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General Councils

This subject will be treated under the following heads:

  • Definition
  • Classification
  • Historical Sketch
  • The Pope and General Councils
  • Composition of General Councils
    • Right of participation
    • Requisite number of members
    • Papal headship the formal element of Councils
  • Factors in the Pope's Co-operation with the Council
  • Business Methods
    • The facts
    • The theory
  • Infallibility of General Councils;
  • Correlation of Papal and Conciliary Infallibility
  • Infallibility Restricted to Unanimous Findings
  • Promulgation
  • Is a Council above the Pope?
  • Has a General Council Power to Depose a Pope?
  • I. DEFINITION

    Councils are legally convened assemblies of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological experts for the purpose of discussing and regulating matters of church doctrine and discipline. The terms council and synod are synonymous, although in the oldest Christian literature the ordinary meetings for worship are also called synods, and diocesan synods are not properly councils because they are only convened for deliberation. Councils unlawfully assembled are termed conciliabula , conventicula , and even latrocinia , i.e. "robber synods ". The constituent elements of an ecclesiastical council are the following:

    • A legally convened meeting
    • of members of the hierarchy,
    • for the purpose of carrying out their judicial and doctrinal functions,
    • by means of deliberation in common
    • resulting in regulations and decrees invested with the authority of the whole assembly.
    All these elements result from an analysis of the fact that councils are a concentration of the ruling powers of the Church for decisive action.

    The first condition is that such concentration conform to the constitution of the Church : it must be started by the head of the forces that are to move and to act, e.g. by the metropolitan if the action is limited to one province. The actors themselves are necessarily the leaders of the Church in their double capacity of judges and teachers, for the proper object of conciliar activity is the settling of questions of faith and discipline. When they assemble for other purposes, either at regular times or in extraordinary circumstances, in order to deliberate on current questions of administration or on concerted action in emergencies, their meetings are not called councils but simply meetings, or assemblies, of bishops. Deliberation, with free discussion and ventilation of private views, is another essential note in the notion of councils. They are the mind of the Church in action, the sensus ecclesiae taking form and shape in the mould of dogmatic definition and authoritative decrees. The contrast of conflicting opinions, their actual clash necessarily precedes the final triumph of faith. Lastly, in a council's decisions we see the highest expression of authority of which its members are capable within the sphere of their jurisdiction, with the added strength and weight resulting from the combined action of the whole body.

    II. CLASSIFICATION

    Councils are, then, from their nature, a common effort of the Church, or part of the Church, for self-preservation and self-defence. They appear at her very origin, in the time of the Apostles at Jerusalem, and throughout her whole history whenever faith or morals or discipline are seriously threatened. Although their object is always the same, the circumstances under which they meet impart to them a great variety, which renders a classification necessary. Taking territorial extension for a basis, seven kinds of synods are distinguished.

  • Ecumenical Councils are those to which the bishops, and others entitled to vote, are convoked from the whole world ( oikoumene ) under the presidency of the pope or his legates, and the decrees of which, having received papal confirmation, bind all Christians. A council, Ecumenical in its convocation, may fail to secure the approbation of the whole Church or of the pope, and thus not rank in authority with Ecumenical councils. Such was the case with the Robber Synod of 449 ( Latrocinium Ephesinum ), the Synod of Pisa in 1409, and in part with the Councils of Constance and Basle.
  • The second rank is held by the general synods of the East or of the West , composed of but one-half of the episcopate. The Synod Of Constantinople (381) was originally only an Eastern general synod, at which were present the four patriarchs of the East (viz. of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem ), with many metropolitans and bishops. It ranks as Ecumenical because its decrees were ultimately received in the West also.
  • Patriarchal, national, and primatial councils represent a whole patriarchate, a whole nation, or the several provinces subject to a primate. Of such councils we have frequent examples in Latin Africa, where the metropolitan and ordinary bishops used to meet under the Primate of Carthage, in Spain, under the Primate of Toledo, and in earlier times in Syria, under the Metropolitan -- later Patriarch -- of Antioch.
  • Provincial councils bring together the suffragan bishops of the metropolitan of an ecclesiastical province and other dignitaries entitled to participate.
  • Diocesan synods consist of the clergy of the diocese and are presided over by the bishop or the vicar-general.
  • A peculiar kind of council used to be held at Constantinople, it consisted of bishops from any part of the world who happened to be at the time in that imperial city. Hence the name synodoi enoemousai "visitors' synods ".
  • Lastly there have been mixed synods , in which both civil and ecclesiastical dignitaries met to settle secular as well as ecclesiastical matters. They were frequent at the beginning of the Middle Ages in France, Germany, Spain, and Italy. In England even abbesses were occasionally present at such mixed councils. Sometimes, not always, the clergy and laity voted in separate chambers.
  • Although it is in the nature of councils to represent either the whole or part of the Church organism yet we find many councils simply consisting of a number of bishops brought together from different countries for some special purpose, regardless of any territorial or hierarchical connection. They were most frequent in the fourth century, when the metropolitan and patriarchal circumscriptions were still imperfect, and questions of faith and discipline manifold. Not a few of them, summoned by emperors or bishops in opposition to the lawful authorities (such as that of Antioch in 341), were positively irregular, and acted for evil rather than good. Councils of this kind may be compared to the meetings of bishops of our own times; decrees passed in them had no binding power on any but the subjects of the bishops present, they were important manifestations of the sensus ecclesiae (mind of the Church ) rather than judicial or legislative bodies. But precisely as expressing the mind of the Church they often acquired a far-reaching influence due, either to their internal soundness, or to the authority of their framers, or to both.

    It should be noted that the terms concilia plenaria, universalia, OR generalia are, or used to be, applied indiscriminately to all synods not confined to a single province; in the Middle Ages, even provincial synods, as compared to diocesan, received these names. Down to the late Middle Ages all papal synods to which a certain number of bishops from different countries had been summoned were regularly styled plenary, general, or universal synods. In earlier times, before the separation of East and West, councils to which several distant patriarchates or exarchates sent representatives, were described absolutely as "plenary councils of the universal church". These terms are applied by St. Augustine to the Council of Arles (314), at which only Western bishops were present. In the same way the council of Constantinople (382), in a letter to Pope Damasus, calls the council held in the same town the year before (381) "an Ecumenical synod " i.e. a synod representing the oikoumene , the whole inhabited world as known to the Greeks and Romans, because all the Eastern patriarchates, though no Western, took part in it. The synod of 381 could not, at that time, be termed Ecumenical in the strict sense now in use, because it still lacked the formal confirmation of the Apostolic See. As a matter of fact, the Greeks themselves did not put this council on a par with those of Nicaea and Ephesus until its confirmation at the Synod of Chalcedon, and the Latins acknowledged its authority only in the sixth century.

    III. HISTORICAL SKETCH OF ECUMENICAL COUNCILS

    The present article deals chiefly with the theological and canonical questions concerning councils which are Ecumenical in the strict sense above defined. Special articles give the history of each important synod under the head of the city or see where it was held. In order, however, to supply the reader with a basis of fact for the discussion of principles which is to follow, a list is subjoined of the twenty Ecumenical councils with a brief statement of the purpose of each.

    First Ecumenical Council: Nicaea I (325)

    The Council of Nicaea lasted two months and twelve days. Three hundred and eighteen bishops were present. Hosius, Bishop of Cordova, assisted as legate of Pope Sylvester. The Emperor Constantine was also present. To this council we owe The Creed ( Symbolum ) of Nicaea, defining against Arius the true Divinity of the Son of God ( homoousios ), and the fixing of the date for keeping Easter (against the Quartodecimans).

    Second Ecumenical Council: Constantinople I (381)

    The First General Council of Constantinople , under Pope Damasus and the Emperor Theodosius I, was attended by 150 bishops. It was directed against the followers of Macedonius, who impugned the Divinity of the Holy Ghost. To the above-mentioned Nicene Creed it added the clauses referring to the Holy Ghost ( qui simul adoratur ) and all that follows to the end.

    Third Ecumenical Council: Ephesus (431)

    The Council of Ephesus, of more than 200 bishops, presided over by St. Cyril of Alexandria representing Pope Celestine I, defined the true personal unity of Christ, declared Mary the Mother of God ( theotokos ) against Nestorius, Bishop of Constantinople, and renewed the condemnation of Pelagius.

    Fourth Ecumenical Council: Chalcedon (451)

    The Council of Chalcedon -- 150 bishops under Pope Leo the Great and the Emperor Marcian -- defined the two natures (Divine and human) in Christ against Eutyches, who was excommunicated.

    Fifth Ecumenical Council: Constantinople II (553)

    The Second General Council of Constantinople, of 165 bishops under Pope Vigilius and Emperor Justinian I, condemned the errors of Origen and certain writings ( The Three Chapters ) of Theodoret, of Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia and of Ibas, Bishop of Edessa ; it further confirmed the first four general councils, especially that of Chalcedon whose authority was contested by some heretics.

    Sixth Ecumenical Council: Constantinople III (680-681)

    The Third General Council of Constantinople, under Pope Agatho and the Emperor Constantine Pogonatus, was attended by the Patriarchs of Constantinople and of Antioch, 174 bishops, and the emperor. It put an end to Monothelitism by defining two wills in Christ, the Divine and the human, as two distinct principles of operation. It anathematized Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, Macarius, and all their followers.

    Seventh Ecumenical Council: Nicaea II (787)

    The Second Council of Nicaea was convoked by Emperor Constantine VI and his mother Irene, under Pope Adrian I, and was presided over by the legates of Pope Adrian ; it regulated the veneration of holy images . Between 300 and 367 bishops assisted.

    Eighth Ecumenical Council: Constantinople IV (869)

    The Fourth General Council of Constantinople, under Pope Adrian II and Emperor Basil numbering 102 bishops, 3 papal legates, and 4 patriarchs, consigned to the flames the Acts of an irregular council ( conciliabulum ) brought together by Photius against Pope Nicholas and Ignatius the legitimate Patriarch of Constantinople; it condemned Photius who had unlawfully seized the patriarchal dignity. The Photian Schism, however, triumphed in the Greek Church, and no other general council took place in the East.

    Ninth Ecumenical Council: Lateran I (1123)

    The First Lateran Council, the first held at Rome, met under Pope Callistus II. About 900 bishops and abbots assisted. It abolished the right claimed by lay princes, of investiture with ring and crosier to ecclesiastical benefices and dealt with church discipline and the recovery of the Holy Land from the infidels.

    Tenth Ecumenical Council: Lateran II (1139)

    The Second Lateran Council was held at Rome under Pope Innocent II, with an attendance of about 1000 prelates and the Emperor Conrad. Its object was to put an end to the errors of Arnold of Brescia.

    Eleventh Ecumenical Council: Lateran III (1179)

    The Third Lateran Council took place under Pope Alexander III, Frederick I being emperor. There were 302 bishops present. It condemned the Albigenses and Waldenses and issued numerous decrees for the reformation of morals.

    Twelfth Ecumenical Council: Lateran IV (1215)

    The Fourth Lateran Council was held under Innocent III. There were present the Patriarchs of Constantinople and Jerusalem, 71 archbishops, 412 bishops, and 800 abbots the Primate of the Maronites, and St. Dominic. It issued an enlarged creed (symbol) against the Albigenses (Firmiter credimus), condemned the Trinitarian errors of Abbot Joachim, and published 70 important reformatory decrees. This is the most important council of the Middle Ages, and it marks the culminating point of ecclesiastical life and papal power.

    Thirteenth Ecumenical Council: Lyons I (1245)

    The First General Council of Lyons was presided over by Innocent IV ; the Patriarchs of Constantinople, Antioch, and Aquileia (Venice), 140 bishops, Baldwin II, Emperor of the East, and St. Louis, King of France, assisted. It excommunicated and deposed Emperor Frederick II and directed a new crusade, under the command of St. Louis, against the Saracens and Mongols.

    Fourteenth Ecumenical Council: Lyons II (1274)

    The Second General Council of Lyons was held by Pope Gregory X, the Patriarchs of Antioch and Constantinople, 15 cardinals, 500 bishops, and more than 1000 other dignitaries. It effected a temporary reunion of the Greek Church with Rome. The word filioque was added to the symbol of Constantinople and means were sought for recovering Palestine from the Turks. It also laid down the rules for papal elections.

    Fifteenth Ecumenical Council: Vienne (1311-1313)

    The Council of Vienne was held in that town in France by order of Clement V, the first of the Avignon popes. The Patriarchs of Antioch and Alexandria, 300 bishops (114 according to some authorities), and 3 kings -- Philip IV of France, Edward II of England, and James II of Aragon -- were present. The synod dealt with the crimes and errors imputed to the Knights Templars, the Fraticelli, the Beghards, and the Beguines, with projects of a new crusade, the reformation of the clergy, and the teaching of Oriental languages in the universities.

    Sixteenth Ecumenical Council: Constance (1414-1418)

    The Council of Constance was held during the great Schism of the West, with the object of ending the divisions in the Church. It became legitimate only when Gregory XI had formally convoked it. Owing to this circumstance it succeeded in putting an end to the schism by the election of Pope Martin V, which the Council of Pisa (1403) had failed to accomplish on account of its illegality. The rightful pope confirmed the former decrees of the synod against Wyclif and Hus. This council is thus ecumenical only in its last sessions (XLII-XLV inclusive) and with respect to the decrees of earlier sessions approved by Martin V.

    Seventeenth Ecumenical Council: Basle/Ferrara/Florence (1431-1439)

    The Council of Basle met first in that town, Eugene IV being pope, and Sigismund Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Its object was the religious pacification of Bohemia. Quarrels with the pope having arisen, the council was transferred first to Ferrara (1438), then to Florence (1439), where a short-lived union with the Greek Church was effected, the Greeks accepting the council's definition of controverted points. The Council of Basle is only ecumenical till the end of the twenty-fifth session, and of its decrees Eugene IV approved only such as dealt with the extirpation of heresy, the peace of Christendom, and the reform of the Church, and which at the same time did not derogate from the rights of the Holy See. (See also the Council of Florence.)

    Eighteenth Ecumenical Council: Lateran V (1512-1517)

    The Fifth Lateran Council sat from 1512 to 1517 under Popes Julius II and Leo X, the emperor being Maximilian I. Fifteen cardinals and about eighty archbishops and bishops took part in it. Its decrees are chiefly disciplinary. A new crusade against the Turks was also planned, but came to naught, owing to the religious upheaval in Germany caused by Luther.

    Nineteenth Ecumenical Council: Trent (1545-1563)

    The Council of Trent lasted eighteen years (1545-1563) under five popes : Paul III , Julius III, Marcellus II, Paul IV and Pius IV, and under the Emperors Charles V and Ferdinand. There were present 5 cardinal legates of the Holy See, 3 patriarchs, 33 archbishops, 235 bishops, 7 abbots, 7 generals of monastic orders, and 160 doctors of divinity. It was convoked to examine and condemn the errors promulgated by Luther and other Reformers, and to reform the discipline of the Church. Of all councils it lasted longest, issued the largest number of dogmatic and reformatory decrees, and produced the most beneficial results.

    Twentieth Ecumenical Council: Vatican I (1869-1870)

    The Vatican Council was summoned by Pius IX. It met 8 December, 1869, and lasted till 18 July, 1870, when it was adjourned; it is still (1908) unfinished. There were present 6 archbishop-princes, 49 cardinals, 11 patriarchs, 680 archbishops and bishops, 28 abbots, 29 generals of orders, in all 803. Besides important canons relating to the Faith and the constitution of the Church, the council decreed the infallibility of the pope when speaking ex cathedra , i.e. when as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church.

    IV. THE POPE AND GENERAL COUNCILS

    The relations between the pope and general councils must be exactly defined to arrive at a just conception of the functions of councils in the Church, of their rights and duties, and of their authority. The traditional phrase, "the council represents the Church ", associated with the modern notion of representative assemblies, is apt to lead to a serious misconception of the bishops' function in general synods. The nation's deputies receive their power from their electors and are bound to protect and promote their electors' interests; in the modern democratic State they are directly created by, and out of, the people's own power. The bishops in council, on the contrary, hold no power, no commission, or delegation, from the people. All their powers, orders, jurisdiction, and membership in the council, come to them from above -- directly from the pope, ultimately from God. What the episcopate in council does represent is the Divinely instituted magisterium , the teaching and governing power of the Church ; the interests it defends are those of the depositum fidei , of the revealed rules of faith and morals, i.e. the interests of God.

    The council is, then, the assessor of the supreme teacher and judge sitting on the Chair of Peter by Divine appointment; its operation is essentially co-operation -- the common action of the members with their head -- and therefore necessarily rises or falls in value, according to the measure of its connection with the pope. A council in opposition to the pope is not representative of the whole Church, for it neither represents the pope who opposes it, nor the absent bishops, who cannot act beyond the limits of their dioceses except through the pope. A council not only acting independently of the Vicar of Christ , but sitting in judgment over him, is unthinkable in the constitution of the Church ; in fact, such assemblies have only taken place in times of great constitutional disturbances, when either there was no pope or the rightful pope was indistinguishable from antipopes. In such abnormal times the safety of the Church becomes the supreme law, and the first duty of the abandoned flock is to find a new shepherd, under whose direction the existing evils may be remedied.

    In normal times, when according to the Divine constitution of the Church, the pope rules in the fullness of his power, the function of councils is to support and strengthen his rule on occasions of extraordinary difficulties arising from heresies schisms, relaxed discipline, or external foes. General councils have no part in the ordinary normal government of the Church. This principle is confirmed by the fact that during nineteen centuries of Church life only twenty Ecumenical councils took place. It is further illustrated by the complete failure of the decree issued in the thirty-ninth session of the Council of Constance (then without a rightful head) to the effect that general councils should meet frequently and at regular intervals, the very first synod summoned at Pavia for the year 1423 could not be held for want of responses to the summons. It is thus evident that general councils are not qualified to issue independently of the pope, dogmatic or disciplinary canons binding on the whole Church. As a matter of fact, the older councils, especially those of Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451), were not convened to decide on questions of faith still open, but to give additional weight to, and secure the execution of, papal decisions previously issued and regarded as fully authoritative. The other consequence of the same principle is that the bishops in council assembled are not commissioned, as are our modern parliaments, to control and limit the power of the sovereign, or head of the State, although circumstances may arise in which it would be, their right and duty firmly to expostulate with the pope on certain of his acts or measures. The severe strictures of the Sixth General Council on Pope Honorius I may be cited as a case in point.

    V. COMPOSITION OF GENERAL COUNCILS

    (a) Right of participation

    The right to be present and to act at general councils belongs in the first place and logically to the bishops actually exercising the episcopal office. In the earlier councils there appear also the chorepiscopi (country-bishops), who, according to the better opinion, were neither true bishops nor an order interposed between bishops and priests, but priests invested with a jurisdiction smaller than the episcopal but larger than the sacerdotal. They were ordained by the bishop and charged with the administration of a certain district in his diocese. They had the power of conferring minor orders, and even the subdiaconate. Titular bishops, i.e. bishops not ruling a diocese, had equal rights with other bishops at the Vatican Council (1869-70), where 117 of them were present. Their claim lies in the fact that their order, the episcopal consecration, entitles them, jure divino , to take part in the administration of the Church, and that a general council seems to afford a proper sphere for the exercise of a right which the want of a proper diocese keeps in abeyance. Dignitaries who hold episcopal or quasi-episcopal jurisdiction without being bishops -- such as cardinal-priests, cardinal-deacons, abbots nullius, mitred abbots of whole orders or congregations of monasteries, generals of clerks regular, mendicant and monastic orders -- were allowed to vote at the Vatican Council . Their title is based on positive canon law: at the early councils such votes were not admitted, but from the seventh century down to the end of the Middle Ages the contrary practice gradually prevailed, and has since become an acquired right. Priests and deacons frequently cast decisive votes in the name of absent bishops whom they represented; at the Council of Trent , however, such procurators were admitted only with great limitations, and at the Vatican Council they were even excluded from the council hall. Besides voting members, every council admits, as consultors a number of doctors in theology and canon law. In the Council of Constance the consultors were allowed to vote. Other clerics have always been admitted as notaries. Lay people may be, and have been, present at councils for various reasons, but never as voters. They gave advice, made complaints, assented to decisions, and occasionally also signed the decrees. Since the Roman emperors had accepted Christianity, they assisted either personally or through deputies ( commissarii ). Constantine the Great was present in person at the First General Council, Theodosius II sent his representatives to the third, and Emperor Marcian sent his to the fourth, at the sixth session of which himself and the Empress Pulcheria assisted personally. Constantine Pogonatus was present at the sixth, the Empress Irene and her son Constantine Porphyrogenitus only sent their representative to the seventh, whereas Emperor Basil, the Macedonian, assisted at the eighth, sometimes in person, sometimes through his deputies. Only the Second and the Fifth General Synods were held in the absence of the emperors or imperial commissaries, but both Theodosius the Great and Justinian were at Constantinople while the councils were sitting, and kept up constant intercourse with them. In the West the attendance of kings, even at provincial synods, was of frequent occurrence. The motive and object of the royal presence were to protect the synods, to heighten their authority, to lay before them the needs of particular Christian states and countries.

    This laudable and legitimate co-operation led by degrees to interference with the pope's rights in conciliar matters. The Eastern Emperor Michael claimed the right to summon councils without obtaining the pope's consent, and to take part in them personally or by proxy. But Pope Nicholas I resisted the pretensions of Emperor Michael, pointing out to him, in a letter (865), that his imperial predecessors had only been present at general synods dealing with matters of faith, and from that fact drew the conclusion that all other synods should be held without the emperor's or his commissaries' presence. A few years later the Eighth General Synod (Can. xvii, Hefele, IV, 421) declared it false that no synod could be held without the emperor's presence the emperors had only been present at general councils -- and that it was not right for secular princes to witness the condemnation of ecclesiastics (at provincial synods ). As early as the fourth century the bishops greatly complained of the action of Constantine the Great in imposing his commissary on the Synod of Tyre (335). In the West, however, secular princes were present even at national synods , e.g. Sisenand, King of the Spanish Visigoths, was at the Fourth Council of Toledo (636) and King Chintilian at the fifth (638); Charlemagne assisted at the Council of Frankfort (794) and two Anglo Saxon kings at the Synod of Whitby ( Collatio Pharenes ) in 664. But step by step Rome established the principle that no royal commissary may be present at any council except a general one, in which "faith, reformation, and peace" are in question.

    (b) Requisite number of members

    The number of bishops present required to constitute an Ecumenical council cannot be strictly defined, nor need it be so deigned, for ecumenicity chiefly depends on co-operation with the head of the Church, and only secondarily on the number of co-operators. It is physically impossible to bring together all the bishops of the world, nor is there any standard by which to determine even an approximate number, or proportion, of prelates necessary to secure ecumenicity. All should be invited, no one should be debarred, a somewhat considerable number of representatives of the several provinces and countries should be actually present; this may be laid down as a practicable theory. But the ancient Church did not conform to this theory. As a rule only the patriarchs and metropolitans received a direct summons to appear with a certain number of their suffragans. At Ephesus and Chalcedon the time between the convocation and the meeting of the council was too short to allow of the Western bishops being invited. As a rule, but very few Western bishops were personally present at any of the first eight general synods. Occasionally, e.g. at the sixth, their absence was remedied by sending deputies with precise instructions arrived at in a previous council held in the West. What gives those Eastern synods their Ecumenical character is the co-operation of the pope as head of the universal, and, especially, of the Western, Church. This circumstance, so remarkably prominent in the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon, affords the best proof that, in the sense of the Church, the essential constituent element of ecumenicity is less the proportion of bishops present to bishops absent than the organic connection of the council with the head of the Church.

    (c) Papal headship the formal element of councils

    It is the action of the pope that makes the councils ecumenical. That action is the exercise of his office of supreme teacher and ruler of the Church. Its necessity results from the fact that no authority is commensurate with the whole Church except that of the pope ; he alone can bind all the faithful. Its sufficiency is equally manifest: when the pope has spoken ex cathedra to make his own the decisions of any council, regardless of the number of its members nothing further can be wanted to make them binding on the whole Church. The earliest enunciation of the principle is found in the letter of the Council of Sardica (313) to Pope Julius I, and was often quoted, since the beginning of the fifth century, as the (Nicaean) canon concerning the necessity of papal co-operation in all the more important conciliary Acts. The Church historian Socrates (Hist. Eccl., II, xvii) makes Pope Julius say, in reference to the Council of Antioch (341), that the law of the Church ( kanon ) forbids "the churches to pass laws contrary to the judgement of the Bishop of Rome " and Sozomen (III, x) likewise declares "it to be a holy law not to attribute any value to things done without the judgment of the Bishop of Rome ". The letter of Julius here quoted by both Socrates and Sozomen directly refers to an existing ecclesiastical custom and, in particular, to a single important case (the deposition of a patriarch), but the underlying principle is as stated.

    Papal co-operation may be of several degrees: to be effective in stamping a council as universal it must amount to taking over responsibility for its decisions by giving them formal confirmation. The Synod of Constantinople (381) in which the Nicene Creed received its present form -- the one used at Mass -- had in itself no claim to be Ecumenical. Before Pope Damasus and the Western bishops had seen its full Acts they condemned certain of its proceedings at an Italian synod, but on receiving the Acts, Damasus, so we are told by Photius, confirmed them. Photius, however, is only right with regard to the Creed, or Symbol of Faith : the canons of this council were still rejected by Leo the Great and even by Gregory the Great (about 600). A proof that the Creed of Constantinople enjoyed papal sanction may be drawn from the way in which the Roman legates at the Fourth General Synod (Chalcedon, 451) allowed, without any protest, appeals to this Creed, while at the same time they energetically protested against the canons of the council. It was on account of the papal approbation of the Creed that, in the sixth century, Popes Vigilius, Pelagius II, and Gregory the Great declared this council Ecumenical, although Gregory still refused to sanction its canons. The First Synod of Constantinople presents, then, an instance of a minimum of papal co-operation impressing on a particular council the mark of universality. The normal co-operation, however, requires on the part of the head of the Church more than a post-factum acknowledgment.

    The pope's office and the council's function in the organization of the Church require that the pope should call the council together, preside over and direct its labours, and finally promulgate its decrees to the universal Church as expressing the mind of the whole teaching body guided by the Holy Ghost. Instances of such normal, natural, perfect co-operation occur in the five Lateran councils, which were presided over by the pope in person; the personal presence of the highest authority in the Church, his direction of the deliberations, and approbation of the decrees, stamp the conciliary proceedings throughout as the function of the Magisterium Ecclesiae in its most authoritative form. Councils in which the pope is represented by legates are, indeed, also representative of the whole teaching body of the Church, but the representation is not absolute or adequate, is no real concentration of its whole authority. They act in the name, but not with the whole power, of the teaching Church, and their decrees become universally binding only through an act, either antecedent or consequent, of the pope. The difference between councils presided over personally and by proxy is marked in the form in which their decrees are promulgated : when the pope has been present the decrees are published in his own name with the additional formula: sacro approbante Concilio ; when papal legates have presided the decrees are attributed to the synod ( S. Synodus declarat, definit, decernit )

    VI. FACTORS IN THE POPE'S CO-OPERATION WITH THE COUNCIL

    We have seen that no council is Ecumenical unless the pope has made it his own by co-operation, which admits of a minimum and a maximum consequently of various degrees of perfection. Catholic writers could have saved themselves much trouble if they had always based their apologetics on the simple and evident principle of a sufficient minimum of papal co- operation, instead of endeavouring to prove, at all costs, that a maximum is both required in principle and demonstrable in history. The three factors constituting the solidarity of pope and council are the convocation, direction, and confirmation of the council by the pope - but it is not essential that each and all of these factors should always be present in full perfection.

    (a) Convocation

    The juridical convocation of a council implies something more than an invitation addressed to all the bishops of the world to meet in council, viz.: the act by which in law the bishops are bound to take part in the council, and the council itself is constituted a legitimate tribunal for dealing with Church affairs. Logically, and in the nature of the thing, the right of convocation belongs to the pope alone. Yet the convocation, in the loose sense of invitation to meet, of the first eight general synods, was regularly issued by the Christian emperors, whose dominion was coextensive with the Church, or at least with the Eastern part of it, which was then alone convened. The imperial letters of convocation to the Councils of Ephesus ( Hardouin I, 1343) and of Chalcedon ( Hardouin II, 42) show that the emperors acted as protectors of the Church, believing it their duty to further by every means in their power the welfare of their charge. Nor is it possible in every case to prove that they acted at the formal instigation of the pope ; it even seems that the emperors more than once followed none but their own initiative for convening the council and fixing its place of meeting. It is, however. evident that the Christian emperors cannot have acted thus without the consent, actual or presumed of the pope. Otherwise their conduct had been neither lawful nor wise. As a matter of fact, none of the eight Eastern Ecumenical synods, with the exception, perhaps, of the fifth, was summoned by the emperor in opposition to t

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    Gédoyn, Nicolas

    A French translator and literary critic; b. at Orléans, 17 June, 1667; d. 10 August, 1744, ...

    Génebrard, Gilbert

    A learned Benedictine exegete and Orientalist, b. 12 December, 1535, at Riom, in the department ...

    Génicot, Edward

    Moral theologian, b. at Antwerp, Belgium, 18 June, 1856; d. at Louvain, 21 February, 1900. After ...

    Géramb, Baron Ferdinand de

    In religion, Brother Mary Joseph; Abbot and procurator-general of La Trappe, came of a noble and ...

    Gérando, Joseph-Marie de

    A French statesman and writer, born at Lyons, 29 February, 1772; died at Paris, 10 November, ...

    Gérard, Abbot of Brogne, Saint

    Born at Staves in the county of Namur, towards the end of the ninth century; died at Brogne or ...

    Géry, Saint

    (Latin Gaugericus ). Bishop of Cambrai - Arras ; b. of Roman parents, Gaudentius and ...

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    1

    Gómara, Francisco Lopez de

    ( Or GOMORA.) Born at Seville, Spain, in 1510; studied at the University of Alcalá, ...

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    4

    Görres, Guido

    Historian, publicist, and poet; b. at Coblenz on 28 May, 1805; d. at Munich on 14 July, 1852. He ...

    Görres, Johann Joseph

    Born at Coblenz, in the heart of the Rhine country, 25 January, 1776; died at Munich, 29 January, ...

    Görz

    ( Italian GORIZIA; Slovene GORICA). Capital of the Austrian crown-land Görz and ...

    Göttweig, Abbey of

    (GOTTWEIH, GOTTVICUM, GOTTVICENSE). A Benedictine abbey situated on a hill of the same name, ...

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    3

    Gügler, Joseph Heinrich Aloysius

    Born at Udligerschwyl, near Lucerne, Switzerland, 25 August, 1782; died at Lucerne, 28 February, ...

    Günther of Cologne

    (also GUNTHAR) An archbishop of that city, died 8 July, 873. He belonged to a noble ...

    Günther, Anton

    Philosopher ; b. 17 Nov., 1783, at Lindenau, near Leitmeritz, Bohemia ; d. at Vienna, 24 ...

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    Ga 103

    Gabala

    A titular see of Syria Prima. Ten bishops of this city are known between 325 and 553, the ...

    Gabbatha

    The Aramaic appellation of a place in Jerusalem, designated also under the Greek name of ...

    Gaboon

    V ICARIATE A POSTOLIC OF G ABUN Formerly called the Vicariate Apostolic of the Two ...

    Gabriel Possenti, Blessed

    Passionist student; renowned for sanctity and miracles ; born at Assisi, 1 March, 1838; died ...

    Gabriel Sionita

    A learned Maronite, famous for his share in the publication of the Parisian polyglot of the ...

    Gabriel the Archangel, Saint

    "Fortitudo Dei", one of the three archangels mentioned in the Bible . Only four appearances of ...

    Gabriel, Brothers of Saint

    The Congregation of the Brothers of Christian Instruction of St. Gabriel was originally founded ...

    Gad

    ( , fortune, luck). A proper name which designates in the Bible , (I), a patriarch; (II), a ...

    Gadara

    A titular see of Palaestina Prima; there were two sees of this name, one in Palaestina Prima, ...

    Gaddi, Agnolo, Giovanni, and Taddeo

    Florentine artists, Taddeo being the father of Agnolo and Giovanni. The dates of their birth ...

    Gaeta

    ARCHDIOCESE OF GAETA (CAIETANA). Archdiocese in the province of Caserta in Campania (Southern ...

    Gaetano, Saint

    (GAETANO.) Founder of the Theatines, born October, 1480 at Vicenza in Venetian territory; ...

    Gagarin, Ivan Sergejewitch

    Gagarin was of the princely Russian family which traces its origin to the ancient rulers of ...

    Gagliardi, Achille

    Ascetic writer and spiritual director ; born at Padua, Italy, in 1537; died at Modena, 6 ...

    Gahan, William

    A priest and author; born 5 June, 1732, in the parish of St. Nicholas, Dublin ; died ...

    Gaillard, Claude Ferdinand

    A French engraver and painter ; b. at Paris, 7 Jan., 1834; d. there, 27 Jan., 1887. His early ...

    Gal, Saint

    Of the ninety-eight bishops who have occupied the see of Clermont-Ferrand (Auvergne) the ...

    Galantini, Ippolito, Blessed

    Founder of the Congregation of Christian Doctrine of Florence; b. at Florence of obscure ...

    Galatians, Epistle to the

    GALATIA In the course of centuries, gallic tribes, related to those that invaded Italy and ...

    Galatino, Pietro Colonna

    Friar Minor, philosopher, theologian, Orientalist ; b. at Galatia (now Cajazzo) in Apulia; d. at ...

    Galerius, Valerius Maximianus

    Galerius, a native of Illyria, was made Caesar 1 March, 293, by Diocletian, whose daughter ...

    Galien, Joseph

    Dominican, professor of philosophy and theology at the University of Avignon, meteorologist, ...

    Galilee

    ( Septuagint and New Testament Galilaia ). The native land of Jesus Christ, where He began ...

    Galilei, Alessandro

    An eminent Florentine architect ; born 1691; died 1737. Having attained some distinction, he ...

    Galilei, Galileo

    Generally called GALILEO. Born at Pisa, 15 February, 1564; died 8 January, 1642. His father, ...

    Galitzin, Elizabeth

    Princess, religious of the Sacred Heart ; born at St. Petersburg, 22 February, 1797; died in ...

    Gall, Abbey of Saint

    In Switzerland, Canton St. Gall, 30 miles southeast of Constance ; for many centuries one of ...

    Gall, Saint

    (GALLUS; in the most ancient manuscript he is called GALLO, GALLONUS, GALLUNUS, and sometimes ...

    Galla

    Vicariate Apostolic embracing the territory of the Galla or Oromo tribes in Abyssinia. In its ...

    Galla, Saint

    A Roman widow of the sixth century; feast, 5 October. According to St. Gregory the Great ...

    Gallait, Louis

    Flemish painter ; born at Tournai, 10 May, 1810; died in Brussels, 20 November, 1887. He ...

    Galland, Antoine

    French Orientalist and numismatist, b. at Rollot, near Montdidier, in Picardy, 1646, d. at ...

    Gallandi, Andrea

    Oratorian and patristic scholar, born at Venice, 7 December, 1709; died there 12 January, 1779, ...

    Galle

    DIOCESE OF GALLE (GALLENSIS). Diocese in Ceylon, created by Leo XIII 25 Aug., 1893, by ...

    Gallego, Juan Nicasio

    Priest and poet; born at Zamora, Spain, 14 December, 1777; died at Madrid, 9 January, 1853; ...

    Galletti, Pietro Luigi

    Benedictine, historian and archaeologist; b. at Rome in 1724; d. there, 13 December, 1790. He ...

    Gallia Christiana

    A documentary catalogue or list, with brief historical notices, of all the dioceses and ...

    Gallican Rite, The

    This subject will be treated under the following six heads: I. History and Origin; II. ...

    Gallicanism

    This term is used to designate a certain group of religious opinions for some time peculiar to the ...

    Gallicanus, Saints

    The following saints of this name are commemorated on 25 June: (1) St. Gallicanus Roman ...

    Gallienus, Publius Licinius Egnatius

    Roman emperor; b. about 218; d. at Milan, 4 March, 268; appointed regent by his father Valerian ...

    Gallifet, Joseph de

    Priest ; b. near Aix, France, 2 May 1663; d. at Lyons, 1 September, 1749. He entered the ...

    Gallipoli

    DIOCESE OF GALLIPOLI (GALLIPOLITANA). Diocese in the province of Lecce (Southern Italy ). ...

    Gallitzin, Adele Amalie

    (Or GOLYZIN). Princess; b. at Berlin, 28 Aug., 1748; d. at Angelmodde, near Münster, ...

    Gallitzin, Demetrius Augustine

    Prince, priest, and missionary, born at The Hague, Holland, 22 December, 1770; died at Loretto, ...

    Galloway, Diocese of

    (Gallovidiana). Situated in the southwest of Scotland. It comprises the Counties of Dumfries, ...

    Galluppi, Pasquale

    Philosopher, b. at Tropea, in Calabria, 2 April, 1770; d. at Naples, 13 Dec., 1846, where from ...

    Gallwey, Peter

    Born at Killarney, 13 Nov., 1820; d. in London, 23 Sept., 1906; one of the best-known London ...

    Galtelli-Nuoro

    (Galtellinensis-Norensis) Diocese in the province of Sassari (Sardinia), on a hill of the ...

    Galura, Bernhard

    Prince- Bishop of Brixen ; b. 21 August, 1764, at Herbolzheim, Bresigau; d. 17 May, 1856. After ...

    Galvani, Luigi

    Physician, b. at Bologna, Italy, 9 September, 1737; d. there, 4 December, 1798. It was his ...

    Galveston

    DIOCESE OF GALVESTON (GALVESTONIENSIS). The Diocese of Galveston was established in 1847 and ...

    Galway and Kilmacduagh

    DIOCESE OF GALWAY AND KILMACDUAGH (GALVIENSIS ET DUACENSIS). Diocese in Ireland ; an ...

    Gama, Vasco da

    The discover of the sea route to East Indies; born at Sines, Province of Alemtejo, Portugal, ...

    Gamaliel

    (Greek form of the Hebrew name meaning "reward of God "). The name designates in the New ...

    Gamans, Jean

    Born 8 July, 1606, at Ahrweiler (according to other sources at Neuenahr, about two miles from ...

    Gambling

    Gambling , or gaming , is the staking of money or other thing of value on the issue of a game ...

    Gams, Pius Bonifacius

    An ecclesiastical historian, b. at Mittelbuch, Würtemberg, 23 January, 1816; d. Munich, ...

    Gandolphy, Peter

    (Or Gandolphi.) Jesuit preacher; b. in London, 26 July, 1779; d. at East Sheen, Surrey, 9 ...

    Gangra

    A titular see in the province of Paphlagonia; in the native tongue the word signifies goat, and ...

    Gansfort, John Wessel

    (GANSFORT). A fifteenth-century Dutch theologian, born at Gröningen in 1420; died there ...

    Gap

    (VAPINCENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Aix, includes the department of the Hautes-Alpes. ...

    García Moreno, Gabriel

    Ecuadorean patriot and statesman; b. at Guayaquil, 24 December, 1821; assassinated at Quito, 6 ...

    García, Anne

    Better known as Venerable Anne of St. Bartholomew, Discalced Carmelite nun, companion of St. ...

    Garcia, Saint Gonsalo

    Born of a Portuguese father and a Canarese mother in Bassein, East India, about the year 1556 or ...

    Garcilasso de la Vega

    Spanish lyric poet; b. at Toledo, 6 Feb., 1503; d. at Nice, 14 Oct., 1536. A noble and a ...

    Garcilasso de la Vega

    Historian of Peru ; b. at Cuzco, Peru, 12 April, 1539; d. at Córdoba, Spain, c. 1617. The ...

    Gardellini, Aloisio

    Born at Rome, 4 Aug., 1759; died there, 8 Oct., 1829. He is famous chiefly for his collection of ...

    Garesché, Julius Peter

    Soldier; born 26 April, 1821, near Havana, Cuba; killed at the battle of Stone River, Tennessee, ...

    Garet, Jean

    Benedictine of the Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Havre about 1627; died at ...

    Gargara

    A titular see in the province of Asia, suffragan of Ephesus. The city appears to have been ...

    Garin, André

    An Oblate missionary and parish priest, born 7 May, 1822, at Côte-Saint-André, ...

    Garland

    A wreath of flowers or evergreens formerly used in connection with baptismal, nuptial, and ...

    Garland, John

    An English poet and grammarian, who lived in the middle of the thirteenth century. He tells us ...

    Garlick, Venerable Nicholas

    Priest and martyr, born at Dinting, Derbyshire, c. 1555; died at Derby, 24 July, 1588. He ...

    Garneau, François-Xavier

    A French Canadian historian, b. at Quebec, 15 June, 1809, of François-Xavier Garneau and ...

    Garnet, Henry

    (Garnett.) English martyr, b. 1553-4; d. 1606, son of Brian Garnet, master of Nottingham ...

    Garnet, Saint Thomas

    Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...

    Garnier, Charles

    Jesuit Missionary, born at Paris, 1606, of Jean G. and Anne de Garault; died 7 December, 1649. He ...

    Garnier, Jean

    Church historian, patristic scholar, and moral theologian ; b. at Paris, 11 Nov., 1612; d. at ...

    Garnier, Julien

    Jesuit missionary, born at Connerai, France, 6 January, 1642; d. in Quebec, 1730. He entered ...

    Garrucci, Raffaele

    A historian of Christian art, b. at Naples, 22 January, 1812; d. at Rome, 5 May, 1885. He ...

    Garzon

    (GARZONENSIS.) Suffragan diocese of Popayan in the Republic of Colombia . It comprises the ...

    Gaspare del Bufalo, Blessed

    Founder of the Missionaries of the Most Precious Blood (C.P.P.S.); b. at Rome on the feast of ...

    Gaspe, Philippe-Aubert de

    A French Canadian writer, b. at Quebec, 30 Oct., 1786, of a family ennobled by Louis XIV in ...

    Gassendi, Pierre

    (GASSENDY, GASSEND.) A French philosopher and scientist ; b. at Champtercier, a country ...

    Gasser von Valhorn, Joseph

    An Austrian sculptor, b. 22 Nov., 1816 at Prägraten, Tyrol; d. 28 Oct., 1900. He was first ...

    Gassner, Johann Joseph

    A celebrated exorcist ; b. 22 Aug., 1727, at Braz, Vorarlberg, Austria ; d. 4 April, 1779, at ...

    Gaston, William

    Jurist; b. at Newbern, North Carolina , U.S.A. 19 Sept., 1778: d. at Raleigh, North Carolina ...

    Gatianus, Saint

    Founder and bishop of Tours ; b. probably at Rome ; d. at Tours, 20 December, 301. He came ...

    Gau, Franz Christian

    Architect and archeologist, b. at Cologne, 15 June, 1790; d. at Paris, January, 1854. In 1809 he ...

    Gaubil, Antoine

    A French Jesuit and missionary to China, b. at Gaillac (Aveyron), 14 July, 1689; d. at Peking, ...

    Gaudentius of Brescia

    (GAUDENTIUS BRIXIENSIS or BONTEMPS.) A theologian of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins ; ...

    Gaudentius, Saint

    Bishop of Brescia from about 387 until about 410; he was the successor of the writer on ...

    Gaudete Sunday

    The third Sunday of Advent, so called from the first word of the Introit at Mass ( Gaudete ...

    Gaudier, Antoine de

    A writer on asectic theology ; b. at Château-Thierry, France, 7 January, 1572; d. at ...

    Gaudiosus

    Bishop of Tarazona (Turiasso), Spain ; died about 540. Our information concerning the life ...

    Gaul, Christian

    The Church of Gaul first appeared in history in connexion with the persecution at Lyons under ...

    Gaultier, Aloisius-Edouard-Camille

    Priest and schoolmaster; b. at Asti, Piedmont, about 1745, of French parents ; d. at Paris, 18 ...

    Gaume, Jean-Joseph

    French theologian and author, b. at Fuans (Franche-Comté) in 1802; d. in 1879. While ...

    Gavantus, Bartolommeo

    (GAVANTO) Liturgist, a member of the Barnabite Order ; b. at Monza, 1569; d. at Milan, 14 ...

    Gaza

    ( Hebrew 'Azzah , "the strong") A titular see of Palaestina Prima, in the Patriarchate ...

    Gazzaniga, Pietro Maria

    A theologian, b. at Bergamo, Italy, 3 March, 1722; d. at Vicenza, 11 Dec., 1799. At a very ...

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    Ge 93

    Gebhard (III) of Constance

    Bishop of that city and strenuous defender of papal rights against imperial encroachments ...

    Gebhart, Emile

    A French professor and writer, b. 19 July, 1839, at Nancy ; d. 22 April, 1908, in Paris. He was ...

    Gedeon

    Gideon or Gedeon (Hebrew "hewer"), also called JEROBAAL ( Judges 6:32 ; 7:1 ; etc.), and ...

    Gegenbauer, Josef Anton

    An accomplished German historical and portrait painter, b. 6 March, 1800, at Wangen, ...

    Geiler von Kayserberg, Johann

    A celebrated German pulpit orator, b. at Schaffhausen, Switzerland, 16 March, 1445; d. at ...

    Geissel, Johannes von

    Cardinal, Archbishop of Cologne, b. 5 February, 1796, at Gimmeldingen, in the Palatinate; d. 8 ...

    Gelasius I, Pope Saint

    Died at Rome, 19 Nov., 496. Gelasius, as he himself states in his letter to the Emperor ...

    Gelasius II, Pope

    Born at Gaeta, year unknown; elected 24 Jan., 1118; died at Cluny, 29 Jan., 1119. No sooner had ...

    Gelasius of Cyzicus

    Ecclesiastical writer. He was the son of a priest of Cyzicus, and wrote in Bithynia, about 475, ...

    Gemblours

    (Gembloux, Gemblacum) A suppressed Benedictine monastery about nine miles north-west of ...

    Genealogy (in the Bible)

    The word genealogy occurs only twice in the New Testament : I Tim., i, 4, and Tit., iii, 9. ...

    Genealogy of Christ

    It is granted on all sides that the Biblical genealogy of Christ implies a number of exegetical ...

    General Chapter

    ( Latin capitulum , a chapter). The daily assembling of a community for purposes of ...

    General Judgment

    (Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

    Generation

    ( Latin Vulgate, generatio ). This word, of very varied meaning, corresponds to the two ...

    Genesareth

    ( Gennesaret .) This is the name given to the Lake of Tiberias in Luke 5:1; called ...

    Genesius

    (1) Genesius (of Rome) A comedian at Rome, martyred under Diocletian in 286 or 303. Feast, 25 ...

    Genevieve, Saint

    Patroness of Paris, b. at Nanterre, c. 419 or 422; d. at Paris, 512. Her feast is kept on 3 ...

    Genezareth, Land of

    By this name is designated in Mark, vi, 53, a district of Palestine bordering on the Sea of ...

    Genga, Girolamo

    A painter, born at Urbino in 1476; died at the same place, 1551. This talented craftsman was ...

    Gennadius I, Saint

    Patriarch of Constantinople (458-471), has left scarcely any writings. Facundus (Defensio, II, ...

    Gennadius II

    Patriarch of Constantinople (1454-1456). His original name was George Scholarius ( Georgios ...

    Gennadius of Marseilles

    (GENNADIUS SCHOLASTICUS). A priest whose chief title to fame is his continuation of St. ...

    Gennings, Edmund and John

    The first, a martyr for the Catholic Faith, and the second, the restorer of the English province ...

    Genoa

    ARCHDIOCESE OF GENOA (JANUENSIS) Archdiocese in Liguria, Northern Italy. The city is situated ...

    Gentile da Fabriano

    Italian painter ; b. probably about 1378 in the District of the Marches; d. probably 1427. The ...

    Gentiles

    ( Hebrew Gôyîm ; Greek ethne, ethnikoi , Hellenes ; Vulgate Gentes, Gentiles, ...

    Gentili, Aloysius

    Born 14 July, 1801, at Rome ; died 26 September, 1848, at Dublin. He was proficient in poetry, ...

    Genuflexion

    To genuflect [ Latin genu flectere , geniculare (post-classic), to bend the knee; Greek ...

    Geoffrey of Clairvaux

    A disciple of Bernard, was b. between the years 1115 and 1120, at Auxerre; d. some time after ...

    Geoffrey of Dunstable

    Also known as GEOFFREY OF GORHAM. Abbot of St. Alban's, d. at St. Alban's, 26 Feb., 1146. He ...

    Geoffrey of Monmouth

    (GAUFRIDUS ARTURUS, GALFRIDUS MONEMETENSIS, GALFFRAI or GRUFFYD AB ARTHUR). Bishop of St. ...

    Geoffrey of Vendôme

    (GOFFRIDUS ABBAS VINDOCINENSIS.) A cardinal, b. in the second half of the eleventh century of ...

    Geography and the Church

    The classic historians of geography, Alexander von Humboldt, Carl Ritter, and Oscar Peschel, never ...

    Geography, Biblical

    With the exception of the didactic literature, there is no book in the Bible which, to a greater ...

    George Hamartolus

    A monk at Constantinople under Michael III (842-867) and the author of a chronicle of some ...

    George of Trebizond

    A Greek scholar of the early Italian Renaissance ; b. in Crete (a Venetian possession from ...

    George Pisides

    (Or THE PISIDIAN). A Byzantine poet lived in the first half of the seventh century. From his ...

    George the Bearded

    (Also called THE RICH.) Duke of Saxony, b. at Dresden, 27 August, 1471; d. in the same city, ...

    George, Orders of Saint

    Knights of St. George appear at different historical periods and in different countries as ...

    George, Saint

    Martyr, patron of England, suffered at or near Lydda, also known as Diospolis, in Palestine, ...

    Georgetown University

    Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia , "is the oldest Catholic literary ...

    Georgia

    STATISTICS The area of Georgia is 59,475 sq. m., and it is the largest of the original thirteen ...

    Georgius Syncellus

    (Greek Georgios ho Sygkellos ). Died after 810; the author of one of the more important ...

    Gerace

    DIOCESE OF GERACE (HIERACENSIS). Diocese in the province of Reggio in Calabria (Southern Italy ...

    Gerald, Saint

    Bishop of Mayo, an English monk, date of birth unknown; died 13 March, 731; followed St. ...

    Geraldton

    DIOCESE OF GERALDTON (GERALDTONENSIS). Diocese in Australia, established in 1898, comprises ...

    Gerard Majella, Saint

    Born in Muro, about fifty miles south of Naples, in April, 1726; died 16 October, 1755; ...

    Gerard of Cremona

    A twelfth-century student of Arabic science and translator from Arabic into Latin; born at ...

    Gerard, Archbishop of York

    Date of birth unknown; died at Southwell, 21 May, 1108. He was a nephew of Walkelin, Bishop of ...

    Gerard, Bishop of Toul, Saint

    Born at Cologne, 935; died at Toul, 23 April, 994. Belonging to a wealthy and noble family, he ...

    Gerard, John

    Jesuit ; born 4 October, 1564; died 27 July, 1637. He is well known through his autobiography, a ...

    Gerard, Richard

    Confessor ; born about 1635; died 11 March, 1680 (O.S.). The Bromley branch of the Gerard ...

    Gerard, Ven. Miles

    Martyr ; born about 1550 at Wigan; executed at Rochester 13 (30?) April, 1590. Sprung perhaps ...

    Gerardus Odonis

    Also Geraldus Othonis , or Ottonis , a medieval theologian and Minister General of the ...

    Gerasa

    A titular see in the province of Arabia and the Patriarchate of Antioch. According to ...

    Gerberon, Gabriel

    A Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation ; b. at St-Calais, Department of Sarthe, France, 12 ...

    Gerbet, Olympe-Phillipe

    A French bishop and writer; b. at Poligny (Jura), 1798; d. at Perpignan (Pyrénées ...

    Gerbillon, Jean-François

    French missionary; born at Verdun, 4 June, 1654; died at Peking, China, 27 March, 1707. He ...

    Gerdil, Hyacinthe Sigismond

    Cardinal and theologian ; b. at Samoëns in Savoy, 20 June, 1718; d. at Rome, 12 August ...

    Gerhard of Zütphen

    (ZERBOLT OF ZUTPHEN) Born at Zütphen, 1367; died at Windesheim, 1398; a mystical writer ...

    Gerhoh of Reichersberg

    Provost of that place and Austin canon , one of the most distinguished theologians of Germany ...

    Germain, Saint, Bishop of Auxerre

    Bishop of Auxerre, born at Auxerre c. 380; died at Ravenna, 31 July, 448. He was the son of ...

    Germain, Saint, Bishop of Paris

    Bishop of Paris ; born near Autun, Saône-et-Loire, c. 496; died at Paris, 28 May, 576. ...

    Germaine Cousin, Saint

    Born in 1579 of humble parents at Pibrac, a village about ten miles from Toulouse ; died in ...

    German Gardiner, Blessed

    Last martyr under Henry VIII ; date of birth unknown; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1544; ...

    German Literature

    I. FROM OLDEST PRE-CHRISTIAN PERIOD TO 800 A.D. There are no written monuments before the eighth ...

    Germanicia

    A titular see in the province of Euphratensis and the patriarchate of Antioch; incorrectly ...

    Germanicopolis

    A titular see in the province of Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia. The city took its name from ...

    Germans in the United States

    Germans, either by birth or descent, form a very important element in the population of the ...

    Germanus I, Saint

    Patriarch of Constantinople (715-30), b. at Constantinople towards the end of the reign of ...

    Germany

    I. BEFORE 1556 From their first appearance in the history of the world the Germans represented ...

    Germany, Vicariate Apostolic of Northern

    (VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF THE NORTHERN MISSIONS) Its jurisdiction covers the Grand Duchies of ...

    Germia

    A titular see of Galatia Secunda, a suffragan of Pessinus ; mentioned by Hierocles in the ...

    Gerona

    DIOCESE OF GERONA (GERUNDENSIS) The Diocese of Geronia in Catalonia, Spain, suffragan of ...

    Gerrha

    A titular see in the province of Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium in the Patriarchate ...

    Gerson, Jean de Charlier de

    The surname being the name of his native place; b. in the hamlet of Gerson 14 December, 1363; d. ...

    Gertrude of Aldenberg, Blessed

    Abbess of the Premonstratensian convent of Aldenberg, near Wetzlar, in the Diocese of Trier ; ...

    Gertrude of Hackeborn

    Cistercian Abbess of Helfta, near Eisleben; born near Halberstadt in 1232; died towards the end ...

    Gertrude of Nivelles, Saint

    Virgin, and Abbess of the Benedictine monastery of Nivelles; born in 626; died 17 March, 659. ...

    Gertrude the Great, Saint

    Benedictine and mystic writer; born in Germany, 6 Jan., 1256; died at Helfta, near Eisleben, ...

    Gertrude van der Oosten, Venerable

    Beguine ; born at Voorburch, Holland ; died at Delft, 6 Jan., 1358. She was born of peasant ...

    Gervaise, Dom François Armand

    Discalced Carmelite, b. at Paris, 1660; d. at Reclus, France, 1761. After completing his ...

    Gervase of Canterbury

    (GERVAS US DOROBORNENSIS) English chronicler, b. about 1141; d. in, or soon after, 1210. If ...

    Gervase of Tilbury

    (TILBERIENSIS) Medieval writer, b. probably at Tilbury, in the County of Essex, England, ...

    Gervase, George

    (Jervise.) Priest and martyr, born at Boscham, Suffolk, England, 1571; died at Tyburn, 11 ...

    Gervasius and Protasius, Saints

    Martyrs of Milan, probably in the second century, patrons of the city of Milan and of ...

    Gesellenvereine

    German Catholic societies for the religious, moral, and professional improvement of young men. ...

    Gesta Dei per Francos

    Gesta Dei per Francos is the title adopted by Guibert de Nogent (died about 1124) for his history ...

    Gesta Romanorum

    A medieval collection of anecdotes, to which moral reflections are attached. It was compiled ...

    Gethsemane

    Gethsemani (Hebrew gat , press, and semen , oil) is the place in which Jesus Christ ...

    Gethsemane, Abbey of Our Lady of

    An abbey of the Order of Reformed Cistercians, commonly called Trappists, established in ...

    Gezireh

    Gezireh (or Djezireh), seat of two Catholic residential sees, one Chaldean, the other Syrian. ...

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    Gf 1

    Gfrörer, August Friedrich

    German historian; b. at Calw, Würtemberg, 5 March, 1803; d. at Karlsbad, 6 July, 1861. ...

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    Gh 7

    Ghardaia

    Prefecture Apostolic in the French Sahara, separated in 1901 from the Vicariate Apostolic of ...

    Ghent

    DIOCESE OF GHENT (GANDENSIS or GANDAVENSIS). The Diocese of Ghent at present comprises the ...

    Ghibellines and Guelphs

    Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the ...

    Ghiberti, Lorenzo di Cione

    Sculptor ; b. at Florence about 1381; d. there, December, 1455. He ushered in the early ...

    Ghirlandajo

    (D OMENICO DI T OMMASO B IGORDI ). A famous Florentine painter ; b. 1449; d. 11 Jan., ...

    Ghislain, Saint

    Confessor and anchorite in Belgium ; b. in the first half of the seventh century; d. at ...

    Ghost Dance

    The principal ceremonial rite of a peculiar Indian religion with originated about 1887 with ...

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    Gi 53

    Giannone, Pietro

    Italian historian, born 7 May, 1676, at Ischitella in the province of Capinata, Naples ; died ...

    Gibail and Batrun

    A Maronite residential see. Gibail is merely the modern name of Byblos a titular see of ...

    Gibault, Pierre

    Missionary, b. at Montreal, Canada, 1737; d. at New Madrid, about 1804; son of Pierre Gibault ...

    Gibbons, John

    Jesuit theologian and controversialist; b. 1544, at or near Wells, Somersetshire; died 16 Aug. or ...

    Gibbons, Richard

    Brother of Father John Gibbons, born at Winchester, 1550 or 1549; died at Douai, 23 June, 1632. ...

    Giberti, Gian Matteo

    Cardinal, and Bishop of Verona, the natural son of Francesco Giberti, a Genoese naval ...

    Giberti, Jean-Pierre

    Canonist; b. at Aix, Provence, in 1660; d. at Paris in 1736. He became a cleric at an early ...

    Gibraltar

    VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF GIBRALTAR. Gibraltar is a rugged promontory in the province of ...

    Gideon

    Gideon or Gedeon (Hebrew "hewer"), also called JEROBAAL ( Judges 6:32 ; 7:1 ; etc.), and ...

    Giffard, Bonaventure

    Born at Wolverhampton, England, 1642; died at Hammersmith, Middlesex, 12 March, 1734; second son ...

    Giffard, Godfrey

    Bishop of Worcester, b. about 1235; d. 26 Jan., 1301. He was the son of Hugh Giffard of Boyton ...

    Giffard, William

    Second Norman Bishop of Winchester from 1100 to 1129. Little is known of his history anterior ...

    Gifford, William

    Archbishop of Reims ; b. in Hampshire, 1554; d. at Reims, 11 April, 1629. He was the son of ...

    Gift of Miracles

    The gift of miracles is one of those mentioned by St. Paul in his First Epistle to the ...

    Gift, Supernatural

    A supernatural gift may be defined as something conferred on nature that is above all the ...

    Gil de Albornoz, Alvarez Carillo

    A renowned cardinal, general, and statesman; b. about 1310 at Cuenca in New Castile ; d. 23 ...

    Gil of Santarem, Blessed

    A Portuguese Dominican : b. at Vaozela, diocese of Viseu, about 1185; d. at Santarem, 14 May, ...

    Gilbert de la Porrée

    (Gilbertus Porretanus) Bishop of Poitiers, philosopher, theologian and general scholar; b. ...

    Gilbert Foliot

    Bishop of London, b. early in the twelfth century of an Anglo-Norman family and connected ...

    Gilbert Islands

    Vicariate apostolic ; comprises the group of that name, besides the islands of Ellice and ...

    Gilbert of Sempringham, Saint

    Founder of the Order of Gilbertines , b. at Sempringham, on the border of the Lincolnshire fens, ...

    Gilbert, Nicolas-Joseph-Laurent

    Poet, b. at Fontenoy-le-Château, 1751; d. at Paris, 12 November, 1780. His parents were ...

    Gilbert, Sir John Thomas

    Irish archivist and historian, b. in Dublin, 23 January, 1829; d. there, 23 May, 1898. He was ...

    Gilbertines, Order of

    Founded by St. Gilbert, about the year 1130, at Sempringham, Gilbert's native place, where he was ...

    Gildas, Saint

    Surnamed the Wise; b. about 516; d. at Houat, Brittany, 570. Sometimes he is called "Badonicus" ...

    Giles, Saint

    (Latin Ægidius.) An Abbot, said to have been born of illustrious Athenian parentage ...

    Gillespie, Eliza Maria

    (In religion Mother Mary of St. Angela). Born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, 21 ...

    Gillespie, Neal Henry

    Brother of Eliza Maria Gillespie ; b. in Washington County, Pennsylvania, 19 January 1831; d. at ...

    Gillis, James

    Scottish bishop ; b. at Montreal, Canada, 7 April, 1802; d. at Edinburgh, 24 February 1864. He ...

    Gilmore, Patrick Sarsfield

    A musician, born at Ballygar Galway, Ireland, 25 Dec., 1829; died at St. Louis, 24 Sept., 1892; ...

    Gindarus

    A titular see of Syria Prima, in the Patriarchate of Antioch. Pliny (Hist. nat. V, 81) ...

    Ginoulhiac, Jacques-Marie-Achille

    A French bishop ; b. at Montpellier (department of Herault) 3 Dec., 1806; d. there 17 Nov., ...

    Gioberti, Vincenzo

    An Italian statesman and philosopher ; b. at Turin, 5 April, 1801; d. at Paris, 26 October, ...

    Giocondo, Fra Giovanni

    An Italian architect, antiquary, archaeologist, and classical scholar, b. in Verona, c. 1445; ...

    Giordani, Tommasso

    A composer, b. at Naples in 1738; d. at Dublin, Ireland, February 1806. The family came to ...

    Giordano, Luca

    Neapolitan painter ; b. at Naples, 1632; d. in the same place, 12 Jan., 1705. He was esteemed ...

    Giorgione

    (GIORGIO BARBARELLI, ZORZO DA CASTELFRANCO) Italian painter, b. at Castelfranco in or before ...

    Giotto di Bondone

    A Florentine painter, and founder of the Italian school of painting, b. most probably, in 1266 ...

    Giovanelli, Ruggiero

    Composer, b. at Velletri, near Rome, in 1560; d. at Rome, 7 January, 1625. In 1584 he was ...

    Giovanni Dominici, Blessed

    (BANCHINI or BACCHINI was his family name). Cardinal, statesman and writer, born at ...

    Giraldi, Giovanni Battista

    (Surnamed CINTIO) Italian dramatist and novelist; b. at Ferrara, Italy, 1504; d. there, ...

    Giraldi, Ubaldo

    (UBALDUS A SANCTO CAJETANO). An Italian canonist; b. in 1692; d. in 1775. He was a member of ...

    Giraldus Cambrensis

    Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald de Barry) was a distinguished writer, historian, and ecclesiastic of ...

    Girard, Jean-Baptiste

    Known as Père Girard, a Swiss pedagogue, b. at Fribourg, 17 December, 1765; d. there, 6 ...

    Girardon, François

    A noted sculptor of the reign of Louis XIV, b. at Troyes, France, 1630; d. at Paris, 1715. The ...

    Giraud de Borneil

    A Provençal troubadour, b. about the middle of the twelfth century, at Excideuil in the ...

    Girba

    A titular see in the province of African Tripoli. It is an island, in ancient times called ...

    Girgenti

    DIOCESE OF GIRGENTI (AGRIGENTINA). Girgenti is the capital of a province in Sicily and is ...

    Gisbert, Blaise

    French rhetorician and critic; born at Cahors, 21 February, 1657; died at Montpellier, 21 ...

    Giuliani, Veronica

    Born at Mercatello in the Duchy of Urbino, Italy, 1660; died at Citt` di Castello, 9 July, 1727. ...

    Giulio Romano

    Properly GIULIO DEI GIANNUZZI, also known as GIULIO PIPPI. A famous architect and painter, the ...

    Giuseppe Giusti

    A poet and patriot ; b. 1809, at Monsumano near Pescia, Italy ; d. 31 March, 1850, at ...

    Giuseppe Maria Tommasi, Blessed

    A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...

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    Gl 19

    Glaber, Raoul

    Benedictine chronicler; b. in Burgundy before 1000; d. at Cluny about 1050. In early boyhood he ...

    Glabrio, Manius Acilius

    Consul at Rome during A.D. 91, with Trajan. He belonged to one of the noblest families of ...

    Glagolitic

    (Or G LAGOLITSA ; Slavonic glagol, a word; glagolati, to speak). An ancient alphabet ...

    Glaire, Jean-Baptiste

    Priest, hebraist, and Biblical scholar; b. at Bordeaux, 1 April, 1798; d. at Issy, near Paris, ...

    Glanville, Ranulf de

    Chief Justiciar of England ; b. at Stratford, Suffolk, England, date unknown; d. before Acre, ...

    Glarean, Henry

    (LORITI) The most distinguished of Swiss humanists, poet, philosopher, geographer, ...

    Glasgow

    I. ARCHDIOCESE OF GLASGOW (GLASGUENSIS) Archdiocese in the south-west of Scotland, comprising at ...

    Glastonbury Abbey

    [G LESTINGABURH; called also Y NISWITRIN (Isle of Glass) and A VALON (Isle of Apples)] ...

    Glebe

    Glebe ( Latin gleba ) originally signified, in common law , any farm, estate, or parcel of ...

    Glendalough, School of

    Glendalough (the Valley of the Two Lakes) is a picturesque and lonely glen in the heart of the ...

    Gloria in Excelsis Deo

    The great doxology ( hymnus angelicus ) in the Mass is a version of a very old Greek form". ...

    Gloria, Laus et Honor

    A hymn composed by St. Theodulph of Orléans in 810, in Latin elegiacs, of which the ...

    Glory

    This word has many shades of meaning which lexicographers are somewhat puzzled to differentiate ...

    Glory Be

    In general this word means a short verse praising God and beginning, as a rule, with the Greek ...

    Glosses, Glossaries, Glossarists

    (IN CANON LAW) A gloss (Gk. glossa , Lat. glossa , tongue, speech) is an interpretation ...

    Glosses, Scriptural

    I. ETYMOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL MEANINGS The modern English word gloss is derived directly from the ...

    Glossolalia

    (Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...

    Gloves, Episcopal

    Liturgical gloves ( chirothecœ , called also at an earlier date manicœ , wanti ...

    Gluttony

    (From Lat. gluttire , to swallow, to gulp down), the excessive indulgence in food and drink. ...

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    Gn 2

    Gnesen-Posen

    Archdiocese in the Kingdom of Prussia. The archdiocese includes the Dioceses of Gnesen and ...

    Gnosticism

    The doctrine of salvation by knowledge. This definition, based on the etymology of the word ( ...

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    Go 89

    Goa

    (GOANENSIS.) Patriarchate of the East Indies, the chief see of the Portuguese dominions in the ...

    Goajira, Vicariate Apostolic of

    Goajira is the most northern portion of South America is a peninsula running into the Caribbean ...

    Goar, Jacques

    A Dominican and hellenist, b. at Paris, 1601, d. 23 September, 1653. He entered the convent of ...

    Goar, Saint

    An anchorite of Aquitaine; b. about 585; d. near Oberwesel (Germany), 6 July, 649. He came of a ...

    Gobat, George

    Moral theologian ; born at Charmoilles, in the Diocese of Basil, now in the Department of the ...

    Gobban Saer

    Regarded in traditional lore as the greatest Irish architect of the seventh century, and ...

    Gobelinus, Person

    (Persona.) Born in 1358; died 17 November, 1421. He was a Westphalian and was known as an ...

    God

    Etymology of the Word "God" Discusses the root-meaning of the name "God", which is derived from ...

    God, Existence of

    The topic will be treated as follows: I. As Known Through Natural ReasonA. The Problem Stated1. ...

    God, Nature and Attributes of

    I. As Known Through Natural ReasonA. Infinity of GodB. Unity or Unicity of God C. Simplicity of ...

    God, Relation of the Universe to

    1. Essential Dependence of the Universe on God (Creation and Conservation) In developing the ...

    God, Three Persons of

    This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...

    Godard, Saint

    (Also spelled GOTHARD, GODEHARD). Bishop of Hildesheim in Lower Saxony ; born about the ...

    Godden, Thomas

    (True name Tylden.) Born at Addington, Kent, 1624; died in London, 1 Dec., 1688. His father, ...

    Godeau, Antoine

    Bishop, poet and exegete ; b. at Dreux in the diocese of Chartres, 1605; d. at Vence, 21 ...

    Godeberta, Saint

    Born about the year 640, at Boves, a few leagues from Amiens, in France ; died about the ...

    Godelina, Saint

    (GODELINA.) Born at Hondeforte-lez-Boulogne, c. 1049; died at Ghistelles, 6 July, 1070. The ...

    Godet des Marais, Paul

    Bishop of Chartres, France ; b. at Talcy, near Blois, 1647; d. at Chartres, 1709. He studied ...

    Godfrey Goodman

    Born at Ruthin, Denbighshire, 28 February, 1582-3; died at Westminster, 19 January, 1656. He was ...

    Godfrey of Bouillon

    Duke of Lower Lorraine and first King of Jerusalem, son of Eustache II, Count of Boulogne, and ...

    Godfrey of Fontaines

    (GODEFRIDUS DE fontIBUS, DOCTOR VENERANDUS) A scholastic philosopher and theologian ; born ...

    Godfrey of Viterbo

    German writer of the twelfth century. Nothing is known as to the place or date of his birth, ...

    Godinez

    (GODINEZ). Mystical theologian, born at Waterford, Ireland, in 1591; died in Mexico, Dec. ...

    Godric

    The name of two Abbots of Croyland. Godric I (870-941) Godrick I was the successor of the Abbot ...

    Goesport, John Wessel

    (GANSFORT). A fifteenth-century Dutch theologian, born at Gröningen in 1420; died there ...

    Goetz, Marie Josephine

    Second superior-general of the Society of the Sacred Heart, daughter of Joseph Goetz of ...

    Goffe, Stephen

    (Or Gough) Oratorian; b. 1605; d. at Paris, Christmas Day, 1681. He was the son of Stephen ...

    Goffine, Leonard

    (Or G OFFINÉ ). Born at Cologne, or according to some, at Broich, 6 December, 1648; ...

    Gog and Magog

    Names, respectively, of a king and of his supposed kingdom, mentioned several times in chapters 38 ...

    Golden Bull

    (Golden Bull ). A fundamental law of the Holy Roman Empire; probably the best known of all ...

    Golden Calf

    An object of worship among the Hebrews, mention of which occurs principally in Exodus 32 where ...

    Golden Rose

    A precious and sacred ornament made of pure gold by skilled artificers, which the popes have ...

    Goldoni, Carlo

    Dramatist; b. at Venice, 25 Feb., 1707; d. at Paris, 6 Jan., 1793. Goldoni is especially ...

    Goldwell, Thomas

    Bishop of St. Asaph, the last survivor of the ancient hierarchy of England ; b. probably at ...

    Golgotha

    The place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ. NAME Etymology and Use The word Calvary ( ...

    Gomes De Amorim, Francisco

    Portuguese poet, dramatist, and novelist; b. at Avelomar, near Oporto, 13 August, 1827; d. 4 ...

    Gondulphus

    (GUNDULFUS). The name of three saints, of whom one was Bishop of Tongres (Maestricht), the ...

    Gonet, Jean Baptiste

    Theologian, b. about 1616 at Beziers, in the province of Languedoc; d. there 24 Jan., 1681. From ...

    Gonnelieu, Jérôme de

    Theologian, ascetical writer, and preacher; born at Soissons, 8 Sept., 1640; died at Paris, 28 ...

    González de Santalla, Thyrsus

    Theologian and thirteenth general of the Society of Jesus, b. at Arganda, Spain, 18 January, ...

    González, Zeferino

    Dominican, cardinal, theologian, and philosopher, b. at Villoria in the Province and Diocese ...

    Gonzaga, Ercole

    (Hercules.) Cardinal ; b. at Mantua, 23 November, 1505; d. 2 March, 1563. He was the Son of ...

    Gonzaga, Saint Aloysius

    Born in the castle of Castiglione, 9 March, 1568; died 21 June, 1591. At eight he was placed in ...

    Gonzaga, Scipione

    Cardinal ; b. at Mantua, 11 November, 1542; d. at San Martino, 11 January, 1593. He belonged to ...

    Gonzalez, Saint Peter

    Popularly known as St. Elmo, b. in 1190 at Astorga, Spain ; d. 15 April, 1246, at Tuy. He was ...

    Gonzalo de Berceo

    Spanish poet, active between 1220 and 1242. Born in the closing years on twelfth century, he ...

    Good

    "Good" is one of those primary ideas which cannot be strictly defined. In order to fix its ...

    Good Faith

    A phrase employed to designate the mental and moral state of honest, even if objectively ...

    Good Friday

    Definition and etymology Good Friday, called Feria VI in Parasceve in the Roman Missal, he ...

    Good Hope, Cape of (Eastern)

    The Eastern Vicariate of the Cape of Good Hope was established in 1847, when the Vicariate of the ...

    Good Hope, Cape of (Western)

    The Western vicariate and the Central prefecture, although different in name, are virtually one. ...

    Good Samaritan, Sisters of the

    A congregation of Tertiaries Regular of St. Benedict, established 2 February, 1857, at Sydney, ...

    Good Shepherd, Our Lady of Charity of the

    The aim of this institute is to provide a shelter for girls and women of dissolute habits, who ...

    Good, Highest, The

    "We always act with a view to some good. The good is the object which all pursue, and for the ...

    Goodman, Ven. John

    Priest and martyr ; born in the Diocese of Bangor, Wales, 1590; died 1642. He was educated at ...

    Goossens, Pierre-Lambert

    Cardinal, Archbishop of Mechlin (Belgium), b. at Perck, near Vilvorde, 18 July, 1827; d. at ...

    Gordian

    ( Latin GORDIANUS.) There were three Roman emperors of this name, who reigned between A.D. ...

    Gordianus and Epimachus, Saints

    Martyrs, suffered under Julian the Apostate , 362, commemorated on 10 May. Gordianus was a judge ...

    Gordon Riots

    This agitation, so called from the head and spirit of the movement, Lord George Gordon, ...

    Gordon, Andrew

    A Benedictine monk, physicist ; b. 15 June, 1712, at Cofforach in Forfarshire, Scotland ; d. ...

    Gordos

    A titular see in the province of Lydia, suffragan of Sardis. The city is mentioned by Strabo, ...

    Gorgonius, Saint

    Martyr, suffered in 304 at Nicomedia during the persecution of Diocletian. Gorgonius held a high ...

    Gorkum, The Martyrs of

    The year 1572, Luther and Calvin had already wrested from the Church a great part of Europe. ...

    Gortyna

    A titular see, and in the Greek Church metropolitan see, of the Island of Crete. The city, ...

    Goscelin

    (Or GOTSELIN, according to the spelling in the earliest manuscripts of his works.) A ...

    Gospel and Gospels

    The word Gospel usually designates a written record of Christ's words and deeds. It is very ...

    Gospel in the Liturgy

    I. HISTORY From the very earliest times the public reading of parts of the Bible was an important ...

    Gospel of Mark

    The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Contents, Selection and Arrangement of ...

    Goss, Alexander

    Second Bishop of Liverpool ; born at Ormskirk, Lancashire, 5 July, 1814; died. at St. Edward's ...

    Gossaert, Jan

    Called M ABUSE from Maubeuge in Hainaut. Flemish painter ; b. about 1472; d. at Middelburg ...

    Gosselin, Jean-Edmé-Auguste

    Ecclesiastical author; b. at Rouen, France, 28 Sept., 1787; d. at Paris, 27 Nov., 1858. He ...

    Gother, John

    (Or JOHN GOTER) Priest and controversialist; b. at Southampton, date unknown; d. at sea on a ...

    Gothic Architecture

    The term Gothic was first used during the later Renaissance, and as a term of contempt. Says ...

    Gottfried von Strasburg

    One of the greatest of Middle High German epic poets. Of his life we know absolutely nothing; ...

    Gotti, Vincent Louis

    Cardinal and theologian, b. at Bologna, 5 Sept., 1664; d. in Rome, 18 Sept., 1742. He received ...

    Gottschalk of Orbais

    A medieval theologian ; b. about 800, d. after 866, probable 30 October, 868 (or 869), in the ...

    Gottschalk, Saint

    (GODESCALCUS). Martyr Prince of the Wends; d. at Lenzen on the Elbe, 7 June 1066. His feast ...

    Goulburn

    (Gulburnensis). One of the six suffragan sees of the ecclesiastical province of Sydney, ...

    Gounod, Charles-François

    One of the most distinguished French musicians and composers of the nineteenth century, b. in ...

    Goupil, René

    Jesuit missionary; born 1607, in Anjou; martyred in New York State, 23 September, 1642. Health ...

    Gousset, Thomas-Marie-Joseph

    French cardinal and theologian ; b. at Montigny-les-Charlieu, a village of ...

    Government Authority

    Civil Authority is the moral power of command, supported (when need be) by physical coercion, ...

    Gower, John

    Poet; born between 1327-1330, probably in Kent; died October, 1408. He was of gentle blood and ...

    Goya y Lucientes, Francisco José de

    Painter and etcher, b. in Fuendetodos, Aragon, Spain, 31 March, 1746; d. in Bordeaux, 16 ...

    Goyaz, Diocese of

    (Goyasiensis). Co-extensive with the state of the same name, one of the twenty states which, with ...

    Gozo, Diocese of

    The diocese of Gozo (Goulos-Gaudisiensis), comprises the Island of Gozo in the Mediterranean ...

    Gozzi, Carlo

    Italian author, born at Venice, 1720; died 1806. He spent in military service three years that ...

    Gozzoli

    (BENOZZO DI LESE DI SANDRO, surnamed GOZZOLI). Painter ; b. at Florence, 1420; d. at Pisa ...

    Gozzolini, Saint Sylvester

    Founder of the Sylvestrines, b. of the noble family of the Gozzolini at Osimo, 1177; d. 26 ...

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    Gr 107

    Grässel, Lorenz

    Coadjutor-elect of Baltimore ; born at Ruemannsfelden, Bavaria, 18 August, 1753; died at ...

    Gröne, Valentin

    A Catholic theologian, b. at Paderborn, 7 December, 1817; d. at Irmgarteichen, in the district ...

    Grün, Anastasius

    A pseudonym for Anton Alexander (Maria), Count von Auersperg, an Austrian poet; b. at Laibach in ...

    Grace

    Actual Grace Explains the concept of actual grace, which is defined in the article as "a ...

    Grace at Meals

    In Apostolic times St. Paul counsels the faithful: "Whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever ...

    Grace, Actual

    Grace ( gratia, Charis ), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual creatures ...

    Grace, Controversies on

    These are concerned chiefly with the relation between grace and free will. How can the ...

    Grace, Supernatural

    Grace ( gratia, Charis ), in general, is a supernatural gift of God to intellectual ...

    Grace, William Russell

    Philanthropist and merchant, born at Cork, Ireland, 10 May, 1832; died at New York, 21 March, ...

    Gradual

    ( Latin Graduale , from gradus , a step) Gradual, in English often called Grail, is the ...

    Gradual Psalms

    Fifteen psalms -- namely, Psalms 119-133 (in Hebrew 120-134) -- bear a Hebrew inscription which ...

    Gradwell, Robert

    Bishop; b. at Clifton-in-the-Fylde, Lancashire, 26 Jan., 1777; d. in London, 15 March, 1833; went ...

    Graffiti

    The term in common usage among archaeologists to designate a class of rude inscriptions scratched ...

    Graham, Patrick

    First Archbishop of St. Andrews and Metropolitan of Scotland, date of birth uncertain; d. ...

    Grail, The Holy

    The name of a legendary sacred vessel , variously identified with the chalice of the Eucharist ...

    Gramont, Eugénie de

    Religious of the Society of the Sacred Heart ; b. at Versailles, 17 September, 1788; d. at ...

    Gran

    ( Hungarian ESZTERGOM; Latin STRIGONIUM, STRIGONIENSIS) Located in Hungary. From the ...

    Granada

    Archdiocese of Granada (Granatensis). Archdiocese in Spain, founded by St. Cecilius about ...

    Granada, University of

    The origin of this university is to be traced to the Arab school at Cordova, which, when the ...

    Grancolas, Jean

    Doctor of the Sorbonne, theologian, liturgist; b. near Chateaudun, about 1660; d. at Paris, 1 ...

    Grand Rapids

    (Grandormensis) Diocese created 12 May, 1882 out of the diocese of Detroit, and made to ...

    Grande Chartreuse, La

    The mother-house of the Carthusian Order lies in a high valley of the Alps of Dauphine, at an ...

    Granderath, Theodor

    Born 19 June, 1839, at Giesenkirchen, Rhine Province; died 19 March, 1902, at Valkenburg, ...

    Grandidier, Philippe-André

    Priest and historian, b. at Strasburg, Alsace, 9 Nov., 1752; d. at the Abbey of Luntzel ...

    Grandmont, Abbey and Order of

    Abbey and Order in the department of Hte-Vienne, France. The exact date of the foundation of the ...

    Grant, Thomas

    First Bishop of Southwark ; b. at Ligny-les-Aires, Arras, France, 25 Nov., 1816; d. at Rome, ...

    Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de

    Known in history as CARDINAL DE GRANVELLE (GRANVELLA). Born at Ornans in Franche-Comté, ...

    Gras, Venerable Louise de Marillac Le

    Foundress of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul , born at Paris, 12 August, 1591, ...

    Grasse, François-Joseph-Paul

    Count and Marquess de Grasse-Tilly, lieutenant-general of the naval forces; b. near Toulon, 1723; ...

    Grassis, Paris de

    Master of ceremonies to Julius II and Leo X ; b. at Bologna, about 1470; d. at Rome, 10 June, ...

    Gratian

    Roman Emperor; son of Valentinian I; born at Sirmium, 359; died at Lyons, 383. Before he had ...

    Gratian, Jerome

    Spiritual director of St. Teresa and first Provincial of the Discalced Carmelites ; born at ...

    Gratian, Johannes

    (GRATIANUS). The little that is known concerning the author of the "Concordantia discordantium ...

    Gratianopolis

    A titular see in Caesarea Mauretania, Africa. This city does not figure in a list of the ...

    Gratius, Ortwin

    (VAN GRAES) Humanist ; b. 1475 at Holtwick, near Coesfeld, Westphalia ; d. at Cologne, 22 ...

    Gratry, Auguste-Joseph-Alphonse

    French priest and writer; b. at Lille, 30 March, 1805; d. at Montreux, Switzerland, 7 February, ...

    Gratz, Peter Aloys

    Schoolmaster and exegete, b. 17 Aug., 1769, at Mittelberg, Allgäu, Bavaria ; d. at ...

    Gravier, Jacques

    Jesuit missionary; born 1651 at Moulins, where he studied classics and philosophy under the ...

    Gravina and Montepeloso

    DIOCESE OF GRAVINA AND MONTEPELOSO (GRAVINENSIS ET MONTIS PELUSII). Gravina is a town in the ...

    Gravina, Dominic

    Theologian ; b. in Sicily, about 1573; d. in the Minerva, at Rome, 26 Aug., 1643. He entered the ...

    Gravina, Giovanni Vincenzo

    Italian jurist and littérateur of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; b. at ...

    Graz, University of

    The University of Graz, located in the capital of the Province of Steiermark, owes its ...

    Great Falls

    DIOCESE OF GREAT FALLS (GREATORMENSIS). Created by Pope Pius X, 18 May, 1904; comprises the ...

    Greco, El

    One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

    Greece

    Greece will be treated in this article under the following heads: I. The Land and the People; II. ...

    Greek Catholics in America

    The Uniat churches of the Byzantine or Greek Rite were almost unknown to the United States ...

    Greek Church

    This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Explanation of Terms; II. The Greek ...

    Greek Orthodox Church in America

    The name Orthodox Church is generally used to distinguish those of the Greek Rite who are ...

    Greek Rites

    (1) Rite, Language, Religion These are three things that must always be distinguished. A rite is ...

    Green Bay

    (SINUS VIRIDIS) The Diocese of Green Bay — established 3 March, 1868, from the territory ...

    Green, Hugh

    Martyr ; born about 1584; martyred 19 August, 1642. His parents, who were Protestants, sent him ...

    Green, Thomas Louis

    Priest and controversialist; b. at Stourbridge, Worcestershire, 1799; d. at Newport, Shropshire, ...

    Greenland

    An island stretching from within the Arctic Circle south to about 59 degrees N. latitude, being ...

    Gregorian Chant

    The name is often taken as synonymous with plain chant, comprising not only the Church music of ...

    Gregory Bæticus

    Bishop of Elvira, in the province of Baetica, Spain, from which he derived his surname; d. ...

    Gregory I, Pope Saint

    Doctor of the Church ; born at Rome about 540; died 12 March 604. Gregory is certainly one of ...

    Gregory II, Pope Saint

    (Reigned 715-731). Perhaps the greatest of the great popes who occupied the chair of Peter ...

    Gregory III, Pope Saint

    (Reigned 731-741.) Pope St. Gregory III was the son of a Syrian named John. The date of his ...

    Gregory IV, Pope

    Elected near the end of 827; died January, 844. When Gregory was born is not known, but he was a ...

    Gregory IX

    (UGOLINO, Count of Segni). Born about 1145, at Anagni in the Campagna; died 22 August, 1241, ...

    Gregory of Heimburg

    Humanist and Statesman, b. at Würzburg in the beginning of the fifteenth century; d. at ...

    Gregory of Nazianzus, Saint

    Doctor of the Church, born at Arianzus, in Asia Minor, c. 325; died at the same place, 389. He ...

    Gregory of Neocaesarea, Saint

    Known at THAUMATURGUS, ( ho Thaumatourgos , the miracle-worker). Born at Neocæsarea in ...

    Gregory of Nyssa, Saint

    Date of birth unknown; died after 385 or 386. He belongs to the group known as the "Cappadocian ...

    Gregory of Rimini, Saint

    An Augustinian theologian ; born at Rimini, Italy, in the second half of the thirteenth ...

    Gregory of Tours, Saint

    Born in 538 or 539 at Arverni, the modern Clermont-Ferrand; died at Tours, 17 Nov., in 593 or ...

    Gregory of Utrecht, Saint

    Abbot; b. about 707 or 708; d. 775 or 780. Gregory was born of a noble family at Trier. His ...

    Gregory of Valencia

    Professor of the University of Ingolstadt , b. at Medina, Spain, March, 1550 (1540, 1551?); d. ...

    Gregory the Illuminator

    Born 257?; died 337?, surnamed the Illuminator (Lusavorich). Gregory the Illuminator is the ...

    Gregory V, Pope

    Born c. 970; died 4 February, 999. On the death of John XV the Romans sent a deputation to Otto ...

    Gregory VI

    On the death of Sergius IV in June, 1012, "a certain Gregory", opposed the election of ...

    Gregory VI, Pope

    (JOHN GRATIAN). Date of birth unknown; elected 1 May 1045; abdicated at Sutri, 20 December, ...

    Gregory VII, Pope Saint

    (HILDEBRAND). One of the greatest of the Roman pontiffs and one of the most remarkable men ...

    Gregory VIII

    Antipope. He was Mauritius Burdinus (Bordinho, Bourdin), who was placed upon the papal chair by ...

    Gregory VIII, Pope

    (ALBERTO DI MORRA). Born about the beginning of the twelfth century, at Benevento ; elected ...

    Gregory X

    Born 1210; died 10 January, 1276. The death of Pope Clement IV (29 November, 1268) left the ...

    Gregory XI

    (PIERRE ROGER DE BEAUFORT). Born in 1331, at the castle of Maumont in the Dioceses of Limoges ...

    Gregory XII

    (ANGELO CORRARIO, now CORRER). Legal pope during the Western Schism ; born at Venice, of a ...

    Gregory XIII, Pope

    (UGO BUONCOMPAGNI). Born at Bologna, 7 Jan., 1502; died at Rome, 10 April, 1585. He studied ...

    Gregory XIV, Pope

    (N ICCOLÒ S FONDRATI ). Born at Somma, near Milan, 11 Feb., 1535; died at Rome, 15 ...

    Gregory XV, Pope

    (ALESSANDRO LUDOVISI). Born at Bologna, 9 or 15 January, 1554; died at Rome, 8 July, 1623. ...

    Gregory XVI, Pope

    (MAURO, or BARTOLOMEO ALBERTO CAPPELLARI). Born at Belluno, then in the Venetian territory, 8 ...

    Greifswald, University of

    The oldest university of Prussia, founded in 1456. Even before this, Greifswald had, for a short ...

    Greith, Karl Johann

    Bishop and church historian, b. at Rapperswyl, Switzerland, 25 May, 1897; d. at St. Gall, 17 ...

    Gremiale

    A square or oblong cloth which the bishop, according to the "Cæremoniale" and ...

    Grenoble

    DIOCESE OF GRENOBLE (GRATIANOPOLITANA) Now comprises the Department of Isère and the Canton ...

    Gresemund, Dietrich

    German humanist ; b. in 1477, at Speyer ; d. 1512, at Mainz. His father, also named Dietrich, ...

    Greslon, Adrien

    French missionary; b. at Perigueux, in 1618; entered the Society of Jesus at Bordeaux, 5 ...

    Gresset, Jean Baptiste

    Born 29 August, 1709; died 16 June, 1777, at Amiens. Having finished his studies at the college ...

    Gretser, Jacob

    A celebrated Jesuit writer; b. at Markdorf in the Diocese of Constance in 1562; d. at ...

    Greuze, Jean-Baptiste

    French painter, b. at Tournus in Ardeche, 21 August, 1725; d. at Paris, 21 March, 1805. His ...

    Grey Nuns

    The Order of Sisters of Charity of the Hôpital Général of Montreal, commonly ...

    Grey Nuns of the Cross

    A community founded in 1745 at Monteal by Madame d'Youville, known as the Grey Sisters, or Grey ...

    Griffin, Gerald

    A novelist, dramatist, lyricist; b. 12 December, 1803, at Limerick, Ireland ; d. at Cork, 12 ...

    Griffin, Martin Ignatius Joseph

    Journalist, historian, b. at Philadelphia, 23 Oct., 1842; d. there, 10 Nov., 1911. In early ...

    Griffiths, Thomas

    Born in London, 2 June, 1791; died 19 August, 1847; the first and only Vicar Apostolic of the ...

    Grillparzer, Franz

    An Austrian poet, b. at Vienna, 15 January, 1791, d. 21 January, 1872. After desultory ...

    Grimaldi, Francesco Maria

    Italian physicist, b. at Bologna, 2 April, 1618; d. in the same city, 28 Dec., 1663. He entered ...

    Grimaldi, Giovanni Francesco

    An eclectic painter of the Bolognese school ; b. at Bologna, 1606; d. at Rome, 1680. He was a ...

    Grimmelshausen, Johann Jacob Christoffel von

    The greatest German novelist of the seventeenth century. What we know of his life is largely ...

    Groote, Gerard

    ( Or Geert De Groote; Gerhardus Magnus.) Founder of the "Brethren of the Common Life" , b. ...

    Gropper, John

    An eminent jurist and theologian, b. 24 Feb., 1503, at Soest, Westphalia ; d. at Rome, 13 March, ...

    Grosseteste, Robert

    Bishop of Lincoln and one of the most learned men of the Middle Ages ; b. about 1175; d. 9 ...

    Grosseto

    (Grossetana) Grosseto, suffragan diocese of Siena, has for its episcopal city the capital ...

    Grosswardein

    ( Hungarian Nagy-Várad; Magno-Varadinensis) A diocese of the Latin Rite in ...

    Grottaferrata, Abbey of

    ( Latin Crypta ferrata .) A Basilian monastery near Rome, sometimes said to occupy the site ...

    Grueber, Johann

    A German Jesuit missionary in China and noted explorer of the seventeenth century; b. at Linz, ...

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    Gu 49

    Guéranger, Prosper Louis Pascal

    Benedictine and polygraph; b. 4 April, 1805, at Sablé-sur-Sarthe; d. at Solesmes, 30 ...

    Guérard, Robert

    Born at Rouen, 1641; died at the monastery of Saint-Ouen, 2 January, 1715. For some time he ...

    Guérin

    (1) Eugénie de Guérin A French writer; b. at the château of La Cayla, in ...

    Guérin, Anne-Thérèse

    (In religion, Mother Theodore) Born at Etables (Côte du Nord), Brittany, France, 2 ...

    Guadalajara

    (Guadalaxara) Archdiocese in Mexico, separated from the Diocese of Michoacan by Paul III, 31 ...

    Guadalupe, Shrine of

    Guadalupe is strictly the name of a picture, but was extended to the church containing the ...

    Guadeloupe

    (Or Basse Terre; Guadalupensis; Imæ Telluris) Diocese in the West Indies, comprises the ...

    Guadix, Diocese of

    (GUADICENSIS) The Diocese of Guadix, in Spain, comprises the greater part of the Province of ...

    Guaicuri Indians

    (Pronounced Waikuri .) A group of small tribes, speaking dialectic forms of a common ...

    Guamanga, Diocese of

    ( Or Guamanga). A Peruvian diocese, suffragan to Lima. The See of Guamanga was erected by ...

    Guaraní Indians

    (Pronounced Waraní .) One of the most important tribal groups of South America, ...

    Guarantees, Law of

    (LA LEGGE DELLE GUARENTIGIE) A name given to the law passed by the senate and chamber of the ...

    Guarda, Diocese of

    (EGITANIENSIS.) Province of Beira, Portugal. Near the episcopal city are the ruins of Idanha, ...

    Guardi, Francesco

    Venetian painter ; born at Venice, 1712; died in the same city, 1793. He was a pupil of ...

    Guardian Angels

    ( See also FEAST OF THE GUARDIAN ANGELS .) That every individual soul has a guardian angel ...

    Guardian Angels, Feast of

    This feast, like many others, was local before it was placed in the Roman calendar. It was not ...

    Guardianship, in Civil Jurisprudence

    Guardianship is "the condition or fact of being a guardian; the office or position of guardian" ...

    Guarini, Battista

    An Italian poet, b. at Ferrara, 1538, d. at Venice, 7 Oct., 1612. His father, Francesco ...

    Guarino da Verona

    A humanist, b. 1370, at Verona, Italy ; d. 1460, at Ferrara. He studied Latin in the school ...

    Guastalla, Diocese of

    (GUASTELLENSIS). In the province of Reggio Emilia (Central Italy ) on the left bank of the Po ...

    Guastallines

    Luigia Torelli, Countess of Guastalla (b. about 1500; d. 29 Oct., 1559 or 1569), widowed for ...

    Guatemala, Santiago de

    (Sancti Jacobi majoris de Guatemala) Archdiocese conterminous with the Republic of Guatemala, ...

    Guayaquil

    A RCHDIOCESE OF G UAYAQUIL (G UAYAQUILENSIS ). Guayaquil, the capital of the Ecuadorian ...

    Gubbio

    Diocese of Eugubinensis, in the province of Perugia in Umbria (Central Italy ). The city ...

    Gudenus, Moritz

    A German convert to the Catholic faith from the Protestant ministry; b. 11 April, 1596, at ...

    Gudula, Saint

    (Latin, Guodila ). Born in Brabant, Belgium, of Witger and Amalberga, in the seventh ...

    Guelphs and Ghibellines

    Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the ...

    Guglielmini, Giovanni Battista

    Scientist, b. at Bologna, 16 August, 1763; d. in the same city, l5 December, 1817. He is known as ...

    Guiana

    (Or Guayana .) Guiana was the name given to all that region of South America which extends ...

    Guibert of Ravenna

    An antipope, known as Clement III, 1080 (1084) to 1100; born at Parma about 1025; died at ...

    Guicciardini, Francesco

    An historian and statesman; born at Florence, 1483; died there, 23 May, 1540. His parents, Piero ...

    Guido of Arezzo

    (Guido Aretinus). A monk of the Order of St. Benedict, b. (according to Dom Morin in the ...

    Guigues du Chastel

    (Guigo de Castro). Fifth prior of the Grande Chartreuse, legislator of the Carthusian Order ...

    Guijon, André

    Bishop and orator; born in November, 1548, at Autun ; died in September, 1631. He was the son ...

    Guilds

    Guilds were voluntary associations for religious, social, and commercial purposes. These ...

    Guiney, Patrick Robert

    Second and eldest surviving son of James Roger Guiney and Judith Macrae; born at Parkstown, Co. ...

    Guiscard, Robert

    Duke of Apulia and Calabria, founder of the Norman state of the Two Sicilies; born about 1016; ...

    Guise, House of

    The House of Guise, a branch of the ducal family of Lorraine, played an important part in the ...

    Guitmund

    A Bishop of Aversa, a Benedictine monk, theologian, and opponent of Berengarius ; born at an ...

    Gulf of St. Lawrence

    Vicariate erected 12 September, 1905, and formed from the prefecture Apostolic of the same name ...

    Gunpowder Plot, The

    (Oath taken May, 1604, plot discovered November, 1605). Robert Catesby, the originator of the ...

    Gunther, Blessed

    A hermit in Bohemia in the eleventh century; b. about 955; d. at Hartmanitz, Bohemia, 9 ...

    Gurk

    (GURCENSIS) A prince-bishopric of Carinthia, suffragan to Salzburg, erected by Archbishop ...

    Gury, Jean-Pierre

    Moral theologian ; b. at Mailleroncourt, Haute-Saône, 23 January, 1801; d. at Merc ur, ...

    Gusmão, Bartholomeu Lourenço de

    Naturalist, and the first aeronaut; b. in 1685 at Santos in the province of São Paulo , ...

    Gutenberg, Johann

    (Henne Gänsfleisch zur Laden, commonly called Gutenberg). Inventor of printing; born about ...

    Guthlac, Saint

    Hermit; born about 673; died at Croyland, England, 11 April, 714. Our authority for the life ...

    Guyon, Jeanne-Marie-Bouvier de La Motte-

    A celebrated French mystic of the seventeenth century; born at Montargis, in the Orléanais, ...

    Guzmán, Fernando Pérez de

    Señor de Batres; Spanish historian and poet (1376-1458). He belonged to a family ...

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