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France

The fifth in size (usually reckoned the fourth) of the great divisions of Europe.

DESCRIPTIVE GEOGRAPHY

The area of France is 207,107 square miles; it has a coastline 1560 miles and a land frontier 1525 miles in length. In shape it resembles a hexagon of which the sides are: (1) From Dunkirk to Point St-Matthieu (sands and dunes from Dunkirk to the mouth of the Somme; cliffs, called falaises , extending from the Somme to the Orne, except where their wall is broken by the estuary of the Seine; granite boulders intersected by deep inlets from the Orne to Point St-Matthieu. (2) From Point St-Matthieu to the mouth of the Bidassoa (alternate granite cliffs and river inlets as far as the River Loire; sandy stretches and arid moors from the Loire to the Garonne; sands, lagoons, and dunes from the Garonne to the Pyrenees). (3) From the Bidassoa to Point Cerbére (a formation known as Pyrenean chalk). (4) From Point Cerbére to the mouth of the Roya (a steep, rocky frontier from the Pyrenees to the Tech; sands and lagoons between the Tech and the Rhone, and an unbroken wall of pointed rocks stretching from the Rhone to the Roya). (5) From the Roya to Mount Donon (running along the Maritime, the Cottain, and the Graian Alps, as well as the mountains of Jura and the Vosges). (6) From Mount Donon to Dunkirk (an artificial frontier differentiated by few marked physical peculiarities).

France is the only country in Europe having a coast line both on the Atlantic and on the Mediterranean; moreover, the passes of Belfort. Côte d'Or and Naurouse open up ready channels of communication between the Rhine, the English Channel, the Atlantic, and the Mediterranean. Furthermore, it is noteworthy, that wherever the French frontier is defended by lofty mountains (as, for instance, the Alps, the Pyrenees), the border people are akin to the French either in race, speech, or customs (the Latin races), while on the other hand, the Teutonic races, differing so widely from the French in ideas and sentiment, are physically divided from them only by the low-lying hills and plains of the North-East. Hence it follows that France has always lent itself with peculiar facility to the spread of any great intellectual movement, coming from the shores of the Mediterranean, as was the case with Christianity. France was the natural high road between Italy and England, between Germany and the Iberian peninsula. On French soil, the races of the North mingled with those of the South; and the very geographical configuration of the country accounts in a certain sense for the instinct of expansion, the gift of assimilation and of diffusion, thanks to which France has been able to play the part of general distributor of ideas. In fact, two widely different worlds meet in France. A journey from north to south leads through three distinct zones: the grain country reaching from the northern coast to a line drawn from Mézières to Nantes ; the vine country and the region of berries, southward from this to the latitude of Grenoble and Perpignan; the land of olive-garths and orange groves, extending to the southern boundary of the country. Its climate ranges from the foggy promontories of Brittany to the sunny shores of Provence; from the even temperature of the Atlantic to the sudden changes which are characteristic of the Mediterranean. Its people vary from the fair-haired races of Flanders and Lorraine, with a mixture of German blood in their veins, to the olive-skinned dwellers of the south, who are essentially Latin and Mediterranean in their extraction. Again Nature has formed, in the physiography of this country, a multitude of regions, each with its own characteristics -- its own personality, so to speak -- which, in former times, popular instinct called separate countries. The tendency to abstraction,however, which carried away the leaders of the Revolution, is responsible for the present purely arbitrary divisions of the soil, known as "departments". Contemporary geography is glad to avail itself of the old names and the old divisions into "countries" and "provinces" which more nearly correspond to the geographical formations as well as the natural peculiarities of the various regions. "Massif Central" (the Central Plateau), a rugged land inhabited by a stubborn race that is often glad to leave its fastness, and those lands of comfort that lie along the great Northern Plain, the valley of the Loire, and the fertile basin in which Paris stands. But in spite of this variety, France is a unit. These regions, so unlike and so diversified, balance and complete each other like the limbs of a living body. As Michelet puts it, "France is a person."

STATISTICS

In 1901, France had 31,031,000 inhabitants. The census no longer inquires as to the religion of French citizens, and it is only by way of approximation that we can compute the number of Catholics at 38 millions; Protestants, 600,000; Jews 68,000. The population of the French colonies amounts to 47,680,000 inhabitants, and in consequence France stands second to England as a colonizing power; but the difference between them is very great, the colonies of England having more than 356 millions of inhabitants.

There are two points to be noted in the study of French statistics. The annual mean excess of births over deaths for each 10,000 inhabitants during the period 1901-1905 in France was 18, while in Italy it was 106, in Austria 113, in England 121, in Germany 149, in Belgium 155. In 1907, the deaths were more numerous than the births, the number of deaths being 70,455, while that of births was only 50,535 -- an excess of 19,920 deaths -- and this is notwithstanding the fact that in 1907 there were nearly 45,000 more marriages than in 1890. Official investigations attributed this phenomenon to sterile marriages. In 1907, in only 29 of 86 departments, the number of births exceeded the number of deaths. It may perhaps be legitimately inferred that the sterility of marriages coincides with the decay of religious belief. Again it is important to note the increase in population of the larger cities between the years 1789 and 1901: Marseilles, from 106,000 to 491,000; Lyons, from 139,000 to 459,000; Bordeaux, from 83,000 to 256,000; Lille, from 13,000 to 210,000; Toulouse, from 55,000 to 149,000; Saint-Etienne, from 9000 to 146,000. Paris, which in 1817 had 714,000 inhabitants, had 2,714,000 in 1901; Havre and Roubaix, which in 1821 had 17,000 and 9000 respectively, now have 130,000 and 142,000. In these great increases the multiplication of parishes has not always been proportionate to the increase in the population, and this is one of the causes of the indifference into which so many of the working people have fallen. In should be remembered that in former days nine-tenths of the people in France lived in the country; that while 556 of every 1000 Frenchmen lived by agriculture in 1856, that number had fallen to 419 in 1891. The emigrants from the country hurried into the industrial towns, many of which multiplied their population by fifteen, and there, accustomed as they had been to the village bell, they found no church in the neighbourhood, and after a few brief generations the once faithful family from the country developed the faithless dweller in the town.

HISTORY TO THE THIRD REPUBLIC

The treaty of Verdun (843) definitely established the partition of Charlemagne's empire into three independent kingdoms, and one of these was France. A great churchman, Hincmar, Archbishop of Rheims (806-82), was the deviser of the new arrangement. He strongly supported the kingship of Charles the Bald, under whose scepter he would have placed Lorraine also. To Hincmar, the dream of a united Christendom did not appear under the guise of an empire, however ideal, but under the concrete form of a number of unit States, each being a member of one mighty body, the great Republic of Christendom. He would replace the empire by a Europe of which France was one member. Under Charles the Fat (880-88) it looked for a moment as though Charlemagne's empire was about to come to life again; but the illusion was temporary, and in its stead were quickly formed seven kingdoms: France, Navarre, Provence, Burgundy beyond the Jura, Lorraine, Germany, and Italy. Feudalism was the seething-pot, and the imperial edifice was crumbling to dust. Towards the close of the tenth century, in the Frankish kingdom alone, twenty-nine provinces or fragments of provinces, under the sway of dukes, counts, or viscounts, constituted veritable sovereignties, and at the end of the eleventh century there were as many as fifty-five of these minor states, of greater or lesser importance. As early as the tenth century one of the feudal families had begun to take the lead, that of the Dukes of Francia, descendants of Robert the Strong, and lords of all the country between the Seine and the Loire. From 887 to 987 they successfully defended French soil against the invading Northmen, and the Eudes, or Odo, Duke of Francia (887-98), Robert his brother (922-23), and Raoul, or Rudolph, Robert's son-in-law (923-36), occupied the throne for a brief interval. The weakness of the later Carlovingian kings was evident to all, and in 987, on the death of Louis V, Adalberon, Archbishop of Reims, at a meeting of the chief men held at Senlis, contrasted the incapacity of the Carlovingian Charles of Lorraine, the heir to the throne, with the merits of Hugh, Duke of Francia. Gerbert, who afterwards became Sylvester II, adviser and secretary to Adalberon, and Arnoul, Bishop of Orléans, also spoke in support of Hugh, with the result that he was proclaimed king. Thus the Capetian dynasty had its rise in the person of Hugh Capet . It was the work of the Church, brought to pass by the influence of the See of Reims, renowned throughout France since the episcopate of Hincmar, renowned since the days of Clovis for the privilege of anointing the Frankish kings conferred on its titular, and renowned so opportunely at this time for the learning of its episcopal school presided over by Gerbert himself.

The Church, which had set up the new dynasty, exercised a very salutary influence over French social life. That the origin and growth of the "Chansons de geste", i.e., of early epic literature, are closely bound up with the famous pilgrim shrines, whither the piety of the people resorted, has been recently proved by the literary efforts of M. Bédier. And military courage and physical heroism were schooled and blessed by the Church, which in the early part of the eleventh century transformed chivalry from a lay institution of German origin into a religious one, by placing among its liturgical rites the ceremony of knighthood, in which the candidate promised to defend truth, justice, and the oppressed. The Congregation of Cluny, founded in 910, which made rapid progress in the eleventh century, prepared France to play an important part in the reformation of the Church undertaken in the second half of the eleventh century by a monk of Cluny, Gregory VII, and gave the Church two other popes after him, Urban II and Pascal II. It was a Frenchman, Urban II, who at the Council of Claremont (1095), started the glorious movement of the Crusades, a war taken up by Christendom when France had led the way.

The reign of Louis VI (1108-37) is of note in the history of the Church, and in that of France; in the one because the solemn adhesion of Louis VI to Innocent II assured the unity of the Church, which at the time was seriously menaced by the Antipope Antecletus ; in the other because for the first timer Capetian kings took a stand as champions of law and order against the feudal system and as the protectors of public rights. A churchman, Suger, abbot of St-Denis, a friend of Louis VI and minister of Louis VII (1137-80), developed and realized this ideal of kingly duty. Louis VI, seconded by Suger, and counting on the support of the towns -- the "communes" they were called when they had obliged the feudal lords to grant them charters of freedom -- fulfilled to the letter the rôle of prince as it was conceived by the theology of the Middle Ages. "Kings have long arms", wrote Suger, "and it is their duty to repress with all their might, and by right of their office, the daring of those who rend the State by endless war, who rejoice in pillage, and who destroy homesteads and churches." Another French Churchman, St. Bernard, won Louis VII for the Crusades ; and it was not his fault that Palestine, where the first crusade had set up a Latin kingdom, did not remain a French colony in the service of the Church. The divorce of Louis VII and Eleanor of Acquitain (1152) marred the ascendancy of French influence by paving the way for the growth of Anglo-Normal pretensions on the soil of France from the Channel to the Pyrenees. Soon, however, by virtue of feudal laws the French king, Philip Augustus (1180-1223), proclaimed himself suzerain over Richard Coeur de Lion and John Lackland, and the victory of Bouvines which he gained over the Emperor Otto IV, backed by a coalition of feudal nobles (1214), was the first even in French history which called forth a movement of national solidarity around a French king. The war against the Albigensians under Louis VIII (1223-26) brought in its train the establishment of the influence and authority of the French monarchy in the south of France.

St. Louis IX (1226-1270), "ruisselant de piété, et enflammé de charité", as a contemporary describes him, made kings so beloved that from that time dates that royal cult, so to speak, which was one of the moral forces in olden France, and which existed in no other country of Europe to the same degree. Piety had been for the kings of France, set on their thrones, set on their thrones by the Church of God, as it were a duty belonging to their charge or office; but in the piety of St. Louis there was a note all his own, the note of sanctity. With him ended the Crusades, but not their spirit. During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, project after project attempting to set on foot a crusade was made, and we refer to them merely to point out that the spirit of a militant apostolate continued to ferment in the soul of France. The project of Charles Valois (1308-09), the French expedition under Peter I of Cyprus against Alexandria and the Armenian coasts (1365-1367), sung of by the French trouvère, Guillaume Machault, the crusade of John of Nevers, which ended in the bloody battle of Nicopolis (1396) -- in all these enterprises, the spirit of St. Louis lived, just as in the heart of the Christians of the east, whom France was thus trying to protect, there has survived a lasting gratitude toward the nation of St. Louis. If the feeble nation of the Marionites cries out today to France for help, it is because of a letter written by St. Louis to the nation of St. Maroun in May, 1250. In the days of St. Louis the influence of the French epic literature in Europe was supreme. Brunetto Latini, as early as the middle of the thirteenth century wrote that, "of all speech [parlures] that of the French was the most charming, and the most in favour with everyone." French held sway in England until the middle of the fourteenth century; it was fluently spoken at the Court of Constantinople at the time of the Fourth Crusade ; and in Greece in the dukedoms, principalities and baronies found there by the House of Burgundy and Champagne. And it was in French that Rusticiano of Pisa, about 1300, wrote down from Marco Polo's lips the story of his wonderful travels. The University of Paris, founded by favour of Innocent III between 1280 and 1213, was saved from a spirit of exclusiveness by the happy intervention of Alexander IV, who obliged it to open its chairs to the mendicant friars. Among its professors were Duns Scotus ; the Italians, St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure ; Albert the Great, a German; Alexander of Hales, an Englishman. Among its pupils it counted Roger Bacon , Dante, Raimundus Lullus, Popes Gregory IX , Urban IV, Clement IV, and Boniface VIII.

France was also the birthplace of Gothic art, which was carried by French architects into Germany. The method employed in the building of many Gothic cathedrals -- i.e., by the actual assistance of the faithful -- bears witness to the fact that at this period the lives of the French people were deeply penetrated with faith. An architectural wonder such as the cathedral of Chartres was in reality the work of popular art born of the faith of the people who worshiped there.

Under Philip IV, the Fair (1285-1314), the royal house of France became very powerful. By means of alliances he extended his prestige as far as the Orient. His brother Charles of Valois married Catherine de Courtney, an heiress of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. The Kings of England and Minorca were his vassals, the King of Scotland his ally, the Kings of Naples and Hungary connections by marriage. He aimed at a sort of supremacy over the body politic of Europe. Pierre Dubois, his jurisconsult, dreamed that the pope would hand over all his domains to Philip and receive in exchange an annual income, while Philip would thus have the spiritual head of Christendom under his influence. Philip IV laboured to increase the royal prerogative and thereby the national unity of France. By sending magistrates in feudal territories, by defining certain cases ( cas royaux ) as reserved to the king's competency, he dealt a heavy blow to the feudalism of the Middle Ages. But on the other hand, under his rule many anti-Christian maxims began to creep into law and politics. Roman law was slowly re-introduced into social organization, and gradually the idea of a united Christendom disappeared from the national policy. Philip the Fair, pretending to rule by Divine right, gave it to be understood that he rendered an account of his kingship to no on under heaven. He denied the pope's right to represent, as the papacy had always done in the past, the claims of morality and justice where kings were concerned. Hence arose in 1294-1303, his struggle with Pope Boniface VIII, but in that struggle he was cunning enough to secure the support of the States-General, which represented public opinion in France. In later times, after centuries of monarchical government, this same public opinion rose against the abuse of power committed by its kings in the name of their pretended divine right, and thus made an implicit amende honorable to what the Church had taught concerning the origin, the limits, and the responsibility of all power, which had been forgotten or misinterpreted by the lawyers of Philip IV when they set up their pagan State as the absolute source of power. The election of Pope Clement V (1305) under Philip's influence, the removal of the papacy to Avignon, the nomination of seven French popes in succession, weakened the influence of the papacy in Christendom, though it has recently come to light that the Avignon popes did not always allow the independence of the Holy See to waver or disappear in the game of politics. Philip IV and his successors may have had the illusion that they were taking the place of the German emperors in European affairs. The papacy was imprisoned on their territory; the German empire was passing through a crisis, was, in fact, decaying, and the kings of France might well imagine themselves temporal vicars of God, side by side with, or even in opposition to, the spiritual vicar who lived at Avignon.

But at this juncture the Hundred Years War broke out, and the French kingdom, which aspired to be the arbiter of Christendom, was menaced in its very existence by England. English kings aimed at the French crown, and the two nations fought for the possession of Guienne. Twice during the war was the independence of France imperilled. Defeated on the Ecluse (1340), at Crécy (1346), at Poitiers (1356), France was saved by Charles V (1364-80) and by Duguesclin, only to suffer French defeat under Charles VI at Agincourt (1415) and to be ceded by the Treaty of Troyes to Henry V, King of England. At this darkest hour of the monarchy, the nation itself was stirred. The revolutionary attempt by Etienne Marcel (1358), and the revolt which gave rise to the Ordonnace Cabochienne (1418) were the earliest signs of popular impatience at the absolutism of the French kings, but internal dissensions hindered an effective patriotic defence of the country. When Charles VII came to the throne, France had almost ceased to be French. The king and court lived beyond the Loire, and Paris was the seat of an English government. Blessed Joan of Arc was the saviour of French nationality as well as French royalty, and at the end of Charles' reign (1422-61) Calais was the only spot in France in the hands of the English.

The ideal of a united Christendom continued to haunt the soul of France in spite of the predominating influence gradually assumed in French politics by purely national aspirations. From the reign of Charles VI, or even the last years of Charles V, dates the custom of giving to French kings the exclusive title of Rex Christianissimus . Pepin the Short and Charlemagne had been proclaimed "Most Christian" by the popes of their day: Alexander III had conferred the same title on Louis VII; but from Charles VI onwards the title comes into constant use as the special prerogative of the kings of France. "Because of the vigour with which Charlemagne, St. Louis, and other brave French kings, more than the other kings of Christendom, have upheld the Catholic Faith, the kings of France are known among the kings of Christendom as 'Most Christian'." Thus wrote Philippe de Mézières, a contemporary of Charles VI. In later times, the Emperor Frederick III, addressing Charles VII, wrote "Your ancestors have won for your name the title Most Christian , as a heritage not to be separated from it." From the pontificate of Paul II (1464), the popes, in addressing bulls to the kings of France, always use the style and title Rex Christianissimus . Furthermore, European public opinion always looked upon Bl. Joan of Arc, who saved the French monarchy, as the heroine of Christendom, and believed that the Maid of Orléans meant to lead the king of France on another crusade when she had secured him in the peaceful possession of his own country. France's national heroine was thus heralded by the fancy of her contemporaries, by Christine de Pisan, and by that Venetian merchant whose letters have been preserved for us in the Morosini Chronicle, as a heroine whose aims were as wide as Christianity itself.

The fifteenth century, during which France was growing in national spirit, and while men's minds were still conscious of the claims of Christendom on their country, was also the century during which, on the morrow of the Great Schism and of the Councils of Basle and of Constance, there began a movement among the powerful feudal bishops against pope and king, and which aimed at the emancipation of the Gallican Church. The propositions upheld by Gerson, and forced by him, as representing the University of Paris, on the Council of Constance, would have set up in the Church an aristocratic regime analogous to what the feudal lords. profiting by the weakness of Charles VI, had dreamed of establishing in the State. A royal proclamation in 1518, issued after the election of Martin V maintained in opposition to the pope "all the privileges and franchises of the kingdom," put an end to the custom of annates, limited the rights of the Roman court in collecting benefices, and forbade the sending to Rome of articles of gold or silver. This proposition was assented to by the young King Charles VII in 1423, but at the same time he sent Pope Martin V an embassy asking to be absolved from the oath he had taken to uphold the principles of the Gallican Church and seeking to arrange a concordat which would give the French king a right of patronage over 500 benefices in his kingdom. This was the beginning of the practice adopted by French kings of arranging the government of the Church directly with the popes over the heads of the bishops. Charles VII, whose struggle with England had left his authority still very precarious, was constrained, in 1438, during the Council of Basle , in order to appease the powerful prelates of the Assembly of Bourges, to promulgate the Pragmatic Sanction, thereby asserting in France those maxims of the Council of Basle which Pope Eugene had condemned. But straightway he bethought him of a concordat, and overtures in this sense were made to Eugene IV. Eugene replied that he well knew the Pragmatic Sanction -- "that odious act" -- was not the king's own free doing and a concordat was discussed between them. Louis XI (1461-83), whose domestic policy aimed at ending or weakening the new feudalism which had grown up during two centuries through the custom of presenting appanages to the brothers of the king, extended to the feudal bishops the ill will he professed toward the feudal lords. He detested the Pragmatic Sanction as an act that strengthened ecclesiastical feudalism, and on 27 November, 1461, he announced to the pope its suppression. At the same time he pleaded, as the demand of his Parliament, that for the future the pope should permit the collation of ecclesiastical benefices to be made either wholly or in part through the civil power. The Concordat of 1472 obtained from Rome very material concessions in this respect. At this time, besides "episcopal Gallicanism", against which pope and king were working together, we may trace, in the writings of the lawyers of the closing years of the fifteenth century, the beginnings of a "royal Gallicanism" which taught that in France the State should govern the Church.

The Italian wars undertaken by Charles VIII (1493-98), and continued by Louis XII (1498-1515), aided by an excellent corps of artillery, and all the resources of French furia , to assert certain French claims over Naples and Milan, did not quite fulfill the dreams of the French kings. They had, however, a threefold result in the worlds of politics, religion, and art. Politically, they led foreign powers to believe that France was a menace to the balance of power, and hence arouse alliances to maintain that balance, such, for instance, as the League of Venice (1495), and the Holy League (1511-12). From the point of view of art, their carried a breath of the Renaissance across the Alps. And in the religious world they furnished France an opportunity on Italian soil of asserting for the first time the principles of royal Gallicanism. Louis XII, and the emperor Maximilian, supported by the opponents of Pope Julius II, convened in Pisa a council that threatened the rights of the Holy See. Matters looked very serious. The understanding between the pope and the French kings hung in the balance. Leo X understood the danger when the victory of Marignano opened to Francis I the road to Rome. The pope in alarm retired to Bologna, and the Concordat of 1516, negotiated between the cardinals and Duprat, the chancellor, and afterwards approved of by the Ecumenical Council of the Lateran, recognized the right of the King of France to nominate not only to 500 ecclesiastical benefices, as Charles VII had requested, but to all the benefices in his kingdom. It was a fair gift indeed. But if in matters temporal the bishops were thus in the king's hands, their institution in matters spiritual was reserved to the pope. Pope and king by common agreement thus put an end to an episcopal aristocracy such as the Gallicans of the great councils had dreamed of. The concordat between Leo X and Francis I was tantamount to a solemn repudiation of all the anti-Roman work of the great councils of the fifteenth century. The conclusion of this concordat was one of the reasons why France escaped the Reformation. From the moment that the disposal of church property , as laid down by the concordat, belonged to the civil power, royalty had nothing to gain from the Reformation. Whereas the kings of England and the German princelings saw in the reformation a chance to gain possession of ecclesiastical property, the kings of France, thanks to the concordat, were already in legal possession of those much-envied goods. When Charles V became King of Spain (1516) and emperor (1519), thus uniting in his person the hereditary possessions of the House of Austria and German, as well as the old domains of the House of Burgundy in the Low Countries -- uniting moreover the Spanish monarchy with Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, the northern part of Africa, and certain lands in America, Francis I inaugurated a struggle between France and the House of Austria. After forty-four years of war, from the victory of Marignano to the treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis (1515-59), France relinquished hopes of retaining possession of Italy, but wrested the Bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Verdun from the empire and had won back possession of Calais. The Spaniards were left in possession of Naples and the country around Milan, and their influence predominated throughout the Italian Peninsula. But the dream which Charles V had for a brief moment entertained of a world-wide empire had been shattered.

During this struggle against the House of Austria, France, for motives of political and military exigency, had been obliged to lean in the Lutherans of Germany, and even on the sultan. The foreign policy of France since the time of Francis I had been to seek exclusively the good of the nation and no longer to be guided by the interests of Catholicism at large. The France of the Crusades even became the ally of the sultan. But, by a strange anomaly, this new political grouping allowed France to continue its protection to the Christians of the East. In the Middle Ages it protected them by force of arms; but since the sixteenth centuries, by treaties called capitulations, the first of which was drawn up in 1535. The spirit of French policy had changed, but it is always on France that the Christian communities of the East rely, and this protectorate continues to exist under the Third Republic, and has never failed them.

The early part of the sixteenth century was marked by the growth of Protestantism in France, under the forms of Lutheranism and of Calvinism. Lutheranism was the first to make its entry. The minds of some in France were already prepared to receive it. Six years before Luther's time, the archbishop Lefebvre of Etaples (Faber Stapulensis), a protégé of Louis XII and of Francis I, had preached the necessity of reading the scriptures and of "bringing back religion to its primitive purity". A certain number of tradesmen, some of whom, for business reasons, had travelled in Germany, and a few priests, were infatuated with Lutheran ideas. Until 1634, Francis I was almost favorable to the Lutherans, and he even proposed to make Melanchthon President of the Collège de France. But on learning, in 1534, that violent placards against the Church of Rome had been posted on the same day in many of the large towns, and even near the king's own room in the Château d'Amboise, he feared a Lutheran plot; an inquiry was ordered, and seven Lutherans were condemned to death and burned at the stake in Paris. Eminent ecclesiastics like du Bellay, Archbishop of Paris, and Sadolet, Bishop of Carpentras, deplored these executions, and the Valdois massacre ordered by d'Oppède, President of the Parliament of Aix, in 1545. Laymen, on the other hand, who ill understood the Christian gentleness of these prelates, reproached them with being slow and remiss in putting down heresy ; and when, under Henry II, Calvinism crept in from Geneva, a policy of persecution was inaugurated. From 1547 to 1550, in less than three years, the chambre ardente , a committee of the Parliament of Paris, condemned more than 500 persons to retract their beliefs, to imprisonment, or to death at the stake. Notwithstanding this, the Calvinists, in 1555, were able to organize themselves into Churches on the plan of that at Geneva; and, in order to bind these Churches more closely together, they held a synod in Paris in 1559. There were in France at that time seventy-two Reformed Churches ; two years later, in 1561, the number had increased to 2000. The methods, too, of the Calvinist propaganda had changed. The earlier Calvinists, like the Lutherans, had been artists and workingmen, but in the course of time, in the South and in the West, a number of princes and noblemen joined their ranks. Among these were two princes of the blood, descendants of St. Louis: Anthony of Bourbon, who became King of Navarre through his marriage with Jeanne d'Albret, and his brother the Prince de Condé. Another name of note is that of Admiral de Coligny, nephew of that duke of Montmorency who was the Premier Baron of Christendom. Thus it came to pass that in France Calvinism was not longer a religious force, but had become a political and military cabal; and the French kings in opposing it were but defending their own rights.

Such was the beginning of the Wars of Religion. They had for their starting-point the conspiracy of Amboise (1560) by which the Protestant leaders aimed at seizing the person of Francis II, in order to remove him from the influence of Francis of Guise. During the reigns of Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III , a powerful influence was exercised by the queen-mother, who made use of the conflicts between the opposing religious factions to establish more securely the power of her sons. In 1561, Catharine de' Medici arranged for the Poissy discussion to try and bring about an understanding between the two creeds, but during the Wars of religion she ever maintained an equivocal attitude between both parties, favouring now the one and now the other, until the time came when, fearing that Charles IX would shake himself free of her influence, she took a large share of responsibility in the odious massacre of St. Bartholomew. There were eight of these wars in the space of thirty years. The first was started by a massacre of Calvinists at Vassy by the troopers of Guise (1 March, 1562), and straightway both parties appealed for foreign aid. Catharine, who was at this time working in the Catholic cause, turned to Spain ; Coligny and Condé turned to Elizabeth of England and turned over to her the port of Havre. Thus from the beginning were foreshadowed the lines which the Wars of religion would follow. They opened up France to the interference of such foreign princes as Elizabeth and Philip II, and to the plunder of foreign soldiers, such as those of the Duke of Alba and the German troopers ( Reiter ) called in by the Protestants. One after another, these wars ended in weak provisional treaties which did not last. Under the banners of the Reformation party or those of the League organized by the House of Guise to defend Catholicism, political opinions ranged themselves, and during these thirty years of civil disorder monarchical centralization was often in trouble of overthrow. Had the Guise party prevailed, the trend of policy adopted by the French monarchy towards Catholicism after the Concordat of Francis I would have been assuredly less Gallican. That concordat had placed the Church of France and its episcopate in the hands of the king. The old episcopal Gallicanism which held that the authority of the pope was not above that of the Church assembled in council and the royal Gallicanism which held that the king had no superior on the earth, not even the pope, were now allied against the papal monarchy strengthened by the Council of Trent. The consequence of all this was that the French kings refused to allow the decisions of that council to be published in France, and this refusal has never been withdrawn.

At the end of the sixteenth century it seemed for an instant as though the home party of France was to shake off the yoke of Gallican opinions. Feudalism had been broken; the people were eager for liberty; the Catholics, disheartened by the corruption of the Valois court, contemplated elevating to the throne, in succession to Henry II, who was childless, a member of the powerful House of Guise. In fact, the League had asked the Holy See to grant the wish of the people, and give France a Guise as king. Henry of Navarre, the heir presumptive to the throne, was a Protestant ; Sixtus V had given him the choice of remaining a Protestant, and never reigning in France, or of abjuring his heresy, receiving absolution from the pope himself, and, together with it, the throne of France. But there was third solution possible, and the French episcopate foresaw it, namely that the abjuration should be made not to the pope but to the French bishops. Gallican susceptibilities would thus be satisfied, dogmatic orthodoxy would be maintained on the French throne, and moreover it would do away with the danger to which the unity of France was exposed by the proneness of a certain number of Leaguers to encourage the intervention of Spanish armies and the ambitions of the Spanish king, Philip II, who cherished the idea of setting his own daughter in the throne of France.

The abjuration of Henry IV made to the French bishops (25 July, 1593) was a victory of Catholicism over Protestantism, but none the less it was the victory of episcopal Gallicanism over the spirit of the League. Canonically, the absolution given by the bishops to Henry IV was unavailing, since the pope alone could lawfully give it; but politically that absolution was bound to have a decisive effect. From the day that Henry IV became a Catholic, the League was beaten. Two French prelates went to Rome to crave absolution for Henry. St. Philip Neri ordered Baronius -- smiling, no doubt, as he did so -- to tell the pope, whose confessor he, Baronius was, that he himself could not have absolution until he had absolved the King of France. And on 17 September, 1595, the Holy See solemnly absolved Henry IV, thereby sealing the reconciliation between the French monarchy and the Church of Rome. The accession of the Bourbon royal family was a defeat for Protestantism, but at the same time half a victory for Gallicanism. Ever since the year 1598 the dealing of the Bourbons with Protestantism were regulated by the Edict of Nantes. This instrument not only accorded the Protestants the liberty of practicing their religion in their own homes, in the towns and villages where it had been established before 1597, and in two localities in each bailliage , but also opened to them all employments and created mixed tribunals in which judges were chosen equally from among Catholics and Calvinists; it furthermore made them a political power by recognizing them for eight years as master of about one hundred towns which were known as "places of surety" ( places de sûreté ). Under favour of the political causes of the Edict Protestants rapidly became an imperium in imperio , and in 1627, at La Rochelle , they formed an alliance with England to defend, against the government of Louis XIII (1610-43), the privileges of which Cardinal Richelieu, the king's minister, wished to deprive them. The taking of La Rochelle by the king's troops (November, 1628), after a siege of fourteen months, and the submission of the Protestant rebels in the Cévenes, resulted in a royal decision which Richelieu called the Grâce d'Alais : the Protestants lost all their political privileges and all their "places of surety" but on the other hand freedom of worship and absolute equality with Catholics were guaranteed them. Both Cardinal Richelieu, and his successor, Cardinal Mazarin, scrupulously observed this guarantee, but under Louis XIV a new policy was inaugurated. For twenty-five years the king forbade the Protestants everything that the edict of Nantes did not expressly guarantee them, and then, foolishly imagining that Protestantism was on the wane, and that there remained in France only a few hundred obstinate heretics, he revoked the Edict of

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Félix, Célestin Joseph

French Jesuit, b. at Neuville-sur-l' Escaut (Nord), 28 June 1810; d. at Lille, 7 July, 1891. He ...

Fénelon, François de Salignac de la Mothe-

A celebrated French bishop and author, b. in the Château de Fénelon in ...

Féval, Paul-Henri-Corentin

Novelist, b. at Rennes, 27 September, 1817; d. in Paris, 8 March 1887. He belonged to an old ...

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Förster, Arnold

German entomologist; b. at Aachen, 20 Jan., 1810; d. in the same city, 12 Aug., 1884. His father ...

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Führich, Joseph

(Born 1800; died 1876.) Joseph Führich was as Catholic in his art as in his life. He was ...

Fünfkirchen

( Hungarian PÉCS, QUINQUE ECCLESIENSIS) Located in Hungary, in the ecclesiastical ...

Fürstenberg, Franz Friedrich Wilhelm von

A statesman and educator, b. 7 August, 1729, at Herdringen in Westphalia ; d. 16 September, 1810, ...

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Façade

The face or front of any building. In ecclesiastical architecture the term is generally used to ...

Faa di Bruno, Francesco

An Italian mathematician and priest, born at Alessandria, 7 March, 1825; died at Turin, 26 ...

Faber, Felix

German writer, born about 1441 at Zurich, of a famous family commonly known as Schmid; died in ...

Faber, Frederick William

Oratorian and devotional writer, b. 28 June, 1814, at Calverley, Yorkshire, England ; d. in ...

Faber, Johann

Theologian, b. at Leutkirch, in Swabia, 1478; d. in Vienna, 21 May, 1541. He studied ...

Faber, Johann

Johann Faber of Heilbronn, controversialist and preacher; b. 1504, at Heilbronn in Wittenberg ; ...

Faber, Johann Augustanus

Theologian, born at Fribourg, Switzerland, c. 1470; died about 1531. He entered the Dominican ...

Faber, Matthias

Writer and preacher, born at Altomünster, Germany, 24 February, 1586; died at Tyrnau, 26 ...

Faber, Peter, Saint

Born 13 April, 1506, at Villaret, Savoy ; died 1 Aug., 1546, in Rome. As a child he tended his ...

Faber, Philip

(Or Fabri.) Theologian, philosopher and noted commentator of Duns Scotus ; born in 1564, at ...

Fabian, Pope Saint

(FABIANUS) Pope (236-250), the extraordinary circumstances of whose election is related by ...

Fabiola, Saint

A Roman matron of rank, died 27 December, 399 or 400. She was one of the company of noble Roman ...

Fabre, Joseph

Second Superior General of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, born 14 November, 1824, at Cuges, ...

Fabri, Honoré

(Lefèvre.) Jesuit, theologian, b. about 1607 in the Department of Ain, France ; d. at ...

Fabri, Philip

(Or Fabri.) Theologian, philosopher and noted commentator of Duns Scotus ; born in 1564, at ...

Fabriano and Matelica

Diocese of Fabriano and Matelica (Fabrianensis et Mathelicensis). Fabriano, a city in the ...

Fabrica Ecclesiæ

A Latin term, meaning, etymologically, the construction of a church, but in a broader sense the ...

Fabricius, Hieronymus

(Surnamed ab Aquapendente ). Distinguished Italian anatomist and surgeon, b. in the little ...

Fabyan, Robert

English chronicler, died 28 February, 1513. He was a London clothier, a member of the Drapers' ...

Facciolati, Jacopo

Lexicographer and philologist, b. at Torreglia, near Padua, Italy, 4 Jan., 1682; d. at Padua, 26 ...

Fact, Dogmatic

(1) Definition By a dogmatic fact , in wider sense, is meant any fact connected with a dogma ...

Faculties of the Soul

I. MEANING Whatever doctrine one may hold concerning the nature of the human soul and its ...

Faculties, Canonical

( Latin Facultates ) In law, a faculty is the authority, privilege, or permission, to ...

Facundus of Hermiane

A sixth-century Christian author, Bishop of Hermiane in Africa, about whose career very little ...

Faenza

DIOCESE OF FAENZA (FAVENTINA) Diocese in the province of Ravenna (Central Italy ), suffragan ...

Fagnani, Prospero

Canonist, b. in Italy, place and date of birth uncertain; d. in 1678. Some writers place his ...

Fagnano, Guilio Carlo de' Toschi di

Mathematician, born at Sinigaglia, Italy, 26 September, 1682; died there 18 May, 1766. He made ...

Faillon, Etienne-Michel

Historian, born at Tarascon, France, 3 January, 1800; died at Paris, 25 October, 1870. He studied ...

Faith

I. THE MEANING OF THE WORD ( Pistis , fides). In the Old Testament , the Hebrew means ...

Faith, Hope, and Charity (Saints)

The names of two groups of Roman martyrs around whom a considerable amount of legendary lore has ...

Faith, The Rule of

The word rule ( Latin regula , Gr. kanon ) means a standard by which something can be ...

Faithful, The

( Latin fideles , from fides , faith.) Those who have bound themselves to a religious ...

Falco, Juan Conchillos

Painter, b. at Valencia of an ancient noble family in 1641; d. 14 May, 1711. He was a pupil of ...

Faldstool

(Latin faldistorium ; also facistorium, faudestolus, faudestola ). A movable folding ...

Falkner, Thomas

Born 6 Oct., 1707; died 30 Jan., 1784. He was the son of Thomas Falkner, a Manchester ...

Fall River

DIOCESE OF FALL RIVER (RIVERORMENSIS), U.S.A. A suffragan see of the Province of Boston ; ...

Fallopio, Gabriello

Anatomist, "one of the most important of the many-sided physicians of the sixteenth century" ...

Falloux du Coudray

Frédéric Alfred Pierre, Vicomte de Falloux du Coudray Born at Angers, 7 March, ...

False Decretals

(The Decretals of the Pseudo-Isidore) False Decretals is a name given to certain apocryphal ...

Falsity

( Latin Falsitas .) A perversion of truth originating in the deceitfulness of one party, and ...

Famagusta

A titular see in the Island of Cyprus. The name appears to be derived from the Greek ...

Familiars

Strictly speaking, seculars subject to a master's authority and maintained at his expense. In this ...

Family

A term derived from the Latin, famulus , servant, and familia , household servants, or the ...

Fano

(FANENSIS.) Fano, the ancient Fanum Fortunæ, a city of the Marches in the province of ...

Fanon

A shoulder-cape worn by the pope alone, consisting of two pieces of white silk ornamented with ...

Faraud, Henri

Titular Bishop of Anémour and first Vicar Apostolic of Athabasca-Mackenzie , Canada ; ...

Farfa, Abbey of

Situated about 26 miles from Rome, not far from the Farfa Sabina Railway station. A legend in the ...

Fargo

(FARGUS; FARGENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of St. Paul, U.S.A., embracing the whole of the State ...

Faribault, George-Barthélemy

An archaeologist, b. at Quebec, Canada, 3 Dec., 1789; d. 1866. He was a first cousin of ...

Faribault, Jean-Baptiste

A trader with the Indians and early settler in Minnesota, U.S.A.; b. 19 October, 1774, at ...

Farinato, Paolo

An Italian painter, b. at Verona 1524; d. there, 1606. He belonged to the old Florentine ...

Faringdon, Blessed Hugh

( Vere COOK). English martyr ; b. probably at Faringdon, Berkshire, date unknown; d. at ...

Farlati, Daniele

An ecclesiastical historian, b. at San Daniele del Friuli in the present Italian province of ...

Farnese, Alessandro

The name of two cardinals. For the elder see POPE PAUL III. The young Alessandro Farnese -- ...

Faro

(PHARENSIS) A suffragan of Evora, Portugal, and extending over the province of Algarve. The ...

Faroe Islands

Geography and Statistics A group of Danish islands rising from the sea some four hundred miles ...

Fast

In general abstinence from food or drink, a term common to the various Teutonic tongues. Some ...

Fatalism

Fatalism is in general the view which holds that all events in the history of the world, and, in ...

Fate

( Latin fatum, from fari, to tell or predict ). This word is almost redundant in the ...

Fathers of Mercy, The

A congregation of missionary priests first established at Lyons, France, in 1808, and later at ...

Fathers of the Church

The Appeal to the Fathers Classification of Patristic Writings Apostolic Fathers and the Second ...

Fathers, The Apostolic

Christian writers of the first and second centuries who are known, or are considered, to have had ...

Faunt, Lawrence Arthur

A Jesuit theologian, b. 1554, d. at Wilna, Poland, 28 February, 1590-91. After two years at ...

Fauriel, Charles-Claude

A historian, b. at St-Etienne, France, 27 October, 1772; d. at Paris,15 July, 1844. He studied ...

Faustinus and Jovita, Saints

Martyrs, members of a noble family of Brescia ; the elder brother, Faustinus, being a priest, ...

Faustus of Riez

Bishop of Riez ( Rhegium ) in Southern Gaul (Provence), the best known and most distinguished ...

Faversham Abbey

A former Benedictine monastery of the Cluniac Congregation situated in the County of Kent ...

Faye, Hervé-Auguste-Etienne-Albann

An astronomer, b. at Saint-Benoît-du-Sault (Indre, France ), Oct., 1814; d. at Paris, 4 ...

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Fe 62

Fear (from a Moral Standpoint)

(CONSIDERED FROM A MORAL STANDPOINT.) Fear is an unsettlement of soul consequent upon the ...

Fear (in Canon Law)

(IN CANON LAW.) A mental disturbance caused by the perception of instant or future danger. ...

Feast of Fools

A celebration marked by much license and buffoonery, which in many parts of Europe, and ...

Feasts, Ecclesiastical

( Latin Festum ; Greek heorte ). Feast Days, or Holy Days, are days which are celebrated in ...

Febronianism

The politico-ecclesiastical system outlined by Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim, Auxiliary Bishop of ...

Feckenham, John de

Last Abbot of Westminster, and confessor of the Faith ; b. in Feckenham Forest, ...

Feder, Johann Michael

A German theologian, b. 25 May, 1753, at Oellingen in Bavaria ; d. 26 July, 1824, at ...

Feilding, Rudolph William Basil

The eighth Earl of Denbigh, and ninth Earl of Desmond, b. 9 April, 1823; d. 1892. He was educated ...

Feilmoser, Andreas Benedict

A theologian and Biblical scholar, b. 8 April, 1777, at Hopfgarten, Tyrol; d. at Tübingen, ...

Felbiger, Johann Ignaz von

A German educational reformer, pedagogical writer, and canon regular of the Order of St. ...

Felician and Primus, Saints

Suffered martyrdom about 304 in the Diocletian persecution. The "Martyrologium Hieronymianum" ...

Felician Sisters, O.S.F.

Founded 21 November, 1855, at Warsaw, Poland, by Mother Mary Angela, under the direction of ...

Felicissimus

A deacon of Carthage who, in the middle of the third century, headed a short-lived but dangerous ...

Felicitas and Perpetua, Saints

Martyrs, suffered at Carthage, 7 March 203, together with three companions, Revocatus, Saturus, ...

Felicitas, Saint

MARTYR. The earliest list of the Roman feasts of martyrs, known as the "Depositio Martyrum" ...

Felix and Adauctus, Saints

Martyrs at Rome, 303, under Diocletian and Maximian. The Acts, first published in Ado's ...

Felix and Nabor, Saints

Martyrs during the persecution of Diocletian (303). The relics of these holy witnesses to the ...

Felix I, Pope Saint

Date of birth unknown; d. 274. Early in 269 he succeeded Saint Dionysius as head of the Roman ...

Felix II

Pope (more properly Antipope ), 355-358; d. 22 Nov., 365. In 355 Pope Liberius was ...

Felix III (II), Pope Saint

(Reigned 483-492). Born of a Roman senatorial family and said to have been an ancestor of ...

Felix IV (III), Pope Saint

(Reigned 526-530). On 18 May, 526, Pope John I died in prison at Ravenna, a victim of the ...

Felix of Cantalice, Saint

A Capuchin friar, b. at Cantalice, on the north-western border of the Abruzzi; d. at Rome, 18 ...

Felix of Nola, Saint

Born at Nola, near Naples, and lived in the third century. After his father's death he ...

Felix of Valois, Saint

Born in 1127; d. at Cerfroi, 4 November, 1212. He is commemorated 20 November. He was surnamed ...

Felix V

Regnal name of Amadeus of Savoy, Antipope (1440-1449). Born 4 December, 1383, died at ...

Feller, François-Xavier de

An author and apologist, b. at Brussels 18 August, 1735; d. at Ratisbon 22 May, 1802. He ...

Feneberg, Johann Michael Nathanael

Born in Oberdorf, Allgau, Bavaria, 9 Feb., 1751; died 12 Oct., 1812. He studied at Kaufbeuren and ...

Fenn, John

Born at Montacute near Wells in Somersetshire; d. 27 Dec., 1615. He was the eldest brother of Ven. ...

Ferber, Nicolaus

A Friar Minor and controversialist, born at Herborn, Germany, in 1485; died at Toulouse, 15 ...

Ferdinand II

Emperor, eldest son of Archduke Karl and the Bavarian Princess Maria, b. 1578; d. 15 February, ...

Ferdinand III, Saint

King of Leon and Castile, member of the Third Order of St. Francis, born in 1198 near ...

Ferdinand, Blessed

Prince of Portugal, b. in Portugal, 29 September, 1402; d. at Fez, in Morocco, 5 June, 1443. He ...

Ferdinando, Luigi, Count de Marsigli

Italian geographer and naturalist, b. at Bologna 10 July, 1658; d. at Bologna 1 Nov., 1730. He ...

Ferentino, Diocese of

(FERENTINUM) In the province of Rome, immediately subject to the Holy See. The town was in ...

Fergus, Saints

St. Fergus Cruithneach Died about 730, known in the Irish martyrologies as St. Fergus ...

Feria

( Latin for "free day"). A day on which the people, especially the slaves, were not obliged ...

Ferland, Jean-Baptiste-Antoine

A French Canadian historian, b. at Montreal, 25 December, 1805; d. at Quebec, 11 January, ...

Fermo, Archdiocese of

(FIRMANA). In the province of Ascoli Piceno (Central Italy ). The great antiquity of the ...

Fernández de Palencia, Diego

A Spanish conqueror and historian; b. at Palencia in the early part of the sixteenth century. ...

Fernández, Antonio

A Jesuit missionary; b. at Lisbon, c. 1569; d. at Goa, 12 November, 1642. About 1602 he was ...

Fernández, Juan

A Jesuit lay brother and missionary; b. at Cordova ; d. 12 June, 1567, in Japan. In a letter ...

Ferns

DIOCESE OF FERNS (FERNENSIS). Diocese in the province of Leinster ( Ireland ), suffragan of ...

Ferrara

A RCHDIOCESE OF F ERRARA (F ERRARIENSIS ). Archdiocese immediately subject to the Holy ...

Ferrari, Gaudenzio

An Italian painter and the greatest master of the Piedmontese School, b. at Valduggia, near ...

Ferraris, Lucius

An eighteenth-century canonist of the Franciscan Order. The exact dates of his birth and death ...

Ferre, Vicente

Theologian, b. at Valencia, Spain ; d. at Salamanca in 1682. He entered the Dominican Order ...

Ferreira, Antonio

A poet, important both for his lyric and his dramatic compositions, b. at Lisbon, Portugal, in ...

Ferrer, Rafael

A Spanish missionary and explorer; b. at Valencia, in 1570; d. at San José, Peru, in ...

Ferrer, Saint Vincent

Famous Dominican missionary, born at Valencia, 23 January, 1350; died at Vannes, Brittany, 5 ...

Ferrières, Abbey of

Situated in the Diocese of Orléans , department of Loiret, and arrondissement of ...

Ferstel, Heinrich, Freiherr von

Architect; with Hansen and Schmidt, the creator of modern Vienna ; b. 7 July, 1828, at Vienna ; ...

Fesch, Joseph

Cardinal, b. at Ajaccio, Corsica, 3 January, 1763; d. at Rome, 13 May, 1839. He was the son of a ...

Fessler, Josef

Bishop of St. Polten in Austria and secretary of the Vatican Council ; b. 2 December, 1813, at ...

Fetherston, Blessed Richard

Priest and martyr ; died at Smithfield, 30 July, 1540. He was chaplain to Catharine of Aragon ...

Feti, Domenico

An Italian painter ; born at Rome, 1589; died at Venice, 1624. He was a pupil of Cigoli ...

Fetishism

Fetishism means the religion of the fetish. The word fetish is derived through the Portuguese ...

Feuardent, François

A Franciscan, theologian, preacher of the Ligue, b. at Coutanees, Normandy, in 1539; d. at ...

Feuchtersleben, Baron Ernst von

An Austrian poet, philosopher, and physician; born at Vienna, 29 April, 1806; died 3 September, ...

Feudalism

Etymology This term is derived from the Old Aryan pe'ku , hence Sanskrit pacu , "cattle"; ...

Feuillants

The Cistercians who, about 1145, founded an abbey in a shady valley in the Diocese of Rieux ...

Feuillet, Louis

(FEUILLÉE) Geographer, b. at Mane near Forcalquier, France, in 1660; d. at Marseilles ...

Feyjóo y Montenegro, Benito Jerónimo

A celebrated Spanish writer, b. at Casdemiro, in the parish of Santa Maria de Molias, Galicia, ...

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Fi 52

Fiacc, Saint

(Lived about 415-520.) A poet, chief bishop of Leinster, and founder of two churches. His ...

Fiacre, Saint

Abbot, born in Ireland about the end of the sixth century; died 18 August, 670. Having been ...

Ficino, Marsilio

A philosopher, philologist, physician, b. at Florence, 19 Oct., 1433; d. at Correggio, 1 Oct, ...

Ficker, Julius

(More correctly Caspar von Ficker). Historian, b. at Paderborn, Germany, 30 April, 1826; d. at ...

Fideism

(Latin fides , faith). A philosophical term meaning a system of philosophy or an ...

Fidelis of Sigmaringen, Saint

Born in 1577, at Sigmaringen, Prussia, of which town his father Johannes Rey was burgomaster; ...

Fiesole

DIOCESE OF FIESOLE (FÆSULANA). Diocese in the province of Tuscany, suffragan of Florence. ...

Figueroa, Francisco de

A celebrated Spanish poet, surnamed "the Divine", b. at Alcalá de Henares, c. 1540, d. ...

Figueroa, Francisco García de la Rosa

Franciscan, b. in the latter part of the eighteenth century at Toluca, in the Archdiocese of ...

Fiji, Vicariate Apostolic of

Comprising the islands belonging to the Fiji Archipelago. This archipelago forms the central ...

Filby, Blessed William

Blessed William Filby Born in Oxfordshire between 1557 and 1560; suffered at Tyburn, 30 May, ...

Filelfo, Franscesco

A humanist, b. at Tolentino, 25 July, 1398; d. at Florence 31 July, 1481. He studied grammar, ...

Filial Church

(Latin filialis , from filia , daughter), a church to which is annexed the cure of souls , ...

Filicaja, Vincenzo da

Lyric poet; born at Florence, 30 December, 1642; died there 24 September, 1707. At Pisa he was ...

Filioque

Filioque is a theological formula of great dogmatic and historical importance. On the one ...

Fillastre, Guillaume

French cardinal, canonist, humanist, and geographer, b. 1348 at La Suze, Maine, France ; d. at ...

Filliucci, Vincenzo

Jesuit moralist; b. at Sienna, Italy, 1566; d. at Rome 5 April, 1622. Having entered the Society ...

Filliucius, Felix

(Or, as his name is more often found, in its Italian form, FIGLIUCCI). An Italian humanist, a ...

Final Perseverance

( Perseverantia finalis ). Final perseverance is the preservation of the state of grace till ...

Finan, Saint

Second Bishop of Lindisfarne ; died 9 February, 661. He was an Irish monk who had been ...

Finbarr, Saint

(Lochan, Barr). Bishop and patron of Cork, born near Bandon, about 550, died at Cloyne, 25 ...

Finch, Ven. John

A martyr, b. about 1548; d. 20 April, 1584. He was a yeoman of Eccleston, Lancashire, and a ...

Finglow, Ven. John

An English martyr ; b. at Barnby, near Howden, Yorkshire; executed at York, 8 August, 1586. He ...

Finland

Note: This article was taken from the 1909 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, and is presented ...

Finnian of Moville, Saint

Born about 495; died 589. Though not so celebrated as his namesake of Clonard, he was the ...

Finotti, Joseph M.

Born at Ferrara, Italy, 21 September, 1817; died at Central City, Colorado, 10 January, 1879. ...

Fintan, Saints

St. Fintan of Clonenagh A Leinster saint, b. about 524; d. 17 February, probably 594, or at least ...

Fioretti di San Francesco d'Assisi

Little Flowers of Francis of Assisi , the name given to a classic collection of popular legends ...

Fire, Liturgical Use of

Fire is one of the most expressive and most ancient of liturgical symbols. All the creeds of ...

Firmament

(Septuagint stereoma ; Vulgate, firmamentum ). The notion that the sky was a vast solid ...

Firmicus Maternus

Christian author of the fourth century; wrote a work "De errore profanarum religionum". Nothing ...

Firmilian

Bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia, died c. 269. He had among his contemporaries a reputation ...

First-Born

The word, though casually taken in Holy Writ in a metaphorical sense, is most generally used by ...

First-Fruits

The practice of consecrating first-fruits to the Deity is not a distinctly Jewish one (cf. ...

Fiscal Procurator

( Latin PROCURATOR FISCALIS). The duties of the fiscal procurator consist in preventing ...

Fischer, Antonius

Archbishop of Cologne and cardinal, b. at Julich, 30 May, 1840; d. at Neuenahr, 30 July, 1912. ...

Fish, Symbolism of the

Among the symbols employed by the primitive Christians, that of the fish ranks probably first in ...

Fisher, Philip

(An alias , real name THOMAS COPLEY) Missionary, b. in Madrid, 1595-6; d. in Maryland, U. ...

Fisherman, The Ring of the

The earliest mention of the Fisherman's ring worn by the popes is in a letter of Clement IV ...

Fitter, Daniel

Born in Worcestershire, England, 1628; died at St. Thomas' Priory, near Stafford, 6 Feb., 1700. ...

Fitton, James

Missionary, b. at Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. , 10 April, 1805; d. there, 15 Sept., 1881. His ...

Fitz-Simons, Thomas

American merchant, b. in Ireland, 1741; d. at Philadelphia, U.S.A. 26 Aug., 1811. There is no ...

Fitzalan, Henry

Twelfth Earl of Arundel, b. about 1511; d. in London, 24 Feb., 1580 (O.S. 1579). Son of William, ...

FitzGibbon, Catherine

(Catherine FitzGibbon.) Born in London, England, 12 May, 1823; died in New York, 14 August, ...

Fitzherbert, Anthony, Sir

Judge, b. in 1470; d. 27 May, 1538. He was the sixth son of Ralph Fitzherbert of Norbury, ...

Fitzherbert, Maria Anne

Wife of King George IV; b. 26 July, 1756 (place uncertain); d. at Brighton, England, 29 March, ...

Fitzherbert, Thomas

Born 1552, at Swynnerton, Staffs, England ; died 17 Aug., 1640, at Rome. His father having died ...

Fitzpatrick, William John

Historian, b. in Dublin, Ireland, 31 Aug., 1830; d. there 24 Dec., 1895. The son of a rich ...

Fitzralph, Richard

Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Dundalk, Ireland, about 1295; d. at Avignon, 16 Dec., 1360. He ...

Fitzsimon, Henry

(Fitz Simon). Jesuit, b. 1566 (or 1569), in Dublin, Ireland ; d. 29 Nov., 1643 (or 1645), ...

Fixlmillner, Placidus

Astronomer, b. at Achleuthen near Kremsmünster, Austria, in 1721; d. at Kremsmünster, ...

Fizeau, Armand-Hippolyte-Louis

Physicist, b. at Paris, 23 Sept., 1819; d. at Nanteuil, Seine-et-Marne, 18 Sept., 1896. His ...

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Fl 39

Fléchier, Esprit

Bishop; b. at Pernes, France, 1632; died at Montpellier, 1710; member of the Academy, and ...

Flórez, Enrique

Spanish theologian, archeologist, and historian; born at Valladolid, 14 February, 1701; died at ...

Flabellum

The flabellum, in liturgical use, is a fan made of leather, silk, parchment, or feathers ...

Flaccilla, Ælia

( Plakilla ) Empress, wife of Theodosius the Great , died c. A. D. 385 or 386. Like ...

Flagellants

A fanatical and heretical sect that flourished in the thirteenth and succeeding centuries, Their ...

Flagellation

The history of the whip, rod, and stick, as instruments of punishment and of voluntary penance, ...

Flaget, Benedict Joseph

First Bishop of Bardstown (subsequently of Louisville ), Kentucky, U.S.A. b. at Contournat, ...

Flanagan, Thomas Canon

Born in England in 1814, though Irish by descent; died at Kidderminster, 21 July, 1865. He was ...

Flanders

(Flemish VLAENDEREN; German FLANDEREN; French FLANDRE). Designated in the eighth century a ...

Flandrin, Jean-Hippolyte

French painter, b. at Lyons, 23 March, 1809; d. at Rome, 21 March, 1864. He came of a family of ...

Flathead Indians

A name used in both Americas, without special ethnologic significance, to designate tribes ...

Flathers, Ven. Mathew

( Alias Major). An English priest and martyr ; b. probably c. 1580 at Weston, Yorkshire, ...

Flavia Domitilla

A Christian Roman matron of the imperial family who lived towards the close of the first ...

Flavian, Saint

Bishop of Constantinople, date of birth unknown; d. at Hypæpa in Lydia, August, 449. ...

Flavias

A titular see of Cilicia Secunda. Nothing is known of its ancient name and history, except that ...

Flavigny, Abbey of

A Benedictine abbey in the Diocese of Dijon, the department of Côte-d'Or, and ...

Flaviopolis

A titular see in the province of Honorias. The city, formerly called Cratia, originally belonged ...

Flemael, Bertholet

(The name was also spelled FLEMALLE and FLAMAEL). Painter, b. at Liège, Flanders, in ...

Fleming, Patrick

Franciscan friar b. at Lagan, Couny Louth, Ireland, 17 April, 1599; d. 7 November, 1631. His ...

Fleming, Richard

(FLEMMING, FLEMMYNGE). Bishop of Lincoln and founder of Lincoln College, Oxford; b. of a ...

Fleming, Thomas

Archbishop of Dublin, son of the Baron of Slane, b. in 1593; d. in 1665. He studied at thy ...

Fletcher, John

A missionary and theologian, b. at Ormskirk, England, of an old Catholic family ; educated at ...

Flete, William

An Augustinian hermit friar, a contemporary and great friend of St. Catherine of Siena ; the ...

Fleuriot, Zénaide-Marie-Anne

A French novelist, b. at Saint-Brieuc, 12 September, 1829; d. at Paris, 18 December, 1890. She ...

Fleury, Abbey of

( More completely FLEURY-SAINT-BENOÎT) One of the oldest and most celebrated ...

Fleury, André-Hercule de

Born at Lodève, 26 June, 1653; died at Paris, 29 January, 1742. He was a ...

Flodoard

(Or FRODOARD) French historian and chronicler, b. at Epernay in 894; d. in 966. He was ...

Flood of Noah

Deluge is the name of a catastrophe fully described in Genesis 6:1 - 9:19 , and referred to in the ...

Floreffe, Abbey of

Pleasantly situated on the right bank of the Sambre, about seven miles southwest of Namur, ...

Florence

(Latin Florentia ; Italian Firenze ). ARCHDIOCESE OF FLORENCE (FLORENTINA). Located in ...

Florence of Worcester

English chronicler; all that is known of his personal history is that he was a monk of ...

Florence, Council of

The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council was, correctly speaking, the continuation of the Council of ...

Florentina, Saint

Virgin ; born towards the middle of the sixth century; died about 612. The family of St. ...

Florian, Jean-Pierre Claris, Chevalier de

Born at the château of Florian (Gard), 6 March, 1755; died at Sceaux, 13 September, 1794. An ...

Florians, The

(Floriacenses), an altogether independent order, and not, as some consider, a branch of the ...

Florida

The Peninsular or Everglade State, the most southern in the American Union and second largest east ...

Florilegia

Florilegia (Lat., florilegium, an anthology) are systematic collections of excerpts (more or ...

Florus

A deacon of Lyons, ecclesiastical writer in the first half of the ninth century. We have no ...

Floyd, John

English missionary, wrote under the names Flud, Daniel à Jesu, Hermannus Loemelius, George ...

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Fo 64

Fogaras

ARCHDIOCESE OF FOGARAS (FOGARASIENSIS). Archdiocese in Hungary, of the Greek-Rumanian Rite. It ...

Foggia

DIOCESE OF FOGGIA (FODIANA). Diocese in the province of the same name in Apulia (Southern ...

Foillan, Saint

( Irish FAELAN, FAOLAN, FOELAN, FOALAN.) Represented in iconography with a crown at his ...

Folengo, Teofilo

An Italian poet, better known by his pseudonyrn MERLIN COCCALO or COCAI; b. at Mantua in 1496; ...

Foley, Henry

Born at Astley in Worcestershire, England, 9 Aug., 1811; died at Manresa House, Roehampton, 19 ...

Foligno

DIOCESE OF FOLIGNO (FULGINATENSIS). Diocese in the province of Perugia, Italy, immediately ...

Foliot, Gilbert

Bishop of London, b. early in the twelfth century of an Anglo-Norman family and connected ...

Folkestone Abbey

Folkestone Abbey -- more correctly FOLKESTONE PRIORY -- is situated in the east division of ...

Fonseca Soares, Antonio da

(ANTONIO DAS CHAGAS). Friar Minor and ascetical writer; b. at Vidigueira, 25 June, 1631; d. at ...

Fonseca, José Ribeiro da

Friar Minor ; b. at Evora, 3 Dec., 1690; d. at Porto, 16 June, 1752. He was received into the ...

Fonseca, Pedro Da

A philosopher and theologian, born at Cortizada, Portugal, 1528; died at Lisbon, 4 Nov., 1599. ...

Fontana, Carlo

An architect and writer; b. at Bruciato, near Como, 1634; d. at Rome, 1714. There seems to be no ...

Fontana, Domenico

A Roman architect of the Late Renaissance, b. at Melide on the Lake of Lugano, 1543; d. at ...

Fontana, Felice

Italian naturalist and physiologist, b. at Pomarolo in the Tyrol, 15 April, 1730; d. at Florence, ...

Fontbonne, Jeanne

In religion Mother St. John, second foundress and superior-general of the Sisters of St. Joseph ...

Fonte-Avellana

A suppressed order of hermits, which takes its name from their first hermitage in the Apennines. ...

Fontenelle, Abbey of

(Or ABBEY OF SAINT WANDRILLE). A Benedictine monastery in Normandy ...

Fontevrault, Order and Abbey of

I. CHARACTER OF THE ORDER The monastery of Fontevrault was founded by Blessed Robert ...

Fonts, Holy Water

Vessels intended for the use of holy water are of very ancient origin, and archaeological ...

Fools, Feast of

A celebration marked by much license and buffoonery, which in many parts of Europe, and ...

Foppa, Ambrogio

Generally known as CARADOSS0. Italian goldsmith, sculptor, and die sinker, b. at Mondonico in ...

Forbes, John

Capuchin, b. 1570; d. 1606. His father, John, eighth Lord Forbes, being a Protestant, and his ...

Forbin-Janson, Comte de Charles-Auguste-Marie-Joseph

A Bishop of Nancy and Toul, founder of the Association of the Holy Childhood , born in Paris, ...

Forcellini, Egidio

Latin lexicographer, b. at Fener, near Treviso, Italy, 26 Aug., 1688; d. at Padua, 4 April, ...

Ford, Blessed Thomas

Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...

Fordham University

Fordham University developed out of Saint John's College, founded by Bishop Hughes upon the old ...

Foreman, Andrew

A Scottish prelate, of good border family ; b. at Hatton, near Berwick-on-Tweed; d. 1522. His ...

Forer, Laurenz

Controversialist, b. at Lucerne, 1580; d. at Ratisbon, 7 January, 1659. He entered the Society ...

Foresters, Catholic Orders of

I On 30 July, 1879, some members of the St. Vincent de Paul Society of Boston, Massachusetts, ...

Forgery, Forger

If we accept the definition usually given by canonists, forgery ( Latin falsum ) differs very ...

Forli

(FOROLIVIENSIS) Diocese in the province of Romagna (Central Italy ); suffragan of Ravenna. ...

Form

(Latin forma; Greek eidos, morphe, he kata ton logon ousia, to ti en einai : Aristotle) ...

Formby, Henry

Born 1816; died at Normanton Hall, Leicester, 12 March, 1884. His father, Henry Grenehalgh Formby, ...

Formosus, Pope

(891-896) The pontificate of this pope belongs to that era of strife for political supremacy ...

Formularies

(LIBRI FORMULARUM) Formularies are medieval collections of models for the execution of ...

Forrest, William

Priest and poet; dates of birth and death uncertain. Few personal details are known of him. He ...

Forster, Fobrenius

Prince-Abbot of St. Emmeram at Ratisbon, b. 30 Aug., 1709, at Königsfeld in Upper Bavaria ...

Forster, Thomas Ignatius Maria

Astronomer and naturalist, b. at London, 9 Nov., 1789; d. at Brussels, 2 Feb., 1860. His literary ...

Fort Augustus Abbey

St. Benedict's Abbey, at Fort Augustus, Inverness-shire, is at present the only monastery for ...

Fort Wayne

DIOCESE OF (WAYNE CASTRENSIS). The Diocese of Vincennes, Indiana, U.S.A. established in ...

Fortaleza, Diocese of

(FORTALEXIENSIS) The Diocese of Fortaleza is co-extensive with the State of Ceará in ...

Fortescue, Blessed Adrian

Knight of St. John, martyr, b. about 1476, executed 10 July, 1539. He belonged to the Salden ...

Fortitude

(1) Manliness is etymologically what is meant by the Latin word virtus and by the Greek andreia ...

Fortunato of Brescia

Morphologist and Minorite of the Reform of Lombardy ; b. at Brescia, 1701; d. at Madrid, ...

Fortunatus

Venantius Honorius Clementianus Fortunatus A Christian poet of the sixth century, b. ...

Forty Hours' Devotion

Also called Quarant' Ore or written in one word Quarantore , is a devotion in which continuous ...

Forty Martyrs

A party of soldiers who suffered a cruel death for their faith, near Sebaste, in Lesser Armenia, ...

Forum, Ecclesiastical

That the Church of Christ has judicial and coercive power is plain from the constitution given ...

Fossano

DIOCESE OF FOSSANO (FOSSANENSIS). Fossano is a town in the province of Cuneo, in Piedmont, ...

Fossombrone

DIOCESE OF FOSSOMBRONE (FOROSEMPRONIENSIS). Diocese in the province of Pesaro, Italy, a ...

Fossors

(Latin fossores , fossarii from fodere , to dig). Grave diggers in the Roman ...

Foster, John Gray

Soldier, convert, b. at Whitfield, New Hampshire, U.S.A. 27 May, 1823; d. at Nashua, New ...

Fothad, Saint

Surnamed NA CANOINE ("of the Canon"). A monk of Fahan-Mura, County Doneval, Ireland, at the ...

Fouard, Constant

An ecclesiastical writer b. at Elbeuf, near Rouen, 6 Aug. 1837; his early life was a ...

Foucault, Jean-Bertrand-Léon

A physicist and mechanician, b. at Paris, 19 Sept., 1819; d. there 11 Feb., 1868. He received ...

Foulque de Neuilly

A popular Crusade preacher, d. March, 1202. At the end of the twelfth century he was ...

Foundation

( Latin fundatio; German Stiftung ) An ecclesiastical foundation is the making over of ...

Foundling Asylums

Under this title are comprised all institutions which take charge of infants whose parents or ...

Fountains Abbey

A monastery of the Cistercian Order situated on the banks of the Skell about two and a half ...

Fouquet, Jehan

(Or J EAN F OUQUET ) French painter and miniaturist, b. at Tours, c. 1415; d. about 1480. ...

Four Crowned Martyrs

The old guidebooks to the tombs of the Roman martyrs make mention, in connection with the ...

Four Masters, Annals of the

The most extensive of all the compilations of the ancient annals of Ireland. They commence, ...

Fowler, John

Scholar and printer, b. at Bristol, England, 1537; d. at Namur, Flanders, 13 Feb., 1578-9. He ...

Foxe's Book of Martyrs

John Foxe was born at Boston in Lincolnshire, England, in 1516, and was educated at Magdalen ...

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Fr 82

Fréchette, Louis-Honoré

Born at Notre-Dame de Lévis, P.Q., Canada, 16 November, 1839; died 30 May, 1908. He ...

Fréjus

DIOCESE OF FRÉJUS (FORUM JULII). Suffragan of Aix ; comprises the whole department of ...

Fra Angelico

A famous painter of the Florentine school, born near Castello di Vicchio in the province of ...

Fractio Panis

(BREAKING OF BREAD.) The name given to a fresco in the so-called "Capella Greca" in the ...

France

The fifth in size (usually reckoned the fourth) of the great divisions of Europe. DESCRIPTIVE ...

Frances d'Amboise, Blessed

Duchess of Brittany, afterwards Carmelite nun, b. 1427; d. at Nantes, 4 Nov., 1485. The daughter ...

Frances of Rome, Saint

(Bussa di Leoni.) One of the greatest mystics of the fifteenth century; born at Rome, of a noble ...

Franceschini, Marc' Antonio

Italian painter ; b. at Bologna, 1648; d. there c. 1729; best known for the decorative works he ...

Franchi, Ausonio

The pseudonym of CRISTOFORO BONAVINO, philosopher ; b. 24 February, 1821, at Pegli, province of ...

Francia

(FRANCESCO RAIBOLINI) A famous Bolognese goldsmith, engraver, and artist, b. about 1450; d. in ...

Francis Borgia, Saint

(Spanish F RANCISCO DE B ORJA Y A RAGON ) Francis Borgia, born 28 October, 1510, was the ...

Francis Caracciolo, Saint

Co-founder with John Augustine Adorno of the Conregation of the Minor Clerks Regular ; b. in Villa ...

Francis de Geronimo, Saint

(Girolamo, Hieronymo). Born 17 December, 1642; died 11 May, 1716. His birthplace was ...

Francis de Sales, Saint

Bishop of Geneva, Doctor of the Universal Church ; born at Thorens, in the Duchy of Savoy, 21 ...

Francis I

King of France ; b. at Cognac, 12 September, 1494; d. at Rambouillet, 31 March, 1547. He was the ...

Francis Ingleby, Venerable

English martyr, born about 1551; suffered at York on Friday, 3 June, 1586 (old style). According ...

Francis of Assisi, Saint

Founder of the Franciscan Order, born at Assisi in Umbria, in 1181 or 1182 -- the exact year ...

Francis of Fabriano, Blessed

Priest of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. 2 Sept., 1251; d. 22 April, 1322. His birth and ...

Francis of Paula, Saint

Founder of the Order of Minims; b. in 1416, at Paula, in Calabria, Italy ; d. 2 April, 1507, at ...

Francis of Vittoria

A Spanish theologian ; b. about 1480, at Vittoria, province of Avila, in Old Castile ; d. 12 ...

Francis Regis Clet, Blessed

A Lazarist missionary in China ; b. 1748, martyred, 18 Feb., 1820. His father was a merchant ...

Francis Solanus, Saint

South American missionary of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. at Montilla, in the Diocese of ...

Francis Xavier, Saint

Born in the Castle of Xavier near Sanguesa, in Navarre, 7 April, 1506; died on the Island of ...

Francis, Rule of Saint

As known, St. Francis founded three orders and gave each of them a special rule. Here only the ...

Franciscan Crown

( Or Seraphic Rosary.) A Rosary consisting of seven decades in commemoration of the seven ...

Franciscan Order

A term commonly used to designate the members of the various foundations of religious, whether men ...

Franck, Kasper

A theologian and controversialist; b. at Ortrand, Saxony, 2 Nov., 1543; d. at Ingolstadt, 12 ...

Franco, Giovanni Battista

(Frequently known as IL SEMOLIE) Italian historical painter and etcher, b. at Udine in ...

Frank, Michael Sigismund

Catholic artist and rediscoverer of the lost art of glass-painting; b. 1 June, 1770, at ...

Frankenberg

JOHANN HEINRICH, GRAF VON FRANKENBERG. Archbishop of Mechlin (Malines), Primate of ...

Frankfort, Council of

Convened in the summer of 794, by the grace of God, authority of the pope, and command of ...

Frankfort-on-the-Main

Frankfort-on-the-Main, formerly the scene of the election and coronation of the German emperors, ...

Franks, The

The Franks were a confederation formed in Western Germany of a certain number of ancient ...

Franzelin, Johann Baptist

Cardinal and theologian ; b. at Aldein, in the Tyrol, 15 April, 1816; d. at Rome, 11 Dec., ...

Frascati

DIOCESE OF FRASCATI (TUSCULANA). One of the six suburbicarian (i.e. neighbouring) dioceses ...

Frassen, Claude

A celebrated Scotist theologian and philosopher of the Order of Friars Minor ; b. near ...

Fraternal Correction

Fraternal correction is here taken to mean the admonishing of one's neighbor by a private ...

Fraticelli

(Or F RATRICELLI ) A name given to various heretical sects which appeared in the fourteenth ...

Fraud

In the common acceptation of the word, an act or course of deception deliberately practised with ...

Fraunhofer, Joseph von

Optician, b. at Straubing, Bavaria, 6 March, 1787; d. at Munich, 7 June, 1826. He was the tenth ...

Frayssinous, Denis de

1765-1841, Bishop of Hermopolis in partibus infidelium , is celebrated chiefly for his ...

Fredegarius

The name used since the sixteenth designate the supposed author of an anonymous historical ...

Fredegis of Tours

(Fridugisus or Fredegisus). A ninth-century monk, teacher, and writer. Fredegis was an ...

Frederick I (Barbarossa)

German King and Roman Emperor, son of Frederick of Swabia (d. 1147) and Judith, daughter of Henry ...

Frederick II

German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry VI and Constance of Sicily; born 26 Dec., 1194; died ...

Fredoli, Berenger

Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati ; b. at Vérune, France, c. ú d. at Avignon, 11 June, ...

Free Church of Scotland

(Known since 1900 as the UNITED FREE CHURCH) An ecclesiastical organization in Scotland ...

Free Will

RELATION OF THE QUESTION TO DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY HISTORY Free Will in Ancient ...

Free-Thinkers

Those who, abandoning the religious truths and moral dictates of the Christian Revelation, and ...

Freeman, Ven. William

A priest and martyr, b. at Manthorp near York, c. 1558; d. at Warwick, 13 August, 1595. His ...

Freemasonry

The subject is treated under the following heads: I. Name and Definition;II. Origin and Early ...

Fregoso, Federigo

Cardinal ; b. at Genoa, about 1480; d. 22 July, 1541; belonged to the Fregosi, one of the four ...

Freiburg

City, archdiocese, and university in the Archduchy of Baden, Germany . THE CITY Freiburg in ...

Fremin, James

Jesuit missionary to the American Indians ; b. at Reims, 12 March, 1628; d. at Quebec, 2 July, ...

French Academy, The

The French Academy was founded by Cardinal de Richelieu in 1635. For several years a number of ...

French Catholics in the United States

The first Bishop of Burlington, the Right Reverend Louis de Goesbriand, in a letter dated 11 ...

French Concordat of 1801, The

This name is given to the convention of the 26th Messidor, year IX (July 16, 1802), whereby Pope ...

French Literature

Origin and Foundations of the French Language When the Romans became masters of Gaul, they imposed ...

French Revolution

The last thirty years have given us a new version of the history of the French Revolution, the ...

French, Nicholas

Bishop of Ferns, Ireland, b. at Ballytory, Co. Wexford, in 1604, his parents being John ...

Freppel, Charles-Emile

Born at Ober-Ehnheim, Alsace, 1 June, 1827; died at Paris, 22 Dec., 1891. He was Bishop of ...

Frequent Communion

Without specifying how often the faithful should communicate, Christ simply bids us eat His Flesh ...

Fresnel, Augustin-Jean

Physicist; b. at Broglie near Bernay, Normandy, 10 May, 1788; d. at Ville d'Avray, near Paris, ...

Friar

[From Lat. frater , through O. Fr. fredre, frere, M. E. frere; It. frate (as prefix ...

Friars Minor, Order of

(Also known as FRANCISCANS.) This subject may be conveniently considered under the following ...

Fribourg, University of

From the sixteenth century, the foundation of a Catholic university in Switzerland had often ...

Fridelli, Xavier Ehrenbert

(Properly FRIEDEL.) Jesuit missioner and cartographer, b. at Linz, Austria, 11 March, 1673; ...

Frideswide, Saint

(FRIDESWIDA, FREDESWIDA, French FRÉVISSE, Old English FRIS). Virgin, patroness of ...

Fridolin, Saint

Missionary, founder of the Monastery of Säckingen, Baden (sixth century). In accordance with ...

Friedrich von Hausen

(HUSEN) Medieval German poet, one of the earliest of the minnesingers; date of birth ...

Friends of God

( German G OTTESFREUNDE ). An association of pious persons, both ecclesiastical and lay, ...

Friends, Society of

The official designation of an Anglo - American religious sect originally styling themselves ...

Frigolet, Abbey of

The monastery of St. Michael was founded, about 960, at Frigolet, by Conrad the Pacific, King ...

Fringes (in Scripture)

This word is used to denote a special kind of trimming, consisting of loose threads of wool, silk, ...

Fritz, Samuel

A Jesuit missionary of the eighteenth century noted for his exploration of the Amazon River and ...

Froissart, Jean

French historian and poet, b. at Valenciennes, about 1337, d. at sentence -->Chimay early ...

Fromentin, Eugène

French writer and artist; b. at La Rochelle, 24 October, 1820; d. at Saint-Maurice, near La ...

Frontal, Altar

The frontal ( antipendium, pallium altaris ) is an appendage which covers the entire front of ...

Frontenac, Louis de Baude

A governor of New France, b. at Paris, 1622; d. at Quebec, 28 Nov., 1698. His father was captain ...

Frowin, Blessed

Benedictine abbot, d. 11 March, 1178. Of the early life of Frowin nothing is known, save that he ...

Fructuosus of Braga, Saint

An Archbishop, d. 16 April, c. 665. He was the son of a Gothic general, and studied in Palencia. ...

Fructuosus of Tarragona, Saint

A bishop and martyr ; d. 21 January, 259. During the night of 16 January, he, together with ...

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Fu 21

Fuchs, Johann Nepomuk von

A chemist and mineralogist, b. at Mattenzell, near Bremberg, Lower Bavaria, 15 May, 1774; d. at ...

Fulbert of Chartres

Bishop, b. between 952 and 962; d. 10 April, 1028 or 1029. Mabillon and others think that he was ...

Fulcran, Saint

Bishop of Lodève; d. 13 February, 1006. According to the biography which Bernard Guidonis, ...

Fulda

DIOCESE OF FULDA (FULDENSIS). This diocese of the German Empire takes its name from the ...

Fulgentius Ferrandus

A canonist and theologian of the African Church in the first half of the sixth century. He was ...

Fulgentius, Saint

A Bishop of Ecija (Astigi), in Spain, at the beginning of the seventh century. Like his brothers ...

Fulgentius, Saint

(FABIUS CLAUDIUS GORDIANUS FULGENTIUS). Born 468, died 533. Bishop of Ruspe in the province ...

Fullerton, Lady Georgiana Charlotte

Novelist; born 23 September, 1812, in Staffordshire, died 19 January, 1885, at Bournemouth. She ...

Fullo, Peter

Intruding Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch ; d. 488. He received the Greek surname Gnapheus ...

Fumo, Bartolommeo

A theologian, b. at Villon near Piacenza ; d. 1545. At an early age he entered the Dominican ...

Funchal

(FUNCHALENSIS.) Diocese in the Madeira Islands. Both in neo-Latin and in Portuguese the name ...

Fundamental Articles

This term was employed by Protestant theologians to distinguish the essential parts of the ...

Funeral Dues

The canonical perquisites of a parish priest receivable on the occasion of the funeral of any of ...

Funeral Pall

A black cloth usually spread over the coffin while the obsequies are performed for a deceased ...

Funk, Franz Xaver von

Church historian, b. in the small market town of Abtsgemünd in Würtemberg, 12 October, ...

Furness Abbey

Situated in the north of Lancashire about five miles from the town of Ulverston. Originally a ...

Furni

A titular see in Proconsular Africa, where two towns of this name are known to have existed. One ...

Furniss, John

A well-known children's missioner, born near Sheffield, England, 19 June, 1809; at Clapham, ...

Fursey, Saint

An Abbot of Lagny, near Paris, d. 16 Jan., about 650. He was the son of Fintan, son of Finloga, ...

Fussola

A titular see in Numidia. It was a fortified town, inhabited for the most part by Donatists ...

Fust, John

( Or FAUST.) A partner of Gutenberg in promoting the art of printing, d. at Paris about ...

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