5; cf. xxv, 20); grandson of Nachor, Abraham's ...

Labarum (Chi-Rho)

Labarum is the name by which the military standard adopted by Constantine the Great after his ...

Labat, Jean-Baptiste

Dominican missionary, born at Paris, 1664; died there, 1738. He entered the Order of Preachers ...

Labbe, Philippe

Born at Borges, 10 July, 1607; died at Paris, at the College of Clermont, 17 (16) March, 1667; ...

Labour and Labour Legislation

Labour is work done by mind or body either partly or wholly for the purpose of producing ...

Labour Unions, Moral Aspects of

Since a labour union is a society, its moral aspects are determined by its constitution, its ...

Labyrinth

A complicated arrangement of paths and passages; or a place, usually subterraneous, full of ...

Lac, Stanislaus du

Jesuit educationist and social work, b. at Paris, 21 November, 1835; d. there, 30 August, 1909. ...

Lace

(Latin laqueus ; It. laccio, trine, merletto ; Spanish lazo, encaje, pasamano ; French ...

Lacedonia, Diocese of

(LAQUEDONIENSIS) Located in the province of Avellino, Southern Italy. Lacedonia is famous in ...

Lacordaire, Jean-Baptiste-Henri-Dominique

The greatest pulpit orator of the nineteenth century b. near Dijon, 13 May, 1802; d. at ...

Lactantius, Lucius Cæcilius Firmianus

A Christian apologist of the fourth century. The name Firmianus has misled some authors into ...

Lacy, Blessed William

Born at "Hanton", Yorkshire (probably Houghton or Tosside, West Riding); suffered at York, 22 ...

Laderchi, James

An Italian Oratorian and ecclesiastical historian, born about 1678, at Faenza near Ravenna ; ...

Ladislaus, Saint

King of Hungary, born 1040; died at Neutra, 29 July, 1095; one of Hungary's national Christian ...

Laennec, René-Théophile-Hyacinthe

Born at Quimper, in Brittany, France, 17 February, 1781; died at Kerlouanec, 13 August, 1826, a ...

Laetare Sunday

The fourth, or middle, Sunday of Lent, so called from the first words of the Introit at Mass, ...

Laetus, Pomponius

Humanist, b. in Calabria in 1425; d. at Rome in 1497. He was a bastard of the House of the ...

LaFarge, John

Painter, decorator, and writer, b. at New York, 31 March, 1835; d. at Providence, Rhode Island, ...

Lafitau, Joseph-Françs

Jesuit missionary and writer, born at Bordeaux, France, 1 January, 1681; died there, 1746. He ...

Laflèche, Louis-François Richer

French-Canadian bishop, b. 4 Sept., 1818, at Ste-Anne de la Perade, Province of Quebec ; d. 14 ...

Laforêt, Nicholas-Joseph

Belgian philosopher and theologian, born at Graide, 23 January, 1823; died at Louvain, 26 ...

Lafuente y Zamalloa, Modesto

Spanish critic and historian, b. at Ravanal de los Caballeros, 1 May, 1806; d. at Madrid, 25 ...

Lagania

A titular see in Galatia Prima. The town is mentioned by Ptolemy, V, i, 14, and in several ...

Lagrené, Pierre

A missionary in New France, b. at Paris, 12 Nov. (al. 28 Oct.), 1659; d. at Quebec in 1736. He ...

Lahore

(LAHLORENSIS). Diocese in northern India, part of the ecclesiastical Province of Agra. Its ...

Laibach

(LABACENSIS). Austrian bishopric and suffragan of Görz, embraces the territory of the ...

Laicization

( Latin laicus , lay). The term laity signifies the aggregation of those Christians who ...

Lainez, James

(LAYNEZ). Second general of the Society of Jesus , theologian, b. in 1512, at Almazan, ...

Laity

(Greek laos , "the people"; whence laikos , "one of the people"). Laity means the body ...

Lake Indians

Called by themselves S ENIJEXTEE and possibly identical with the L AHANNA of Lewis and Clark ...

Lalemant, Charles

Born at Paris, 17 November, 1587; died there, 18 November, 1674. He was the first superior of ...

Lalemant, Gabriel

Jesuit missionary, b. at Paris, 10 October, 1610, d. in the Huron country, 17 March 1649. He was ...

Lalemant, Jerome

Alias H IEROSME . Jesuit missionary, b. at Paris, 27 April, 1593, d. at Quebec, 16 ...

Lallemant, Jacques-Philippe

French Jesuit, b. at St-Valéry-sur-Somme about 1660; d. at Paris 1748. Little is known ...

Lallemant, Louis

French Jesuit, b. at Châlons-sur-Marne, 1588; d. at Bourges, 5 April, 1635. After making ...

Lalor, Teresa

Co-foundress, with Bishop Neale of Baltimore, of the Visitation Order in the United States ...

Lamarck, Chevalier de

(Jean-Baptiste-Pierre-Antoine de Monet; also spelled L A M ARCK ; botanical abbreviation ...

Lamartine, Alphonse de

Poet, b. at Mâcon Saône-et-Loire, France, 21 Oct., 1790; d. at Paris, l March, ...

Lamb (in Early Christian Symbolism)

One of the few Christian symbols dating from the first century is that of the Good Shepherd ...

Lamb, Paschal

A lamb which the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as a part of the ...

Lambeck, Peter

Generally called LAMBEC[C]IUS, historian and librarian, b. at Hamburg, 13 April 1628; d. at Vienna, ...

Lambert Le Bègue

Priest and reformer, lived at Liège, Belgium, about the middle of the twelfth century. ...

Lambert of Hersfeld

A medieval historian; b. in Franconia or Thuringia, c. 1024; d. after 1077. On 15 March 1058, ...

Lambert of St-Bertin

Benedictine chronicler and abbot, b. about 1060; d. 22 June, 1125, at St-Bertin, France. He came ...

Lambert, Louis A.

Priest and journalist, b. at Charleroi, Pennsylvania, 13 April, 1835; d. at Newfoundland, New ...

Lambert, Saint

(LANDEBERTUS). Martyr, Bishop of Maestricht, b. at Maestricht between 633 and 638; d. at ...

Lamberville, Jacques and Jean de

Jacques de Lamberville Jesuit missionary, b. at Rouen, 1641; d. at Quebec, 1710. He joined the ...

Lambillotte, Louis

Belgian Jesuit, composer and paleographer of Church music ; born at La Hamaide, near Charleroi, ...

Lambin, Denis

(DIONYSIUS LAMBINUS.) French philologist, b. about 1520, at Montreuil-sur-mer, in Picardy; d. ...

Lambruschini, Luigi

Cardinal, b. at Sestri Levante, near Genoa, 6 March, 1776, d. at Rome, 12 May, 1854. As a youth ...

Lambton, Ven. Joseph

English martyr, b. 1569; d. at Newcastle-on-Tyne. The day of his death is variously given as 23 ...

Lamego

(LAMECENSIS). Diocese situated in the district of Vizeu, province of Beira, Portugal. The ...

Lamennais, Félicité Robert de

Born at Saint-Malo, 29 June, 1782; died at Paris, 27 February, 1854. His father, Pierre Robert de ...

Lamennais, Jean-Marie-Robert de

French priest, brother of Félicité Robert de Lamennais, b. at St-Malo in 1780; d. ...

Lamoignon, Family of

Illustrious in the history of the old magistracy, originally from Nivernais. Owing to the nearness ...

Lamont, Johann von

Astronomer and physicist, b. 13 Dec., 1805, at Braemar in Scotland, near Balmoral Castle; d.. 6 ...

Lamormaini, Wilhelm

Confessor of Emperor Ferdinand II, b. 29 December, 1570, at Dochamps, Luxemburg ; d. at ...

Lamp and Lampadarii

There is very little evidence that any strictly liturgical use was made of lamps in the early ...

Lamp, Altar

In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should ...

Lampa

(LAMPAE, LAPPA). A titular see in Crete, suffragan of Gortyna, was probably a colony of ...

Lamprecht

Surnamed D ER P FAFFE (The Priest). German poet of the twelfth century, of whom practically ...

Lamps, Early Christian

Of the various classes of remains from Christian antiquity there is probably none so numerously ...

Lampsacus

A titular see of Hellespont, suffragan of Cyzicus. The city is situated in Mysia, at the ...

Lamuel

Name of a king mentioned in Proverbs 31:1 and 4 , but otherwise unknown. In the opening verse we ...

Lamus

A titular see of Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia. In antiquity this village is mentioned by ...

Lamy, Bernard

Oratorian, b. at Le Mans, France, in June, 1640; d. at Rouen, 29 Jan., 1715. At the age of twelve ...

Lamy, François

An ascetical and apologetic writer of the Congregation of St-Maur, b. in 1636 at Montireau in ...

Lamy, Thomas Joseph

Biblical scholar end orientalist, b. at Ohey, in Belgium, 27 Jan., 1827, d. at Louvain, 30 July, ...

Lana, Francesco

Born 10 Dec., 1631, at Brescia in Italy ; died in the same place, 22 Feb., 1687. Mathematician ...

Lance, The Holy

We read in the Gospel of St. John (19:34) , that, after our Saviour's death, "one of the ...

Lancelotti, Giovanni Paolo

Canonist, b. at Perugia in 1522; d. there, 23 September, 1590. He graduated doctor of law in ...

Lanciano and Ortona

(LANCIANENSIS ET ORTONENSIS). Lanciano is a small city in the province of Chieti, in the ...

Land-Tenure in the Christian Era

The way in which land has been held or owned during the nineteen hundred years which have seen in ...

Lando, Pope

(913-14). A native of the Sabina, and the son of Taino, elected pope seemingly in July or ...

Landriot, Jean-François-Anne

French bishop, b. at Couches-les-Mines near Autun, 1816, d. at Reims, 1874. Ordained in 1839 ...

Lanfranc

Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Pavia c. 1005; d. at Canterbury, 24 May, 1089. Some say his ...

Lanfranco, Giovanni

Also known as CAVALIERE GIOVANNI DI STEFANO. Decorative painter, b. at Parma, 1581, d. in ...

Langénieux, Benoit-Marie

Cardinal, Archbishop of Reims, b. at Villefranche-sur-Saône, Department of Rhône, ...

Lang, Matthew

Cardinal, Bishop of Gurk and Archbishop of Salzburg, b. at Augsburg in 1468; d. at ...

Langen, Rudolph von

Humanist and divine, b. at the village of Everswinkel, near Munster, Westphalia, 1438 or 1439; ...

Langham, Simon

Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of England, b. at Langham in Rutland; d. at ...

Langheim

A celebrated Cistercian abbey situated in Upper Franconia (Bavaria), not far from Mein, in the ...

Langhorne, Ven. Richard

English martyr, b. about 1635, d. at Tyburn, 14 July, 1679. He was the third son of William ...

Langley, Richard

Layman and martyr, b. probably at Grimthorpe, Yorks, England, date unknown; d. at York, 1 Dec., ...

Langres

(LINGONÆ). Diocese comprising the Department of the Haute-Marne. Suppressed by the ...

Lanigan, John

Church historian, b. at Cashel, County Tipperary, Ireland, in 1758; d. at Finglas, Dublin, 8 ...

Lanspergius

(JOHN JUSTUS OF LANDSBERG). Carthusian monk and ascetical writer, b. at Landsberg in Bavaria ...

Lantern

In Italian or modern architecture, a small structure on the top of a dome, for the purpose of ...

Lanterns, Altar

Lanterns are used in churches to protect the altar candles and lamp, if the latter for any ...

Lanzi, Luigi

An Italian archeologist, b. at Mont Olmo, near Macerata, in 1732; d. at Florence in 1810. In ...

Laodicea

A titular see, of Asia Minor, metropolis of Phrygia Pacatiana, said to have been originally ...

Laos

(Vicariate Apostolic) Separated from the Vicariate Apostolic of Siam by a decree of 4 ...

Laplace, Pierre-Simon

Mathematical and physical astronomer, b. in Beaumont-en-Auge, near Caen, department of Calvados, ...

Lapland and Lapps

About 150,000 square miles of the most northerly regions of Europe, from the Atlantic Ocean to the ...

Lapparent, Albert Auguste de

French geologist, b. at Bourges, 30 Dec., 1839; d. at Paris, 12 May, 1908. He made a brilliant ...

Laprade, Victor de

French poet and critic, b. at Montbrison in 1812; d. at Lyons in 1883. He first studied ...

Lapsi

( Latin, labi, lapsus ). The regular designation in the third century for Christians who ...

Lapuente, Venerable Luis de

(Also, D'Aponte, de Ponte, Dupont). Born at Valladolid, 11 November, 1554; died there, 16 ...

Laranda

A titular see of Isauria, afterwards of Lycaonia. Strabo (XII, 569), informs us that Laranda ...

Lares

Formerly a titular archiepiscopal see in pro-consular Africa. In ancient times it was a ...

Larino

(Larinum). Diocese in the province of Capmobasso, Southern Italy. Larinum was a city of the ...

Larissa

The seat of a titular archbishopric of Thessaly. The city, one of the oldest and richest in ...

Larke, Blessed John

English martyr ; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1543-4. He was rector of St. Ethelburga's ...

Larrey, Dominique-Jean

Baron, French military surgeon, b. at Baudéan, Hautes-Pyrénées, July, 1766; ...

Larrey, Dominique-Jean

Baron, French military surgeon, b. at Baudéan, Hautes-Pyrénées, July, 1766; ...

Larue, Charles de

Born 29 July, 1685 (some say 12 July, 1684), at Corbie, in France ; died 5 Oct., 1739, at St. ...

Lasaulx, Ernst von

Scholar and philosopher, born at Coblenz, 16 March, 1805; died at Munich, 9 May, 1861. His ...

Lascaris, Constantine

Greek scholar from Constantinople; born 1434; died at Messina in 1501. Made a prisoner by the ...

Lascaris, Janus

Also called John; surnamed Rhyndacenus (from Rhyndacus, a country town in Asia Minor ). He ...

Laski, John

J OHN A L ASCO . Archbishop of Gnesen and Primate of Poland, b. at Lask, 1456; d. at ...

Lassberg, Baron Joseph Maria Christoph von

A distinguished German antiquary, born at Donaueschingen, 10 April, 1770; died 15 March, 1855. He ...

Lassus, Orlandus de

(Original name, Roland de Lattre), composer, born at Mons, Hainault, Belgium, in 1520 (according ...

Last Judgment, The

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

Last Supper, The

The meal held by Christ and His disciples on the eve of His Passion at which He instituted the ...

Lataste, Marie

Born at Mimbaste near Dax, France, 21 February, 1822; died at Rennes, 10 May, 1847; was the ...

Latera, Flaminius Annibali de

Historian, born at Latera, near Viterbo, 23 November, 1733; died at Viterbo, 27 February, 1813. He ...

Lateran Council, Fifth

When elected pope, Julius II promised under oath that he would soon convoke a general ...

Lateran Council, First

The Council of 1123 is reckoned in the series of ecumenical councils. It had been convoked in ...

Lateran Council, Fourth

From the commencement of his reign Innocent III had purposed to assemble an ecumenical council, ...

Lateran Council, Second

The death of Pope Honorius II (February, 1130) was followed by a schism. Petrus Leonis (Pierleoni), ...

Lateran Council, Third

The reign of Alexander III was one of the most laborious pontificates of the Middle Ages. Then, ...

Lateran Councils

A series of five important councils held at Rome from the twelfth to the sixteen century. From ...

Lateran, Christian Museum of

Established by Pius IX in 1854, in the Palazzo del Laterano erected by Sixtus V on the part of ...

Lateran, Saint John

THE BASILICA This is the oldest, and ranks first among the four great "patriarchal" basilicas ...

Lathrop, George Parsons

Poet, novelist, b. at Honolulu, Hawaii, 25 August, 1851; d. at New York, 19 April, 1898. He was ...

Latin Church

The word Church ( ecclesia ) is used in its first sense to express whole congregation of ...

Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem

The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was founded as a result of the First Crusade, in 1099. Destroyed ...

Latin Literature in Christianity (Before the Sixth Century)

The Latin language was not at first the literary and official organ of the Christian Church in ...

Latin Literature in Christianity (Sixth to Twentieth Century)

During the Middle Ages the so-called church Latin was to a great extent the language of poetry, ...

Latin, Ecclesiastical

In the present instance these words are taken to mean the Latin we find in the official textbooks ...

Latini, Brunetto

Florentine philosopher and statesman, born at Florence, c. 1210; the son of Buonaccorso Latini, ...

Latreille, Pierre-André

A prominent French zoologist; born at Brives, 29 November, 1762; died in Paris, 6 February, 1833. ...

Latria

Latria ( latreia ) in classical Greek originally meant "the state of a hired servant" (Aesch., ...

Latrocinium

(L ATROCINIUM ). The Acts of the first session of this synod were read at the Council of ...

Latter-Day Saints, The Church of Jesus Christ of

( Also called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.) This religious body had ...

Lauda Sion

The opening words (used as a title of the sequence composed by St. Thomas Aquinas, about the year ...

Lauds

In the Roman Liturgy of today Lauds designates an office composed of psalms and canticles, ...

Laura

The Greek word laura is employed by writers from the end of the fifth century to distinguish ...

Laurence O'Toole, Saint

(L ORCAN UA T UATHAIL ; also spelled Laurence O'Toole) Confessor, born about 1128, in the ...

Laurentie, Pierre-Sébastien

French publicist; b. at Houga, in the Department of Gers, France, 21 January, 1793; d. 9 ...

Lausanne and Geneva

Diocese of Lausanne and Geneva (Lausannensis et Genevensis). Diocese in Switzerland, immediately ...

Lauzon, Jean de

Fourth governor of Canada, b. at Paris, 1583; d. there, 16 Feb., 1666. He was the son of ...

Lauzon, Pierre de

A noted missionary of New France in the eighteenth century, born at Poitiers, 26 September, ...

Lavérendrye, Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de

Discoverer of the Canadian West, born at Three Rivers, Quebec, 17 November, 1685; died at ...

Lavabo

The first word of that portion of Psalm 25 said by the celebrant at Mass while he washes his hands ...

Laval University of Quebec

The University of Laval was founded in 1852 by the Seminary of Quebec; the royal charter granted ...

Laval, François de Montmorency

First bishop of Canada, b. at Montigny-sur-Avre, 30 April, 1623, of Hughes de Laval and ...

Lavant

(LAVANTINA) An Austrian bishopric in the southern part of Styria, suffragan of Salzburg. The ...

Laverdière, Charles-Honoré

French-Canadian historian, born Chateau-Richer, Province of Quebec, 1826; died at Quebec, 1873. ...

Laverlochère, Jean-Nicolas

Missionary, born at St. Georges d'Espérance, Grenoble, France, 6 December, 1812; died at ...

Lavigerie, Charles-Martial-Allemand

French cardinal, b. at Huire near Bayonne, 13 Oct., 1825; d. at Algiers, 27 Nov., 1892. He ...

Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent

Chemist, philosopher, economist ; born in Paris, 26 August, 1743; guillotined 8 May, 1794. He ...

Law

I. CONCEPT OF LAW A. By law in the widest sense is understood that exact guide, rule, or ...

Law, Canon

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. General Notion and DivisionsII. Canon ...

Law, Cemeteries in

Cemeteries in Civil Law It would be impossible here to deal in detail with the various ...

Law, Civil (Influence of the Church on)

Christianity is essentially an ethical religion; and, although its moral principles were meant ...

Law, Common

(Latin communis , general, of general application; lex , law) The term is of English ...

Law, Divine (Moral Aspect of)

Divine Law is that which is enacted by God and made known to man through revelation. We ...

Law, International

International law has been defined to be "the rules which determine the conduct of the general ...

Law, Mosaic

The body of juridical, moral, and ceremonial institutions, laws and decisions comprised in the ...

Law, Natural

I. ITS ESSENCE In English this term is frequently employed as equivalent to the laws of nature, ...

Law, Roman

In the following article this subject is briefly treated under the two heads of; I. Principles; ...

Lawrence Justinian, Saint

Bishop and first Patriarch of Venice, b. in 1381, and d. 8 January, 1456. He was a descendant ...

Lawrence O'Toole, Saint

(L ORCAN UA T UATHAIL ; also spelled Laurence O'Toole) Confessor, born about 1128, in the ...

Lawrence of Brindisi, Saint

(Also: Lawrence, or Laurence, of Brindisi.) Born at Brindisi in 1559; died at Lisbon on 22 ...

Lawrence, Saint

Martyr ; died 10 August, 258. St. Lawrence, one of the deacons of the Roman Church, was one ...

Lawrence, Saint

Second Archbishop of Canterbury, d. 2 Feb., 619. For the particulars of his life and ...

Laws, Penal

This article treats of the penal legislation affecting Catholics in English-speaking countries ...

Lay Abbot

( abbatocomes, abbas laicus, abbas miles ). A name used to designate a layman on whom a king ...

Lay Brothers

Religious occupied solely with manual labour and with the secular affairs of a monastery or ...

Lay Communion

The primitive discipline of the Church established a different punishment for certain crimes ...

Lay Confession

This article does not deal with confession by laymen but with that made to laymen, for the ...

Lay Tithes

Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...

Laymann, Paul

A famous Jesuit moralist, b. in 1574 at Arzl, near Innsbruck; d. of the plague on 13 November, ...

Lazarites

A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul. The ...

Lazarus

Lazarus (Greek Lazaros , a contraction of Eleazaros --see 2 Maccabbees 6:18 — meaning ...

Lazarus of Bethany, Saint

Reputed first Bishop of Marseilles, died in the second half of the first century. According ...

Lazarus of Jerusalem, Order of Saint

The military order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem originated in a leper hospital founded in the ...

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Le 130

Le Blant, Edmond-Frederic

French archeologist and historian, born 12 August, 1818; died 5 July, 1897 at Paris. He studied ...

Le Camus, Emile-Paul-Constant-Ange

Preacher, theologian, scripturist, Bishop of La Rochelle and Saintes, b. at Paraza, France, ...

Le Camus, Etienne

French cardinal, b. at Paris, 1632; d. at Grenoble, 1707. Through the influence of his father, ...

Le Caron, Joseph

One of the four pioneer missionaries of Canada and first missionary to the Hurons, b. near ...

Le Coz, Claude

French bishop, b. at Plouévez-Parzay (Finistère), 1740; d. at Villevieux (Jura), ...

Le Fèvre, Jacques

A French theologian and controversialist, b. at Lisieux towards the middle of the seventeenth ...

Le Gobien, Charles

French Jesuit and founder of the famous collection of "Lettres édifiantes et curieuses", ...

Le Gras, Venerable Louise de Marillac

Foundress of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul , born at Paris, 12 August, 1591, ...

Le Hir, Arthur-Marie

Biblical scholar and Orientalist ; b. at Morlaix (Finisterre), in the Diocese of Quimper, ...

Le Loutre, Louis-Joseph

A missionary to the Micmac Indians and Vicar-General of Acadia under the Bishop of Quebec, b. ...

Le Mans

DIOCESE OF LE MANS (CENOMANENSIS). Comprises the entire Department of Sarthe. Prior to the ...

Le Mercier, François

One of the early missionaries of New France , b. at Paris, 4 October, 1604; d. in the island of ...

Le Moyne

The name of one of the most illustrious families of the New World, whose deeds adorn the pages ...

Le Moyne, Simon

A Jesuit missionary, b. at Beauvais, 1604; d. in 1665 at Cap de la Madeleine, near Three ...

Le Nourry, Denis-Nicolas

Denis-Nicolas Le Nourry, of the Congregation of St-Maur, ecclesiastical writer, b. at Dieppe in ...

Le Puy

(Aniciensis). Diocese comprising the whole Department of Haute Loire, and is a suffragan of ...

Le Quien, Michel

French historian and theologian, b. at Boulogne-sur-Mer, department of Pas-de-Calais, 8 Oct., ...

Le Sage, Alain-René

Writer, b. at Sarzeau (Morbihan), 1668; d. at Boulogne-sur-Mer, 1747. The son of a notary who ...

Le Tellier, Charles-Maurice

Archbishop of Reims, b. at Turin, 1642; d. at Reims, 1710. The son of Michel Le Tellier and ...

Le Tellier, Michel

Born 16 October, 1643, of a peasant family, not at Vire as has so often been said, but at Vast ...

Le Verrier, Urbain-Jean-Joseph

An astronomer and director of the observatory at Paris, born at Saint Lô, the ancient ...

León

DIOCESE OF LEÓN (LEONENSIS) Suffragan of Michoacan in Mexico, erected in 1863. In the ...

León, Luis de

Spanish poet and theologian, b. at Belmonte, Aragon, in 1528; d. at Madrigal, 23 August, 1591. ...

Lead, Diocese of

(LEADENSIS). The Diocese of Lead, which was established on 6 August, 1902, comprises all that ...

League of the Cross

A Catholic total abstinence confraternity founded in London in 1873 by Cardinal Manning to ...

League, German

Only three years before the League was established, Duke Maximilian of Bavaria (d. 1651), who ...

League, The

I. THE LEAGUE OF 1576 The discontent produced by the Peace of Beaulieu (6 May, 1576), which ...

Leander of Seville, Saint

Bishop of that city, b. at Carthage about 534, of a Roman family established in that city; d. ...

Leavenworth

Diocese of Leavenworth (Leavenworthensis). Suffragan to St. Louis. When established, 22 May, ...

Lebanon

Lebanon (Assyr. Labn nu ; Hebrew Lebanôn ; Egypt. possibly, Ramunu ; Greek Libanos ...

Lebedus

Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. It was on the coast, ninety stadia to the east ...

Lebrun, Charles

French historical painter, born in Paris, 1619; died at the Gobelin tapestry works, 1690. This ...

Lebwin, Saint

(LEBUINUS or LIAFWIN). Apostle of the Frisians and patron of Deveater, b. in England of ...

Lecce

(LICIENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Otranto. Lecce, the capital of a province in Terra ...

Leclerc du Tremblay, François

A Capuchin, better known as P ÈRE J OSEPH , b. in Paris, 4 Nov., 1577; d. at Rueil, ...

Leclercq, Chrestien

A Franciscan Récollet and one of the most zealous missionaries to the Micmac of ...

Lecoy de La Marche

(RICHARD-ALBERT). French historian; b. at Nemours, 1839; d. at Paris, 1897. He left the ...

Lectern

(Lecturn, Letturn, Lettern, from legere , to read). Support for a book, reading-desk, or ...

Lectionary

( Lectionarium or Legenda ). Lectionary is a term of somewhat vague significance, used ...

Lector

A lector (reader) in the West is a clerk having the second of the four minor orders. In all ...

Ledge, Altar

Originally the altar was made in the shape of an ordinary table, on which the crucifix and ...

Ledochowski, Miecislas Halka

Count, cardinal, Archbishop of Gnesen-Posen, b. at Gorki near Sandomir in Russian Poland, 29 ...

Leeds

(LOIDIS; LOIDENSIS). Diocese embracing the West Riding of Yorkshire, and that part of the city ...

Lefèvre d'Etaples, Jacques

Frequently called "Faber Stapulensis." A French philosopher, biblical and patristic scholar; ...

Lefèvre de la Boderie, Guy

French Orientalist and poet; b. near Falaise in Normandy, 9 August, 1541; d. in 1598 in the house ...

Lefèvre, Family of

There were various members of the Lefèvre family engaged in tapestry weaving in the ...

Lefebvre, Camille

Apostle of the Acadians, b. at St. Philippe, P. Q., 1831; d. at St. Joseph, N. B., 1895. The ...

Legacies

(Latin Legata ). I. DEFINITION In its most restricted sense, by a pious legacy or bequest ...

Legate

( Latin legare , to send). Legate, in its broad signification, means that person who is sent ...

Legends of the Saints

Under the term legend the modern concept would include every untrue tale. But it is not so ...

Legends, Literary or Profane

In the period of national origins history and legend are inextricably mingled. In the course of ...

Leghorn

(LIBURNENSIS.) Suffragan of Pisa. Leghorn ( Italian Livorno ), in Tuscany, is the capital ...

Legio

Titular see of Palestina Secunda, suffragan of Scythopolis. It figures for the first time in a ...

Legipont, Oliver

Benedictine, bibliographer, born at Soiron, Limburg, 2 Dec., 1698; died at Trier, 16 Jan., 1758. ...

Legists

Teachers of civil or Roman law, who, besides expounding sources, explaining terms, elucidating ...

Legitimation

( Latin legitimatio ). The canonical term for the act by which the irregularity contracted ...

Legrand, Louis

French theologian and noted doctor of the Sorbonne, b. in Burgundy at Lusigny-sur-Ouche, 12 ...

Lehnin, Abbey of

Founded in 1180 by Otto II, Margrave of Brandenburg, for Cistercian monks. Situated about ...

Leibniz, System of

I. LIFE OF LEIBNIZ Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz was born at Leipzig on 21 June (1 July), 1646. ...

Leigh, Venerable Richard

English martyr, born in Cambridgeshire about 1561; died at Tyburn, 30 August, 1588. Ordained ...

Leipzig

Chief town in the Kingdom of Saxony, situated at the junction of the Pleisse, Parthe, and Weisse ...

Leipzig, University of

The University of Leipzig in Saxony is, next to Heidelberg, the oldest university in the German ...

Leitmeritz

(L ITOMERICENSIS ), in Austria, embraces the northern part of the Kingdom of Bohemia (see map ...

Lejeune, Jean

Born at Poligny in 1592; died at Limoges, 19 Aug., 1672; member of the Oratory of Jesus, founded ...

Lelong, Jacques

A French bibliographer, b. at Paris, 19 April, 1665 d. there, 13 Aug., 1721. As a boy of ten, he ...

Lemberg

Seat of a Latin, a Uniat Ruthenian, and a Uniat Armenian archbishopric. The city is called Lwow ...

Lemcke, Henry

Missionary in the United States b. at Rhena, Mecklenburg, 27 July, 1796; d. at Carrolltown, ...

Lemercier, Jacques

Born at Pontoise, about 1585; died at Paris, 1654. Lemercier shares with Mansart and Le Muet the ...

Lemos, Thomas de

Spanish theologian and controversialist, b. at Rivadavia, Spain, 1555, d. at Rome 23 Aug., ...

Lennig, Adam Franz

Theologian, b. 3 Dec., 1803, at Mainz ; d. there, 22 Nov., 1866. He studied at Bouchsal under the ...

Lenormant, Charles

French arch æologist, b. in Paris, 1 June, 1802; d. at Athens, 24 November, 1859. After ...

Lenormant, François

Arch&aeligologist; son of Charles Lenormant, b. at Paris, 17 January, 1837; d. there, 9 ...

Lent

Origin of the word The Teutonic word Lent , which we employ to denote the forty days' fast ...

Lentulus, Publius

Publius Lentulus is a fictitious person, said to have been Governor of Judea before Pontius, and ...

Leo Diaconus

Byzantine historian; b. at Kaloe, at the foot of Mount Tmolos, in Ionia, about the year 950; the ...

Leo I (the Great), Pope

(Reigned 440-61). Place and date of birth unknown; died 10 November, 461. Leo's pontificate, ...

Leo II, Pope Saint

Pope (682-83), date of birth unknown; d. 28 June, 683. He was a Sicilian, and son of one Paul. ...

Leo III, Pope Saint

Date of birth unknown; died 816. He was elected on the very day his predecessor was buried (26 ...

Leo IV, Pope

(Reigned 847-55) A Roman and the son of Radoald, was unanimously elected to succeed Sergius ...

Leo IX, Pope

(1049-54), b. at Egisheim, near Colmar, on the borders of Alsace, 21 June, 1002; d. 19 April, ...

Leo V, Pope

Very little is known of him. We have no certainty either as to when he was elected or as to ...

Leo VI, Pope

The exact dates of the election and death of Leo VI are uncertain, but it is clear that he was ...

Leo VII, Pope

Date of birth unknown; d. 13 July, 939. A Roman and priest of St. Sixtus, and probably a ...

Leo VIII, Pope

Date of birth unknown; d. between 20 February and 13 April, 965. When the Emperor Otho I ...

Leo X, Pope

(G IOVANNI DE M EDICI ). Born at Florence, 11 December, 1475; died at Rome, 1 December, ...

Leo XI, Pope

(ALESSANDRO OTTAVIANO DE' MEDICI). Born at Florence in 1535; died at Rome 27 April, 1605, on ...

Leo XII, Pope

(A NNIBALE F RANCESCO C LEMENTE M ELCHIORE G IROLAMO N ICOLA DELLA G ENGA ) Born ...

Leo XIII, Pope

Born 2 March, 1810, at Carpineto; elected pope 20 February, 1878; died 20 July, 1903, at Rome. ...

Leo, Brother

Friar Minor, companion of St. Francis of Assisi,date of birth uncertain; died at Assisi, 15 ...

Leocadia, Saint

Virgin and martyr, d. 9 December, probably 304, in the Diocletian persecution. The last great ...

Leodegar, Saint

(LEGER) Bishop of Autun, b. about 615; d. a martyr in 678, at Sarcing, Somme. His mother ...

Leon

(THE DIOCESE AND CIVIL PROVINCE OF LEON) HISTORY Probably before the time of Trajan, the ...

Leonard of Chios

Born at an uncertain date on the Island of Chios, then under Genoese domination; died in Chios ...

Leonard of Limousin, Saint

Nothing absolutely certain is known of his history, as his earliest "Life", written in the ...

Leonard of Port Maurice, Saint

Preacher and ascetic writer, b. 20 Dec., 1676, at Porto Maurizio on the Riviera di Ponente; d. ...

Leonardo da Vinci

(LEONARDO DI SER PIERO DA VINCI) Florentine painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and ...

Leonidas, Saint

( Or LEONIDES.) The Roman Martyrology records several feast days of martyrs of this ...

Leontius Byzantinus

( Leontios Byzantios ) An important theologian of the sixth century. In spite of his ...

Leontius, Saint

Bishop of Fréjus, in Provence. France, b. probably at Nîmes, towards the end of ...

Leontopolis

A titular archiepiscopal see of Augustamnica Secunda. Strabo (XVII, 1,19, 20) places it near ...

Leopoldine Society, The

Established at Vienna for the purpose of aiding the Catholic missions in North America. When ...

Lepanto

Italian name for Naupactos (Naupactus) a titular metropolitan see of ancient Epirus. The name ...

Leprosy

Leprosy proper, or lepra tuberculosa , in contradistinction to other skin diseases commonly ...

Leptis Magna

Leptis Magna, a titular see of Tripolitana. Founded by the Sidonians in a fine and fertile ...

Leros

Titular see of the Cyclades, suffragan of Rhodes. According to Strabo (XIV, i, 6), this island ...

Leroy-Beaulieu, Anatole

French publicist, b. at Lisieux, Calvados, in 1842; d. at Paris, 15 June, 1912. After ...

Lesbi

A titular see in Mauretania Sitifensis, suffragan of Sitifis, or Sétif, in Algeria. It ...

Lesbi

A titular see in Mauretania Sitifensis, suffragan of Sitifis, or Sétif, in Algeria. It ...

Lescarbot, Marc

French lawyer, writer, and historian, b. at Vervins, between 1565 and 1570; d. about 1629. ...

Lescarbot, Marc

French lawyer, writer, and historian, b. at Vervins, between 1565 and 1570; d. about 1629. ...

Lescot, Pierre

One of the greatest architects of France in the pure Renaissance style, b. at Paris about ...

Lescot, Pierre

One of the greatest architects of France in the pure Renaissance style, b. at Paris about ...

Lesina

(PHARIA: HVAR; PHARENSIS, BRACHIENSIS, ET ISSENSIS) Diocese in Dalmatia ; includes the three ...

Leslie, John

Bishop of Ross, Scotland, born 29 September, 1527, died at Guirtenburg, near Brussels 30 May, ...

Lessius, Leonard

(LEYS) A Flemish Jesuit and a theologian of high reputation, born at Brecht, in the ...

Lessons in the Liturgy

(Exclusive of Gospel). I. HISTORY The reading of lessons from the Bible, Acts of Martyrs , or ...

Lestrange, Louis-Henri de

(In religion, DOM AUGUSTINE) Born in 1754, in the Château de Colombier-le-Vieux, ...

Lesueur, François Eustache

Jesuit missionary and philologist, of the Abnaki mission in Canada ; born (according to notes ...

Lesueur, Jean-François

Composer, b. at Drucat-Plessiel, near Abbeville, 15 Feb., 1760; d. at Paris, 6 October, 1837. He ...

Lete

A titular see of Macedonia, known by its coins and inscriptions, mentioned in Ptolemy (III, ...

Letourneux, Nicolas

A well-known French preacher and ascetical writer of Jansenistic tendencies, born at Rouen, 30 ...

Letters, Ecclesiastical

(LITTERÆ ECCLESIASTICÆ) Ecclesiastical letters are publications or announcements of ...

Leubus

A celebrated ancient Cistercian abbey, situated on the Oder, northwest of Breslau, in the ...

Leuce

A titular see of Thrace, not mentioned by any ancient historian or geographer. However, its ...

Levadoux, Michael

One of the first band of Sulpicians who, owing to the distressed state of religion in France, ...

Levau, Louis

(LE VAU) A contemporary of Jacques Lemercier and the two Mansarts, and the chief architect of ...

Levites

(From Levi , name of the ancestral patriarch, generally interpreted "joined" or "attached ...

Leviticus

The third book of the Pentateuch, so called because it treats of the offices, ministries, rites, ...

Lex

(LAW) The etymology of the Latin word lex is a subject of controversy. Some authorities ...

Lezana, Juan Bautista de

Theologian, born at Madrid, 23 Nov., 1586; died in Rome, 29 March, 1659. He took the habit at ...

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Li 90

Liège

(The Diocese of Liège; canonical name L EODIENSIS ). Liège (V ICUS L ...

Libel

( Latin libellus , a little book) A malicious publication by writing, printing, picture, ...

Libellatici, Libelli

The libelli were certificates issued to Christians of the third century. They were of two ...

Liber Diurnus Romanorum Pontificum

A miscellaneous collection of ecclesiastical formularies used in the papal chancery until the ...

Liber Pontificalis

(BOOK OF THE POPES). A history of the popes beginning with St. Peter and continued down to ...

Liber Septimus

Three canonical collections of quite different value from a legal standpoint are known by this ...

Libera Me

(Domine, de morte aeterna, etc.). The responsory sung at funerals. It is a responsory of ...

Libera Nos

The first words of the Embolism of the Lord's Prayer in the Roman Rite. Most liturgies ...

Liberal Arts, The Seven

The expression artes liberales , chiefly used during the Middle Ages, does not mean arts as we ...

Liberalism

A free way of thinking and acting in private and public life. I. DEFINITION The word liberal ...

Liberatore, Matteo

A philosopher, theologian, and writer, born at Salerno, Italy, 14 August, 1810; died at Rome, ...

Liberatus of Carthage

(Sixth century) Archdeacon ; author of an important history of the Nestorian and ...

Liberia

A republic on the west coast of Africa, between 4° 20´ and 7° 20´ N. lat., ...

Liberius, Pope

(Reigned 352-66) Pope Julius died on 12 April, according to the "Liberian Catalogue", and ...

Libermann, Ven. Francis Mary Paul

Founder of the Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, which was afterwards merged in the ...

Libraries

Libraries, that is to say, collections of books accumulated and made accessible for public or ...

Libri Carolini

A work in four books (120 or 121 chapters), purporting to be the composition of Charlemagne, and ...

Lichfield

ANCIENT DIOCESE OF LICHFIELD (LICHFELDENSIS). This diocese took its rise in the conversion ...

Lidwina, Saint

Born at Schiedam, Holland, 18 April 1380; died 14 April, 1433. Her father, Peter by name, came of ...

Lieber, Ernst Maria

Born at Camberg in the Duchy of Nassau, 16 Nov., 1838; died 31 March, 1902. He was the principal ...

Lieber, Moriz

Politician and publicist, b. at the castle of Blankenheim in the Eifel, 1 Oct., 1790, d. at ...

Liebermann, Bruno Franz Leopold

Catholic theologian, b., at Molsheim in Alsace 12 Oct., 1759; 4. at Strasburg, 11 Nov., 1844. ...

Liesborn

A former noted Benedictine Abbey in Westphalia, Germany, founded in 815; suppressed in 1803. ...

Liesborn, Master of

A Westphalian painter, who in 1465 executed an altar-piece of note in the Benedictine monastery ...

Liessies

A Benedictine monastery near Avesnes, in the Diocese of Cambrai, France (Nord), founded about ...

Life

(Greek zoe ; Latin vita ; French La vie , German Das Leben ; vital principle; Greek ...

Ligamen

( Latin for bond ). The existing marriage tie which constitutes in canon law a public ...

Lights

Upon the subject of the liturgical use of lights, as an adjunct of the services of the Church, ...

Ligugé

A Benedictine Abbey, in the Diocese of Poitiers, France, was founded about the year A.D. 360, ...

Liguori, Saint Alphonsus

Born at Marianella, near Naples, 27 September, 1696; died at Nocera de' Pagani, 1 August, 1787. ...

Lilienfeld

Lilienfeld, a Cistercian Abbey fifteen miles south of St. Polten, Lower Austria, was founded ...

Lilius, Aloisius

Aloisius Lilius, principal author of the Gregorian Calendar, was a native of Cirò or ...

Lille

The ancient capital of Flanders, now the chief town of the Département du Nord in France. ...

Lillooet Indians

An important tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, in southern British Columbia, formerly holding a ...

Lima

(Limana). The city of Lima, in the Department of the same name, is the capital of the Republic ...

Limbo

(Late Latin limbus ) a word of Teutonic derivation, meaning literally "hem" or "border," as ...

Limbourg, Pol de

A French miniaturist. With his two brothers, he flourished at Paris at the end of the fourteenth ...

Limburg

(L IMBURGENSIS ) Diocese in the Kingdom of Prussia, suffragan of Freiburg. I. HISTORY ...

Limerick

(LIMERICENSIS) Diocese in Ireland ; includes the greater part of the County of Limerick and ...

Limoges

(LEMOVICENSIS). Diocese comprising the Departments of Haute Vienne and Creuse in France. ...

Limyra

Limyra, a titular see of Lycia, was a small city on the southern coast of Lycia, on the Limyrus, ...

Linacre, Thomas

English physician and clergyman, founder of the Royal College of Physicians, London, b. at ...

Linares

[Or MONTEREY or NUEVO LEÓN; ARCHDIOCESE OF (DE LINARES)] In 1777, at the request of ...

Lincoln

(LINCOLNIENSIS) Suffragan of Dubuque, erected 2 August, 1887, to include that part of the ...

Lincoln

ANCIENT DIOCESE OF LINCOLN (LINCOLNIENSIS). This see was founded by St. Theodore, Archbishop ...

Lindanus, William Damasus

(VAN LINDA) Bishop of Ruremonde and of Ghent, b. at Dordrecht, in 1525; d. at Ghent, 2 ...

Linde, Justin Timotheus Balthasar, Freiherr von

Hessian jurist and stateman, b. in the village of Brilon, Westphalia, 7 Aug., 1797; d. at Bonn ...

Lindemann, Wilhelm

A Catholic historian of German literature, b. at Schonnebeck near Essen, 17 December, 1828; d. ...

Lindisfarne, Ancient Diocese and Monastery of

(Lindisfarnensis). The island of Lindisfarne lies some two miles off the Northumberland coast, ...

Lindores, Benedictine Abbey of

On the River Tay, near Newburgh, Fifeshire, Scotland, founded by David, Earl of Huntingdon, ...

Line, Saint Anne

English martyr, d. 27 Feb., 1601. She was the daughter of William Heigham of Dunmow, Essex, a ...

Linens, Altar

The altar-linens are the corporal, pall, purificator, and finger- towels. The Blessed Sacrament ...

Lingard, John

English priest and historian b. at Winchester, 5 February, 1771; d. at Hornby, 17 July, 1851. He ...

Linköping, Ancient See of

(LINCOPIA; LINCOPENSIS.) Located in Sweden ; originally included Östergötland, the ...

Linoe

A titular see of Bithynia Secunda, known only from the "Notitiae Episcopatuum" which mention ...

Linus, Pope Saint

(Reigned about A.D. 64 or 67 to 76 or 79). All the ancient records of the Roman bishops ...

Linz

D IOCESE OF L INZ (L INCIENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Vienna . I. HISTORY ...

Lippe

One of the Confederate States of the German Empire. The occasional use of the designation "Lippe ...

Lippi, Filippino

Italian painter, son of Filippo Lippi, b. at Prato, in 1458; d. at Florence 18 April, 1515. His ...

Lippi, Filippo

Italian painter, b. at Florence about 1406; d. at Spoleto, 9 October, 1469. Left an orphan at ...

Lippomano, Luigi

( Or Aloisius Lipomanus Lippomano). A cardinal, hagiographer, b. in 1500; d. 15 August, ...

Lipsanotheca

A term sometimes used synonymously with reliquary, but signifying, more correctly, the little box ...

Lipsius, Justus

(JOSSE LIPS) A philologian and humanist of the Netherlands, b. at Overyssche, 18 Oct., ...

Lisbon

Patriarchate of Lisbon (Lisbonensis). Includes the districts of Lisbon and Santarem. The area ...

Lismore

DIOCESE OF LISMORE (LISMORENSIS) The Diocese of Lismore extends over a territory of 21,000 ...

Lismore and Waterford

(Waterfordiensis et Lismorensis), suffragan of Cashel. This diocese is almost coterminous with ...

Lismore, School of

As the School of Armagh in the North of Ireland, and that of Clonmacnoise in the centre, so the ...

Lister, Thomas

( alias Thomas Butler) Jesuit writer, b. in Lancashire, about 1559; d. in England, probably ...

Liszt, Franz

Admittedly the greatest pianist in the annals of music, and a composer whose status in musical ...

Litany

(Latin litania , letania , from Greek lite , prayer or supplication) A litany is a ...

Litany of Loreto

Despite the fact that, from the seventeenth century onwards, the Litany of Loreto has been the ...

Litany of the Holy Name

An old and popular form of prayer in honour of the Name of Jesus. The author is not known. ...

Litany of the Saints

The model of all other litanies, of great antiquity. HISTORY It was used in the "Litania ...

Literature, English

It is not unfitting to compare English Literature to a great tree whose far spreading and ever ...

Lithuania

( German Litauen ) An ancient grandy-duchy united with Poland in the fourteenth century. ...

Lithuanians in the United States

The Lithuanians ( Lietuvys ; adjective, lietuviskas ) are a people of Russia, occupying the ...

Litta

A noble Milanese family which gave two distinguished cardinals to the Church. I. ALFONSO ...

Little Flowers of St. Francis of Assissi

Little Flowers of Francis of Assisi , the name given to a classic collection of popular legends ...

Little Office of Our Lady

A liturgical devotion to the Blessed Virgin, in imitation of, and in addition to, the Divine ...

Little Rock

(PETRICULANA) The State of Arkansas and the Indian Territory, parts of the Louisiana ...

Littré, Paul-Maximilien-Emile

A French lexicographer and philosopher ; born at Paris, 1 February, 1801; died there, 2 June, ...

Liturgical Books

Under this name we understand all the books, published by the authority of any church, that ...

Liturgical Chant

Taking these words in their ordinary acceptation, it is easy to settle the meaning of "liturgical ...

Liturgy

The various Christian liturgies are described each under its own name. ( See ALEXANDRINE ...

Liturgy of Jerusalem

The Rite of Jerusalem is that of Antioch. That is to say, the Liturgy that became famous as ...

Liturgy of the Hours

("Liturgy of the Hours" I. THE EXPRESSION "DIVINE OFFICE" This expression signifies ...

Liutprand of Cremona

(Or L UIDPRAND ). Bishop and historian, b. at the beginning of the tenth century; d. after ...

Liverpool

Diocese of Liverpool/a>/Liverpolium (Liverpolitana). One of the thirteen dioceses into ...

Livias

A titular see in Palestina Prima, suffragan of Cæsarea. It is twice mentioned in the Bible ...

Livorno

(LIBURNENSIS.) Suffragan of Pisa. Leghorn ( Italian Livorno ), in Tuscany, is the capital ...

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Ll 4

Llancarvan

Llancarvan, Glamorganshire, Wales, was a college and monastery founded apparently about the ...

Llandaff

ANCIENT DIOCESE OF LLANDAFF (LANDAVENSIS) The origins of this see are to be found in the sixth ...

Llanthony Priory

A monastery of Augustinian Canons, situated amongst the Black Mountains of South Wales, nine ...

Lloyd, Saint John

Welsh priest and martyr, executed at Cardiff, 22 July, 1679. He took the missionary oath at ...

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Lo 73

Loaisa, Garcia de

Cardinal and Archbishop of Seville, b. in Talavera, Spain, c. 1479; d. at Madrid, 21 April, ...

Loango

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF LOANGO (LOWER FRENCH CONGO). Formerly included in the great Kingdom of ...

Loaves of Proposition

Heb. "bread of the faces", i.e. "bread of the presence (of Yahweh )" ( Exodus 35:13 ; 39:35 , ...

Lobbes, Benedictine Abbey of

Located in Hainault, Belgium, founded about 650, by St. Landelin, a converted brigand, so that ...

Lobera, Ann

(Better known as V ENERABLE A NN OF J ESUS ). Carmelite nun, companion of St. Teresa; ...

Loccum

(LUCCA, LOCKEN, LOCKWEEN, LYKE, LYCKO) A Cistercian abbey in the Diocese of Minden, formerly ...

Lochleven

(From leamhan , an elm-tree) Lochleven, a lake in Kinross-shire, Scotland, an island of ...

Lochner, Stephen

A painter, born at Meersburg, on the Lake of Constance, date of birth unknown; died at ...

Loci Theologici

Loci theologici or loci communes , are the common topics of discussion in theology. As ...

Locke, Matthew

Composer; born at Exeter, in 1629; died August, 1677. He was a chorister of Exeter Cathedral ...

Lockhart, William

Son of the Rev. Alexander Lockhart of Waringham, Surry; b. 22 Aug., 1820; d. at St. Etheldreda's ...

Lockwood, Venerable John

Venerable John Lockwood, priest and martyr, born about 1555; died at York, 13 April, 1642. He ...

Lodi

(LAUDENSIS) A suffragan of Milan. Lodi, the capital of a district in the Province of Milan, ...

Logia, Jesu

Found partly in the Inspired Books of the New Testament, partly in uninspired writings. The ...

Logic

Logic is the science and art which so directs the mind in the process of reasoning and ...

Logos, The

The word Logos is the term by which Christian theology in the Greek language designates the ...

Lohel, Johann

(JOHANN LOHELIUS) Archbishop of Prague, b. at Eger, Bohemia, 1549; d. 2 Nov., 1622. Of poor ...

Lohner, Tobias

Born 13 March, 1619, at Neuötting in the Diocese of Salzburg ; died 26 (probably) May, ...

Loja, Diocese of

(Lojana), suffragan of Quito, Ecuador, includes the greater part of the Provinces of Loja and El ...

Lollards

The name given to the followers of John Wyclif, an heretical body numerous in England in the ...

Loménie de Brienne, Etienne-Charles de

French cardinal and statesman; b. at Paris, 1727; d. at Sens, 1794. He was of noble lineage, ...

Loman, Saint

Bishop of Trim in Ireland, nephew of St. Patrick, was remarkable as being the first placed over ...

Lombard, Peter

Theologian, b. at Novara (or perhaps Lumello), Italy, about 1100; d. about 1160-64. He studied ...

Lombard, Peter

Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Waterford, about 1555; d. at Rome, 1625; belonged to a respectable ...

Lombardy

A word derived from Longobardia and used during the Middle Ages to designate the country ruled ...

London (England)

London, the capital of England and chief city of the British Empire, is situated about fifty ...

London (Ontario)

DIOCESE OF LONDON (LONDINENSIS) Diocese in Canada, established 21 February, 1855; see ...

Longstreet, James

Soldier and Catholic convert. Born 8 January, 1821, at Edgefield, South Carolina, U.S.A.; died ...

Lope de Vega Carpio, Félix de

Poet and dramatist, b. at Madrid, 1562; d. 23 Aug., 1635. With Lope de Vega begins the era of ...

Lopez-Caro, Francisco

Spanish artist, b. at Seville in 1598; d. at Madrid in 1662; he was a pupil of Juan de Las ...

Lord's Prayer

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

Lorea

Titular see in the province of Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. The city figures in the different ...

Lorenzana, Francisco Antonio de

Cardinal, b. 22 Sept., 1722 at Leon in Spain ; d. 17 April, 1804, at Rome. After the completion ...

Lorenzetti, Pietro and Ambrogio

Sienese painters. The time of their birth and death is not known. Their dated works extend ...

Lorenzo da Brindisi, Saint

(Also: Lawrence, or Laurence, of Brindisi.) Born at Brindisi in 1559; died at Lisbon on 22 ...

Loreto, Holy House of

(The Holy House of Loreto). Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the "Holy ...

Loreto, Litany of

Despite the fact that, from the seventeenth century onwards, the Litany of Loreto has been the ...

Lorette

(Full name, Notre-Dame de la Jeune Lorette , "Our Lady of New Loretto") An Indian village ...

Lorrain, Claude de

French painter and etcher, b. in 1600 at Chamagnc on the banks of the Moselle in Lorraine ; d. ...

Lorraine

I. ORIGIN By the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the empire of Charlemagne was divided in three ...

Lorsch Abbey

( Laureshamense Monasterium , called also Laurissa and Lauresham ). One of the most ...

Loryma

A titular see of Caria, small fortified town and harbour on the coast of Caria, not far from ...

Los Angeles and Monterey

DIOCESE OF MONTEREY AND LOS ANGELES (MONTEREYENSIS ET ANGELORUM). Comprises that part of the ...

Lossada, Luis de

Philosopher, b. at Quiroga, Asturias, Spain in 1681; d. at Salamanca, in 1748. He entered the ...

Lossen, Karl August

German petrologist and geologist, born at Kreuznach (Rhine Province), 5 January, 1841; died at ...

Lot

Son of Abraham's brother Aran ( Genesis 11:27 ), therefore Abraham's nephew (his "brother": ...

Lottery

A lottery is one of the aleatory contracts and is commonly defined as a distribution of prizes by ...

Lotti, Antonio

Composer, born at Venice in 1667; died there, 5 January, 1740 and studied under Legrenzi, ...

Lotto, Lorenzo

Italian portrait painter, born at Venice, 1480; died at Loreto, 1556. This eminent artist was ...

Loucheux

The would-be Kuchin of some ethnologists, and the Tukudh of the Protestant missionaries; ...

Louis Allemand, Blessed

Cardinal, Archbishop of Arles, whose name has been written in a great variety of ways (Alamanus, ...

Louis Bertrand, Saint

Born at Valencia, Spain, 1 Jan., 1526; died 9 Oct., 1581. His patents were Juan Bertrand and ...

Louis IX, Saint

King of France, son of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile, born at Poissy, 25 April, 1215; died ...

Louis of Casoria, Venerable

Friar Minor and founder of the Frati Bigi; b. at Casoria, near Naples, 11 March, 1814; d. at ...

Louis of Granada, Venerable

Theologian, writer, and preacher; b. of very humble parentage at Granada, Spain, 1505; d. at ...

Louis of Toulouse, Saint

Bishop of Toulouse, generally represented vested in pontifical garments and holding a book and a ...

Louis XIV

King of France, b. at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 16 September, 1638; d. at Versailles, 1 September, ...

Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, Saint

Missionary in Brittany and Vendee; born at Montfort, 31 January, 1673; died at Saint Laurent sur ...

Louise de Marillac Le Gras, Venerable

Foundress of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul , born at Paris, 12 August, 1591, ...

Louise, Sister

Educator and organizer, b. at Bergen-op-Zoom, Holland, 14 Nov., 1813; d. at Cincinnati, Ohio, 3 ...

Louisiana

I. COLONIAL The history of Louisiana forms an important part of the history of the United ...

Louisville, Diocese of

Comprises that part of Kentucky west of the Kentucky River and western borders of Carroll, Owen, ...

Lourdes, Brothers of Our Lady of

(Abbreviation C.N.D.L. — Congregation de Notre-Dame de Lourdes) A community devoted to ...

Lourdes, Notre-Dame de

Notre-Dame de Lourdes, in the Department of Hautes Pyrenées, France, is far-famed for the ...

Louvain, University of

In order to restore the splendour of Louvain, capital of his Duchy of Brabant, John IV of the ...

Love, Theological Virtue of

The third and greatest of the Divine virtues enumerated by St. Paul ( 1 Corinthians 13:13 ), ...

Low Church

The name given to one of the three parties or doctrinal tendencies that prevail in the ...

Low Sunday

The first Sunday after Easter. The origin of the name is uncertain, but it is apparently ...

Lower California, Vicariate Apostolic of

Includes the territory of that name in Mexico (Sp. Baja or Vieja California ), a peninsula ...

Lower Criticism

The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...

Loyola University (Chicago)

Loyola University is the outgrowth of St. Ignatius College, founded by the Jesuits in 1869 for ...

Loyola University (New Orleans)

Loyola University, New Orleans, Louisiana, is (1912) the only Catholic university in what is ...

Loyola, Saint Ignatius

Youngest son of Don Beltrán Yañez de Oñez y Loyola and Marina Saenz de Lieona ...

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Luçon

Diocese of Luçon (Lucionensis). Embraces the Department of La Vendée. It was ...

Lublin

DIOCESE OF LUBLIN (LUBLINENSIS). The city of Lublin is in Russian Poland, capital of the ...

Luca, Giovanni Battista de

A Cardinal and Italian canonist of the seventeenth century, b. at Venusia, Southern Italy, in ...

Lucas, Frederick

A member of Parliament and journalist, b. in Westminster, 30 March, 1812, d. at Staines, ...

Lucca

ARCHDIOCESE OF LUCCA (LUCENSIS). Lucca, the capital of the like named province in Tuscany, ...

Lucera

DIOCESE OF LUCERA (LUCERINENSIS). Lucera is a very ancient city in the province of Foggia in ...

Lucerne

Chief town of the Canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. The beginnings of the town, as well as the ...

Lucian of Antioch

A priest of the Church of Antioch who suffered martyrdom (7 January, 312), during the reign ...

Lucic, John

(Or LUCIUS) Croatian historian, b. early in the seventeenth century, at Trojir, or Tragurion, ...

Lucifer

( Hebrew helel ; Septuagint heosphoros , Vulgate lucifer ) The name Lucifer ...

Lucifer of Cagliari

(LUCIFER CALARITANUS) A bishop, who must have been born in the early years of the fourth ...

Lucina, Crypt of

The traditional title of the most ancient section of the catacomb of St. Callistus. According to ...

Lucius I, Pope Saint

Reigned 253-254; died at Rome, 5 March, 254. After the death of St. Cornelius , who died in ...

Lucius II, Pope

(Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso) Born at Bologna, unknown date, died at Rome, 15 February, ...

Lucius III, Pope

(Ubaldo Allucingoli) Born at Lucca, unknown date ; died at Verona, 25 Notaember, 1185. ...

Lucy, Saint

A virgin and martyr of Syracuse in Sicily, whose feast is celebrated by Latins and ...

Ludger, Saint

(Lüdiger or Liudger) Missionary among the Frisians and Saxons, first Bishop of Munster ...

Ludmilla, Saint

Wife of Boriwoi, the first Christian Duke of Bohemia, b. at Mielnik, c. 860; d. at Tetin, near ...

Ludolph of Saxony

(Ludolph the Carthusian ). An ecclesiastical writer of the fourteenth century, date of ...

Ludovicus a S. Carolo

(LUDOVICUS JACOB) Carmelite writer, b. at Châlons-sur-Marne (according to some at ...

Lueger, Karl

A burgomaster of Vienna, Austrian political leader and municipal reformer, born at Vienna, 24 ...

Lugo

DIOCESE OF LUGO (LUCENSIS) Diocese in Galicia, Spain, a suffragan of Santiago, said to have ...

Lugo, Francisco de

Jesuit theologian, b. at Madrid, 1580; d. at Valladolid, 17 September, 1652. he was the elder ...

Lugo, John de

Spanish Jesuit and Cardinal, one of the most eminent theologians of modern times, b. at ...

Lugos

Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Fogaras and Alba Julia of the Uniat-Rumanian Rite, was ...

Luini, Bernardino

Milanese painter, b. between 1470 and 1480; d. after 1530. The actual facts known respecting the ...

Luke, Gospel of Saint

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Biography of Saint Luke ...

Lulé Indians

A name which has given rise to considerable confusion and dispute in Argentine ethnology, owing ...

Lully, Jean-Baptiste

Composer, b. near Florence in 1633; d. at Paris, 22 March, 1687. He was brought to France when ...

Lully, Raymond

(RAMON LULL) "Doctor Illuminatus", philosopher, poet, and theologian, b. at Palma in Majorca, ...

Lumen Christi

The versicle chanted by the deacon on Holy Saturday as he lights the triple candle. After ...

Luminare

(A word which gives in the plural luminaria and has hence been incorrectly written in the ...

Lummi Indians

(Abbreviated from Nuglummi , about equivalent to "people", the name used by themselves). ...

Lumper, Gottfried

Benedictine patristic writer, born 6 Feb., 1747, at Füssen in Bavaria ; died 8 March, ...

Luna, Pedro de

Antipope under the name of Benedict XIII, b. at Illueca, Aragon, 1328; d. at the ...

Lund

[LUNDA; LONDUNUM (LONDINUM) GOTHORUM (SCANORUM, SCANDINORUM, or DANORUM)]. In the Län of ...

Lunette

The lunette, known in Germany as the lunula and also as the melchisedech, is a crescent-shaped ...

Luni-Sarzana-Brugnato

Diocese in the province of Genoa. Luni (originally Luna) was an Etruscan city, but was seized by ...

Lupus

(SERVATUS LUPUS, LOUP) Abbot of Ferrières, French Benedictine writer, b. in the ...

Lupus, Christian

(WOLF) Historian, b. at Ypres (Flanders), 23 July, 1612; d. at Louvain, 10 July, 1681. He ...

Luscinius, Ottmar

(NACHTGALL) An Alsatian Humanist, b. at Strasburg, 1487; d. at Freiburg, 1537. After ...

Lusignan, Jean-Baptiste-Alphonse

French-Canadian writer, b. at St-Denis on the Richelieu, P.Q., 27 September, 1843; d. 5 January, ...

Lussy, Melchior

Statesman, b. at Stans, Canton of Unterwalden, Switzerland, 1529; d. there 14 Nov., 1606. Even in ...

Lust

The inordinate craving for, or indulgence of, the carnal pleasure which is experienced in the ...

Luther, Martin

Leader of the great religious revolt of the sixteenth century in Germany ; born at Eisleben, 10 ...

Lutheranism

The religious belief held by the oldest and in Europe the most numerous of the Protestant ...

Lutzk, Zhitomir, and Kamenetz, Diocese of

(LUCEORIENSIS, ZYTOMIRIENSIS, ET CAMENECENSIS). Diocese located in Little Russia. Its present ...

Luxemburg

The small remnant of the old duchy of this name and since 11 May, 1867, an independent neutral ...

Luxeuil Abbey

Situated in the Department of Haute-Saône in Franche-Comté, in the Diocese of ...

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Ly 13

Lycopolis

A titular see in Thebais Prima, suffragan of Antinoë. As Siout or Siaout it played a ...

Lydda

A titular see of Palestina Prima in the Patriarchate of Jerusalem. The town was formerly ...

Lydgate, John

Born at Lydgate, Suffolk, about 1370; d. probably about 1450. He entered the Benedictine abbey ...

Lying

Lying, as defined by St. Thomas Aquinas , is a statement at variance with the mind . This ...

Lynch, John

Historian, b. at Galway, Ireland, 1599; d. in France, 1673; was the son of Alexander Lynch, who ...

Lyndwood, William

Bishop of St. David's and the greatest of English canonists, b. about 1375; d. in 1446. He had ...

Lyons, Archdiocese of

The Archdiocese of Lyons (Lugdunensis) comprises the Department of the Rhône (except the ...

Lyons, Councils of (Introduction)

Previous to 1313 the Abbé Martin counts no less than twenty-eight synods or councils held ...

Lyons, First Council of

Innocent IV, threatened by Emperor Frederick II, arrived at Lyons 2 December, 1244, and early in ...

Lyons, Second Council of

The Second Council of Lyons was one of the most largely attended of conciliar assemblies, there ...

Lyrba

A titular see of Pamphylia Prima, known by its coins and the mention made of it by Dionysius, ...

Lysias

A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris, mentioned by Strabo, XII, 576, Pliny, V, 29, Ptolemy, V, 2, ...

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