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Latin Literature in Christianity (Sixth to TwentiethCentury)

During the Middle Ages the so-called church Latin was to a great extent the language of poetry, and it was only on the advent of the Renaissance that classical Latin revived and flourished in the writings of the neo-Latinists as it does even today though to a more modest extent. To present to the reader an account of Latin poetry in a manner at once methodical and clear is not an easy task; a strict adherence to chronology interferes with clearness of treatment, and an arrangement according to the different kinds of poetry would demand a repeated handling of some of the poets. However, the latter method is preferable because it enables us to trace the historical development of this literature.

A. The Latin Drama

Both in its inception and its subsequent development Latin dramatic poetry displays a peculiar character. "In no domain of literature", says W. Creizenach in the opening sentence of his well-known work on the history of the drama "do the Middle Ages show so complete a suspension of the tradition of classical antiquity as in the drama." Terence was indeed read and taught in the schools of the Middle Ages, but the true dramatic art of the Roman poet was misunderstood. Nowhere do we find evidence that any of his comedies were placed on the stage in schools or elsewhere; for this an adequate conception of classical stagecraft was wanting. The very knowledge of the metres of Terence was lost in the Middle Ages, and, just as the difference between comedy and tragedy was misunderstood, so also the difference between these and other kinds of poetical composition was no longer understood. It is thus clear why we can speak of imitations of the Roman metre only in rare and completely isolated cases, for example, in the case of the nun Hroswitha of Gandersheim in the tenth century. But even she shared the mistaken views of her age concerning the comedies of Terence, having no idea that these works were written for the stage nor indeed any conception of the dramatic art. Her imitations therefore can be regarded only as literary dramas on spiritual subjects, which exercised no influence whatever on the subsequent development of the drama. Two centuries later we find an example of how Plautus fared at the hands of his poetical imitators. The fact that, like Seneca, Plautus is scarcely ever mentioned among the school-texts of the Middle Ages makes it easier to understand how at the close of the twelfth century Vitalis of Blois came to recast the "Amphitruo" and the "Querulus", a later sequel to the "Aulularia", into satirical epic poems.

That the drama might therefore never have developed in the Middle Ages were it not for the effective stimulus supplied by the ecclesiastical liturgy is quite conceivable. Liturgy began by assuming more solemn forms and finally gave rise to the religious drama which was at first naturally composed in the liturgical Latin language, but subsequently degenerated into a mixture of Latin and the vernacular until it finally assumed an entirely vernacular form. The origin of the drama may be traced to the so-called Easter celebrations which came into life when the strictly ecclesiastical liturgy as developed into a dramatic scene by the introduction of hymns and sequences in a dialogue form. A further step in the development was reached when narration in John, xx, 4 sqq., was translated into action and the Apostles Peter and John were represented as hastening to the tomb of the risen Saviour. This form appears in a Paschal celebration at St. Lambrecht and another at Augsburg, both dating back to the twelfth century. This expansion of the Easter celebration by the introduction of scenes participated in by the Apostles spread from Germany over Holland and Italy, but seems to have found a less sympathetic reception in France. The third and final step in the development of the Easter celebrations was the inclusion of the apparition of the risen Christ. Among others a Nuremberg antiphonary of the thirteenth century contains all three scenes, joined together so as to give unity of action, thus possessing the character of a little drama. Of such Paschal celebrations, which still formed a part of the ecclesiastical liturgy, 224 have been already discovered: 159 in Germany, 52 in France, and the remainder in Italy, Spain, and Holland. The taste for dramatic representations, awakened in the people by the Easter celebrations, was fostered by the clergy, and by bringing out the human side of such characters as Pilate, Judas, the Jews, and the soldiers, a true drama was gradually created.

That the Easter plays were originally composed in Latin is proved by numerous still existing examples, such as those of "Benediktbeuren", "Klosterneuburg", and the "Mystery of Tours "; gradually, however, passages in the vernacular were introduced, and finally this alone was made use of. Passion-plays were first produced in connection with the Easter plays but soon developed into independent dramas, generally in the mother-tongue. As late as 1537 the passion-play "Christus Xylonicus" was written in Latin by Barthélemy de Loches of Orléans. As the Easter plays developed from the Easter celebrations, so Christmas plays developed from the ecclesiastical celebrations at Christmas. In these the preparatory season of Advent also was symbolized in the predictions of the Prophets. Similarly the plays of the Three Kings originated in connection with the Feast of the Epiphany ; there the person of Herod and the Massacre of the Innocents are the materials for a very effective drama. It was but natural that all the plays dealing with the Christmas season should be brought together into a connected whole or cycle, beginning with the play of the Shepherds, continuing in that of the Three Kings, and ending with the Massacre of the Innocents. That this combination of plays actually existed we have abundant manuscript evidence, particularly famous is the Freising cycle.

The transition to the so-called eschatological plays -- the climax of the history of the Redemption -- was easy. Two such plays enjoy a special celebrity, "The Wise and Foolish Virgins ", which appeared in France in the twelfth century, and "The Appearance and Disappearance of Antichrist, written by a German poet about 1160. The latter, which is also entitled "The Roman Emperor of the German Nation and Antichrist ", has also been regarded as an Easter play, because the arrival of Antichrist was expected at Easter. The second title agrees better with the contents of the play. The poet, who must have been a learned scholar, drew his inspiration from the politico-religious constitution of the Roman Empire as it existed in the golden period of Frederick Barbarossa, and from the Crusades. This ambitious play with its minute directions for representation is divided into two main actions -- the realization of a Christian world empire under the German nation, and the doings of Antichrist and his final overthrow by the Kingdom of Christ. The unity and conception of the two parts is indicated by the fact that the nations appearing in the first part suggest to the spectator what will be their attitude toward Antichrist. The drama was intended to convey the impression that the German people alone could fulfil the world-wide office of the Roman Empire and that the Church needed such a protector.

The extension of the ecclesiastical plays by the introduction of purely worldly elements led gradually to the disappearance of spiritual influence, the decay of which may also be gathered from the gradual adoption of the vernacular for these plays. While the first bloom of the neo-Latin drama is thus attributable to the influence of the Church, its second era of prosperity was purely secular in character and began with the labours of the so-called Humanists in Italy, who called into life the literary drama. Numerous as they were, we do not meet with a single genuine dramatist among them; still many sporadic attempts at play-writing were made by them. The pagan classics were naturally adopted as model -- Seneca for tragedy as is shown b the plays of Mussato, Loschi, or Dati, and especially the "Progne" of Corraro. On the other hand Plautus and Terence found more numerous imitators, whose works did not degenerate into ribaldry, as is seen from the attempts of Poggio, Beccadelli, Bruni, Fidelfo, etc. These humanistic attempts attained a measure of success in the school drama. A beginning was made with the production of the ancient dramas in the original text; such productions were introduced into the curriculum of the Liège school of the Hieronomites and they are occasionally mentioned at Vienna, Rostock, and Louvain. A permanent school-stage was erected in Strasburg by the Protestant rector John Stunn, who wished that "all the comedies of Plautus and Terence should be produced if possible, within half a year."

The second step in the development was the imitation of the classical drama, which may be traced to Wimpfeling's "Stylpho"; produced for the first time at Heidelberg in 1470, this play was still produced in 1505, a proof of its great popularity. A glorification and defence of classical studies was found in the comedy of "Codrus" by Kerkmeister, master of the Münster grammar school. The contrast between humanistic studies and medieval methods, which does not come into prominence in Wimpfeling's "Stylpho", forms here the main theme. Into the same category falls a comedy by Bebel, demonstrating the superiority of humanistic culture over medieval learning. Into these plays important current events are introduced, such as the war of Charles VII against Naples, the Turkish peril, the political situation after the Battle of Guinegate (1513), etc. The best-known of these dialogue writers were Jacob Locher, Johann von Kitzcher, and Hetwann Schottenius Hessus.

Another hybrid class of drama was the allegorical festival plays, which were fitted out as show-pieces after the fashion of the Italian mask comedies. A brilliant example of this class is the "Ludus Diana" in which Conrad Celtes (1501) panagyrizes the pre-eminence of the emperor in the chase. Similar to that of the festival plays was the development of the so-called moralities in the Netherlands schools of rhetoric. These represented the strife between the good and the bad principles ( virtus et voluptas ) for the soul of man, e.g., Locher's Spectaculum de judicio Paridis" or the well-known dramatized version of the "Choice of Hercules . Side by side with these semi-dramatic plays proceeded the attempts to follow more closely the ancient dramatic form in the school drama with its varied contents. Reuchlin with his three-act comedy, which treats as subject the wonderful skull of Sergius may be regarded as the real founder of the school drama. With "Henno, his second and still more famous drama, the humanistic comedy became naturalized in Germany. The great master of this art is unquestionably George Macropedius (i.e., Langhveldt) with his three farces "Aluta (1535), Andriska" ( 1537), and "Bassarus" (1540). A further development led to the religious school drama, which generally drew its subject-matter from Holy Writ . To further his own objects Luther had counselled the dramatization of Biblical subjects, and tales from the Bible were thus by free treatment of the incidents made to mirror the conditions of the time while containing occasional satirical sallies. Among the numerous writers of this class must be mentioned before all as the pioneer, the Netherlander Wilhelm Graphäus (Willem van de Voltldergroft), who became a Protestant : his much-discussed Acolastus" (the story of the prodigal son), which follows the Protestant tendency of representing the uselessness of good works and justification by faith alone, was reprinted at least forty-seven times in various countries between 1529 and 1585, frequently translated, and produced everywhere.

This species of drama was cultivated by the Catholics also, who introduced greater variety of subject matter by including lives of the saints. Thus Cornelius Crocus wrote a "St. Joseph in Egypt ", Petrus Papeus "[ Good?] Samaritan ", and George Holonius several martyr-plays. The founder of the school drama in Germany was Sixt Birk (Xistus Betulius): his "Susanna", "Judith", and "Eva" have primarily an educative aim, but are coupled with Protestant tendencies. His example was followed by a fair number of imitators: by George Buchanan (1582), a Scotchman, wrote "Jephthe" and "Baptistes" and the bellicose Naogeorgus treats with still more bitterness the differences between Catholics and Protestants in his "Hamanus", "Jeremias", and "Judas Iscariot". Among the polemical dramatists on the Catholic side Cornelius Laurimanus and Andreas Fabricius must be mentioned.

Although the number of the Biblical school dramas was not small, it was far surpassed by the number of the moralities. As has been said, these originated in the Netherlands and it was the Maastricht priest Christian Ischyrius (Sterck), who freely adapted the famous English morality "Everyman". This is the dramatized and widely circulated Ars moriendi and represents the importance of a good preparation for death. The same subject in a somewhat more detailed form is treated by Macropedius in his "Hecastus" (1538). The conclusion of the drama is an exposition of justification by faith in the merits of Christ. This inclination of the Catholic poet towards Luther's teaching found great applause among Protestants, and fostered the development of polemico-satirical sectarian plays, as Naogeorgus's "Mercator" (1539) shows. The Catholic standpoint also found its exposition in the moralities, for example in the Miles Christianus" of Laurimanus (1575), the "Euripus" of the Minorite Levin Brecht, the Pornius" of Hannardus Gamerius the "Evangelicus fluctuans" (1569) of Andreas Fabricius, who had composed his "Religio patiens" three years earlier in the service of the Counter-Reformation. Still more bitter now grew the polemics in the dramas, which borrowed their material from contemporary history. The most notorious of this class is the "Pamachius" of the pope hater Thomas Naogeorgus, who found many imitators.

Towards the end of the sixteenth century materials derived from ancient popular legends and history first came into greater vogue, and gradually led to the Latin historical drama, of which we find numerous examples at the famous representations given at the Strasburg academy under its founder Sturm. This example found ready imitation, especially wherever the influence of the English comedy-writers had made itself felt. In this way Latin drama enjoyed a period of prosperity everywhere until the seventeenth century. The best known dramatic poet of the latter half of the sixteenth century was the unfortunate Nicodemus Frischlin. Examples of every kind of school drama may be found among his works: "Dido" (1581), "Venus" (1584), and "Helvetiogermani" (1588), owe their subjects to the ancient classical period; "Rebecca" (1576), "Susanna (1577), his incomplete Christianized drama of "Ruth", after the manner of Terence, the "Marriage of Cana ", and a Prologue to Joseph" treat Biblical topics; German legend is represented by Hildegardis" the wife of Charlemagne, whose fate is copied from that of St. Geneviève; of a polemico-satirical nature are Priscianus vapulans (1578), a mockery of medieval Latin, and Phasma (1580), in which the sectarian spirit of the age is scourged. A play of an entirely original character is his Julius redivivus": Cicero and Caesar ascend from the lower world to Germany, and express their wonder at German discoveries (gunpowder, printing). All these attempts at a Latin school drama, in so far as they served educational purposes, were most zealously welcomed in the schools of the regular orders (especially those of the Jesuits ), and cultivated with great success. Thus the purely external side of the dramatic art developed from the crudest of beginnings to the brilliant settings of the so-called ludi caesarii . With the suppression of the Society of Jesus the school drama came to a rapid end, and no serious attempt has been since made to revive it and restore it to its former position. However from time to time new plays have been produced both in Europe and America, and the " St. John Damascene ", written by Father Harzheim of the Society of Jesus is worthy to take its place among the best productions of the Jesuit dramatists.

B. Latin Lyrical Poetry

This division of Latin poetry falls naturally into two classes: secular and religious. The former includes the poems of itinerant scholars and the Humanists, the latter hymnody. The development of vagrant scholars ( clerici vagi ) is connected with the foundation of the universities, as students wandered about to visit these newly founded institutions of learning. From the middle of the twelfth century imperial privileges protected these traveling scholars. The majority intended to devote themselves to theology, but comparatively few reached orders. The remainder found their callings as amanuenses or tutors in noble families, or degenerated into loose-living goliards or into wandering scholars who became a veritable plague during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. as they wandered, begging, from place to place, demanded hospitality in monasteries and castles and like the wandering minstrels paid with their songs, jugglery, buffoonery, and tales. Proud of their scholarly attainments, they used Latin in their poetical compositions. and thus arose a special literature, the goliardic poetry. Of this two great collections are still extant, the "Benediktbeuren" collection and the so-called Harleian manuscript (no. 978) at Cambridge. The arrangement of "Carmina burana", as the first publisher, Schmeller, named them, was upon a uniform plan, according to which they were divided into serious comic, and dramatic pieces. Songs celebrate the spring and the winter, in which sentiments of love also find expression, follow one another in great variety. Together with these are pious hymns of enthusiasm for the Crusades or of praise for the Blessed Virgin. We also find the most riotous drinking-songs, often of a loose, erotic nature, nor are diatribes of a satirical nature wanting: these soured and dissolute, though educated, tramps delighted especially in lampoons against the pope, bishops. and nobles, inveighing with bitter sarcasm against the avarice, ambition and incontinence of the clergy. In this Professor Schönbach sees the influence of the Catharists.

Concerning the composers of this extensive literature nothing can be stated with certainty. The poems were in a certain sense regarded as folk-songs, that is as common property and international in the full sense of the word. Some representative poets are indeed mentioned, e.g., Golias, Primas, Archipoeta, but these are merely assumed names. Particularly famous among the poems is the "Confessio Goliae" which was referred to the Archipoeta, and may be regarded as the prototype of the goliardic songs: strophes 12-17 ( Meum est propositam in taberna mori ) are even today sung as a drinking-song in German student circles. The identity of the Archipoeta has been the subject of much investigation, but so far without success. Paris was an important centre of these itinerant poets, particularly in the time of Abelard (1079-1142), and it was probably thence that they derived the name of goliards, Abelard having been called Golias by St. Bernard. From Paris their poetry passed to England and Germany, but in Italy it found little favour. At a later period, when the goliardic songs had become known everywhere, the origin of their title appears to have grown obscure, and thus emerged a Bishop Golias -- a name referred to the Latin gula -- to whom a parody on the Apocalypse and biting satires on the pope were ascribed. There even appeared poets as filius or puer or discipulus de familia Goliae , and frequent mention is made of a goliardic order with the titles of abbot, prior, etc. Apart from their satirical attitude towards ecclesiastical life, the goliards showed their free and at times heretical views in their parodies of religious hymns, their irreverence in adapting ecclesiastical melodies to secular texts. and their use of metaphors and expressions from church hymns in their loose verses.

In outward form the poetry of the goliards resembled the ecclesiastical sequences, rhyme being combined with an easily sung rhythm and the verses being joined into strophes. Singularly rapid in its development, its decay was no less sudden. The cause of its decline is traceable partly to the conditions of the time and partly to the character of the goliardic poets. In a burlesque edict of 1265 the goliards were compared to bats -- neither quadrupeds nor birds. This was indeed a not inapt comparison, for their unfortunate begging rendered them odious to clergy and laity alike. Forgetting their higher educational parts, they found it necessary to ally themselves more and more closely with the strolling players and thus became subject to the ecclesiastical censures repeatedly decreed by synods and councils against these wandering musicians. Thus, regarded virtually as outlaws, they are heard of no more in France after the thirteenth century, although then are referred to in the synods of Germany until the following century. Together with the poets gradually disappeared their songs, and only a few are preserved in the Kommersbücher of the student world. Yet the influence of their poetry on the secular German lyric, and perhaps also on the outer form of religious poetry, was both stimulating and permanent. In this fact lies their principal literary importance and they are valuable as illustrations of the literary culture of the time.

Quite distinct in subject and form is the lyric poetry of the humanistic period, the era of the revival of classical learning. The work of a few scattered poets, it could not attain the popularity won by the goliardic poetry, even had its form not been exclusively imitation of ancient classical versification. From the beginning of the sixteenth century the Catholic humanist, Vida, had been engaged among other works on the composition of odes, elegies, and hymns : he belonged to the poetae urbani of the Medici period of Leo X, many of whom wrote lyrical, in addition to their epical, pieces. Johannes Dantiscus, who died in 1548 as Bishop of Ermland, composed thirty religious hymns after the fashion of the older ones in the Breviary, without any trace of classical imitation. Even the renowned Nicolaus Copernicus composed seven odes embodying the beautiful Christian truths associated with Advent and Christmas. Among the Humanists of France, John Salmon (Salmonius Macrinus) was named the French Horace, and among the numerous other names those of Erixius with his "Carmina" (1519) and Théodore de Bèze with his "Poemata" (1548) deserve special mention. In Belgium and the Netherlands Johannes Secundus (Jan Nicolai Everaerts, d. 1536) was conspicuous as a classical poet. From Holland Latin poetry found an entrance also into the Northern Empire under the patronage of Queen Christina, while even Iceland had its representative in the Protestant Bishop Sveinsson (1605-74), who among other works published a rich collection of poems to the Blessed Virgin in the most varied ancient classical metres.

As in the domain of drama, so also in that of lyrical poetry, Humanism showed itself most fruitful in Germany, particularly in connection with the dissemination of the new doctrine of Luther. "Thus among the neo-Latinist poets we meet a large number of preachers, school-rectors, university and grammar school professors who translated the Psalms into Horatian metres, converted ecclesiastical and edifying songs of every type into the most divine ancient strophes, and finally, an immeasurable number of occasional poems, celebrated in verse princes and potentates, religious and secular festivals, the consecration of churches, christenings, marriage, interments, installations, occasions of public rejoicing and calamity" (Baumgartner). The Jesuits were as distinguished for their fruitful activity in the field of lyrical poetry as in the school drama. With Sarbiewski, the Polish Horace, were associated by Urban VIII for the revision of the old hymn in the Breviary Famian Strada, Tarquinius Galuzzi, Hieronymus Petrucci and Cardinal Robert Bellarmine. In addition to Balde there were among the German Jesuit poets a notable number of lyricists. Of the many names we may mention Jacob Masen, Nicola Avancini, Adam Widl, and John Bissel, who must be numbered among the best-known imitators of Horace. In the Netherlands, France, Italy, England, Portugal and Spain, their number was not smaller, nor their achievements of less value. For example the Dutch Hosschius ( de Hossche, 1596-1669) excels both Balde and Sarbiewski in purity of language and smoothness of verse. Simon Rettenbacher (163-1706), the Benedictine imitator of Balde, whose lyrics show a true poetic gift, also deserves a place among the neo-Latinist writers of odes. The nineteenth century added but one name to the list of Latin lyricists, that of Leo XIII, whose poems evince an intimate knowledge of ancient classical literature. The other trend of neo-Latinist lyric poetry embraces religious hymnody. "The whole career of ecclesiastical and devotional hymnody from its cradle to the present day may be divided into three natural periods, of which the first is the most important, the second the longest and the third the most insignificant." Such is the division of Latin ecclesiastical hymnody given by the greatest authority, the late Father Guido Dreves formerly a member of the Society of Jesus.

C. The neo-Latin Epic

The epic forms, as is natural, the largest part of our inheritance of Christian Latin poetry. As a lucid treatment according to any regular division of the subject-matter is difficult, we shall content ourselves with a chronological sketch of it. The foundation of the Benedictine Order was in every respect an event of prime importance. The Benedictines advanced the interests of culture, not only to supply the needs of life, but also to embellish it. Thus among the earliest companions of St. Benedict we already find a poet, Marcus of Monte Cassino, who in his distich sang the praises of the deceased founder of his order. During the sixth century, while the foundations of a rich literature were being thus laid the culture formerly so flourishing in Northern Africa had almost died out. The imperial governor, Flavius Cresconius Corippus, and Bishop Verecundus were still regarded as poets of some merit : but the former lacked poetic inspiration, the latter, poetic form. Among the Visigoths in Spain, however, we find true poets, e.g., St. Eugenius II with his version of the Hexaemeron. In Gaul in the sixth century flourished the most celebrated poet of his age, Venantius Fortunatus. Most original is his "Epithalamium" on the marriage of Sigebert I of Austrasia to the Visigothic princess Brunehaut, Christian thought being clothed in ancient mythological forms. About 250 more or less extensive poems of Venantius are extant, including a "Life of St. Martin" in more than two thousand hexameter verses. Most of his composition are occasional poems. In addition to his well-known hymns "Vexilla regis" and "Pange lingua", his elegies treating of the tragical fate of the family of Radegundis found the greatest appreciation. About the same period there sprang up in the British Isles a rich harvest of Latin culture One of the most eminent poets is St. Aldhelm, a scion of the royal house of Wessex: his great work "De laudibus virginum", containing 3000 verses, attained a wide renown which it long enjoyed. The Venerable Bede also cultivated Latin poetry, writing a eulogy of St. Cuthbert in 976 hexameters.

Ireland transmitted the true Faith, together with higher culture, to Germany. The earliest pioneers were Saints Columbanus and Gall: the former is credited with some poems, the latter founded Saint-Gall. The real apostle of Germany, St. Boniface , left behind some hundreds of didactic verses. The seeds sown by this saint flourished and spread under the energetic Charlemagne, who succeeded without neglecting his extensive affairs of state, in making his Court a Round Table of Science and Art, at which Latin was the colloquial speech. The soul of this learned circle was Alcuin, who showed his knowledge of classical antiquity in two great epic poems, the "Life of St. Willibrord " and the history of his native York. In command of language and skill of versification as well as in the number of poems transmitted to posterity, Theodulf the Goth surpassed all members of the Round Table. Movements similar to that at Charlemagne's Court are observed in the contemporary monastic schools of Fulda, Reichenau, and Saint-Gall. It will suffice to mention a few of the chief names from the multitude of poets. Walafrid Strabo's "De visionibus Wettini", containing about 1000 hexameters, is justly regarded as the precursor of Dante's "Divine Comedy". His verses on the equestrian statue of Theodoric, "Versus de imagine tetrici", are of literary importance, because he represents the king as a tyrant hating God and man. Highly interesting also for the art of gardening is his great poem "Hortulus", in which he describes the monastery garden with its various herbs, etc. Contemporary with Walafrid and characterized by the same spirit were the poets Ernoldas, Nigellus, Ermenrich, Sedulius Scottus, etc. As a "real gem from the treasury of old manuscripts " F. Rückert describes the elegy on Hathumod, the first Abbess of Gandersheim written by the Benedictine Father Agius. From the same monk of Corwey we have the poem "On the translation of St. Liborius" and a poetical biography of Charlemagne. A peculiar work was written by Albert Odo of Cluny under the title "Occupatio": it is an epico-didactic poem against pride and debauchery, which he demonstrates to be the chief vices in the history of the world.

The golden age of Saint-Gall begins with the end of the ninth century, after which opens the epoch of the four famous Notkers and the five not less renowned Ekkehards. The first Ekkehard is the author of the well-known "Waltharius" which Ekkehard IV revised. About the time when the "Waltharius" was revised, there appeared another epic poem "Ruodlieb" -- a romance in Latin hexameters by an unknown author, describing the adventurous fate of the hero -- which is unfortunately only partly extant. The name of the poet who in 1175 composed in Latin hexameters the first "animal" epic, "Ecbasis cuius dam captivi per tropologiam", is also unknown. The frame-work of the poem is the story of a monk mho runs away from the monastery but is brought back again under the form of a calf. The "Fable of the Bees" forms the "animal" epic in which the enmity of the wolf and fox is the central point. In the twelfth century this "animal" epic received an extension probably from Magister Nivardus of Flanders under the title "Ysengrimus" or "Renardus vulpes": from the poem thus extended an extract was made later and this is the last product of the animal" epic in the thirteenth century. Like Charlemagne Otto the Great (936-73) sought to make his Court the centre of science, art, and literature. The most brilliant representative of this period is the nun Hroswitha, pupil of the emperor's niece Gerberga. It was in the epic that she achieved her first poetic successes: these were her well-known "Legends", which were followed by two long epic poems in praise of the imperial house (see HROSWITHA) .

The chroniclers and historians of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries but seldom use verse in their narratives, their stories being intended above all else for strictly historical purposes. Histories in verse however, were not wanting. Thus Flodoard records in legendary fashion almost the whole ecclesiastical history of the first ten centuries. Walter of Speyer wrote during the same period the first Legend of St. Christopher ", and an unknown poet composed "The Epic of the Saxon War" (of Henry IV ). Other poets wrote on the Crusades, Walter of Châtillon even ventured on an "Alexandreis", while Hildebert produced a "Historia Mahumetis" in verse.

The Humanists of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries are characterized by a closer approach to ancient classical form. Marbod (d. 1123) was a scholarly poet, and left behind a considerable number of legends and didactic aphorisms. His younger contemporary Hildebert of Tours also wrote a fair number of religious poems: more important are the two "Roman Elegies", in which he treats of the remains of ancient Rome and the sufferings of the papal capital under Paschal II. Most artistic in its conception and execution, is his fragment "Liber mathematicus", in which the tragical complications caused by the superstitious fear arising from an unfavourable horoscope are depicted. That the medieval Scholastics could combine theological knowledge with humanistic culture may be seen from the works of the two scholars John of Salisbury and Alanus de Insulis. That the influence of this humanistic culture was unfortunately not always for good, the notorious prurient narratives of Matthew of Vendôme prove. In the days of the goliards there were also poets who depicted in verse contemporary events. Thus the achievements of Barbarossa were sung by no less than three poets.

Humanism attained its full bloom in the era of the Renaissance, which began in Italy. Dante gives strong evidence of this movement, as does even more strongly Francesco Petrarch, whose epic "Africa" enjoyed wide renown. Giovanni Boccaccio , a contemporary of the preceding, belongs rather to Italian literature, although he also cultivated Latin poetry. The humanistic movement found favourable reception and encouragement everywhere. In Florence there sprang up about the Augustinian monk, Luigi Marsigli (d. 1394), a kind of literary academy for the cultivation of ancient literature while in the following century the city of the Medici developed into the literary centre of all Italy. Most representatives of the new movement preserved their close connection with the Church, although a few isolated forerunners of the great revolt of the sixteenth century already made their appearance. The seeds of this religious revolution were sown by the lampoons and libidinous poems of such men as Poggio Bracciolini, Antonio Beccadelli and Lorenzo Valla. Maffeo Vegio on the other hand followed the purely humanistic direction of the true Renaissance ; he added a thirteenth book to Virgil's "Aeneid", making the poem conclude with the death of Aeneas. He also composed poetic versions of the "Death of Astyanax" and "The Golden Fleece", and still later composed a "Life of St. Anthony. An epic eulogizing the elder Hunyadi was begun by the Hungarian Janus Pannonius, but unfortunately left unfinished. A legendary poem of an entirely original character is the "Josephina", written in twelve cantos by John Gerson, the learned chancellor of the University of Paris . It reminds us of a similar poem by Hroswitha, though the apocryphal narratives taken from the so-called Gospel of St. James are marked by greater depth. Humanism was planted in Germany by Petrarch during his residence there as ambassador to Charles IV, with whom he corresponded after his departure. The interest in humanistic studies was also spread by Aeneas Silvius at the Council of Basle.

As in Italy, the movement rapidly developed everywhere, evincing at first a religious tendency but afterwards becoming hostile to the Church. In the century preceding the "Reformation", indeed, the foremost representatives of Humanism remained true to the ancient Faith. Conrad Celtes, although his four Books of "Amores" are a reflection of his dissolute life sang later of Catholic truths and the lives of the saints. Similarly Willibald Pirkheimer (d. 1528) among many others, notwithstanding his satire "Eccius desolatus", remained faithful to the Church. On the other hand Esoban Hessus, Crotus Rubeanus , and above all Ulrich von Hutten espoused the cause of the new doctrine in their highly satirical writings. A somewhat protean character was displayed by Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, whose early works include hymns to Christ and the Virgin Mary. "Laus stultitia", a satire on all the estates after the fashion of Brant's "Narrenschiff", was written in seven day to cheer his sick friend, Thomas More. In England especially at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the humanistic movement developed along the same lines as in Germany. The first direction was given to the movement mainly by Thomas More, whose "Utopia" (1515) is world renowned. In Italy the Renaissance movement continued into the sixteenth century. Sadolet's poem on "The Laocoon Group" is known throughout the literary world, while his epic on the heroic death of Caius Curtius is equally finished. Not less famous is Vida's "Christiad": he also wrote didactic poems on "Silk-worms" and "Chess". Among the more important works of this period must also be included Jacopo Sannazaro with his classically finished epic "De partu Virginis", at which he laboured for twenty years. His Naenia" on the death of Christ also merits every praise. The example of Vida and Sannazaro spurred numerous other poets to undertake extensive epical works, of which none attained the excellence of their models.

In other countries also the new literary movement continued, although it produced richer fruit in the field of dramatic and lyric poetry than in epic poetry. The singular attempt of Laurenz Rhodomannus to compose a "Legend of Luther" in opposition to the Catholic legend deserves mention on account of its peculiarity. Among the works of the dramatists we also meet with more or less ambitious attempts at epic verse. This is especially true of the dramatists of the Society of Jesus. J. Masen's "Sarcotis", for example enjoys a certain fame as the proto-type of Milton's "Paradise Lost" and Vondel's "Lucifer". Biedermann and Avancini also composed small epic narratives. Balde produced many epical works, his "Batrachomyomachia" is an allegorical treatment of the Thirty Years' War , and his "Obsequies of Tilly" bring to light many interesting particulars concerning the great general. He also celebrated in verse the heroic death of Dampierre and Bouquois. Not least among his works is his "Urania Victrix". But, instead of accumulating further names, let us bring forward just a few of the more important poems: the "Puer Jesus" of Tommaso Ceva must be placed in the front rank of idyllic compositions; the "Life of Mary" (2086 distichs) of the Brazilian missionary, Venerable Joseph de Anchieta, is a model for similar works. During the nineteenth century the Latin epic more or less centred around the endowment of the rich native of Amsterdam, Jacob Henry Hoeufft, who founded a competitive prize for Latin poetry. Peter Esseiva, a Swiss, is the best-known prize winner: he celebrated in beautiful classical verse and brilliant Latin such modern inventions as the railroad, etc., and also treated strictly religious and light topics (e.g., in "The Flood", "The Grievances of an Old Maid") . Leo XIII was the last writer who wrote short epical poems in addition to his odes. Baumgartner, the author of "Weltliteratur", assigns to Latin Christian poetry the well-merited praise: "It still contains creative suggestions and offers the noblest of intellectual enjoyment."

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Lérida

(ILERDENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Tarragona. La Canal says it was erected in 600, but ...

Lérins, Abbey of

Situated on an island of the same name, now known as that of Saint-Honorat, about a league from ...

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Lübeck

Lübeck, a free imperial state and one of the Hanse towns, is in area the second smallest and ...

Lütolf, Aloys

An ecclesiastical historian, born 23 July, 1824, in Gettnau near Willisau (Switzerland); died at ...

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L'Enfant, Pierre-Charles

Engineer, b. in France, August, 1755; d. near Bladensburg, Maryland, U.S.A. 14 June, 1825. He ...

L'Hospital, Michael de

Born at Aigueperse, about 1504; d. at Courdimanche, 13 March, 1573. While very young he went to ...

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La Bruyère, Jean de

Born at Paris in 1645; died at Chantilly in 1696. He was the son of a comptroller general of ...

La Chaise, François d'Aix de

( Also Chaize). Confessor of King Louis XIV, born at the mansion of Aix, in Forez, ...

La Crosse

(CROSSENSIS) Diocese erected in 1868; included that part of the State of Wisconsin , U.S.A. ...

La Fayette, Marie Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, Comtesse de

Author of memoirs and novels, born in Paris, 1634; died there, 1693 (al., 1696). She received a ...

La Fontaine, Jean de

French poet, b. at Chateau-Thierry, 8 July, 1621; d. at Paris, 13 April, 1695. He was the eldest ...

La Fosse, Charles de

Painter, b. in Paris, 15 June, 1636; d. in Paris, 13 December, 1716, and buried in the church of ...

La Harpe, Jean-François

A French critic and poet, b. at Paris, 20 November, 1739; d. February, 1803. He was ten years old ...

La Haye, Jean de

Franciscan Biblical scholar, b. at Paris, 20 March, 1593; d. there 15 Oct., 1661. He passed his ...

La Hire, Philippe de

Mathematician, astronomer, physicist, naturalist, and painter, b. in Paris, 18 March, 1640; d. ...

La Luzerne, César-Guillaume

French cardinal b. at Paris, 1738; d. there, 1821. He studied at the Collège de Navarre, ...

La Moricière, Louis-Christophe-Leon Juchault de

French general and commander-in-chief of the papal army, b. at Nantes, 5 February, 1806; d. ...

La Paz

DIOCESE OF LA PAZ (PACENSIS). Diocese of La Paz, in Bolivia. The city is the capital of the ...

La Plata

DIOCESE OF LA PLATA (DE PLATA). The city of La Plata, capital of the Argentine Province of ...

La Plata

ARCHDIOCESE OF LA PLATA/DE PLATA (OR CHARCAS) La Plata, besides being the metropolitan see of ...

La Richardie, Armand de

Born at Périgueux, 7 June, 1686; died at Quebec, 17 March, 1758. He entered the Society ...

La Roche Daillon, Joseph de

Recollect, one of the most zealous missionaries of the Huron tribe, d. in France, 1656. He ...

La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, The Duke of

(François-Alexandre-Frédéric). Born at La Roche-Guyon, on 11 January, 1747; ...

La Rochejacquelein, Henri-Auguste-Georges du Vergier, Comte de

French politician, b. at the château of Citran (Fironde), on 28 September, 1805; d. on 7 ...

La Rochelle

The Diocese of La Rochelle (Rupellensis), suffragan of Bordeaux, comprises the entire Department ...

La Rue, Charles de

One of the great orators of the Society of Jesus in France in the seventeenth century, b. at ...

La Salette

Located in the commune and parish of La Salette-Fallavaux, Canton of Corps, Department of Isere, ...

La Salette, Missionaries of

The Missionaries of La Salette were founded in 1852, at the shrine of Our Lady of La Salette , ...

La Salle, John Baptist de, Saint

Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools , educational reformer, and ...

La Salle, René-Robert-Cavelier, Sieur de

Explorer, born at Rouen, 1643; died in Texas, 1687. In his youth he displayed an unusual ...

La Serena, Diocese of

(De Serena, Serenopolitana). Embracing Atacama and Coquimbo provinces (Chile), suffragan of ...

La Trappe

This celebrated abbey of the Order of Reformed Cistercians is built in a solitary valley ...

La Valette, Jean Parisot de

Forty-eighth Grand Master of the Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem ; b. in 1494; d. ...

La Verna

An isolated mountain hallowed by association with St. Francis of Assisi, situated in the centre ...

Labadists

A pietist sect of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries founded by Jean de Labadie, who was ...

Laban

Son of Bathuel, the Syrian (Gen. xxviii, 5; cf. xxv, 20); grandson of Nachor, Abraham's ...

Labarum (Chi-Rho)

Labarum is the name by which the military standard adopted by Constantine the Great after his ...

Labat, Jean-Baptiste

Dominican missionary, born at Paris, 1664; died there, 1738. He entered the Order of Preachers ...

Labbe, Philippe

Born at Borges, 10 July, 1607; died at Paris, at the College of Clermont, 17 (16) March, 1667; ...

Labour and Labour Legislation

Labour is work done by mind or body either partly or wholly for the purpose of producing ...

Labour Unions, Moral Aspects of

Since a labour union is a society, its moral aspects are determined by its constitution, its ...

Labyrinth

A complicated arrangement of paths and passages; or a place, usually subterraneous, full of ...

Lac, Stanislaus du

Jesuit educationist and social work, b. at Paris, 21 November, 1835; d. there, 30 August, 1909. ...

Lace

(Latin laqueus ; It. laccio, trine, merletto ; Spanish lazo, encaje, pasamano ; French ...

Lacedonia, Diocese of

(LAQUEDONIENSIS) Located in the province of Avellino, Southern Italy. Lacedonia is famous in ...

Lacordaire, Jean-Baptiste-Henri-Dominique

The greatest pulpit orator of the nineteenth century b. near Dijon, 13 May, 1802; d. at ...

Lactantius, Lucius Cæcilius Firmianus

A Christian apologist of the fourth century. The name Firmianus has misled some authors into ...

Lacy, Blessed William

Born at "Hanton", Yorkshire (probably Houghton or Tosside, West Riding); suffered at York, 22 ...

Laderchi, James

An Italian Oratorian and ecclesiastical historian, born about 1678, at Faenza near Ravenna ; ...

Ladislaus, Saint

King of Hungary, born 1040; died at Neutra, 29 July, 1095; one of Hungary's national Christian ...

Laennec, René-Théophile-Hyacinthe

Born at Quimper, in Brittany, France, 17 February, 1781; died at Kerlouanec, 13 August, 1826, a ...

Laetare Sunday

The fourth, or middle, Sunday of Lent, so called from the first words of the Introit at Mass, ...

Laetus, Pomponius

Humanist, b. in Calabria in 1425; d. at Rome in 1497. He was a bastard of the House of the ...

LaFarge, John

Painter, decorator, and writer, b. at New York, 31 March, 1835; d. at Providence, Rhode Island, ...

Lafitau, Joseph-Françs

Jesuit missionary and writer, born at Bordeaux, France, 1 January, 1681; died there, 1746. He ...

Laflèche, Louis-François Richer

French-Canadian bishop, b. 4 Sept., 1818, at Ste-Anne de la Perade, Province of Quebec ; d. 14 ...

Laforêt, Nicholas-Joseph

Belgian philosopher and theologian, born at Graide, 23 January, 1823; died at Louvain, 26 ...

Lafuente y Zamalloa, Modesto

Spanish critic and historian, b. at Ravanal de los Caballeros, 1 May, 1806; d. at Madrid, 25 ...

Lagania

A titular see in Galatia Prima. The town is mentioned by Ptolemy, V, i, 14, and in several ...

Lagrené, Pierre

A missionary in New France, b. at Paris, 12 Nov. (al. 28 Oct.), 1659; d. at Quebec in 1736. He ...

Lahore

(LAHLORENSIS). Diocese in northern India, part of the ecclesiastical Province of Agra. Its ...

Laibach

(LABACENSIS). Austrian bishopric and suffragan of Görz, embraces the territory of the ...

Laicization

( Latin laicus , lay). The term laity signifies the aggregation of those Christians who ...

Lainez, James

(LAYNEZ). Second general of the Society of Jesus , theologian, b. in 1512, at Almazan, ...

Laity

(Greek laos , "the people"; whence laikos , "one of the people"). Laity means the body ...

Lake Indians

Called by themselves S ENIJEXTEE and possibly identical with the L AHANNA of Lewis and Clark ...

Lalemant, Charles

Born at Paris, 17 November, 1587; died there, 18 November, 1674. He was the first superior of ...

Lalemant, Gabriel

Jesuit missionary, b. at Paris, 10 October, 1610, d. in the Huron country, 17 March 1649. He was ...

Lalemant, Jerome

Alias H IEROSME . Jesuit missionary, b. at Paris, 27 April, 1593, d. at Quebec, 16 ...

Lallemant, Jacques-Philippe

French Jesuit, b. at St-Valéry-sur-Somme about 1660; d. at Paris 1748. Little is known ...

Lallemant, Louis

French Jesuit, b. at Châlons-sur-Marne, 1588; d. at Bourges, 5 April, 1635. After making ...

Lalor, Teresa

Co-foundress, with Bishop Neale of Baltimore, of the Visitation Order in the United States ...

Lamarck, Chevalier de

(Jean-Baptiste-Pierre-Antoine de Monet; also spelled L A M ARCK ; botanical abbreviation ...

Lamartine, Alphonse de

Poet, b. at Mâcon Saône-et-Loire, France, 21 Oct., 1790; d. at Paris, l March, ...

Lamb (in Early Christian Symbolism)

One of the few Christian symbols dating from the first century is that of the Good Shepherd ...

Lamb, Paschal

A lamb which the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as a part of the ...

Lambeck, Peter

Generally called LAMBEC[C]IUS, historian and librarian, b. at Hamburg, 13 April 1628; d. at Vienna, ...

Lambert Le Bègue

Priest and reformer, lived at Liège, Belgium, about the middle of the twelfth century. ...

Lambert of Hersfeld

A medieval historian; b. in Franconia or Thuringia, c. 1024; d. after 1077. On 15 March 1058, ...

Lambert of St-Bertin

Benedictine chronicler and abbot, b. about 1060; d. 22 June, 1125, at St-Bertin, France. He came ...

Lambert, Louis A.

Priest and journalist, b. at Charleroi, Pennsylvania, 13 April, 1835; d. at Newfoundland, New ...

Lambert, Saint

(LANDEBERTUS). Martyr, Bishop of Maestricht, b. at Maestricht between 633 and 638; d. at ...

Lamberville, Jacques and Jean de

Jacques de Lamberville Jesuit missionary, b. at Rouen, 1641; d. at Quebec, 1710. He joined the ...

Lambillotte, Louis

Belgian Jesuit, composer and paleographer of Church music ; born at La Hamaide, near Charleroi, ...

Lambin, Denis

(DIONYSIUS LAMBINUS.) French philologist, b. about 1520, at Montreuil-sur-mer, in Picardy; d. ...

Lambruschini, Luigi

Cardinal, b. at Sestri Levante, near Genoa, 6 March, 1776, d. at Rome, 12 May, 1854. As a youth ...

Lambton, Ven. Joseph

English martyr, b. 1569; d. at Newcastle-on-Tyne. The day of his death is variously given as 23 ...

Lamego

(LAMECENSIS). Diocese situated in the district of Vizeu, province of Beira, Portugal. The ...

Lamennais, Félicité Robert de

Born at Saint-Malo, 29 June, 1782; died at Paris, 27 February, 1854. His father, Pierre Robert de ...

Lamennais, Jean-Marie-Robert de

French priest, brother of Félicité Robert de Lamennais, b. at St-Malo in 1780; d. ...

Lamoignon, Family of

Illustrious in the history of the old magistracy, originally from Nivernais. Owing to the nearness ...

Lamont, Johann von

Astronomer and physicist, b. 13 Dec., 1805, at Braemar in Scotland, near Balmoral Castle; d.. 6 ...

Lamormaini, Wilhelm

Confessor of Emperor Ferdinand II, b. 29 December, 1570, at Dochamps, Luxemburg ; d. at ...

Lamp and Lampadarii

There is very little evidence that any strictly liturgical use was made of lamps in the early ...

Lamp, Altar

In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should ...

Lampa

(LAMPAE, LAPPA). A titular see in Crete, suffragan of Gortyna, was probably a colony of ...

Lamprecht

Surnamed D ER P FAFFE (The Priest). German poet of the twelfth century, of whom practically ...

Lamps, Early Christian

Of the various classes of remains from Christian antiquity there is probably none so numerously ...

Lampsacus

A titular see of Hellespont, suffragan of Cyzicus. The city is situated in Mysia, at the ...

Lamuel

Name of a king mentioned in Proverbs 31:1 and 4 , but otherwise unknown. In the opening verse we ...

Lamus

A titular see of Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia. In antiquity this village is mentioned by ...

Lamy, Bernard

Oratorian, b. at Le Mans, France, in June, 1640; d. at Rouen, 29 Jan., 1715. At the age of twelve ...

Lamy, François

An ascetical and apologetic writer of the Congregation of St-Maur, b. in 1636 at Montireau in ...

Lamy, Thomas Joseph

Biblical scholar end orientalist, b. at Ohey, in Belgium, 27 Jan., 1827, d. at Louvain, 30 July, ...

Lana, Francesco

Born 10 Dec., 1631, at Brescia in Italy ; died in the same place, 22 Feb., 1687. Mathematician ...

Lance, The Holy

We read in the Gospel of St. John (19:34) , that, after our Saviour's death, "one of the ...

Lancelotti, Giovanni Paolo

Canonist, b. at Perugia in 1522; d. there, 23 September, 1590. He graduated doctor of law in ...

Lanciano and Ortona

(LANCIANENSIS ET ORTONENSIS). Lanciano is a small city in the province of Chieti, in the ...

Land-Tenure in the Christian Era

The way in which land has been held or owned during the nineteen hundred years which have seen in ...

Lando, Pope

(913-14). A native of the Sabina, and the son of Taino, elected pope seemingly in July or ...

Landriot, Jean-François-Anne

French bishop, b. at Couches-les-Mines near Autun, 1816, d. at Reims, 1874. Ordained in 1839 ...

Lanfranc

Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Pavia c. 1005; d. at Canterbury, 24 May, 1089. Some say his ...

Lanfranco, Giovanni

Also known as CAVALIERE GIOVANNI DI STEFANO. Decorative painter, b. at Parma, 1581, d. in ...

Langénieux, Benoit-Marie

Cardinal, Archbishop of Reims, b. at Villefranche-sur-Saône, Department of Rhône, ...

Lang, Matthew

Cardinal, Bishop of Gurk and Archbishop of Salzburg, b. at Augsburg in 1468; d. at ...

Langen, Rudolph von

Humanist and divine, b. at the village of Everswinkel, near Munster, Westphalia, 1438 or 1439; ...

Langham, Simon

Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of England, b. at Langham in Rutland; d. at ...

Langheim

A celebrated Cistercian abbey situated in Upper Franconia (Bavaria), not far from Mein, in the ...

Langhorne, Ven. Richard

English martyr, b. about 1635, d. at Tyburn, 14 July, 1679. He was the third son of William ...

Langley, Richard

Layman and martyr, b. probably at Grimthorpe, Yorks, England, date unknown; d. at York, 1 Dec., ...

Langres

(LINGONÆ). Diocese comprising the Department of the Haute-Marne. Suppressed by the ...

Lanigan, John

Church historian, b. at Cashel, County Tipperary, Ireland, in 1758; d. at Finglas, Dublin, 8 ...

Lanspergius

(JOHN JUSTUS OF LANDSBERG). Carthusian monk and ascetical writer, b. at Landsberg in Bavaria ...

Lantern

In Italian or modern architecture, a small structure on the top of a dome, for the purpose of ...

Lanterns, Altar

Lanterns are used in churches to protect the altar candles and lamp, if the latter for any ...

Lanzi, Luigi

An Italian archeologist, b. at Mont Olmo, near Macerata, in 1732; d. at Florence in 1810. In ...

Laodicea

A titular see, of Asia Minor, metropolis of Phrygia Pacatiana, said to have been originally ...

Laos

(Vicariate Apostolic) Separated from the Vicariate Apostolic of Siam by a decree of 4 ...

Laplace, Pierre-Simon

Mathematical and physical astronomer, b. in Beaumont-en-Auge, near Caen, department of Calvados, ...

Lapland and Lapps

About 150,000 square miles of the most northerly regions of Europe, from the Atlantic Ocean to the ...

Lapparent, Albert Auguste de

French geologist, b. at Bourges, 30 Dec., 1839; d. at Paris, 12 May, 1908. He made a brilliant ...

Laprade, Victor de

French poet and critic, b. at Montbrison in 1812; d. at Lyons in 1883. He first studied ...

Lapsi

( Latin, labi, lapsus ). The regular designation in the third century for Christians who ...

Lapuente, Venerable Luis de

(Also, D'Aponte, de Ponte, Dupont). Born at Valladolid, 11 November, 1554; died there, 16 ...

Laranda

A titular see of Isauria, afterwards of Lycaonia. Strabo (XII, 569), informs us that Laranda ...

Lares

Formerly a titular archiepiscopal see in pro-consular Africa. In ancient times it was a ...

Larino

(Larinum). Diocese in the province of Capmobasso, Southern Italy. Larinum was a city of the ...

Larissa

The seat of a titular archbishopric of Thessaly. The city, one of the oldest and richest in ...

Larke, Blessed John

English martyr ; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1543-4. He was rector of St. Ethelburga's ...

Larrey, Dominique-Jean

Baron, French military surgeon, b. at Baudéan, Hautes-Pyrénées, July, 1766; ...

Larrey, Dominique-Jean

Baron, French military surgeon, b. at Baudéan, Hautes-Pyrénées, July, 1766; ...

Larue, Charles de

Born 29 July, 1685 (some say 12 July, 1684), at Corbie, in France ; died 5 Oct., 1739, at St. ...

Lasaulx, Ernst von

Scholar and philosopher, born at Coblenz, 16 March, 1805; died at Munich, 9 May, 1861. His ...

Lascaris, Constantine

Greek scholar from Constantinople; born 1434; died at Messina in 1501. Made a prisoner by the ...

Lascaris, Janus

Also called John; surnamed Rhyndacenus (from Rhyndacus, a country town in Asia Minor ). He ...

Laski, John

J OHN A L ASCO . Archbishop of Gnesen and Primate of Poland, b. at Lask, 1456; d. at ...

Lassberg, Baron Joseph Maria Christoph von

A distinguished German antiquary, born at Donaueschingen, 10 April, 1770; died 15 March, 1855. He ...

Lassus, Orlandus de

(Original name, Roland de Lattre), composer, born at Mons, Hainault, Belgium, in 1520 (according ...

Last Judgment, The

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

Last Supper, The

The meal held by Christ and His disciples on the eve of His Passion at which He instituted the ...

Lataste, Marie

Born at Mimbaste near Dax, France, 21 February, 1822; died at Rennes, 10 May, 1847; was the ...

Latera, Flaminius Annibali de

Historian, born at Latera, near Viterbo, 23 November, 1733; died at Viterbo, 27 February, 1813. He ...

Lateran Council, Fifth

When elected pope, Julius II promised under oath that he would soon convoke a general ...

Lateran Council, First

The Council of 1123 is reckoned in the series of ecumenical councils. It had been convoked in ...

Lateran Council, Fourth

From the commencement of his reign Innocent III had purposed to assemble an ecumenical council, ...

Lateran Council, Second

The death of Pope Honorius II (February, 1130) was followed by a schism. Petrus Leonis (Pierleoni), ...

Lateran Council, Third

The reign of Alexander III was one of the most laborious pontificates of the Middle Ages. Then, ...

Lateran Councils

A series of five important councils held at Rome from the twelfth to the sixteen century. From ...

Lateran, Christian Museum of

Established by Pius IX in 1854, in the Palazzo del Laterano erected by Sixtus V on the part of ...

Lateran, Saint John

THE BASILICA This is the oldest, and ranks first among the four great "patriarchal" basilicas ...

Lathrop, George Parsons

Poet, novelist, b. at Honolulu, Hawaii, 25 August, 1851; d. at New York, 19 April, 1898. He was ...

Latin Church

The word Church ( ecclesia ) is used in its first sense to express whole congregation of ...

Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem

The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was founded as a result of the First Crusade, in 1099. Destroyed ...

Latin Literature in Christianity (Before the Sixth Century)

The Latin language was not at first the literary and official organ of the Christian Church in ...

Latin Literature in Christianity (Sixth to Twentieth Century)

During the Middle Ages the so-called church Latin was to a great extent the language of poetry, ...

Latin, Ecclesiastical

In the present instance these words are taken to mean the Latin we find in the official textbooks ...

Latini, Brunetto

Florentine philosopher and statesman, born at Florence, c. 1210; the son of Buonaccorso Latini, ...

Latreille, Pierre-André

A prominent French zoologist; born at Brives, 29 November, 1762; died in Paris, 6 February, 1833. ...

Latria

Latria ( latreia ) in classical Greek originally meant "the state of a hired servant" (Aesch., ...

Latrocinium

(L ATROCINIUM ). The Acts of the first session of this synod were read at the Council of ...

Latter-Day Saints, The Church of Jesus Christ of

( Also called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.) This religious body had ...

Lauda Sion

The opening words (used as a title of the sequence composed by St. Thomas Aquinas, about the year ...

Lauds

In the Roman Liturgy of today Lauds designates an office composed of psalms and canticles, ...

Laura

The Greek word laura is employed by writers from the end of the fifth century to distinguish ...

Laurence O'Toole, Saint

(L ORCAN UA T UATHAIL ; also spelled Laurence O'Toole) Confessor, born about 1128, in the ...

Laurentie, Pierre-Sébastien

French publicist; b. at Houga, in the Department of Gers, France, 21 January, 1793; d. 9 ...

Lausanne and Geneva

Diocese of Lausanne and Geneva (Lausannensis et Genevensis). Diocese in Switzerland, immediately ...

Lauzon, Jean de

Fourth governor of Canada, b. at Paris, 1583; d. there, 16 Feb., 1666. He was the son of ...

Lauzon, Pierre de

A noted missionary of New France in the eighteenth century, born at Poitiers, 26 September, ...

Lavérendrye, Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de

Discoverer of the Canadian West, born at Three Rivers, Quebec, 17 November, 1685; died at ...

Lavabo

The first word of that portion of Psalm 25 said by the celebrant at Mass while he washes his hands ...

Laval University of Quebec

The University of Laval was founded in 1852 by the Seminary of Quebec; the royal charter granted ...

Laval, François de Montmorency

First bishop of Canada, b. at Montigny-sur-Avre, 30 April, 1623, of Hughes de Laval and ...

Lavant

(LAVANTINA) An Austrian bishopric in the southern part of Styria, suffragan of Salzburg. The ...

Laverdière, Charles-Honoré

French-Canadian historian, born Chateau-Richer, Province of Quebec, 1826; died at Quebec, 1873. ...

Laverlochère, Jean-Nicolas

Missionary, born at St. Georges d'Espérance, Grenoble, France, 6 December, 1812; died at ...

Lavigerie, Charles-Martial-Allemand

French cardinal, b. at Huire near Bayonne, 13 Oct., 1825; d. at Algiers, 27 Nov., 1892. He ...

Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent

Chemist, philosopher, economist ; born in Paris, 26 August, 1743; guillotined 8 May, 1794. He ...

Law

I. CONCEPT OF LAW A. By law in the widest sense is understood that exact guide, rule, or ...

Law, Canon

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. General Notion and DivisionsII. Canon ...

Law, Cemeteries in

Cemeteries in Civil Law It would be impossible here to deal in detail with the various ...

Law, Civil (Influence of the Church on)

Christianity is essentially an ethical religion; and, although its moral principles were meant ...

Law, Common

(Latin communis , general, of general application; lex , law) The term is of English ...

Law, Divine (Moral Aspect of)

Divine Law is that which is enacted by God and made known to man through revelation. We ...

Law, International

International law has been defined to be "the rules which determine the conduct of the general ...

Law, Mosaic

The body of juridical, moral, and ceremonial institutions, laws and decisions comprised in the ...

Law, Natural

I. ITS ESSENCE In English this term is frequently employed as equivalent to the laws of nature, ...

Law, Roman

In the following article this subject is briefly treated under the two heads of; I. Principles; ...

Lawrence Justinian, Saint

Bishop and first Patriarch of Venice, b. in 1381, and d. 8 January, 1456. He was a descendant ...

Lawrence O'Toole, Saint

(L ORCAN UA T UATHAIL ; also spelled Laurence O'Toole) Confessor, born about 1128, in the ...

Lawrence of Brindisi, Saint

(Also: Lawrence, or Laurence, of Brindisi.) Born at Brindisi in 1559; died at Lisbon on 22 ...

Lawrence, Saint

Martyr ; died 10 August, 258. St. Lawrence, one of the deacons of the Roman Church, was one ...

Lawrence, Saint

Second Archbishop of Canterbury, d. 2 Feb., 619. For the particulars of his life and ...

Laws, Penal

This article treats of the penal legislation affecting Catholics in English-speaking countries ...

Lay Abbot

( abbatocomes, abbas laicus, abbas miles ). A name used to designate a layman on whom a king ...

Lay Brothers

Religious occupied solely with manual labour and with the secular affairs of a monastery or ...

Lay Communion

The primitive discipline of the Church established a different punishment for certain crimes ...

Lay Confession

This article does not deal with confession by laymen but with that made to laymen, for the ...

Lay Tithes

Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...

Laymann, Paul

A famous Jesuit moralist, b. in 1574 at Arzl, near Innsbruck; d. of the plague on 13 November, ...

Lazarites

A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul. The ...

Lazarus

Lazarus (Greek Lazaros , a contraction of Eleazaros --see 2 Maccabbees 6:18 — meaning ...

Lazarus of Bethany, Saint

Reputed first Bishop of Marseilles, died in the second half of the first century. According ...

Lazarus of Jerusalem, Order of Saint

The military order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem originated in a leper hospital founded in the ...

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Le 130

Le Blant, Edmond-Frederic

French archeologist and historian, born 12 August, 1818; died 5 July, 1897 at Paris. He studied ...

Le Camus, Emile-Paul-Constant-Ange

Preacher, theologian, scripturist, Bishop of La Rochelle and Saintes, b. at Paraza, France, ...

Le Camus, Etienne

French cardinal, b. at Paris, 1632; d. at Grenoble, 1707. Through the influence of his father, ...

Le Caron, Joseph

One of the four pioneer missionaries of Canada and first missionary to the Hurons, b. near ...

Le Coz, Claude

French bishop, b. at Plouévez-Parzay (Finistère), 1740; d. at Villevieux (Jura), ...

Le Fèvre, Jacques

A French theologian and controversialist, b. at Lisieux towards the middle of the seventeenth ...

Le Gobien, Charles

French Jesuit and founder of the famous collection of "Lettres édifiantes et curieuses", ...

Le Gras, Venerable Louise de Marillac

Foundress of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul , born at Paris, 12 August, 1591, ...

Le Hir, Arthur-Marie

Biblical scholar and Orientalist ; b. at Morlaix (Finisterre), in the Diocese of Quimper, ...

Le Loutre, Louis-Joseph

A missionary to the Micmac Indians and Vicar-General of Acadia under the Bishop of Quebec, b. ...

Le Mans

DIOCESE OF LE MANS (CENOMANENSIS). Comprises the entire Department of Sarthe. Prior to the ...

Le Mercier, François

One of the early missionaries of New France , b. at Paris, 4 October, 1604; d. in the island of ...

Le Moyne

The name of one of the most illustrious families of the New World, whose deeds adorn the pages ...

Le Moyne, Simon

A Jesuit missionary, b. at Beauvais, 1604; d. in 1665 at Cap de la Madeleine, near Three ...

Le Nourry, Denis-Nicolas

Denis-Nicolas Le Nourry, of the Congregation of St-Maur, ecclesiastical writer, b. at Dieppe in ...

Le Puy

(Aniciensis). Diocese comprising the whole Department of Haute Loire, and is a suffragan of ...

Le Quien, Michel

French historian and theologian, b. at Boulogne-sur-Mer, department of Pas-de-Calais, 8 Oct., ...

Le Sage, Alain-René

Writer, b. at Sarzeau (Morbihan), 1668; d. at Boulogne-sur-Mer, 1747. The son of a notary who ...

Le Tellier, Charles-Maurice

Archbishop of Reims, b. at Turin, 1642; d. at Reims, 1710. The son of Michel Le Tellier and ...

Le Tellier, Michel

Born 16 October, 1643, of a peasant family, not at Vire as has so often been said, but at Vast ...

Le Verrier, Urbain-Jean-Joseph

An astronomer and director of the observatory at Paris, born at Saint Lô, the ancient ...

León

DIOCESE OF LEÓN (LEONENSIS) Suffragan of Michoacan in Mexico, erected in 1863. In the ...

León, Luis de

Spanish poet and theologian, b. at Belmonte, Aragon, in 1528; d. at Madrigal, 23 August, 1591. ...

Lead, Diocese of

(LEADENSIS). The Diocese of Lead, which was established on 6 August, 1902, comprises all that ...

League of the Cross

A Catholic total abstinence confraternity founded in London in 1873 by Cardinal Manning to ...

League, German

Only three years before the League was established, Duke Maximilian of Bavaria (d. 1651), who ...

League, The

I. THE LEAGUE OF 1576 The discontent produced by the Peace of Beaulieu (6 May, 1576), which ...

Leander of Seville, Saint

Bishop of that city, b. at Carthage about 534, of a Roman family established in that city; d. ...

Leavenworth

Diocese of Leavenworth (Leavenworthensis). Suffragan to St. Louis. When established, 22 May, ...

Lebanon

Lebanon (Assyr. Labn nu ; Hebrew Lebanôn ; Egypt. possibly, Ramunu ; Greek Libanos ...

Lebedus

Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. It was on the coast, ninety stadia to the east ...

Lebrun, Charles

French historical painter, born in Paris, 1619; died at the Gobelin tapestry works, 1690. This ...

Lebwin, Saint

(LEBUINUS or LIAFWIN). Apostle of the Frisians and patron of Deveater, b. in England of ...

Lecce

(LICIENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Otranto. Lecce, the capital of a province in Terra ...

Leclerc du Tremblay, François

A Capuchin, better known as P ÈRE J OSEPH , b. in Paris, 4 Nov., 1577; d. at Rueil, ...

Leclercq, Chrestien

A Franciscan Récollet and one of the most zealous missionaries to the Micmac of ...

Lecoy de La Marche

(RICHARD-ALBERT). French historian; b. at Nemours, 1839; d. at Paris, 1897. He left the ...

Lectern

(Lecturn, Letturn, Lettern, from legere , to read). Support for a book, reading-desk, or ...

Lectionary

( Lectionarium or Legenda ). Lectionary is a term of somewhat vague significance, used ...

Lector

A lector (reader) in the West is a clerk having the second of the four minor orders. In all ...

Ledge, Altar

Originally the altar was made in the shape of an ordinary table, on which the crucifix and ...

Ledochowski, Miecislas Halka

Count, cardinal, Archbishop of Gnesen-Posen, b. at Gorki near Sandomir in Russian Poland, 29 ...

Leeds

(LOIDIS; LOIDENSIS). Diocese embracing the West Riding of Yorkshire, and that part of the city ...

Lefèvre d'Etaples, Jacques

Frequently called "Faber Stapulensis." A French philosopher, biblical and patristic scholar; ...

Lefèvre de la Boderie, Guy

French Orientalist and poet; b. near Falaise in Normandy, 9 August, 1541; d. in 1598 in the house ...

Lefèvre, Family of

There were various members of the Lefèvre family engaged in tapestry weaving in the ...

Lefebvre, Camille

Apostle of the Acadians, b. at St. Philippe, P. Q., 1831; d. at St. Joseph, N. B., 1895. The ...

Legacies

(Latin Legata ). I. DEFINITION In its most restricted sense, by a pious legacy or bequest ...

Legate

( Latin legare , to send). Legate, in its broad signification, means that person who is sent ...

Legends of the Saints

Under the term legend the modern concept would include every untrue tale. But it is not so ...

Legends, Literary or Profane

In the period of national origins history and legend are inextricably mingled. In the course of ...

Leghorn

(LIBURNENSIS.) Suffragan of Pisa. Leghorn ( Italian Livorno ), in Tuscany, is the capital ...

Legio

Titular see of Palestina Secunda, suffragan of Scythopolis. It figures for the first time in a ...

Legipont, Oliver

Benedictine, bibliographer, born at Soiron, Limburg, 2 Dec., 1698; died at Trier, 16 Jan., 1758. ...

Legists

Teachers of civil or Roman law, who, besides expounding sources, explaining terms, elucidating ...

Legitimation

( Latin legitimatio ). The canonical term for the act by which the irregularity contracted ...

Legrand, Louis

French theologian and noted doctor of the Sorbonne, b. in Burgundy at Lusigny-sur-Ouche, 12 ...

Lehnin, Abbey of

Founded in 1180 by Otto II, Margrave of Brandenburg, for Cistercian monks. Situated about ...

Leibniz, System of

I. LIFE OF LEIBNIZ Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz was born at Leipzig on 21 June (1 July), 1646. ...

Leigh, Venerable Richard

English martyr, born in Cambridgeshire about 1561; died at Tyburn, 30 August, 1588. Ordained ...

Leipzig

Chief town in the Kingdom of Saxony, situated at the junction of the Pleisse, Parthe, and Weisse ...

Leipzig, University of

The University of Leipzig in Saxony is, next to Heidelberg, the oldest university in the German ...

Leitmeritz

(L ITOMERICENSIS ), in Austria, embraces the northern part of the Kingdom of Bohemia (see map ...

Lejeune, Jean

Born at Poligny in 1592; died at Limoges, 19 Aug., 1672; member of the Oratory of Jesus, founded ...

Lelong, Jacques

A French bibliographer, b. at Paris, 19 April, 1665 d. there, 13 Aug., 1721. As a boy of ten, he ...

Lemberg

Seat of a Latin, a Uniat Ruthenian, and a Uniat Armenian archbishopric. The city is called Lwow ...

Lemcke, Henry

Missionary in the United States b. at Rhena, Mecklenburg, 27 July, 1796; d. at Carrolltown, ...

Lemercier, Jacques

Born at Pontoise, about 1585; died at Paris, 1654. Lemercier shares with Mansart and Le Muet the ...

Lemos, Thomas de

Spanish theologian and controversialist, b. at Rivadavia, Spain, 1555, d. at Rome 23 Aug., ...

Lennig, Adam Franz

Theologian, b. 3 Dec., 1803, at Mainz ; d. there, 22 Nov., 1866. He studied at Bouchsal under the ...

Lenormant, Charles

French arch æologist, b. in Paris, 1 June, 1802; d. at Athens, 24 November, 1859. After ...

Lenormant, François

Arch&aeligologist; son of Charles Lenormant, b. at Paris, 17 January, 1837; d. there, 9 ...

Lent

Origin of the word The Teutonic word Lent , which we employ to denote the forty days' fast ...

Lentulus, Publius

Publius Lentulus is a fictitious person, said to have been Governor of Judea before Pontius, and ...

Leo Diaconus

Byzantine historian; b. at Kaloe, at the foot of Mount Tmolos, in Ionia, about the year 950; the ...

Leo I (the Great), Pope

(Reigned 440-61). Place and date of birth unknown; died 10 November, 461. Leo's pontificate, ...

Leo II, Pope Saint

Pope (682-83), date of birth unknown; d. 28 June, 683. He was a Sicilian, and son of one Paul. ...

Leo III, Pope Saint

Date of birth unknown; died 816. He was elected on the very day his predecessor was buried (26 ...

Leo IV, Pope

(Reigned 847-55) A Roman and the son of Radoald, was unanimously elected to succeed Sergius ...

Leo IX, Pope

(1049-54), b. at Egisheim, near Colmar, on the borders of Alsace, 21 June, 1002; d. 19 April, ...

Leo V, Pope

Very little is known of him. We have no certainty either as to when he was elected or as to ...

Leo VI, Pope

The exact dates of the election and death of Leo VI are uncertain, but it is clear that he was ...

Leo VII, Pope

Date of birth unknown; d. 13 July, 939. A Roman and priest of St. Sixtus, and probably a ...

Leo VIII, Pope

Date of birth unknown; d. between 20 February and 13 April, 965. When the Emperor Otho I ...

Leo X, Pope

(G IOVANNI DE M EDICI ). Born at Florence, 11 December, 1475; died at Rome, 1 December, ...

Leo XI, Pope

(ALESSANDRO OTTAVIANO DE' MEDICI). Born at Florence in 1535; died at Rome 27 April, 1605, on ...

Leo XII, Pope

(A NNIBALE F RANCESCO C LEMENTE M ELCHIORE G IROLAMO N ICOLA DELLA G ENGA ) Born ...

Leo XIII, Pope

Born 2 March, 1810, at Carpineto; elected pope 20 February, 1878; died 20 July, 1903, at Rome. ...

Leo, Brother

Friar Minor, companion of St. Francis of Assisi,date of birth uncertain; died at Assisi, 15 ...

Leocadia, Saint

Virgin and martyr, d. 9 December, probably 304, in the Diocletian persecution. The last great ...

Leodegar, Saint

(LEGER) Bishop of Autun, b. about 615; d. a martyr in 678, at Sarcing, Somme. His mother ...

Leon

(THE DIOCESE AND CIVIL PROVINCE OF LEON) HISTORY Probably before the time of Trajan, the ...

Leonard of Chios

Born at an uncertain date on the Island of Chios, then under Genoese domination; died in Chios ...

Leonard of Limousin, Saint

Nothing absolutely certain is known of his history, as his earliest "Life", written in the ...

Leonard of Port Maurice, Saint

Preacher and ascetic writer, b. 20 Dec., 1676, at Porto Maurizio on the Riviera di Ponente; d. ...

Leonardo da Vinci

(LEONARDO DI SER PIERO DA VINCI) Florentine painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and ...

Leonidas, Saint

( Or LEONIDES.) The Roman Martyrology records several feast days of martyrs of this ...

Leontius Byzantinus

( Leontios Byzantios ) An important theologian of the sixth century. In spite of his ...

Leontius, Saint

Bishop of Fréjus, in Provence. France, b. probably at Nîmes, towards the end of ...

Leontopolis

A titular archiepiscopal see of Augustamnica Secunda. Strabo (XVII, 1,19, 20) places it near ...

Leopoldine Society, The

Established at Vienna for the purpose of aiding the Catholic missions in North America. When ...

Lepanto

Italian name for Naupactos (Naupactus) a titular metropolitan see of ancient Epirus. The name ...

Leprosy

Leprosy proper, or lepra tuberculosa , in contradistinction to other skin diseases commonly ...

Leptis Magna

Leptis Magna, a titular see of Tripolitana. Founded by the Sidonians in a fine and fertile ...

Leros

Titular see of the Cyclades, suffragan of Rhodes. According to Strabo (XIV, i, 6), this island ...

Leroy-Beaulieu, Anatole

French publicist, b. at Lisieux, Calvados, in 1842; d. at Paris, 15 June, 1912. After ...

Lesbi

A titular see in Mauretania Sitifensis, suffragan of Sitifis, or Sétif, in Algeria. It ...

Lesbi

A titular see in Mauretania Sitifensis, suffragan of Sitifis, or Sétif, in Algeria. It ...

Lescarbot, Marc

French lawyer, writer, and historian, b. at Vervins, between 1565 and 1570; d. about 1629. ...

Lescarbot, Marc

French lawyer, writer, and historian, b. at Vervins, between 1565 and 1570; d. about 1629. ...

Lescot, Pierre

One of the greatest architects of France in the pure Renaissance style, b. at Paris about ...

Lescot, Pierre

One of the greatest architects of France in the pure Renaissance style, b. at Paris about ...

Lesina

(PHARIA: HVAR; PHARENSIS, BRACHIENSIS, ET ISSENSIS) Diocese in Dalmatia ; includes the three ...

Leslie, John

Bishop of Ross, Scotland, born 29 September, 1527, died at Guirtenburg, near Brussels 30 May, ...

Lessius, Leonard

(LEYS) A Flemish Jesuit and a theologian of high reputation, born at Brecht, in the ...

Lessons in the Liturgy

(Exclusive of Gospel). I. HISTORY The reading of lessons from the Bible, Acts of Martyrs , or ...

Lestrange, Louis-Henri de

(In religion, DOM AUGUSTINE) Born in 1754, in the Château de Colombier-le-Vieux, ...

Lesueur, François Eustache

Jesuit missionary and philologist, of the Abnaki mission in Canada ; born (according to notes ...

Lesueur, Jean-François

Composer, b. at Drucat-Plessiel, near Abbeville, 15 Feb., 1760; d. at Paris, 6 October, 1837. He ...

Lete

A titular see of Macedonia, known by its coins and inscriptions, mentioned in Ptolemy (III, ...

Letourneux, Nicolas

A well-known French preacher and ascetical writer of Jansenistic tendencies, born at Rouen, 30 ...

Letters, Ecclesiastical

(LITTERÆ ECCLESIASTICÆ) Ecclesiastical letters are publications or announcements of ...

Leubus

A celebrated ancient Cistercian abbey, situated on the Oder, northwest of Breslau, in the ...

Leuce

A titular see of Thrace, not mentioned by any ancient historian or geographer. However, its ...

Levadoux, Michael

One of the first band of Sulpicians who, owing to the distressed state of religion in France, ...

Levau, Louis

(LE VAU) A contemporary of Jacques Lemercier and the two Mansarts, and the chief architect of ...

Levites

(From Levi , name of the ancestral patriarch, generally interpreted "joined" or "attached ...

Leviticus

The third book of the Pentateuch, so called because it treats of the offices, ministries, rites, ...

Lex

(LAW) The etymology of the Latin word lex is a subject of controversy. Some authorities ...

Lezana, Juan Bautista de

Theologian, born at Madrid, 23 Nov., 1586; died in Rome, 29 March, 1659. He took the habit at ...

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Li 90

Liège

(The Diocese of Liège; canonical name L EODIENSIS ). Liège (V ICUS L ...

Libel

( Latin libellus , a little book) A malicious publication by writing, printing, picture, ...

Libellatici, Libelli

The libelli were certificates issued to Christians of the third century. They were of two ...

Liber Diurnus Romanorum Pontificum

A miscellaneous collection of ecclesiastical formularies used in the papal chancery until the ...

Liber Pontificalis

(BOOK OF THE POPES). A history of the popes beginning with St. Peter and continued down to ...

Liber Septimus

Three canonical collections of quite different value from a legal standpoint are known by this ...

Libera Me

(Domine, de morte aeterna, etc.). The responsory sung at funerals. It is a responsory of ...

Libera Nos

The first words of the Embolism of the Lord's Prayer in the Roman Rite. Most liturgies ...

Liberal Arts, The Seven

The expression artes liberales , chiefly used during the Middle Ages, does not mean arts as we ...

Liberalism

A free way of thinking and acting in private and public life. I. DEFINITION The word liberal ...

Liberatore, Matteo

A philosopher, theologian, and writer, born at Salerno, Italy, 14 August, 1810; died at Rome, ...

Liberatus of Carthage

(Sixth century) Archdeacon ; author of an important history of the Nestorian and ...

Liberia

A republic on the west coast of Africa, between 4° 20´ and 7° 20´ N. lat., ...

Liberius, Pope

(Reigned 352-66) Pope Julius died on 12 April, according to the "Liberian Catalogue", and ...

Libermann, Ven. Francis Mary Paul

Founder of the Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, which was afterwards merged in the ...

Libraries

Libraries, that is to say, collections of books accumulated and made accessible for public or ...

Libri Carolini

A work in four books (120 or 121 chapters), purporting to be the composition of Charlemagne, and ...

Lichfield

ANCIENT DIOCESE OF LICHFIELD (LICHFELDENSIS). This diocese took its rise in the conversion ...

Lidwina, Saint

Born at Schiedam, Holland, 18 April 1380; died 14 April, 1433. Her father, Peter by name, came of ...

Lieber, Ernst Maria

Born at Camberg in the Duchy of Nassau, 16 Nov., 1838; died 31 March, 1902. He was the principal ...

Lieber, Moriz

Politician and publicist, b. at the castle of Blankenheim in the Eifel, 1 Oct., 1790, d. at ...

Liebermann, Bruno Franz Leopold

Catholic theologian, b., at Molsheim in Alsace 12 Oct., 1759; 4. at Strasburg, 11 Nov., 1844. ...

Liesborn

A former noted Benedictine Abbey in Westphalia, Germany, founded in 815; suppressed in 1803. ...

Liesborn, Master of

A Westphalian painter, who in 1465 executed an altar-piece of note in the Benedictine monastery ...

Liessies

A Benedictine monastery near Avesnes, in the Diocese of Cambrai, France (Nord), founded about ...

Life

(Greek zoe ; Latin vita ; French La vie , German Das Leben ; vital principle; Greek ...

Ligamen

( Latin for bond ). The existing marriage tie which constitutes in canon law a public ...

Lights

Upon the subject of the liturgical use of lights, as an adjunct of the services of the Church, ...

Ligugé

A Benedictine Abbey, in the Diocese of Poitiers, France, was founded about the year A.D. 360, ...

Liguori, Saint Alphonsus

Born at Marianella, near Naples, 27 September, 1696; died at Nocera de' Pagani, 1 August, 1787. ...

Lilienfeld

Lilienfeld, a Cistercian Abbey fifteen miles south of St. Polten, Lower Austria, was founded ...

Lilius, Aloisius

Aloisius Lilius, principal author of the Gregorian Calendar, was a native of Cirò or ...

Lille

The ancient capital of Flanders, now the chief town of the Département du Nord in France. ...

Lillooet Indians

An important tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, in southern British Columbia, formerly holding a ...

Lima

(Limana). The city of Lima, in the Department of the same name, is the capital of the Republic ...

Limbo

(Late Latin limbus ) a word of Teutonic derivation, meaning literally "hem" or "border," as ...

Limbourg, Pol de

A French miniaturist. With his two brothers, he flourished at Paris at the end of the fourteenth ...

Limburg

(L IMBURGENSIS ) Diocese in the Kingdom of Prussia, suffragan of Freiburg. I. HISTORY ...

Limerick

(LIMERICENSIS) Diocese in Ireland ; includes the greater part of the County of Limerick and ...

Limoges

(LEMOVICENSIS). Diocese comprising the Departments of Haute Vienne and Creuse in France. ...

Limyra

Limyra, a titular see of Lycia, was a small city on the southern coast of Lycia, on the Limyrus, ...

Linacre, Thomas

English physician and clergyman, founder of the Royal College of Physicians, London, b. at ...

Linares

[Or MONTEREY or NUEVO LEÓN; ARCHDIOCESE OF (DE LINARES)] In 1777, at the request of ...

Lincoln

(LINCOLNIENSIS) Suffragan of Dubuque, erected 2 August, 1887, to include that part of the ...

Lincoln

ANCIENT DIOCESE OF LINCOLN (LINCOLNIENSIS). This see was founded by St. Theodore, Archbishop ...

Lindanus, William Damasus

(VAN LINDA) Bishop of Ruremonde and of Ghent, b. at Dordrecht, in 1525; d. at Ghent, 2 ...

Linde, Justin Timotheus Balthasar, Freiherr von

Hessian jurist and stateman, b. in the village of Brilon, Westphalia, 7 Aug., 1797; d. at Bonn ...

Lindemann, Wilhelm

A Catholic historian of German literature, b. at Schonnebeck near Essen, 17 December, 1828; d. ...

Lindisfarne, Ancient Diocese and Monastery of

(Lindisfarnensis). The island of Lindisfarne lies some two miles off the Northumberland coast, ...

Lindores, Benedictine Abbey of

On the River Tay, near Newburgh, Fifeshire, Scotland, founded by David, Earl of Huntingdon, ...

Line, Saint Anne

English martyr, d. 27 Feb., 1601. She was the daughter of William Heigham of Dunmow, Essex, a ...

Linens, Altar

The altar-linens are the corporal, pall, purificator, and finger- towels. The Blessed Sacrament ...

Lingard, John

English priest and historian b. at Winchester, 5 February, 1771; d. at Hornby, 17 July, 1851. He ...

Linköping, Ancient See of

(LINCOPIA; LINCOPENSIS.) Located in Sweden ; originally included Östergötland, the ...

Linoe

A titular see of Bithynia Secunda, known only from the "Notitiae Episcopatuum" which mention ...

Linus, Pope Saint

(Reigned about A.D. 64 or 67 to 76 or 79). All the ancient records of the Roman bishops ...

Linz

D IOCESE OF L INZ (L INCIENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Vienna . I. HISTORY ...

Lippe

One of the Confederate States of the German Empire. The occasional use of the designation "Lippe ...

Lippi, Filippino

Italian painter, son of Filippo Lippi, b. at Prato, in 1458; d. at Florence 18 April, 1515. His ...

Lippi, Filippo

Italian painter, b. at Florence about 1406; d. at Spoleto, 9 October, 1469. Left an orphan at ...

Lippomano, Luigi

( Or Aloisius Lipomanus Lippomano). A cardinal, hagiographer, b. in 1500; d. 15 August, ...

Lipsanotheca

A term sometimes used synonymously with reliquary, but signifying, more correctly, the little box ...

Lipsius, Justus

(JOSSE LIPS) A philologian and humanist of the Netherlands, b. at Overyssche, 18 Oct., ...

Lisbon

Patriarchate of Lisbon (Lisbonensis). Includes the districts of Lisbon and Santarem. The area ...

Lismore

DIOCESE OF LISMORE (LISMORENSIS) The Diocese of Lismore extends over a territory of 21,000 ...

Lismore and Waterford

(Waterfordiensis et Lismorensis), suffragan of Cashel. This diocese is almost coterminous with ...

Lismore, School of

As the School of Armagh in the North of Ireland, and that of Clonmacnoise in the centre, so the ...

Lister, Thomas

( alias Thomas Butler) Jesuit writer, b. in Lancashire, about 1559; d. in England, probably ...

Liszt, Franz

Admittedly the greatest pianist in the annals of music, and a composer whose status in musical ...

Litany

(Latin litania , letania , from Greek lite , prayer or supplication) A litany is a ...

Litany of Loreto

Despite the fact that, from the seventeenth century onwards, the Litany of Loreto has been the ...

Litany of the Holy Name

An old and popular form of prayer in honour of the Name of Jesus. The author is not known. ...

Litany of the Saints

The model of all other litanies, of great antiquity. HISTORY It was used in the "Litania ...

Literature, English

It is not unfitting to compare English Literature to a great tree whose far spreading and ever ...

Lithuania

( German Litauen ) An ancient grandy-duchy united with Poland in the fourteenth century. ...

Lithuanians in the United States

The Lithuanians ( Lietuvys ; adjective, lietuviskas ) are a people of Russia, occupying the ...

Litta

A noble Milanese family which gave two distinguished cardinals to the Church. I. ALFONSO ...

Little Flowers of St. Francis of Assissi

Little Flowers of Francis of Assisi , the name given to a classic collection of popular legends ...

Little Office of Our Lady

A liturgical devotion to the Blessed Virgin, in imitation of, and in addition to, the Divine ...

Little Rock

(PETRICULANA) The State of Arkansas and the Indian Territory, parts of the Louisiana ...

Littré, Paul-Maximilien-Emile

A French lexicographer and philosopher ; born at Paris, 1 February, 1801; died there, 2 June, ...

Liturgical Books

Under this name we understand all the books, published by the authority of any church, that ...

Liturgical Chant

Taking these words in their ordinary acceptation, it is easy to settle the meaning of "liturgical ...

Liturgy

The various Christian liturgies are described each under its own name. ( See ALEXANDRINE ...

Liturgy of Jerusalem

The Rite of Jerusalem is that of Antioch. That is to say, the Liturgy that became famous as ...

Liturgy of the Hours

("Liturgy of the Hours" I. THE EXPRESSION "DIVINE OFFICE" This expression signifies ...

Liutprand of Cremona

(Or L UIDPRAND ). Bishop and historian, b. at the beginning of the tenth century; d. after ...

Liverpool

Diocese of Liverpool/a>/Liverpolium (Liverpolitana). One of the thirteen dioceses into ...

Livias

A titular see in Palestina Prima, suffragan of Cæsarea. It is twice mentioned in the Bible ...

Livorno

(LIBURNENSIS.) Suffragan of Pisa. Leghorn ( Italian Livorno ), in Tuscany, is the capital ...

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Ll 4

Llancarvan

Llancarvan, Glamorganshire, Wales, was a college and monastery founded apparently about the ...

Llandaff

ANCIENT DIOCESE OF LLANDAFF (LANDAVENSIS) The origins of this see are to be found in the sixth ...

Llanthony Priory

A monastery of Augustinian Canons, situated amongst the Black Mountains of South Wales, nine ...

Lloyd, Saint John

Welsh priest and martyr, executed at Cardiff, 22 July, 1679. He took the missionary oath at ...

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Lo 73

Loaisa, Garcia de

Cardinal and Archbishop of Seville, b. in Talavera, Spain, c. 1479; d. at Madrid, 21 April, ...

Loango

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF LOANGO (LOWER FRENCH CONGO). Formerly included in the great Kingdom of ...

Loaves of Proposition

Heb. "bread of the faces", i.e. "bread of the presence (of Yahweh )" ( Exodus 35:13 ; 39:35 , ...

Lobbes, Benedictine Abbey of

Located in Hainault, Belgium, founded about 650, by St. Landelin, a converted brigand, so that ...

Lobera, Ann

(Better known as V ENERABLE A NN OF J ESUS ). Carmelite nun, companion of St. Teresa; ...

Loccum

(LUCCA, LOCKEN, LOCKWEEN, LYKE, LYCKO) A Cistercian abbey in the Diocese of Minden, formerly ...

Lochleven

(From leamhan , an elm-tree) Lochleven, a lake in Kinross-shire, Scotland, an island of ...

Lochner, Stephen

A painter, born at Meersburg, on the Lake of Constance, date of birth unknown; died at ...

Loci Theologici

Loci theologici or loci communes , are the common topics of discussion in theology. As ...

Locke, Matthew

Composer; born at Exeter, in 1629; died August, 1677. He was a chorister of Exeter Cathedral ...

Lockhart, William

Son of the Rev. Alexander Lockhart of Waringham, Surry; b. 22 Aug., 1820; d. at St. Etheldreda's ...

Lockwood, Venerable John

Venerable John Lockwood, priest and martyr, born about 1555; died at York, 13 April, 1642. He ...

Lodi

(LAUDENSIS) A suffragan of Milan. Lodi, the capital of a district in the Province of Milan, ...

Logia, Jesu

Found partly in the Inspired Books of the New Testament, partly in uninspired writings. The ...

Logic

Logic is the science and art which so directs the mind in the process of reasoning and ...

Logos, The

The word Logos is the term by which Christian theology in the Greek language designates the ...

Lohel, Johann

(JOHANN LOHELIUS) Archbishop of Prague, b. at Eger, Bohemia, 1549; d. 2 Nov., 1622. Of poor ...

Lohner, Tobias

Born 13 March, 1619, at Neuötting in the Diocese of Salzburg ; died 26 (probably) May, ...

Loja, Diocese of

(Lojana), suffragan of Quito, Ecuador, includes the greater part of the Provinces of Loja and El ...

Lollards

The name given to the followers of John Wyclif, an heretical body numerous in England in the ...

Loménie de Brienne, Etienne-Charles de

French cardinal and statesman; b. at Paris, 1727; d. at Sens, 1794. He was of noble lineage, ...

Loman, Saint

Bishop of Trim in Ireland, nephew of St. Patrick, was remarkable as being the first placed over ...

Lombard, Peter

Theologian, b. at Novara (or perhaps Lumello), Italy, about 1100; d. about 1160-64. He studied ...

Lombard, Peter

Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Waterford, about 1555; d. at Rome, 1625; belonged to a respectable ...

Lombardy

A word derived from Longobardia and used during the Middle Ages to designate the country ruled ...

London (England)

London, the capital of England and chief city of the British Empire, is situated about fifty ...

London (Ontario)

DIOCESE OF LONDON (LONDINENSIS) Diocese in Canada, established 21 February, 1855; see ...

Longstreet, James

Soldier and Catholic convert. Born 8 January, 1821, at Edgefield, South Carolina, U.S.A.; died ...

Lope de Vega Carpio, Félix de

Poet and dramatist, b. at Madrid, 1562; d. 23 Aug., 1635. With Lope de Vega begins the era of ...

Lopez-Caro, Francisco

Spanish artist, b. at Seville in 1598; d. at Madrid in 1662; he was a pupil of Juan de Las ...

Lord's Prayer

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

Lorea

Titular see in the province of Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. The city figures in the different ...

Lorenzana, Francisco Antonio de

Cardinal, b. 22 Sept., 1722 at Leon in Spain ; d. 17 April, 1804, at Rome. After the completion ...

Lorenzetti, Pietro and Ambrogio

Sienese painters. The time of their birth and death is not known. Their dated works extend ...

Lorenzo da Brindisi, Saint

(Also: Lawrence, or Laurence, of Brindisi.) Born at Brindisi in 1559; died at Lisbon on 22 ...

Loreto, Holy House of

(The Holy House of Loreto). Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the "Holy ...

Loreto, Litany of

Despite the fact that, from the seventeenth century onwards, the Litany of Loreto has been the ...

Lorette

(Full name, Notre-Dame de la Jeune Lorette , "Our Lady of New Loretto") An Indian village ...

Lorrain, Claude de

French painter and etcher, b. in 1600 at Chamagnc on the banks of the Moselle in Lorraine ; d. ...

Lorraine

I. ORIGIN By the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the empire of Charlemagne was divided in three ...

Lorsch Abbey

( Laureshamense Monasterium , called also Laurissa and Lauresham ). One of the most ...

Loryma

A titular see of Caria, small fortified town and harbour on the coast of Caria, not far from ...

Los Angeles and Monterey

DIOCESE OF MONTEREY AND LOS ANGELES (MONTEREYENSIS ET ANGELORUM). Comprises that part of the ...

Lossada, Luis de

Philosopher, b. at Quiroga, Asturias, Spain in 1681; d. at Salamanca, in 1748. He entered the ...

Lossen, Karl August

German petrologist and geologist, born at Kreuznach (Rhine Province), 5 January, 1841; died at ...

Lot

Son of Abraham's brother Aran ( Genesis 11:27 ), therefore Abraham's nephew (his "brother": ...

Lottery

A lottery is one of the aleatory contracts and is commonly defined as a distribution of prizes by ...

Lotti, Antonio

Composer, born at Venice in 1667; died there, 5 January, 1740 and studied under Legrenzi, ...

Lotto, Lorenzo

Italian portrait painter, born at Venice, 1480; died at Loreto, 1556. This eminent artist was ...

Loucheux

The would-be Kuchin of some ethnologists, and the Tukudh of the Protestant missionaries; ...

Louis Allemand, Blessed

Cardinal, Archbishop of Arles, whose name has been written in a great variety of ways (Alamanus, ...

Louis Bertrand, Saint

Born at Valencia, Spain, 1 Jan., 1526; died 9 Oct., 1581. His patents were Juan Bertrand and ...

Louis IX, Saint

King of France, son of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile, born at Poissy, 25 April, 1215; died ...

Louis of Casoria, Venerable

Friar Minor and founder of the Frati Bigi; b. at Casoria, near Naples, 11 March, 1814; d. at ...

Louis of Granada, Venerable

Theologian, writer, and preacher; b. of very humble parentage at Granada, Spain, 1505; d. at ...

Louis of Toulouse, Saint

Bishop of Toulouse, generally represented vested in pontifical garments and holding a book and a ...

Louis XIV

King of France, b. at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 16 September, 1638; d. at Versailles, 1 September, ...

Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, Saint

Missionary in Brittany and Vendee; born at Montfort, 31 January, 1673; died at Saint Laurent sur ...

Louise de Marillac Le Gras, Venerable

Foundress of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul , born at Paris, 12 August, 1591, ...

Louise, Sister

Educator and organizer, b. at Bergen-op-Zoom, Holland, 14 Nov., 1813; d. at Cincinnati, Ohio, 3 ...

Louisiana

I. COLONIAL The history of Louisiana forms an important part of the history of the United ...

Louisville, Diocese of

Comprises that part of Kentucky west of the Kentucky River and western borders of Carroll, Owen, ...

Lourdes, Brothers of Our Lady of

(Abbreviation C.N.D.L. — Congregation de Notre-Dame de Lourdes) A community devoted to ...

Lourdes, Notre-Dame de

Notre-Dame de Lourdes, in the Department of Hautes Pyrenées, France, is far-famed for the ...

Louvain, University of

In order to restore the splendour of Louvain, capital of his Duchy of Brabant, John IV of the ...

Love, Theological Virtue of

The third and greatest of the Divine virtues enumerated by St. Paul ( 1 Corinthians 13:13 ), ...

Low Church

The name given to one of the three parties or doctrinal tendencies that prevail in the ...

Low Sunday

The first Sunday after Easter. The origin of the name is uncertain, but it is apparently ...

Lower California, Vicariate Apostolic of

Includes the territory of that name in Mexico (Sp. Baja or Vieja California ), a peninsula ...

Lower Criticism

The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...

Loyola University (Chicago)

Loyola University is the outgrowth of St. Ignatius College, founded by the Jesuits in 1869 for ...

Loyola University (New Orleans)

Loyola University, New Orleans, Louisiana, is (1912) the only Catholic university in what is ...

Loyola, Saint Ignatius

Youngest son of Don Beltrán Yañez de Oñez y Loyola and Marina Saenz de Lieona ...

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Lu 49

Luçon

Diocese of Luçon (Lucionensis). Embraces the Department of La Vendée. It was ...

Lublin

DIOCESE OF LUBLIN (LUBLINENSIS). The city of Lublin is in Russian Poland, capital of the ...

Luca, Giovanni Battista de

A Cardinal and Italian canonist of the seventeenth century, b. at Venusia, Southern Italy, in ...

Lucas, Frederick

A member of Parliament and journalist, b. in Westminster, 30 March, 1812, d. at Staines, ...

Lucca

ARCHDIOCESE OF LUCCA (LUCENSIS). Lucca, the capital of the like named province in Tuscany, ...

Lucera

DIOCESE OF LUCERA (LUCERINENSIS). Lucera is a very ancient city in the province of Foggia in ...

Lucerne

Chief town of the Canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. The beginnings of the town, as well as the ...

Lucian of Antioch

A priest of the Church of Antioch who suffered martyrdom (7 January, 312), during the reign ...

Lucic, John

(Or LUCIUS) Croatian historian, b. early in the seventeenth century, at Trojir, or Tragurion, ...

Lucifer

( Hebrew helel ; Septuagint heosphoros , Vulgate lucifer ) The name Lucifer ...

Lucifer of Cagliari

(LUCIFER CALARITANUS) A bishop, who must have been born in the early years of the fourth ...

Lucina, Crypt of

The traditional title of the most ancient section of the catacomb of St. Callistus. According to ...

Lucius I, Pope Saint

Reigned 253-254; died at Rome, 5 March, 254. After the death of St. Cornelius , who died in ...

Lucius II, Pope

(Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso) Born at Bologna, unknown date, died at Rome, 15 February, ...

Lucius III, Pope

(Ubaldo Allucingoli) Born at Lucca, unknown date ; died at Verona, 25 Notaember, 1185. ...

Lucy, Saint

A virgin and martyr of Syracuse in Sicily, whose feast is celebrated by Latins and ...

Ludger, Saint

(Lüdiger or Liudger) Missionary among the Frisians and Saxons, first Bishop of Munster ...

Ludmilla, Saint

Wife of Boriwoi, the first Christian Duke of Bohemia, b. at Mielnik, c. 860; d. at Tetin, near ...

Ludolph of Saxony

(Ludolph the Carthusian ). An ecclesiastical writer of the fourteenth century, date of ...

Ludovicus a S. Carolo

(LUDOVICUS JACOB) Carmelite writer, b. at Châlons-sur-Marne (according to some at ...

Lueger, Karl

A burgomaster of Vienna, Austrian political leader and municipal reformer, born at Vienna, 24 ...

Lugo

DIOCESE OF LUGO (LUCENSIS) Diocese in Galicia, Spain, a suffragan of Santiago, said to have ...

Lugo, Francisco de

Jesuit theologian, b. at Madrid, 1580; d. at Valladolid, 17 September, 1652. he was the elder ...

Lugo, John de

Spanish Jesuit and Cardinal, one of the most eminent theologians of modern times, b. at ...

Lugos

Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Fogaras and Alba Julia of the Uniat-Rumanian Rite, was ...

Luini, Bernardino

Milanese painter, b. between 1470 and 1480; d. after 1530. The actual facts known respecting the ...

Luke, Gospel of Saint

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Biography of Saint Luke ...

Lulé Indians

A name which has given rise to considerable confusion and dispute in Argentine ethnology, owing ...

Lully, Jean-Baptiste

Composer, b. near Florence in 1633; d. at Paris, 22 March, 1687. He was brought to France when ...

Lully, Raymond

(RAMON LULL) "Doctor Illuminatus", philosopher, poet, and theologian, b. at Palma in Majorca, ...

Lumen Christi

The versicle chanted by the deacon on Holy Saturday as he lights the triple candle. After ...

Luminare

(A word which gives in the plural luminaria and has hence been incorrectly written in the ...

Lummi Indians

(Abbreviated from Nuglummi , about equivalent to "people", the name used by themselves). ...

Lumper, Gottfried

Benedictine patristic writer, born 6 Feb., 1747, at Füssen in Bavaria ; died 8 March, ...

Luna, Pedro de

Antipope under the name of Benedict XIII, b. at Illueca, Aragon, 1328; d. at the ...

Lund

[LUNDA; LONDUNUM (LONDINUM) GOTHORUM (SCANORUM, SCANDINORUM, or DANORUM)]. In the Län of ...

Lunette

The lunette, known in Germany as the lunula and also as the melchisedech, is a crescent-shaped ...

Luni-Sarzana-Brugnato

Diocese in the province of Genoa. Luni (originally Luna) was an Etruscan city, but was seized by ...

Lupus

(SERVATUS LUPUS, LOUP) Abbot of Ferrières, French Benedictine writer, b. in the ...

Lupus, Christian

(WOLF) Historian, b. at Ypres (Flanders), 23 July, 1612; d. at Louvain, 10 July, 1681. He ...

Luscinius, Ottmar

(NACHTGALL) An Alsatian Humanist, b. at Strasburg, 1487; d. at Freiburg, 1537. After ...

Lusignan, Jean-Baptiste-Alphonse

French-Canadian writer, b. at St-Denis on the Richelieu, P.Q., 27 September, 1843; d. 5 January, ...

Lussy, Melchior

Statesman, b. at Stans, Canton of Unterwalden, Switzerland, 1529; d. there 14 Nov., 1606. Even in ...

Lust

The inordinate craving for, or indulgence of, the carnal pleasure which is experienced in the ...

Luther, Martin

Leader of the great religious revolt of the sixteenth century in Germany ; born at Eisleben, 10 ...

Lutheranism

The religious belief held by the oldest and in Europe the most numerous of the Protestant ...

Lutzk, Zhitomir, and Kamenetz, Diocese of

(LUCEORIENSIS, ZYTOMIRIENSIS, ET CAMENECENSIS). Diocese located in Little Russia. Its present ...

Luxemburg

The small remnant of the old duchy of this name and since 11 May, 1867, an independent neutral ...

Luxeuil Abbey

Situated in the Department of Haute-Saône in Franche-Comté, in the Diocese of ...

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Ly 13

Lycopolis

A titular see in Thebais Prima, suffragan of Antinoë. As Siout or Siaout it played a ...

Lydda

A titular see of Palestina Prima in the Patriarchate of Jerusalem. The town was formerly ...

Lydgate, John

Born at Lydgate, Suffolk, about 1370; d. probably about 1450. He entered the Benedictine abbey ...

Lying

Lying, as defined by St. Thomas Aquinas , is a statement at variance with the mind . This ...

Lynch, John

Historian, b. at Galway, Ireland, 1599; d. in France, 1673; was the son of Alexander Lynch, who ...

Lyndwood, William

Bishop of St. David's and the greatest of English canonists, b. about 1375; d. in 1446. He had ...

Lyons, Archdiocese of

The Archdiocese of Lyons (Lugdunensis) comprises the Department of the Rhône (except the ...

Lyons, Councils of (Introduction)

Previous to 1313 the Abbé Martin counts no less than twenty-eight synods or councils held ...

Lyons, First Council of

Innocent IV, threatened by Emperor Frederick II, arrived at Lyons 2 December, 1244, and early in ...

Lyons, Second Council of

The Second Council of Lyons was one of the most largely attended of conciliar assemblies, there ...

Lyrba

A titular see of Pamphylia Prima, known by its coins and the mention made of it by Dionysius, ...

Lysias

A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris, mentioned by Strabo, XII, 576, Pliny, V, 29, Ptolemy, V, 2, ...

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