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Heaven

This subject will be treated under seven headings:


I. Name and Place of Heaven;
II. Existence of Heaven;
III. Supernatural Character of Heaven and the Beatific Vision;
IV. Eternity of Heaven and Impeccability of the Blessed;
V. Essential Beatitude;
VI. Accidental Beatitude;
VII. Attributes of Beatitude.

I. NAME AND PLACE OF HEAVEN

The Name of Heaven

Heaven (Anglo-Saxon heofon , O.S. hevan and himil , originally himin ) corresponds to the Gothic himin-s . Both heaven and himil are formed from himin by a regular change of consonants: heaven , by changing m before n into v ; and himil , by changing n of the unaccented ending into l . Some derive heaven from the root ham , "to cover" (cf. the Gothic ham-ôn and the German Hem-d ). According to this derivation heaven would be conceived as the roof of the world. Others trace a connection between himin (heaven) and home ; according to this view, which seems to be the more probable, heaven would be the abode of the Godhead. The Latin coelum ( koilon , a vault) is derived by many from the root of celare "to cover, to conceal" ( coelum , "ceiling" "roof of the world"). Others, however think it is connected with the Germanic himin . The Greek ouranos is probably derived from the root var , which also connotes the idea of covering. The Hebrew name for heaven is thought to be derived from a word meaning "on high"; accordingly, heaven would designate the upper region of the world.

In the Holy Bible the term heaven denotes, in the first place, the blue firmament, or the region of the clouds that pass along the sky. Genesis 1:20 , speaks of the birds "under the firmament of heaven". In other passages it denotes the region of the stars that shine in the sky. Furthermore heaven is spoken of as the dwelling of God ; for, although God is omnipresent, He manifests Himself in a special manner in the light and grandeur of the firmament. Heaven also is the abode of the angels ; for they are constantly with God and see His face. With God in heaven are likewise the souls of the just ( 2 Corinthians 5:1 ; Matthew 5:3, 12 ). In Ephesians 4:8 sq. , we are told that Christ conducted to heaven the patriarchs who had been in limbo ( limbus patrum ). Thus the term heaven has come to designate both the happiness and the abode of just in the next life. The present article treats as heaven in this sense only.

In Holy Scripture it is called:

The Location of Heaven

Where is heaven, the dwelling of God and the blessed?

Some are of opinion that heaven is everywhere, as God is everywhere. According to this view the blessed can move about freely in every part of the universe, and still remain with God and see everywhere. Everywhere, too, they remain with Christ (in His sacred Humanity) and with the saints and the angels. For, according to the advocates of this opinion, the spatial distances of this world must no longer impede the mutual intercourse of blessed.

In general, however, theologians deem more appropriate that there should be a special and glorious abode, in which the blessed have their peculiar home and where they usually abide, even though they be free to go about in this world. For the surroundings in the midst of which the blessed have their dwelling must be in accordance with their happy state; and the internal union of charity which joins them in affection must find its outward expression in community of habitation. At the end of the world, the earth together with the celestial bodies will be gloriously transformed into a part of the dwelling-place of the blessed ( Revelation 21 ). Hence there seems to be no sufficient reason for attributing a metaphorical sense to those numerous utterances of the Bible which suggest a definite dwelling-place of the blessed. Theologians, therefore, generally hold that the heaven of the blessed is a special place with definite limits. Naturally, this place is held to exist, not within the earth, but, in accordance with the expressions of Scripture, without and beyond its limits. All further details regarding its locality are quite uncertain. The Church has decided nothing on this subject.

II. EXISTENCE OF HEAVEN

There is a heaven, i.e., God will bestow happiness and the richest gifts on all those who depart this life free from original sin and personal mortal sin, and who are, consequently, in the state of justice and friendship with God. Concerning the purification of those just souls who depart in venial sin or who are still subject to temporal punishment for sin, see PURGATORY. On the lot of those who die free from personal sin, but infected with original sin, see LIMBO ( limbus pervulorum ). On the immediate beginning of eternal happiness after death, or eventually, after the passage through purgatory, see PARTICULAR JUDGMENT. The existence of heaven is, of course, denied by atheists, materialists, and pantheists of all centuries as well as by those rationalists who teach that the soul perishes with the body — in short, by all who deny the existence of God or the immortality of the soul. But, for the rest, if we abstract from the specific quality and the supernatural character of heaven, the doctrine has never met with any opposition worthy of note. Even mere reason can prove the existence of heaven or of the happy state of the just in the next life.

We shall give a brief outline of the principal arguments. From these we shall, at the same time, see that the bliss of heaven is eternal and consists primarily in the possession of God, and that heaven presupposes a condition of perfect happiness, in which every wish of the heart finds adequate satisfaction.

  • God made all things for His objective honour and glory. Every creature was to manifest His Divine perfections by becoming a likeness of God, each according to its capacity. But man is capable of becoming in the greatest and most perfect manner a likeness of God, when he knows and loves His infinite perfections with a knowledge and love analogous to God's own love and knowledge. Therefore man is created to know God and to love Him. Moreover, this knowledge and love is to be eternal ; for such is man's capability and his calling, because his soul is immortal. Lastly, to know God and to love Him is the noblest occupation of the human mind, and consequently also its supreme happiness. Therefore man is created for eternal happiness ; and he will infallibly attain it hereafter, unless, by sin, he renders himself unworthy of so high a destiny.
  • God made all things for His formal glory, which consists in the knowledge and love shown Him by rational creatures. Irrational creatures cannot give formal glory to God directly, but they should assist rational creatures in doing so. This they can do by manifesting God's perfections and by rendering other services; whilst rational creatures should, by their own personal knowledge and love of God, refer and direct all creatures to Him as their last end. Therefore every intelligent creature in general, and man in particular, is destined to know and love God for ever, though he may forfeit eternal happiness by sin.
  • God, in his infinite justice and holiness, must give virtue its due reward. But, as experience teaches, the virtuous do not obtain a sufficient reward here; hence they will be recompensed hereafter, and the reward must be everlasting, since the soul is immortal. Nor can it be supposed that the soul in the next life must merit her continuance in happiness by a continued series of combats; for this would be repugnant to all the tendencies and desires of human nature.
  • God, in His wisdom, must set on the moral law a sanction, sufficiently appropriate and efficacious. But, unless each man is rewarded according to the measure of his good works, such a sanction could not be said to exist. Mere infliction of punishment for sin would be insufficient. In any case, reward for good deeds is the best means of inspiring zeal for virtue. Nature itself teaches us to reward virtue in others whenever we can, and to hope for a reward of our own good actions from the Supreme Ruler of the universe. That reward, not being given here, will be given hereafter.
  • God has implanted in the heart of man a love of virtue and a love of happiness ; consequently, God, because of His wisdom, must by rewarding virtue establish perfect harmony between these two tendencies. But such a harmony is not established in this life; therefore it will be brought about in the next.
  • Every man has an innate desire for perfect beatitude. Experience proves this. The sight of the imperfect goods of earth naturally leads us to form the conception of a happiness so perfect as to satisfy all the desires of our heart. But we cannot conceive such a state without desiring it. Therefore we are destined for a happiness that is perfect and, for that very reason, eternal ; and it will be ours, unless we forfeit it by sin. A natural tendency without an object is incompatible both with nature and with the Creator's goodness. The arguments thus far advanced prove the existence of heaven as a state of perfect happiness.
  • We are born for higher things, for the possession of God. This earth can satisfy no man, least of all the wise. "Vanity of vanities", says the Scripture ( Ecclesiastes 1:1 ); and St. Augustine exclaimed: "Thou hast made us for Thyself (O God ) and our heart is troubled till it rests in Thee."
  • We are created for wisdom, for a possession of truth perfect in its kind. Our mental faculties and the aspirations of our nature give proof of this. But the scanty knowledge, that we can acquire on earth stands in no proportion to the capabilities of our soul. We shall possess truth in higher perfection hereafter.
  • God made us for holiness, for a complete and final triumph over passion and for the perfect and secure possession of virtue. Our natural aptitudes and desires bear witness to this. But this happy goal is not reached on earth, but in the next life.
  • We are created for love and friendship, for indissoluble union with our friends. At the grave of those we love our heart longs for a future reunion. This cry of nature is no delusion. A joyful and everlasting reunion awaits the just man beyond the grave.
  • It is the conviction of all peoples that there is a heaven in which the just will rejoice in the next life. But, in the fundamental questions of our being and our destiny, a conviction, so unanimous and universal, cannot be erroneous. Otherwise this world and the order of this world would remain an utter enigma to intelligent creatures, who ought to know at least the necessary means for reaching their appointed end.
  • Very few deny the existence of heaven; and these few are practically all atheists and epicureans. But surely it cannot be that all the rest have erred, and an isolated class of men such as these are not the true guides in the most fundamental questions of our being. For apostasy from God and His law cannot be the key to wisdom.

Revelation also proclaims the existence of heaven. This we have already seen in the preceding section from the many names by which the Bible designates heaven; and from the texts of Scripture, still to be quoted on the nature and peculiar conditions of heaven.

III. SUPERNATURAL CHARACTER OF HEAVEN AND THE BEATIFIC VISION

(1) In heaven the just will see God by direct intuition, clearly and distinctly. Here on earth we have no immediate perception of God ; we see Him but indirectly in the mirror of creation. We get our first and direct knowledge from creatures, and then, by reasoning from these, we ascend to a knowledge of God according to the imperfect likeness which creatures bear to their Creator. But in doing so we proceed to a large extent by way of negation, i.e., by removing from the Divine Being the imperfections proper to creatures. In heaven, however, no creature will stand between God and the soul. He himself will be the immediate object of its vision. Scripture and theology tell us that the blessed see God face to face. And because this vision is immediate and direct, it is also exceedingly clear and distinct. Ontologists assert that we perceive God directly in this life, though our knowledge of Him is vague and obscure; but a vision of the Divine Essence, immediate yet vague and obscure, implies a contradiction. The blessed see God, not merely according to the measure of His likeness imperfectly reflected in creation, but they see Him as He is, after the manner of His own Being. That the blessed see God is a dogma of faith, expressly defined by Benedict XII (1336):

We define that the souls of all the saints in heaven have seen and do see the Divine Essence by direct intuition and face to face [ visione intuitivâ et etiam faciali ], in such wise that nothing created intervenes as an object of vision, but the Divine Essence presents itself to their immediate gaze, unveiled, clearly and openly; moreover, that in this vision they enjoy the Divine Essence, and that, in virtue of this vision and this enjoyment, they are truly blessed and possess eternal life and eternal rest" ( Denzinger, Enchiridion, ed. 10, n. 530--old edition, n, 456; cf. nn. 693, 1084, 1458 old, nn. 588, 868).

The Scriptural argument is based especially on 1 Corinthians 13:8-13 (cf. Matthew 18:10 ; 1 John 3:2 ; 2 Corinthians 5:6-8 , etc.). The argument from tradition is carried out in detail by Petavius ("De. theol. dogm.", I, i, VII, c. 7). Several Fathers, who seemingly contradict this doctrine, in reality maintain it; they merely teach that the bodily eye cannot see God, or that the blessed do not fully comprehend God, or that the soul cannot see God with its natural powers in this life (cf. Francisco Suárez , "De Deo", l. II, c. 7, n. 17).

(2) It is of faith that the beatific vision is supernatural, that it transcends the powers and claims of created nature, of angels as well as of men. The opposite doctrine of the Beghards and Beguines was condemned (1311) by the Council of Vienne (Denz., n. 475 -- old, n. 403), and likewise a similar error of Baius by Pius V (Denz., n. 1003 -- old, n. 883). The Vatican Council expressly declared that man has been elevated by God to a supernatural end (Denz., n. 1786 -- old, n. 1635; cf. nn. 1808, 1671 -- old, nn. 1655, 1527). In this connection we must also mention the condemnation of the Ontologists, and in particular of Rosmini, who held that an immediate but indeterminate perception of God is essential to the human intellect and the beginning of all human knowledge (Denz., nn. 1659, 1927 -- old, nn. 1516, 1772).

That the vision of God is supernatural can also be shown from the supernatural character of sanctifying grace (Denz., n. 1021 -- old, n. 901); for, if the preparation for that vision is supernatural. Even unaided reason recognizes that the immediate vision of God, even if it be at all possible, can never be natural for a creature. For it is manifest that every created mind first perceives its own self and creatures similar to itself by which it is surrounded, and from these it rises to a knowledge of God as the source of their being and their last end. Hence its natural knowledge of God is necessarily mediate and analogous; since it forms its ideas and judgments about God after the imperfect likeness which its own self and its surroundings bear to Him. Such is the only means nature offers for acquiring a knowledge of God, and more than this is not due to any created intellect ; consequently, the second and essentially higher way of seeing God by intuitive vision can but be a gratuitous gift of Divine goodness.

These considerations prove, not merely that the immediate vision of God exceeds the natural claims of all creatures in actual existence ; but they also prove against Ripalda, Becaenus, and others (Recently also Morlias), that God cannot create any spirit which would, by virtue of its nature, be entitled to the intuitive vision of the Divine Essence. Therefore, as theologians express it, no created substance is of its nature supernatural ; however, the Church has given no decision on this matter. Cf. Palmieri, "De Deo creante et elevante" (Rome, 1878), thes. 39; Morlais, "Le Surnaturel absolu", in "Revue du Clergé Français", XXXI (1902), 464 sqq., and, for the opposite view, Bellamy, "La question du Surnaturel absolu", ibid., XXXV (1903), 419 sqq. St. Thomas seems to teach (I, Q. xii, a. 1) that man has a natural desire for the beatific vision. Elsewhere, however, he frequently insists on the supernatural character of that vision (e.g. III, Q. ix, a. 2, ad 3um). Hence in the former place he obviously supposes that man knows from revelation both the possibility of the beatific vision and his destiny to enjoy it. On this supposition it is indeed quite natural for man to have so strong a desire for that vision, that any inferior kind of beatitude can no longer duly satisfy him.

(3) To enable it to see God, the intellect of the blessed is supernaturally perfected by the light of glory ( lumen gloriae ). This was defined by the Council of Vienne in 1311 (Denz., n. 475; old, n. 403); and it is also evident from the supernatural character of the beatific vision. For the beatific vision transcends the natural powers of the intellect ; therefore, to see God the intellect stands in need of some supernatural strength, not merely transient, but permanent as the vision itself. This permanent invigoration is called the "light of glory ", because it enables the souls in glory to see God with their intellect, just as material light enables our bodily eyes to see corporeal objects.

On the nature of the light of glory the Church has decided nothing. Theologians have elaborated various theories about it, which, however, need not be examined in detail. According to the view commonly and perhaps most reasonably held, the light of glory is a quality Divinely infused into the soul and similar to sanctifying grace, the virtue of faith, and the other supernatural virtues in the souls of the just (cf. Franzelin, "De Deo uno", 3rd ed., Rome, 1883, thes. 16). It is controverted among theologians whether or not a mental image, be it a species expressa or a species impressa, is required for the beatific vision. But by many this is regarded as largely a controversy about the appropriateness of the term, rather than about the matter itself. The more common and probably more correct view denies the presence of any image in the strict sense of the word, because no created image can represent God as He is (cf. Mazzella, "De Deo creante", 3rd ed., Rome, 1892, disp. IV, a. 7, sec. 1). The beatific vision is obviously a created act inherent in the soul, and not, as a few of the older theologians thought, the uncreated act of God's own intellect communicated to the soul. For, "as seeing and knowing are immanent vital actions, the soul can see or know God by its own activity only, and not through any activity exerted by some other intellect. Cf. Gutherlet, "Das lumen gloriae" in "Pastor bonus", XIV (1901), 297 sqq.

(4) Theologians distinguish the primary and the secondary object of the beatific vision. The primary object is God Himself as He is. The blessed see the Divine Essence by direct intuition, and, because of the absolute simplicity of God, they necessarily see all His perfections and all the persons of the Trinity. Moreover, since they see that God can create countless imitations of His Essence, the entire domain of possible creatures lies open to their view, though indeterminately and in general. For the actual decrees of God are not necessarily an object of that vision, except in as afar as God pleases to manifest them. Therefore finite things are not necessarily seen by the blessed, even if they are an actual object of God's will. Still less are they a necessary object of vision as long as they are mere possible objects of the Divine will. Consequently the blessed have a distinct knowledge of individual possible things only in so far as God wishes to grant this knowledge. Thus, if God so willed, a blessed soul might see the Divine Essence without seeing in it the possibility of any individual creature in particular. But in fact, there is always connected with the beatific vision a knowledge of various things external to God, of the possible as well as of the actual. All these things, taken collectively, constitute the secondary object of the beatific vision.

The blessed soul sees these secondary objects in God either directly ( formaliter ), or in as far as God is their cause ( causaliter ). It sees in God directly whatever the beatific vision discloses to its immediate gaze without the aid of any created mental image ( species impressa ). In God, as in their cause, the soul sees all those things which it perceives with the aid of a created mental image, a mode of perception granted by God as a natural complement of the beatific vision. The number of objects seen directly in God cannot be increased unless the beatific vision itself be intensified; but the number of things seen in God as their cause may be greater of smaller, or it may very without any corresponding change in the vision itself.

The secondary object of the beatific vision comprises everything the blessed may have a reasonable interest in knowing. It includes, in the first place, all the mysteries which the soul believed while on earth. Moreover, the blessed see each other and rejoice in the company of those whom death separated from them. The veneration paid them on earth and the prayers addressed to them are also known to the blessed. All that we have said on the secondary object of the beatific vision is the common and reliable teaching of theologians. In recent times (Holy Office, 14 Dec., 1887) Rosmini was condemned because he taught that the blessed do not see God Himself, but only His relations to creatures (Denz., 1928-1930 -- old, 1773-75). In the earlier ages we find Gregory the Great ("Moral.", l. XVIII, c. liv, n. 90, in P.L., LXXVI, XCIII) combating the error of a few who maintained that the blessed to not see God, but only a brilliant light streaming forth from Him. Also in the Middle Ages there are traces of this error (cf. Franzelin, "De Deo uno", 2nd ed., thes. 15, p. 192).

(5) Although the blessed see God, they do not comprehend Him, because God is absolutely incomprehensible to every created intellect, and He cannot grant to any creature the power of comprehending Him as He comprehends Himself. Francisco Suárez rightly calls this a revealed truth ("De Deo", l. II, c. v, n. 6); for the Fourth Council of the Lateran and the Vatican Council enumerated incomprehensibility among the absolute attributes of God (Denz., nn. 428, 1782 -- old nn. 355, 1631). The Fathers defend this truth against Eunomius, an Arian, who asserted that we comprehend God fully even in this life. The blessed comprehend God neither intensively nor extensively — not intensively, because their vision has not that infinite clearness with which God is knowable and with which He knows Himself, nor extensively, because their vision does not actually and clearly extend to everything that God sees in His Essence. For they cannot by a single act of their intellect represent every possible creature individually, clearly, and distinctly, as God does; such an act would be infinite, and an infinite act is incompatible with the nature of a created and finite intellect. The blessed see the Godhead in its entirety, but only with a limited clearness of vision ( Deum totum sed non totaliter ). They see the Godhead in its entirety, because they see all the perfections of God and all the Persons of the Trinity ; and yet their vision is limited, because it has neither the infinite clearness that corresponds to the Divine perfections, nor does it extend to everything that actually is, or may still become, an object of God's free decrees. Hence it follows that one blessed soul may see God more perfectly than another, and that the beatific vision admits of various degrees.

(6) The beatific vision is a mystery. Of course reason cannot prove the impossibility of such a vision. For why should God, in His omnipotence, be unable to draw so near and adapt Himself so fully to our intellect, that the soul may, as it were, directly feel Him and lay hold of Him and look on Him and become entirely immersed in Him? On the other hand, we cannot prove absolutely that this is possible; for the beatific vision lies beyond the natural destiny of our intellect, and it is so extraordinary a mode of perception that we cannot clearly understand either the fact or the manner of its possibility.

(7) From what has been thus far said it is clear that there is a twofold beatitude: the natural and the supernatural. As we have seen, man is by nature entitled to beatitude, provided he does not forfeit it by his own fault. We have also seen that beatitude is eternal and that it consists in the possession of God, for creatures cannot truly satisfy man. Again, as we have shown, the soul is to possess God by knowledge and love. But the knowledge to which man is entitled by nature is not an immediate vision, but an analogous perception of God in the mirror of creation, still a very perfect knowledge which really satisfies the heart. Hence the beatitude to which alone we have a natural claim consists in that perfect analogous knowledge and in the love corresponding to that knowledge. This natural beatitude is the lowest kind of felicity which God, in His goodness and wisdom, can grant to sinless man. But, instead of an analogous knowledge of His Essence He may grant to the blessed a direct intuition which includes all the excellence of natural beatitude and surpasses it beyond measure. It is this higher kind of beatitude that it has pleased God to grant us. And by granting it He not merely satisfies our natural desire for happiness but He satisfies it in superabundance.

IV. ETERNITY OF HEAVEN AND IMPECCABILITY OF THE BLESSED

It is a dogma of faith that the happiness of the blessed is everlasting. This truth is clearly contained in the Holy Bible (see Section I); it is daily professed by the Church in the Apostles' Creed ( credo . . . vitam aeternam ), and it has been repeatedly defined by the Church, especially by Benedict XII (cf. Section III). Even reason, as we have seen, can demonstrate it. And surely, if the blessed knew that their happiness was ever to come to an end, this knowledge alone would prevent their happiness from being perfect.

In this matter Origen fell into error ; for in several passages of his works he seems to incline to the opinion that rational creatures never reach a permanent final state ( status termini ), but that they remain forever capable of falling away from God and losing their beatitude and of always returning to Him again.

The blessed are confirmed in good; they can no longer commit even the slightest venial sin ; every wish of their heart is inspired by the purest love of God. That is, beyond doubt, Catholic doctrine . Moreover this impossibility of sinning is physical. The blessed have no longer the power of choosing to do evil actions; they cannot but love God ; they are merely free to show that love by one good action in preference to another. But whilst the impeccability of the blessed appears to be unanimously held by theologians, there is a diversity of opinion as to its cause. According to some, its proximate cause consists in this that God absolutely withholds from the blessed His co-operation to any sinful consent. The beatific vision does not, they argue, of its very nature exclude sin directly and absolutely; because God may still displease the blessed soul in various ways, e.g., by refusing a higher degree to beatitude, or by letting persons whom that soul loves die in sin and sentencing them to eternal torment. Moreover, when great sufferings and arduous duties accompany the beatific vision, as was the case in the human nature of Christ on earth, then at least the possibility of sin is not directly and absolutely excluded.

The ultimate cause of impeccability is the freedom from sin or the state of grace in which at his death man passes into the final state ( status termini ), i.e. into a state of unchangeable attitude of mind and will. For it is quite in consonance with the nature of that state that God should offer only such co-operation as corresponds to the mental attitude man chose for himself on earth. For this reason also the souls in purgatory, although they do not see God, are still utterly incapable of sin. The beatific vision itself may be called a remote cause of impeccability; for by granting so wondrous a token of His love, God may be said to undertake the obligation of guarding from all sin those whom He so highly favours, whether by refusing all co-operation to evil acts or in some other manner. Besides, even if the clear vision of God, most worthy of their love, does not render the blessed physically unable, it certainly renders them less liable, to sin.

Impeccability, as explained by the representatives of this opinion, is not, properly speaking, extrinsic, as is often wrongly asserted; but it is rather intrinsic, because it is strictly due to the final state of blessedness and especially to the beatific vision. This is substantially the opinion of the Scotists, likewise of many others, especially in recent times. Nevertheless the Thomists, and with them the greater number of theologians, maintain that the beatific vision of its very nature directly excludes the possibility of sin. For no creature can have a clear intuitive view of the Supreme Good without being by that very fact alone irresistibly drawn to love it efficaciously and to fulfil for its sake even the most arduous duties without the least repugnance. The Church has left this matter undecided. The present writer rather inclines to the opinion of the Scotists because of its bearing on the question of the liberty of Christ. ( See HELL under the heading Impenitence of the Damned.)

V. ESSENTIAL BEATITUDE

We distinguish objective and subjective beatitude. Objective beatitude is that good, the possession of which makes us happy ; subjective beatitude is the possession of that good. The essence of objective beatitude, or the essential object of beatitude is God alone. For the possession of God assures us also the possession of every other good we may desire; moreover, everything else is so immeasurably inferior to God that its possession can only be looked upon as something accidental to beatitude. Finally, that all else is of minor importance for beatitude is evident from the fact that nothing save God alone is capable of satisfying man. Accordingly the essence of subjective beatitude is the possession of God, and it consists in the acts of vision, love, and joy. The blessed love God with a twofold love ; with the love of complacency, by which they love God for His own sake, and secondly with the love less properly so called, by which they love Him as the source of their happiness ( amor concupiscentiae ). In consonance with this twofold love the blessed have a twofold joy ; firstly, the joy of love in the strict sense of the word, by which they rejoice over the infinite beatitude which they see in God Himself, precisely because it is the happiness of God whom they love, and secondly, the joy springing from love in a wider sense, by which they rejoice in God because He is the source of their own supreme happiness. These five acts constitute the essence of (subjective) beatitude, or in more precise terms, its physical essence. In this theologians agree.

Here theologians go a step farther and inquire whether among those five acts of the blessed there is one act, or a combination of several acts, which constitutes the essence of beatitude in a stricter sense, i.e. its metaphysical essence in contradistinction to its physical essence. In general their answer is affirmative; but in assigning the metaphysical essence their opinions diverge. The present writer prefers the opinion of St. Thomas, who holds that the metaphysical essence consists in the vision alone. For, as we have just seen, the acts of love and joy are merely a kind of secondary attributes of the vision; and this remains true, whether love and joy result directly from the vision, as the Thomists hold, or whether the beatific vision by its very nature calls for confirmation in love and God's efficacious protection against sin.

VI. ACCIDENTAL BEATITUDE

Besides the essential object of beatitude the souls in heaven enjoy many blessings accidental to beatitude. We shall mention only a few:

  • In heaven there is not the least pain or sadness; for every aspiration of nature must be finally realized. The will of the blessed is in perfect harmony with the Divine will; they feel displeasure at the sins of men, but without experiencing any real pain.
  • They delight greatly in the company of Christ, the angels, and the saints, and in the reunion with so many who were dear to them on earth.
  • After the resurrection the union of the soul with the glorified body will be a special source of joy for the blessed.
  • They derive great pleasure from the contemplation of all those things, both created and possible, which, as we have shown, they see in God, at least indirectly as in the cause. And, in particular, after the last judgment the new heaven and the new earth will afford them manifold enjoyment. ( See GENERAL JUDGMENT .)
  • The blessed rejoice over sanctifying grace and the supernatural virtues that adorn their soul ; and any sacramental character they may have also adds to their bliss.
  • Very special joys are granted to the martyrs, doctors, and virgi

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    Poet and historian; born at Hindlip, Worcestershire, 1605; died 1654; son of Thomas Habington ...

    Habit

    Habit is an effect of repeated acts and an aptitude to reproduce them, and may be defined as "a ...

    Habor River

    [Hebrew habhor ; Septuagint 'A Bwr : 2 Kings 17:6 , 'A Biwr : 2 Kings 18:11 ; X aBwr : ...

    Haceldama

    Haceldama is the name given by the people to the potter's field, purchased with the price of the ...

    Hadewych, Blessed

    (HADEWIG, HEDWIG). Prioress of the Premonstratensian convent of Mehre (Meer), near ...

    Hadrian

    Martyr, died about the year 306. The Christians of Constantinople venerated the grave of this ...

    Hadrian, Publius Ælius

    Emperor of the Romans; born 24 January, A. D. 76 at Rome ; died 10 July, 138. He married his ...

    Hadrumetum

    (ADRUMETUM, also ADRUMETUS). A titular see of Byzacena. Hadrumetum was a Phoenician colony ...

    Haeften, Benedict van

    (Haeftenus). Benedictine writer, provost of the Monastery of Afflighem, Belgium ; born at ...

    Hagen, Gottfried

    Gottfried Hagen, town clerk of Cologne, and author of the Cologne "Reimchronik" (rhymed ...

    Haggai

    Name and personal life Aggeus, the tenth among the minor prophets of the Old Testament, is ...

    Haggith

    This is the ordinary form of the name in the English Bible ; it corresponds better to the ...

    Hagiography

    The name given to that branch of learning which has the saints and their worship for its object. ...

    Hague, The

    (French LA HAYE; Dutch 's GRAVENHAGE, "the Count's Park"; Latin HAGA COMITIS) Capital and ...

    Hahn-Hahn, Ida

    Countess, convert and authoress, born 22 June, 1805; died 12 January, 1880. She was descended ...

    Haid, Herenaus

    Catechist, born in the Diocese of Ratisbon , 16 February, 1784; died 7 January, 1873. His ...

    Hail Holy Queen

    The opening words (used as a title) of the most celebrated of the four Breviary anthems of the ...

    Hail Mary

    The Hail Mary (sometimes called the "Angelical salutation", sometimes, from the first words in its ...

    Haimhausen, Karl von

    (Corrupt form of Aymausen .) German missionary; b. at Munich, of a noble Bavarian family, ...

    Hair (in Christian Antiquity)

    The subject of this article is so extensive that there can be no attempt to describe the types of ...

    Hairshirt

    (Latin cilicium ; French cilice ). A garment of rough cloth made from goats' hair and ...

    Haiti

    ( Spanish Santo Domingo, Hispaniola .) An island of the Greater Antilles. I. STATISTICS ...

    Haito

    (HATTO). Bishop of Basle; b. in 763, of a noble family of Swabia; d. 17 March, 836, in the ...

    Hakodate

    Situated between 138º and 157º E. long., and between 37º and 52º N. lat., ...

    Hakon the Good

    King of Norway, 935 (936) to 960 (961), youngest child of King Harold Fair Hair and Thora ...

    Halicarnassus

    A titular see of Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis. It was a colony from Trœzen in ...

    Halifax

    (HALIFAXIENSIS) This see takes its name from the city of Halifax which has been the seat of ...

    Hallahan, Margaret

    Foundress of the Dominican Congregation of St. Catherine of Siena (third order); b. in London, ...

    Haller, Karl Ludwig von

    A professor of constitutional law, b. 1 August, 1768, at Berne, d. 21 May, 1854, at Solothurn, ...

    Hallerstein, August

    (Or Hallerstein). Jesuit missionary in China, born in Germany, died in China, probably about ...

    Halloween

    [ The vigil of this feast is popularly called "Hallowe'en" or "Halloween".] Solemnity ...

    Halloy, Jean-Baptiste-Julien D'Omalius

    Belgian geologist, b. at Liège, Belgium, 16 February, 1783; d. at Brussels, 15 January, ...

    Halma, Nicholas

    French mathematician; born at Sedan, 31 December, 1755; died at Paris, 4 June, 1828. He was ...

    Ham, Hamites

    I. CHAM ( A.V. Ham). Son of Noah and progenitor of one of the three great races of men whose ...

    Hamar, Ancient See of

    (HAMARCOPIA; HAMARENSIS). Hamar in Norway, embraced Hedemarken and Christians Amt, and was ...

    Hamatha

    (AMATHA). A titular see of Syria Secunda, suffragan of Apamea. Hamath was the capital of a ...

    Hambley, Ven. John

    English martyr (suffered 1587), born and educated in Cornwall, and converted by reading one ...

    Hamburg

    A city supposed to be identical with the Marionis of Ptolemy, was founded by a colony of fishermen ...

    Hamilton, John

    Archbishop of St. Andrews; b. 1511; d. at Stirling, 1571; a natural son of James, first Earl of ...

    Hamilton, Ontario, Diocese of

    (Hamiltonensis). Located in Ontario, Canada ; a suffragan of Toronto. It comprises the counties ...

    Hammer-Purgstall, Joseph, Baron von

    A distinguished Austrian Orientalist ; b. at Graz, 9 June, 1774; d. at Vienna, 23 November, ...

    Hammurabi

    ( Ha-am-mu-ra-bi ) The sixth king of the first Babylonian dynasty; well known for over ...

    Hamsted, Adrian

    Founder of the sect of Adrianists; born at Dordrecht, 1524; died at Bruges, 1581. We know ...

    Haneberg, Daniel Bonifacius von

    A distinguished German prelate and Orientalist of the nineteenth century, b. At Tanne near ...

    Hanover

    The former Kingdom of Hanover has been a province of the Prussian monarchy since 20 September, ...

    Hanse, Blessed Everald

    Martyr ; b. in Northamptonshire; executed 31 July, 1581. He was educated at Cambridge, and was ...

    Hansiz, Markus

    Historian, b. at Volkermarkt, Carinthia, Austria, 25 April, 1683; d. at Vienna, 5 September, ...

    Hanthaler, Chrysostomus

    (JOHANNES ADAM.) A Cistercian, historical investigator and writer; b. at Marenbach, Austria, ...

    Hanxleden, Johann Ernest

    Jesuit missionary in the East Indies: b. at Ostercappeln, near Osnabrück, in Hanover, ...

    Happiness

    ( French bonheur ; German Glück ; Latin felicitas ; Greek eutychia, eudaimonia ). ...

    Haraldson, Saint Olaf

    Martyr and King of Norway (1015-30), b. 995; d. 29 July, 1030. He was a son of King Harald ...

    Harbor Grace

    (Portus Gratiæ) Diocese in Newfoundland, erected in 1856. It comprises all the northern ...

    Hardee, William J.

    Soldier, convert, b. at Savannah, Georgia, U.S.A. 1817, d. at Wytheville, Virginia, 6 Nov., ...

    Hardey, Mary Aloysia

    Of the Society of the Sacred Heart, who established all the convents of her order, up to the ...

    Harding, St. Stephen

    Confessor, the third Abbot of Cîteaux, was born at Sherborne in Dorsetshire, England, ...

    Harding, Thomas

    Controversialist; b. at Combe Martin, Devon, 1516 d. at Louvain, Sept., 1572. The registers of ...

    Hardman, Mary Juliana

    Known in religion as Sister Mary; b. 26 April, 1813; d. 24 March, 1884; was the daughter of John ...

    Hardouin, Jean

    Jesuit, and historian; b. at Quimper, Brittany, 23 Dec., 1646, son of a bookseller of that town; ...

    Hardyng, John

    An English chronicler; b. 1378; d. about 1460. He was of northern parentage and entered the ...

    Hare Indians

    A Déné tribe which shares with the Loucheux the distinction of being the ...

    Harland, Henry

    Novelist, b. of New England parentage, at St. Petersburg, 1 Mar., 1861; d. at San Remo, 20 Dec., ...

    Harlay, Family of

    An important family of parliamentarians and bishops, who deserve a place in religious ...

    Harlez de Deulin, Charles-Joseph de

    A Belgian Orientalist, domestic prelate, canon of the cathedral of Liège, member of the ...

    Harmony

    (Greek, harmonia ; Latin, harmonia ) A concord of sounds, several tones of different ...

    Harney

    (1) William Selby Harney Soldier, convert ; b. near Haysboro, Tennessee, U.S.A. 27 August, ...

    Harold Bluetooth

    (B LAATAND ) Born 911; died 1 November, 985 or 986. He was the son of King Gorm the Old of ...

    Harold, Francis

    Irish Franciscan and historical writer, d. at Rome, 18 March, 1685. He was for some time ...

    Harpasa

    A titular see of Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis. Nothing is known of the history of this ...

    Harper, Thomas Morton

    Priest, philosopher, theologian and preacher. Born in London 26 Sept., 1821, of Anglican ...

    Harrington, Ven. William

    English martyr ; b. 1566; d. 18 February, 1594. His father had entertained Campion at the ...

    Harris, Joel Chandler

    Folklorist, novelist, poet, journalist; born at Eatonton, Georgia, U.S.A. 1848; died at Atlanta, ...

    Harrisburg

    (Harrisburgensis.) Established 1868, comprises the Counties of Dauphin, Lebanon, Lancaster, ...

    Harrison, James

    Priest and martyr ; b. in the Diocese of Lichfield, England, date unknown; d. at York, 22 ...

    Harrison, William

    Third and last archpriest of England, b. in Derbyshire in 1553; d. 11 May, 1621. He was ...

    Harrowing of Hell

    This is the Old English and Middle English term for the triumphant descent of Christ into hell ...

    Hart, William

    Born at Wells, 1558; suffered at York, 15 March, 1583. Elected Trappes Scholar at Lincoln ...

    Hartford

    Diocese of Hartford, established by Gregory XVI, 18 Sept., 1843. When erected it embraced the ...

    Hartley, Ven. William

    Martyr ; b. at Wyn, in Derbyshire, England, of a yeoman family about 1557; d. 5 October, 1588. ...

    Hartmann von Aue

    A Middle High German epic poet and minnesinger; died between 1210 and 1220. Little is known ...

    Hartmann, Georg

    Mechanician and physicist ; b. at Eckoltsheim, Bavaria, 9 Feb. 1489; d. at Nuremberg, 9 ...

    Hasak, Vincenz

    Historian, b. at Neustadt, near Friedland, Bohemia, 18 July, 1812; d. 1 September, 1889, as ...

    Haschka, Lorenz Leopold

    A poet-author of the Austrian national anthem; b. at Vienna, 1 Sept. 1749, d. there 3 Aug., ...

    Haspinger, Johann Simon

    A Tyrolese priest and patriot ; b. at Gries, Tyrol, 28 October, 1776; d. in the imperial palace ...

    Hassard, John Rose Greene

    An editor, historian; b. in New York, U.S.A. 4 September, 1836; d. in that city, 18 April, 1888. ...

    Hasslacher, Peter

    Preacher; b. at Coblenz, 14 August, 1810; d. at Paris, 5 July, 1876. He was one of that band of ...

    Hatred

    Hatred in general is a vehement aversion entertained by one person for another, or for ...

    Hatto

    Archbishop of Mainz ; b. of a noble Swabian family, c. 850; d. 15 May, 913. He was educated at ...

    Hatton, Edward Anthony

    Dominican, apologist ; b. in 1701; d. at Stourton Lodge, near Leeds, Yorkshire, 23 October, ...

    Hauara

    A titular see of Palestina Tertia, suffragan of Petra. Peutinger's map locates a place of ...

    Haudriettes

    A religious congregation founded in Paris early in the fourteenth century by Jeanne, wife of ...

    Haughery, Margaret

    Margaret Haughery, "the mother of the orphans ", as she was familiarly styled, b. in Cavan, ...

    Hauréau, Jean-Barthélemy

    Historian and publicist; b. at Paris, 1812; d. there, 1896. He was educated at the Louis le Grand ...

    Hautecombe

    (Altacomba, Altæcombæum) A Cistercian monastery near Aix-les-Bains in Savoy, ...

    Hautefeuille, Jean de

    French physicist, b. at Orléans, 20 March, 1647; d. there, 18 October, 1724. He was the ...

    Hautefeuille, Jean de

    French physicist, b. at Orléans, 20 March, 1647; d. there, 18 October, 1724. He was the ...

    Hauteserre

    (ALTESERRA). Antoine Dadin d'Hauteserre Born 1602, died 1682; a distinguished French historian ...

    Hauzeur, Mathias

    A Franciscan theologian, b. at Verviers, 1589; d. at Liège 12 November, 1676, for many ...

    Havana

    Diocese of Havana (San Cristóbal de la Habana) — Avanensis The city of Havana is ...

    Havestadt, Bernhard

    German Jesuit ; b. at Cologne, 27 February, 1714; died at Münster after 1778. He entered ...

    Hawarden, Edward

    (HARDEN). Theologian and controversialist, b. in Lancashire, England, 9 April, 1662; d. in ...

    Hawes, Stephen

    Poet; b. in Suffolk about 1474; d. about 1523. Very little is known of his life. He was educated ...

    Hawker, Robert Stephen

    Poet and antiquary; b. at Plymouth 3 December, 1803, d. there 15 August, 1875, son of Jacob ...

    Hawkins, Sir Henry

    Raised to the peerage as Lord Brampton, eminent English lawyer and Judge, b. at Hitchin, ...

    Hay, Edmund and John

    (1) Edmund Hay Jesuit, and envoy to Mary Queen of Scots, b. 1540?; d. at Rome, 4 Nov., 1591. he ...

    Hay, George

    Bishop and writer, b. at Edinburgh, 24 Aug., 1729; d. at Aquhorties, 18 Oct., 1811. His parents ...

    Haydn, Franz Joseph

    Born of staunch Catholic parents at Rohrau, Austria, 1 April, 1732; died at Gumpendorf, Vienna, ...

    Haydn, Johann Michael

    A younger brother of Franz Joseph Haydn ; born at Rohrau, Austria, 14 September, 1737; died at ...

    Haydock, George Leo

    Priest and Biblical scholar; b. 11 April, 1774, at Cottam, near Wood Plumpton, Lancashire; d. 29 ...

    Haydock, Venerable George

    English martyr ; born 1556; executed at Tyburn, 12 February, 1583-84. He was the youngest son of ...

    Haymo

    ( Or Haimo). A Benedictine bishop of the ninth century; d. 26 March, 853. The exact date ...

    Haymo of Faversham

    English Franciscan and schoolman, b. at Faversham, Kent; d. at Anagni, Itlay, in 1243, according ...

    Haynald, Lajos

    Cardinal, Archbishop of Kalocsa-Bács in Hungary ; b. at Szécsény, 3 ...

    Hazart, Cornelius

    Controversialist, orator, and writer, b. 28 October, 1617, at Oudenarde in the Netherlands ; ...

    × Close

    He 165

    Healy, George Peter Alexander

    An American portrait and historical painter, b. at Boston, 15 July, 1808; d. at Chicago, 14 June ...

    Hearse, Tenebrae

    The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...

    Heart of Jesus, Devotion to the

    The treatment of this subject is divided into two parts: I. Doctrinal Explanations;II. Historical ...

    Heart of Mary, Congregations of

    I. Sisters of the Holy Heart of Mary Founded in 1842 at Nancy, by Mgr Menjaud, Bishop of ...

    Heart of Mary, Devotion to the

    As in the article on Devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus , this subject will be considered ...

    Heath, Ven. Henry

    English Franciscan and martyr, son of John Heath; christened at St. John's, Peterborough, 16 ...

    Heaven

    This subject will be treated under seven headings: I. Name and Place of Heaven; II. Existence of ...

    Hebrew Bible

    As compared with the Latin Vulgate , the Hebrew Bible includes the entire Old Testament with ...

    Hebrew Language and Literature

    Hebrew was the language spoken by the ancient Israelites, and in which were composed nearly all ...

    Hebrews, Epistle to the

    This will be considered under eight headings: (I) Argument; (II) Doctrinal Contents; (III) ...

    Hebrides, New

    Vicariate Apostolic in Oceania; comprises the New Hebrides, with Banks and Torres, islands ...

    Hebron

    ( hbrwn, chebrón ) An ancient royal city of Chanaan, famous in biblical history, ...

    Hecker, Isaac Thomas

    Missionary, author, founder of the Paulists ; b. in New York, 18 December, 1819; d. there, 22 ...

    Hedonism

    ( hedoné, pleasure). The name given to the group of ethical systems that hold, with ...

    Hedwig, Saint

    Duchess of Silesia, b. about 1174, at the castle of Andechs ; d. at Trebnitz, 12 or 15 ...

    Heeney, Cornelius

    Merchant and philanthropist; b. in King's County, Ireland, 1754; d. at Brooklyn, U.S.A. 3 May, ...

    Heereman von Zuydwyk, Freiherr von

    (Clemens Aug. Ant.). Catholic statesman and writer on art, b. 26 Aug., 1832, at Surenburg near ...

    Heeswijk

    A village in the diocese of Hertogenbosch (Bois-le-Duc), Holland, in which the dispersed ...

    Hefele, Karl Joseph von

    Bishop of Rottenburg, b. at Unterkochen, Würtemberg, 15 March, 1809; d. at Rottenburg, 5 ...

    Hegelianism

    (1) Life and Writings of Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was born at Stüttgart in 1770; ...

    Hegesippus, Saint

    (Roman Martyrology, 7 April). A writer of the second century, known to us almost exclusively ...

    Hegesippus, The Pseudo-

    A fourth-century translator of the "Jewish War" of Flavius Josephus. The name is based on an ...

    Hegius, Alexander

    Humanist ; b. probably in 1433, at Heeck (Westphalia); d. 7 December, 1498, at Deventer ...

    Heidelberg, University of

    Heidelberg, a city of 41,000 inhabitants, is situated in the Grand Duchy of Baden, on the left ...

    Heiligenkreuz

    (SANCTA CRUX). An existing Cistercian monastery in the Wienerwald, eight miles north-west of ...

    Heilsbronn

    (FONS SALUTIS). Formerly a Cistercian monastery in the Diocese of Eichstätt in Middle ...

    Heilsbronn, Monk of

    This name indicates the unknown author of some small mystical treatises, written about the ...

    Heim, François Joseph

    French historical painter, b. near Belfort, 1787, d. in Paris, 1865. This clever painter ...

    Heinrich der Glïchezäre

    ( Glïchezäre , i.e. the hypocrite, in the sense of one who adopts a strange name or ...

    Heinrich von Ahaus

    (Hendrik van Ahuis) Founder of the Brethren of the Common Life in Germany, b. in 1371, the ...

    Heinrich von Laufenberg

    A German poet of the fifteenth century, d. at Strasburg in 1460; he was a priest in Freiburg ...

    Heinrich von Meissen

    Usually called "Frauenlob" (Woman's praise), a Middle High German lyric poet; b. at Meissen ...

    Heinrich von Melk

    German satirist of the twelfth century; of knightly birth and probably a lay brother in the ...

    Heinrich von Veldeke

    A medieval German poet of knightly rank; b. near Maastricht in the Netherlands about the ...

    Heinz, Joseph

    Swiss painter ; b. at Basle, 11 June, 1564; d. near Prague, Bohemia, October, 1609. He appears ...

    Heis, Eduard

    German astronomer, b. at Cologne, 18 February, 1806; d. at Münster, Westphalia, 30 June, ...

    Heisterbach

    (Vallis S. Petri). A former Cistercian monastery in the Siebengebirge near the little town ...

    Helen of Sköfde, Saint

    Martyr in the first half of the twelfth century. Her feast is celebrated 31 July. Her life ...

    Helena (Montana)

    (Helenensis) Erected from the Vicariate of Montana, 7 March, 1884. It comprises the western ...

    Helena, Saint

    The mother of Constantine the Great , born about the middle of the third century, possibly in ...

    Helenopolis

    A titular see of Bithynia Prima, suffragan of Prusa. On the southern side of the Sinus Astacenus ...

    Heli

    Heli the Judge and High Priest Heli (Heb. ELI, Gr. HELI) was both judge and high-priest, whose ...

    Heliae, Paul

    (POVL HELGESEN) A Carmelite, opponent of the Reformation in Denmark, born at Warberg (in the ...

    Heliand, The

    ( German Heiland , Saviour) The oldest complete work of German literature . Matthias Flacius ...

    Heliogabalus

    (E LAGABAL ) The name adopted by Varius Avitus Bassianus, Roman emperor (218-222), born of ...

    Hell

    This subject is treated under eight headings: (I) Name and Place of Hell; (II) Existence of ...

    Hell, Maximilian

    (Höll). Astronomer, b. at Schemnitz in Hungary, 15 May, 1720; d. at Vienna, 14 April, ...

    Hello, Ernest

    French philosopher and essayist, b. at Lorient, Brittany, 4 Nov., 1828; d. at Kéroman, ...

    Helmold

    A historian, born in the first half of the twelfth century; died about 1177. He was a native of, ...

    Helmont, Jan Baptista van

    Born at Brussels, 1577; died near Vilvorde, 30 December, 1644. This scientist, distinguished in ...

    Helpers of the Holy Souls, Society of the

    ( Auxiliatrices des Ames du Purgatoire ) A religious order of women founded in Paris, ...

    Helpidius, Flavius Rusticius

    The name of several Latin writers. It appears in the manuscript of Pomponius Mela and Julius ...

    Hemmerlin, Felix

    (MALLEOLUS) properly HEMERLI A provost at Solothurn, in Switzerland, born at Zurich, in 1388 ...

    Henderson, Issac Austin

    Born at Brooklyn, 1850; died in Rome, March, 1909. His family was of Scotch and Irish ...

    Hendrick, Thomas Augustine

    First American and the twenty-second Bishop of Cebú, Philippine Islands, b. at Penn Yan, ...

    Hengler, Lawrence

    Catholic priest and the inventor of the horizontal pendulum, b. at Reichenhofen, ...

    Hennepin, Louis

    One of the most famous explorers in the wilds of North America during the seventeenth century, b. ...

    Henoch

    (Greek Enoch ). The name of the son of Cain ( Genesis 4:17, 18 ), of a nephew of Abraham ...

    Henoch, Book of

    The antediluvian patriarch Henoch according to Genesis "walked with God and was seen no more, ...

    Henoticon

    The story of the Henoticon forms a chapter in that of the Monophysite heresy in the fifth and ...

    Henríquez, Crisóstomo

    A Cistercian religious of the Spanish Congregation; b. at Madrid, 1594; d. 23 December, 1632, ...

    Henríquez, Enrique

    Noted Jesuit theologian, b. at Oporto, 1536; d. at Tivoli, 28 January, 1608. At the age of ...

    Henri de Saint-Ignace

    A Carmelite theologian, b. in 1630, at Ath in Hainaut, Belgium ; d. in 1719 or 1720, near ...

    Henrion, Mathieu-Richard-Auguste

    Baron, French magistrate, historian, and journalist; b. at Metz, 19 June, 1805; d. at Aix, ...

    Henry Abbot

    Layman, martyred at York, 4 July, 1597, pronounced Venerable in 1886. His acts are thus related ...

    Henry II

    King of England, born 1133; died 6 July, 1189; was in his earlier life commonly known as Henry ...

    Henry II, Saint

    German King and Holy Roman Emperor, son of Duke Henry II (the Quarrelsome) and of the Burgundian ...

    Henry III

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Conrad II; b. 1017; d. at Bodfeld, in the Harz Mountains, 5 ...

    Henry IV

    King of France and Navarre, son of Jeanne d'Albret and Antoine de Bourbon, b. 14 December, 1553, ...

    Henry IV

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry III and Agnes of Poitou, b. at Goslar, 11 November, ...

    Henry of Friemar

    (DE VRIMARIA) German theologian ; b. at Friemar, a small town near Gotha in Thuringia, about ...

    Henry of Ghent

    (HENRICUS DE GANDAVO, known as the DOCTOR SOLEMNIS) A notable scholastic philosopher and ...

    Henry of Herford

    (Or HERWORDEN; HERVORDIA) Friar and chronicler; date of birth unknown; died at Minden, 9 Oct., ...

    Henry of Huntingdon

    Historian; b. probably near Ramsey, Huntingdonshire, between 1080 and 1085; d. 1155. Little is ...

    Henry of Kalkar

    (Egher). Carthusian writer, b. at Kalkar in the Duchy of Cleves in 1328; d. at Cologne, 20 ...

    Henry of Langenstein

    (Henry of Hesse the Elder.) Theologian and mathematician; b. about 1325 at the villa of ...

    Henry of Nördlingen

    A Bavarian secular priest, of the fourteenth century, date of death unknown; the spiritual ...

    Henry of Rebdorf

    Alleged author of an imperial and papal chronicle of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, is ...

    Henry of Segusio, Blessed

    Usually called Hostiensis , an Italian canonist of the thirteenth century, born at Susa (in ...

    Henry Suso, Blessed

    (Also called Amandus , a name adopted in his writings). German mystic, born at Constance on ...

    Henry the Navigator, Prince

    Born 4 March, 1394; died 13 November, 1460; he was the fourth son of John I, King of Portugal, by ...

    Henry V

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry IV ; b. in 1081; d. at Utrecht, 23 May, 1125. He ...

    Henry VI

    German King and Roman Emperor, son of Frederick Barbarossa and Beatrice of Burgundy ; b. in ...

    Henry VIII

    King of England, born 28 June, 1491; died 28 January, 1547. He was the second son and third ...

    Henryson, Robert

    Scottish poet, born probably 1420-1430; died about 1500. His birthplace, parentage, and place of ...

    Henschen, Godfrey

    (Or Henskens .) Jesuit, hagiographer ; b. at Venray (Limburg), 21 June, 1601; d. at ...

    Hensel, Luise

    Poetess and convert ; born at Linum, 30 March, 1798; died at Paderborn, 18 December, 1876. Her ...

    Henten, John

    Biblical exegete, born 1499 at Nalinnes Belgium ; died 10 Oct., 1566, at Louvain. When quite ...

    Heortology

    (From the Greek heorte , festival, and logos , knowledge, discourse) Heortology ...

    Hephæstus

    A titular see of Augustamnica Prima, mentioned by Hierocles (Synecd., 727, 9), by George of ...

    Heptarchy

    (A NGLO -S AXON H EPTARCHY ) By the term heptarchy is understood that complexus of ...

    Heraclas

    Bishop of Alexandria from 231 or 232; to 247 or 248. Of his earlier life Origen tells us, ...

    Heraclea

    A titular see of Thracia Prima. Heraclea is the name given about four centuries before the ...

    Heraldry, Ecclesiastical

    Ecclesiastical heraldry naturally divides itself into various branches, principally: the arms of ...

    Herbart and Herbartianism

    The widespread and increasing influence of Herbart and his disciples in the work of education ...

    Herbert of Bosham

    A biographer of St. Thomas Becket , dates of birth and death unknown. He was probably born in ...

    Herbert of Derwentwater, Saint

    (Hereberht). Date of birth unknown; d. 20 March, 687; an anchorite of the seventh century, ...

    Herbert of Lea, Lady Elizabeth

    Authoress, and philanthropist, b. in 1822; d. in London 30 Oct., 1911. Lady Herbert was the ...

    Herbst, Johann Georg

    Born at Rottweil, in Würtemberg, 13 January, 1787; died 31 July, 1836. His college course, ...

    Herculano de Carvalho e Araujo, Alejandro

    Born at Lisbon, 28 March, 1810; died near Santarem, 13 Sept., 1877. Because of his liberal ...

    Herder

    The name of a German firm of publishers and booksellers. Bartholomäus Herder Founder of the ...

    Herdtrich, Christian Wolfgang

    (According to Franco, Christianus Henriques ; Chinese, Ngen ). An Austrian Jesuit ...

    Heredity

    The offspring tends to resemble, sometimes with extraordinary closeness, the parents ; this is ...

    Hereford, Ancient Diocese of

    (HEREFORDENSIS) Located in England. Though the name of Putta, the exiled Bishop of ...

    Hereswitha, Saint

    (HAERESVID, HERESWYDE). Daughter of Hereric and Beorhtswith and sister of St. Hilda of Whitby. ...

    Heresy

    I. Connotation and DefinitionII. Distinctions III. Degrees of heresy IV. Gravity of the sin of ...

    Hergenröther, Joseph

    Church historian and canonist, first Cardinal-Prefect of the Vatican Archives, b. at ...

    Heribert

    (ARIBERT) Archbishop of Milan (1018-1045) An ambitious and warlike prince of the ...

    Heribert, Saint

    Archbishop of Cologne ; born at Worms, c. 970; died at Cologne, 16 March, 1021. His father was ...

    Heriger of Lobbes

    A medieval theologian and historian; born about 925; died 31 October, 1007. After studying at ...

    Herincx, William

    A theologian, born at Helmond, North Brabant, 1621; died 17 Aug., 1678. After receiving his ...

    Hermann Contractus

    (Herimanus Augiensis, Hermann von Reichenau ). Chronicler, mathematician, and poet; b. 18 ...

    Hermann I

    Landgrave of Thuringia (1190-1217), famous as a patron of medieval German poets. He was the ...

    Hermann Joseph, Saint

    Premonstratensian monk and mystic; b. at Cologne about 1150; d. at Hoven, 7 April, 1241. ...

    Hermann of Altach

    (Niederaltaich). A medieval historian; b. 1200 or 1201; d. 31 July, 1275. He received his ...

    Hermann of Fritzlar

    With this name are connected two works on mysticism written in German. The first, "Das ...

    Hermann of Minden

    Provincial of the German province of Dominicans ; b. at or near Minden on an unknown date ; d. ...

    Hermann of Salza

    Fourth Grand Master of the Teutonic Order , descendant of the noble Thuringian house of Salza; ...

    Hermanos Penitentes, Los

    (The Penitent Brothers), a society of flagellants existing among the Spanish of New Mexico and ...

    Hermas

    (First or second century), author of the book called "The Shepherd" ( Poimen , Pastor), a work ...

    Hermas, Saint

    Martyr The Roman Martyrology sets down for 18 August (XV Kal. Septembris) the feast of the ...

    Hermeneutics

    Derived from a Greek word connected with the name of the god Hermes, the reputed messenger and ...

    Hermengild, Saint

    Date of birth unknown; d. 13 April, 585. Leovigild, the Arian King of the Visigoths (569-86), ...

    Hermes, George

    Philosopher and theologian, b. at Dreierwalde near Theine (Westphalia), 22 April, 1775; d. at ...

    Hermes, Saint

    Martyr, Bishop of Salano (Spalato) in Dalmatia. Very little is known about him; in Romans ...

    Hermite, Charles

    Born at Dieuze, Lorraine, 24 December, 1822; d. at Paris, 14 January, 1901; one of the greatest ...

    Hermits

    ( Eremites , "inhabitants of a desert ", from the Greek eremos ), also called anchorites, ...

    Hermits of St. Augustine

    (Generally called Augustinians and not to be confounded with the Augustinian Canons ). A ...

    Hermon

    [From the Hebrew meaning "sacred (mountain)"; Septuagint, Aermon ] A group of mountains ...

    Hermopolis Magna

    A titular see of Thebais Prima, suffragan of Antinoe, in Egypt. The native name was Khmounoun; ...

    Hermopolis Parva

    A titular see of Ægyptus Prima, suffragan of Alexandria. Its ancient name, Dimanhoru or ...

    Herod

    (Greek Herodes , from Heros .) Herod was the name of many rulers mentioned in the N.T. ...

    Herodias

    Herodias, daughter of Aristobulus -- son of Herod the Great and Mariamne -- was a descendant of ...

    Heroic Act of Charity

    A decree of the Sacred Congregation of Indulgences dated 18 December, 1885, and confirmed the ...

    Heroic Virtue

    The notion of heroicity is derived from hero, originally a warrior, a demigod; hence it connotes a ...

    Herp, Henry

    (Or HARP, Latin CITHARŒDUS, or ERP as in the old manuscripts ) A fifteenth century ...

    Herrad of Landsberg

    (or LANDSPERG) A twelfth-century abbess, author of the "Hortus Deliciarum"; born about 1130, ...

    Herregouts

    There were three artists of the name of Herregouts, father, son, and grandson, of whom the chief ...

    Herrera Barnuevo, Sebastiano de

    A painter, architect, sculptor and etcher; born in Madrid, 1611 or 1619; died there, 1671; son ...

    Herrera y Tordesillas, Antonio de

    A Spanish historian; born at Cuellar, in the province of Segovia, in 1559; died at Madrid, 27 ...

    Herrera, Fernando de

    A Spanish lyric poet; born 1537; died 1597. The head of a school of lyric poets who gathered ...

    Herrera, Francisco

    (1) Francisco Herrera (el Viejo, the Elder) A Spanish painter, etcher, medallist, and architect; ...

    Herrgott, Marquard

    A Benedictine historian and diplomat; born at Freiburg in the Breisgau, 9 October, 1694; died ...

    Hersfeld

    An ancient imperial abbey of the Benedictine Order, situated at the confluence of the Geisa and ...

    Hervás y Panduro, Lorenzo

    Spanish Jesuit and famous philologist; b. at Horcajo, 1 May, 1735; d. at Rome, 24 August, 1809. ...

    Hervetus, Gentian

    French theologian and controversialist; b. at Olivet, near Orléans, in 1499; d. at ...

    Hesebon

    (A.V. HESHBON; Greek Esebon, Esbous ; Latin Esbus). A titular see of the province of ...

    Hesse

    (H ESSEN ). The name of a German tribe, and also a district in Germany extending along the ...

    Hessels, Jean

    A distinguished theologian of Louvain ; born 1522; died 1566. He had been teaching for eight ...

    Hesychasm

    (Greek hesychos , quiet). The story of the system of mysticism defended by the monks of ...

    Hesychius of Alexandria

    Grammarian and lexicographer; of uncertain date, but assigned by most authorities to the later ...

    Hesychius of Jerusalem

    Presbyter and exegete, probably of the fifth century. Nothing certain is known as to the dates ...

    Hesychius of Sinai

    A priest and monk of the Order of St. Basil in the Thorn-bush (Batos) monastery on Mt. ...

    Hethites

    (A.V. H ITTITES ) One of the many peoples of North-Western Asia, styled Hittim in the ...

    Hettinger, Franz

    A Catholic theologian ; born 13 January, 1819, at Aschaffenburg; died 26 January, 1890, at ...

    Heude, Pierre

    Missionary to China and zoologist; b. at Fougères in the Department of Ille-et-Vilaine, ...

    Hewett, John

    (Alias WELDON). English martyr ; son of William Hewett of York; date of birth unknown; ...

    Hewit, Augustine Francis

    Priest and second Superior General of the Institute of St. Paul the Apostle ; b. at Fairfield, ...

    Hexaemeron

    Hexaemeron signifies a term of six days, or, technically, the history of the six days' work of ...

    Hexapla

    The name given to Origen's edition of the Old Testament in Hebrew and Greek, the most colossal ...

    Hexateuch

    A name commonly used by the critics to designate the first six books of the Old Testament, i.e. ...

    Hexham and Newcastle

    Diocese of Hexham and Newcastle (Hagulstadensis et Novocastrensis). Hexham, in ...

    Heynlin of Stein, Johann

    (A LAPIDE) A theologian, born about 1425; died at Basle, 12 March, 1496. He was apparently of ...

    Heywood, Jasper and John

    (1) Jasper Heywood A poet and translator; born 1535 in London ; died 1598 at Naples. As a boy ...

    Hezekiah

    Ezechias (Hebrew = "The Lord strengtheneth"; Septuagint Ezekias ; in the cuneiform inscriptions ...

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    Hi 47

    Hibernians, Ancient Order of

    This organization grew up gradually among the Catholics of Ireland owing to the dreadful ...

    Hickey, Antony

    A theologian, born in the Barony of Islands, Co. Clare, Ireland, in 1586; died in Rome, 26 ...

    Hidalgo, Miguel

    Born on the ranch of San Vicente in the district of Guanajuato, 8 May, 1753; executed at ...

    Hierapolis

    Titular Archdiocese, metropolis of the Province of Euphrates, in the Patriarchate of Antioch. ...

    Hierapolis

    A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris, suffragan of Synnada. It is usually called by its ...

    Hierarchy

    (Greek Hierarchia ; from hieros , sacred; archein , rule, command). This word has been ...

    Hierarchy of the Early Church

    The word hierarchy is used here to denote the three grades of bishop, priest, and deacon ( ...

    Hierocæsarea

    A titular see of Lydia, suffragan of Sardis. This town is mentioned by Ptolemy (VI, ii, 16). ...

    Hieronymites

    In the fourth century, certain Roman ladies, following St. Paula, embraced the religious life ...

    Hierotheus

    All attempts to establish as historical a personality corresponding to the Hierotheus who ...

    Higden, Ranulf

    (HYDON, HYGDEN, HIKEDEN.) Benedictine chronicler; died 1364. He was a west-country man, and ...

    High Altar

    (ALTARE SUMMUM or MAJUS.) The high altar is so called from the fact that it is the chief altar ...

    High Priest, The

    The high-priest in the Old Testament is called by various names: the priest ( Numbers 3:6 ); ...

    Higher Criticism

    Overview Biblical criticism in its fullest comprehension is the examination of the literary ...

    Hilarion, Saint

    Founder of anchoritic life in Palestine; born at Tabatha, south of Gaza, Palestine, about 291; ...

    Hilarius of Sexten

    (In the world, CHRISTIAN GATTERER.) Moral theologian ; born 1839, in the valley of Sexten in ...

    Hilarius, Pope Saint

    [ Also spelled HILARIUS] Elected 461; the date of his death is given as 28 Feb., 468. After ...

    Hilarus, Pope Saint

    [ Also spelled HILARIUS] Elected 461; the date of his death is given as 28 Feb., 468. After ...

    Hilary of Arles, Saint

    Archbishop, b. about 401; d. 5 May, 449. The exact place of his birth is not known. All that may ...

    Hilary of Poitiers, Saint

    Bishop, born in that city at the beginning of the fourth century; died there 1 November, according ...

    Hilda, Saint

    Abbess, born 614; died 680. Practically speaking, all our knowledge of St. Hilda is derived from ...

    Hildebert of Lavardin

    Bishop of Le Mans, Archbishop of Tours, and celebrated medieval poet; b. about 1056, at the ...

    Hildegard, Saint

    Born at Böckelheim on the Nahe, 1098; died on the Rupertsberg near Bingen, 1179; feast 17 ...

    Hildesheim

    Diocese of Hildesheim (Hildesheimensis). An exempt see, comprising the Prussian province of ...

    Hilduin, Abbot of St-Denis

    He died 22 November, 840. He was a scion of a prominent Frankish family, hut the time and place ...

    Hill, Ven. Richard

    English Martyr, executed at Durham, 27 May, 1590. Very little is known of him and his ...

    Hillel

    A famous Jewish rabbi who lived about 70 B.C.-A.D. 10. Our only source of information concerning ...

    Hilton, Walter

    Augustinian mystic, d. 24 March, 1396. Little is known of his life, save that he was the head of a ...

    Himeria

    A titular see in the province of Osrhoene, suffragan of Edessa. The "Notitia" of Anastasius, ...

    Himerius

    (called also EUMERIUS and COMERIUS) An Archbishop of Tarragona in Spain, 385. He is the ...

    Hincmar

    An archbishop of Reims ; born in 806; died at Epernay on 21 December, 882. Descended from a ...

    Hincmar

    Bishop of Laon; died 879. In the beginning of 858 the younger Hincmar, a nephew on the mother's ...

    Hinderer, Roman

    (Chinese TE). A German missionary in China, born at Reiningen, near Mülhausen, date ...

    Hinduism

    Hinduism in its narrower sense, is the conglomeration of religious beliefs and practices ...

    Hingston, Sir William Hales

    Canadian physician and surgeon, b. at Hinchinbrook near Huntingdon, Quebec, June 29, 1829; d. at ...

    Hippo Diarrhytus

    (Or HIPPO ZARRHYTUS.) A titular see of Northern Africa, now called Bizerta, originally a ...

    Hippo Regius

    A titular see of Numidia, now a part of the residential see of Constantine. Hippo was a Tyrian ...

    Hippolytus of Rome, Saint

    Martyr, presbyter and antipope ; date of birth unknown; d. about 236. Until the publication ...

    Hippolytus, Saints

    Besides the presbyter, St. Hippolytus of Rome, others of the name are mentioned in the old ...

    Hippos

    Besides the presbyter, St. Hippolytus of Rome, others of the name are mentioned in the old ...

    Hirena

    A titular see of southern Tunis. Nothing is known of the city, the name of which may have been ...

    Hirschau, Abbey of

    A celebrated Benedictine monastery in Würtemberg, Diocese of Spires, about twenty-two ...

    Hirscher, Johann Baptist von

    Born 20 January, 1788, at Alt-Ergarten, Ravensburg; died 4 September, 1865. He studied at ...

    Historical Criticism

    Historical criticism is the art of distinguishing the true from the false concerning facts of ...

    History, Ecclesiastical

    I. NATURE AND OFFICE Ecclesiastical history is the scientific investigation and the methodical ...

    Hittites

    (A.V. H ITTITES ) One of the many peoples of North-Western Asia, styled Hittim in the ...

    Hittorp, Melchior

    A theologian and liturgical writer, born about 1525, at Cologne ; died there in 1584. On the ...

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    Hl 1

    Hladnik, Franz von Paula

    Botanist and schoolmaster, b. 29 March, 1773, at Idria, Carniola, Austria ; d. 25 November, ...

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    Ho 121

    Hobart

    (HOBARTENSIS) Hobart comprises Tasmania, Bruni Island, and the Cape Barren, Flinders, King, ...

    Hodgson, Sydney

    A lawman and martyr ; date and place of birth unknown; d. at Tyburn, 10 Dec., 1591. He was a ...

    Hofer, Andreas

    A patriot and soldier, born at St. Leonhard in Passeyrthale, Tyrol, 22 Nov., 1767; executed at ...

    Hogan, John Baptist

    Better known, on account of his long sojourn in France, as Abbé Hogan, born near Ennis in ...

    Hohenbaum van der Meer, Moritz

    A Benedictine historian; born at Spörl near Belgrade, 25 June, 1718; died at the monastery ...

    Hohenburg

    (ODILIENBERG; ALTITONA) A suppressed nunnery, situated on the Odilienberg, the most famous of ...

    Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, Alexander Leopold

    A titular Bishop of Sardica, famous for his many supposedly miraculous cures, born 17 August, ...

    Holbein, Hans

    (The Elder Holbein) A German painter ; b. at Augsburg about 1460; d. at Isenheim, Alsace, in ...

    Holden, Henry

    An English priest ; born 1596; died March, 1662. Henry Holden was the second son of Richard ...

    Holiness

    (A.S. hal , perfect, or whole). Sanctitas in the Vulgate of the New Testament is the ...

    Holland, Ven. Thomas

    An English martyr, b. 1600 at Sutton, Lancashire; martyred at Tyburn, 12 December, 1642. He ...

    Hollanders in the United States

    The Hollanders played by no means an insignificant part in the early history of the United ...

    Holmes, John

    Catholic educator and priest ; born at Windsor, Vermont, in 1799; died at Lorette, near ...

    Holocaust

    As suggested by its Greek origin ( holos "whole", and kaustos "burnt") the word designates an ...

    Holstenius, Lucas

    (HOLSTE). German philologist, b. at Hamburg, 1596; d. at Rome, 2 February, 1661. He studied ...

    Holtei, Karl von

    German novelist, poet, and dramatist; b. at Breslau, 24 January, 1798; d. in that city, 12 ...

    Holy Agony, Archconfraternity of

    An association for giving special honour to the mental sufferings of Christ during His Agony ...

    Holy Alliance

    The Emperor Francis I of Austria, King Frederick William III of Prussia, and the Tsar Alexander I ...

    Holy Child Jesus, Society of the

    The Society was founded in England in 1840 by Mrs. Cornelia Connelly, née Peacock, ...

    Holy Childhood, Association of the

    A children's association for the benefit of foreign missions. Twenty years after the foundation of ...

    Holy Coat

    (OF TRIER AND ARGENTEUIL). The possession of the seamless garment of Christ (Gr. chiton ...

    Holy Communion

    By Communion is meant the actual reception of the Sacrament of the Eucharist. Ascetic writers ...

    Holy Cross Abbey

    The picturesque ruins of this monastery are situated on the right bank of the River Suir, about ...

    Holy Cross, Congregation of

    A body of priests and lay brothers constituted in the religious state by the simple vows of ...

    Holy Cross, Sisters Marianites of

    The congregation of the Sisters Marianites of Holy Cross was founded in 1841, in the parish of ...

    Holy Cross, Sisters of the

    (Mother House, St. Mary's of the Immaculate Conception, Notre Dame, Indiana) As an offset to ...

    Holy Faith, Sisters of the

    Founded at Dublin, in 1857, by Margaret Aylward, under the direction of Rev. John Gowan, C.M., ...

    Holy Family, Archconfraternity of the

    This archconfraternity owes its origin to Henri Belletable, an officer in the Engineers' Corps, ...

    Holy Family, Congregations of the

    I. ASSOCIATION OF THE HOLY FAMILY Founded in 1820 by the Abbé Pierre Bienvenue Noailles (d. ...

    Holy Ghost

    I. SYNOPSIS OF THE DOGMA The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms ...

    Holy Ghost, Orders of the

    The Hospital of the Holy Ghost at Rome was the cradle of an order, which, beginning in the ...

    Holy Ghost, Religious Congregations of the

    I. THE CONGREGATION OF THE HOLY GHOST AND OF THE IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY This Congregation was ...

    Holy Grail, The

    The name of a legendary sacred vessel , variously identified with the chalice of the Eucharist ...

    Holy House of Loreto

    (The Holy House of Loreto). Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the "Holy ...

    Holy Humility of Mary, Sisters of the

    Founded at Dommartin-sous-Amance, France, in 1855, by John Joseph Begel (b. 5 April, 1817; d. 23 ...

    Holy Infancy, Brothers of the

    Founded in 1853 by the Right Rev. John Timon, the first Bishop of Buffalo. The special aim of ...

    Holy Innocents

    The children mentioned in St. Matthew 2:16-18 : Herod perceiving that he was deluded by the wise ...

    Holy Name of Jesus

    We give honour to the Name of Jesus, not because we believe that there is any intrinsic power ...

    Holy Name, Feast of the

    This feast is celebrated on the second Sunday after Epiphany (double of the second class). ...

    Holy Name, Litany of the

    An old and popular form of prayer in honour of the Name of Jesus. The author is not known. ...

    Holy Name, Society of the

    (Confraternity of the Most Holy Name of God and Jesus). An indulgenced confraternity in the ...

    Holy Oils

    (OLEA SACRA). Liturgical Benediction Oil is a product of great utility the symbolic ...

    Holy Oils, Vessels for

    In Christian antiquity there existed an important category of vessels used as receptacles for ...

    Holy Orders

    Order is the appropriate disposition of things equal and unequal, by giving each its proper place ...

    Holy Saturday

    In the primitive Church Holy Saturday was known as Great, or Grand, Saturday, Holy Saturday, the ...

    Holy See

    (From the Latin Sancta Sedes , Holy Chair). A term derived from the enthronement ...

    Holy Sepulchre

    Holy Sepulchre refers to the tomb in which the Body of Jesus Christ was laid after His death ...

    Holy Sepulchre, Canonesses Regular of the

    Concerning the foundation there is only a tradition connecting it with St. James the Apostle and ...

    Holy Sepulchre, Fathers of the

    (Guardians) The Fathers of the Holy Sepulchre are the six or seven Franciscan Fathers, who ...

    Holy Sepulchre, Knights of the

    Neither the name of a founder nor a date of foundation can be assigned to the so-called Order of ...

    Holy Spirit

    I. SYNOPSIS OF THE DOGMA The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms ...

    Holy Stairs (Scala Sancta)

    Consisting of twenty-eight white marble steps, at Rome, near the Lateran; according to tradition ...

    Holy Synod

    In its full form M OST H OLY D IRECTING S YNOD , the name of the council by which the ...

    Holy Thursday

    The feast of Maundy (or Holy) Thursday solemnly commemorates the institution of the Eucharist ...

    Holy Water

    The use of holy water in the earliest days of the Christian Era is attested by documents of ...

    Holy Water Fonts

    Vessels intended for the use of holy water are of very ancient origin, and archaeological ...

    Holy Week

    Holy Week is the week which precedes the great festival of the Resurrection on Easter Sunday, and ...

    Holy Year of Jubilee

    The ultimate derivation of the word jubilee is disputed, but it is most probable that the ...

    Holyrood Abbey

    Located in Edinburgh, Scotland ; founded in 1128 by King David I for the Canons Regular of ...

    Holywell

    A town in North Wales, situated on the declivity of a hill overlooking a picturesque valley, ...

    Holywood, Christopher

    ( Latinized , A Sacrobosco.) Jesuit ; b. At Artane, Dublin, in 1559; d. 4 September, 1626. ...

    Holywood, John

    (John Holywood), a monk of English origin, lived in the first half of the thirteenth century as ...

    Holzhauser, Bartholomew

    Parish priest, ecclesiastical writer, and founder of a religious community; born 24 Aug., ...

    Homes

    This term, when used in an eleemosynary sense, covers all institutions that afford the general ...

    Homicide

    ( Latin homo , man; and caedere , to slay) Homicide signifies, in general, the killing of a ...

    Homiletics

    Homiletics is the science that treats of the composition and delivery of a sermon or other ...

    Homiliarium

    A collection of homilies, or familiar explanations of the Gospels (see HOMILY). From a very ...

    Homily

    The word homily is derived from the Greek word homilia (from homilein ), which means to ...

    Homoousion

    (Gr. homoousion - from homos , same, and ousia , essence ; Latin consubstantialem , of ...

    Honduras

    VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF BRITISH HONDURAS. The territory of the vicariate is co-extensive with ...

    Hong-Kong

    The island of Hong-Kong was ceded by the Chinese Government to Great Britain in January, 1841, ...

    Honoratus a Sancta Maria

    A Discalced Carmelite ; born at Limoges, 4 July, 1651 ; died at Lille, 1729. Blaise Vauxelles ...

    Honoratus, Saint

    Archbishop of Arles; b. about 350; d. 6 (or, according to certain authors, 14 or 15) January, ...

    Honorius I, Pope

    Pope (625-12 October, 638), a Campanian, consecrated 27 October (Duchesne) or 3 November ...

    Honorius II, Pope

    (Lamberto Scannabecchi) Born of humble parents at Fagnano near Imola at an unknown date ; ...

    Honorius III, Pope

    (Cencio Savelli) Born at Rome, date of birth unknown; died at Rome, 18 March, 1227. For a ...

    Honorius IV, Pope

    (Giacomo Savelli) Born at Rome about 1210; died at Rome, 3 April, 1287. He belonged to the ...

    Honorius of Autun

    (HONORIUS AUGUSTODUNENSIS) A theologian, philosopher, and encyclopedic writer who lived in ...

    Honorius, Flavius

    Roman Emperor, d. 25 August, 423. When his father, the Emperor Theodosius, divided up the ...

    Honorius, Saint

    Archbishop of Canterbury, fifth in succession from St. Augustine, elected 627; consecrated at ...

    Honour

    Honour may be defined as the deferential recognition by word or sign of another's worth or ...

    Hontheim, Johannes Nicolaus von

    (FEBRONIUS) An auxiliary Bishop of Trier ; born at Trier, 27 January, 1701; died at ...

    Hood

    A flexible, conical, brimless head-dress, covering the entire head, except the face. It is either ...

    Hoogstraten, Jacob van

    (also HOCHSTRATEN) A theologian and controversialist, born about 1460, in Hoogstraeten, ...

    Hooke, Luke Joseph

    Born at Dublin in 1716; died at St. Cloud, Paris, 16 April, 1796, son of Nathaniel Hooke the ...

    Hope

    Hope, in its widest acceptation, is described as the desire of something together with the ...

    Hope-Scott, James Robert

    (Originally H OPE ) Parliamentary barrister, Q.C.; b. 15 July, 1812, at Great Marlow, ...

    Hopi Indians

    (From Hopita, "peaceful ones" their own name; also frequently known as Moki, or Moqui, an alien ...

    Hopkins, Gerard Manley

    Jesuit and poet, born at Stratford, near London, 28 July, 1844; died at Dublin, 8 June, 1889. ...

    Hormisdas, Pope Saint

    Date of birth unknown, elected to the Holy See, 514; d. at Rome, 6 August, 523. This able and ...

    Horner, Nicholas

    Layman and martyr, born at Grantley, Yorkshire, England, date of birth unknown; died at ...

    Horns, Altar

    On the Jewish altar there were four projections, one at each corner, which were called the horns ...

    Hornyold, John Joseph

    A titular Bishop of Phiomelia, Vicar Apostolic of the Midland District, England ; born 19 ...

    Hortulus Animæ

    (L ITTLE G ARDEN OF THE S OUL ). A prayer book which both in its Latin and German ...

    Hosanna

    "And the multitudes that went before and that followed, cried, saying: Hosanna to the son of ...

    Hosea

    NAME AND COUNTRY Osee (Hôsheá‘– Salvation ), son of Beeri, was one of ...

    Hosius of Cordova

    The foremost Western champion of orthodoxy in the early anti-Arian struggle; born about 256; ...

    Hosius, Stanislaus

    (HOE, HOSZ) Cardinal and Prince- Bishop of Ermland ; born of German parents at Cracow, 5 ...

    Hospice

    ( Latin hospitium , a guest house). During the early centuries of Christianity the hospice ...

    Hospital Sisters of the Mercy of Jesus

    These sisters are established in religion under the Rule of St. Augustine, the institute being ...

    Hospitality

    The Council of Trent in its twenty-fifth session, cap. viii, De Ref., enjoins "all who hold any ...

    Hospitallers

    During the Middle Ages, among the hospitals established throughout the West ( Maisons-Dieu ...

    Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem

    (Also known as K NIGHTS OF M ALTA ). The most important of all the military orders, both ...

    Hospitals

    (Latin hospes , a guest; hence hospitalis , hospitable; hospitium , a guest-house or ...

    Hospitius, Saint

    (Sospis) Recluse, b. according to tradition in Egypt, towards the beginning of the sixth ...

    Hossche, Sidron de

    ( Latin HOSSCHIUS) Sidron de Hossche, poet and priest ; born at Mercken, West Flanders, in ...

    Host

    Archaeological and Historical Aspects The bread destined to receive Eucharistic Consecration is ...

    Host, Johann

    One of the seven Dominicans, who distinguished themselves in the struggle against Luther in ...

    Hottentots

    The Hottentot is one of three tribes of South Africa which may be divided — Bantus, ...

    Houbigant, Charles François

    Born in Paris, 1686; died there 31 October, 1783. He entered the Congregation of the Oratory in ...

    Houdon, Jean-Antoine

    Born at Versailles, 1741; died 16 July, 1828; the most distinguished sculptor of France ...

    Houdry, Vincent

    Preacher and writer on ascetics; b. 23 January, 1631, at Tours ; d. 21 March, 1729, at Paris. ...

    Houghton, John, Blessed

    Protomartyr of the persecution under Henry VIII, b. in Essex, 1487; d. at Tyburn, 4 May, 1535. ...

    Houghton, William

    (Variously called DE HOTUM, DE HOTHUM, DE HOZUM, BOTHUM, DE HONDEN, HEDDON, HEDDONEM, according as ...

    Hours, Canonical

    I. IDEA By canonical hour is understood all the fixed portion of the Divine Office which the ...

    Hours, Liturgy of the

    ("Liturgy of the Hours" I. THE EXPRESSION "DIVINE OFFICE" This expression signifies ...

    Hove, Peter van

    Friar Minor, lector in theology and exegete ; b. at Rethy, in Campine (Belgium); d. at Antwerp, ...

    Howard, Mary, of the Holy Cross

    Poor Clare, born 28 December, 1653; died at Rouen, 21 Mary's 1735, daughter of Sir Robert Howard, ...

    Howard, Philip Thomas

    Dominican and cardinal, commonly called the "Cardinal of Norfolk"; born at Arundel House, ...

    Howard, Philip, Venerable

    Martyr, Earl of Arundel; born at Arundel House, London, 28 June 1557, died in the Tower of London, ...

    Howard, Venerable William

    Viscount Stafford, martyr ; born 30 November, 1614; beheaded Tower-Hill, 29 December, 1680. He ...

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    Hr 1

    Hroswitha

    A celebrated nun -poetess of the tenth century, whose name has been given in various forms, ...

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    Hu 61

    Huánuco

    (Huanucensis) Suffragan of Lima in Peru. The department of Huánuco contains an ...

    Huajuápam de León

    (Huajuapatamensis) Diocese in the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, erected by Bull of Leo XIII , ...

    Huaraz

    Diocese of Huaraz (Huaraziensis) Suffragan of Lima. It comprises the entire department of ...

    Huber, Alphons

    An historian; born 14 October, 1834, at Fügen, Zillerthal (Tyrol); died 23 November, 1898, at ...

    Hubert Walter

    Archbishop of Canterbury (1193-1205); died 13 July, 1205; son of Hervey (Herveus) Walter and ...

    Hubert, Jean-François

    The ninth Bishop of Quebec, born at Quebec, 23 February, 1739; died 17 October, 1799; son of ...

    Hubert, Saint

    Confessor, thirty-first Bishop of Maastricht, first Bishop of Liège, and Apostle of ...

    Hubert, Saint, Military Orders of

    I. The highest order of Bavaria, founded in 1444 or 1445 by Gerhard V, Duke of Jülich, in ...

    Huc, Evariste Régis

    A French Lazarist missionary and traveller; born at Caylus (Tarn-et-Garonne), 1 June, 1813; died ...

    Hucbald of St-Amand

    (HUGBALDUS, UBALDUS, UCHUBALDUS) A Benedictine monk ; born in 840; died in 930 or 932. The ...

    Huddleston, John

    Monk of the Order of St. Benedict; b. at Farington Hall, Lancashire, 15 April, 1608; exact date ...

    Hudson, Blessed James

    (Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...

    Hueber, Fortunatus

    A Franciscan historian and theologian, born at Neustadt on the Danube; died 12 Feb., 1706, at ...

    Huelgas de Burgos

    The royal monastery of Las Huelgas de Burgos was founded by Alfonso VIII at the instance of ...

    Huesca

    (OSCENSIS) Huesca embraces parts of the province of Huesca in north-eastern Spain, seven ...

    Huet, Pierre-Daniel

    A distinguished savant and celebrated French bishop ; born 8 February, 1630, at Caen (Normandy), ...

    Hug, Johann Leonhard

    A German Catholic exegete, b. at Constance, 1 June, 1765; d. at Freiburg im Br., 11 March, ...

    Hugh Capet

    King of France, founder of the Capetian dynasty, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. ...

    Hugh Faringdon, Blessed

    ( Vere COOK). English martyr ; b. probably at Faringdon, Berkshire, date unknown; d. at ...

    Hugh of Digne

    Friar Minor andascetical writer; b. at Digne, south-east France, date uncertain; d. at ...

    Hugh of Flavigny

    Benedictine monk and historian; b. about 1064, probably at Verdun (Lorraine); d. before the ...

    Hugh of Fleury

    (Called also HUGO A SANTA MARIA, from the name of the church of his native village). ...

    Hugh of Lincoln, Saint

    Born about the year 1135 at the castle of Avalon, near Pontcharra, in Burgundy ; died at London, ...

    Hugh of Remiremont

    Surnamed CANDIDUS or BLANCUS. Cardinal, born of a noble family, probably in Lorraine, died soon ...

    Hugh of St-Cher

    (Latin D E S ANCTO C ARO ; D E S ANCTO T HEODORICO ). A Dominican cardinal of the ...

    Hugh of St. Victor

    Medieval philosopher, theologian, and mystical writer; b. 1096, at the manor of Hartingham in ...

    Hugh of Strasburg

    Theologian, flourished during the latter half of the thirteenth century. The dates of his birth ...

    Hugh the Great, Saint

    Abbot of Cluny, born at Semur (Brionnais in the Diocese of Autun, 1024; died at Cluny, 28 ...

    Hugh, Saint

    (Called LITTLE SAINT HUGH OF LINCOLN.) St. Hugh was the son of a poor woman of Lincoln ...

    Hughes, John

    Fourth bishop and first Archbishop of New York, born at Annaloghan, Co. Tyrone, Ireland, 24 ...

    Hugo, Charles-Hyacinthe

    Born 20 Sept., 1667, at St. Mihiel (Department of Meuse, France ); died 2 August, 1739. He ...

    Huguccio

    (HUGH OF PISA) Italian canonist, b. at Pisa, date unknown; d. in 1210. He studied at ...

    Huguenots

    A name by which the French Protestants are often designated. Its etymology is uncertain. ...

    Hulst, Maurice Le Sage d'Hauteroche d'

    A prelate, writer, orator; born at Paris, 10 Oct., 1841; died there, 6 Nov., 1896. After a ...

    Human Acts

    Acts are termed human when they are proper to man as man; when, on the contrary, they are ...

    Humanism

    Humanism is the name given to the intellectual, literary, and scientific movement of the ...

    Humbert of Romans

    (DE ROMANIS). Fifth master general of the Dominican Order, b. at Romans in the Diocese of ...

    Humeral Veil

    This is the name given to a cloth of rectangular shape about 8 ft. long and 1 1/2 ft. wide. The ...

    Humiliati

    I. A penitential order dating back, according to some authorities, to the beginning of the ...

    Humility

    The word humility signifies lowliness or submissiveness an it is derived from the Latin ...

    Humphrey Middlemore, Blessed

    English Carthusian martyr, date of birth uncertain; d. at Tyburn, London, 19 June, 1535. His ...

    Humphreys, Laurence

    Layman and martyr, born in Hampshire, England, 1571; died at Winchester, 1591. Of Protestant ...

    Hungarian Catholics in America

    The Kingdom of Hungary (Magyarország) comprises within its borders several races or ...

    Hungarian Literature

    The language which has prevailed in Hungary for nearly a thousand years and is spoken at the ...

    Hungary

    GEOGRAPHY AND MATERIAL CONDITIONS The Kingdom of Hungary, or "Realm of the Crown of St. Stephen ...

    Hunolt, Franz

    The most popular German preacher of the early part of the eighteenth century, b. 31 March, 1691, ...

    Hunt, Ven. Thurston

    An English martyr (March, 1601), who belonged to the family seated at Carlton Hall, near ...

    Hunter, Sylvester Joseph

    English Jesuit priest and educator; b. at Bath, 13 Sept., 1829; d. at Stonyhurst, 20 June, 1896. ...

    Hunting, Canons on

    From early times, hunting, in one form or another has been forbidden to clerics. Thus, in the ...

    Huntington, Jedediah Vincent

    Clergyman, novelist; born 20 January, 1815, in New York City; died 10 March, 1862, at Pau, France. ...

    Hunyady, János

    (JOHN) Governor of Hungary, born about 1400; died 11 August, 1456; the heroic defender of the ...

    Huron Indians

    The main divisions of the subject are: I. THE HURONS BEFORE THEIR DISPERSION (1) Their Place in ...

    Hurst, Richard

    (Or HERST.) Layman and martyr, b. probably at Broughton, near Preston, Lancashire, England, ...

    Hurtado, Caspar

    A Spanish Jesuit and theologian, b. at Mondejar, New Castle, in 1575; d. at Alcalá, 5 ...

    Hurter

    (1) Friedrich Emmanuel Von Hurter Convert and historian, b. at Schaffhausen, 19 March, 1787; d. at ...

    Hus, Jan

    (Also spelled John ). Born at Husinetz in southern Bohemia, 1369; died at Constance 6 ...

    Husenbeth, Frederick Charles

    Born at Bristol, 30 May, 1796; died at Cossey, Norfolk, 31 October, 1872. The son of a Bristol ...

    Hussey, Thomas

    Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, b. at Ballybogan, Co. Meath, in 1746; d. at Tramore, Co. ...

    Hussites

    The followers of Jan Hus did not of themselves assume the name of Hussites. Like Hus, they ...

    Hutton, Peter

    Priest, b. at Holbeck, Leeds, Yorkshire, England, 29 June, 1811; d. at Ratcliffe, ...

    Huysmans, Joris Karl

    A French novelist; born in Paris, 5 February, 1848; died 12 May, 1907. He studied at the Lycee ...

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    Hy 16

    Hyacinth and Protus, Saints

    Martyrs during the persecution of Valerian (257-9). The day of their annual commemoration is ...

    Hyacinth, Saint

    Dominican, called the Apostle of the North, son of Eustachius Konski of the noble family of ...

    Hyacintha Mariscotti, Saint

    A religious of the Third Order of St. Francis and foundress of the Sacconi; born 1585 of a noble ...

    Hydatius of Lemica

    ( Also IDATIUS; LEMICA is more correctly LIMICA.) A chronicler and bishop, born at the end ...

    Hyderabad-Deccan, Diocese of

    Hyderabad, also called Bhagnagar, and Fakhunda Bunyad, capital of the Nizam's dominions, was ...

    Hyginus, Pope Saint

    Reigned about 138-142; succeeded Pope Telesphorus, who, according to Eusebius (Hist. eccl., IV, ...

    Hylozoism

    (Greek hyle , matter + zoe , life ) The doctrine according to which all matter ...

    Hymn

    A derivative of the Latin hymnus , which comes from the Greek hymnos , derived from hydein ...

    Hymnody and Hymnology

    Hymnody, taken from the Greek ( hymnodia ), means exactly " hymn song", but as the hymn-singer ...

    Hypæpa

    Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus; it was a small town on the southern slope of ...

    Hypnotism

    (Greek hypnos , sleep) By Hypnotism , or Hypnosis , we understand here the nervous ...

    Hypocrisy

    (Greek hypo , under, and krinesthai , to contend — hence adequately "to answer" on the ...

    Hypostatic Union

    A theological term used with reference to the Incarnation to express the revealed truth ...

    Hypsistarians

    Hypsistarians or worshippers of the Hypsistos , i.e. of the "Most High" God ; a distinct ...

    Hyrtl, Joseph

    Austrian anatomist, b. at Eisenstadt in Hungary, December 7, 1810; d. 17 July, 1894, on his ...

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