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The Roman Congregations

Certain departments have been organized by the Holy See at various times to assist it in the transaction of those affairs which canonical discipline and the individual interests of the faithful bring to Rome. Of these the most important are, without doubt, the Roman Congregations ( Sacræ Cardinalium Congregationes ), as is evident from the mere consideration of the dignity of their membership, consisting, as it does, of cardinals who are officially the chief collaborators of the sovereign pontiff in the administration of the affairs of the Universal Church. Nevertheless it should be noted that cardinals have not always participated in the administration of ecclesiastical affairs in the same way. A research on the various usages that have obtained in this connexion would lead us too far from our present subject, but is taken up under CARDINAL ; PAPAL CONSISTORY.

The Roman Congregations originated in the necessity, felt from the beginning, of studying the questions submitted for pontifical decision, in order to sift the legal questions arising and to establish matters of fact duly. This work, at first entrusted to the papal chaplains, was afterwards divided between the p nitentiarii and the auditores , according as questions of the internal or the external forum (i.e., jurisdiction ) were to be considered. Thereafter, cardinals in greater or less number were associated with them. Often, however, they were not merely entrusted with the preparation of the case, but were given authority to decide it. As, on the other hand, the increased numbers of cases to be passed upon occupied a great number of persons, while the proper administration of justice required that those persons should be of the most experienced, it appeared to be advisable, if not necessary, to divide this business into various and distinct groups. This division would evidently facilitate the selection of wise and experienced men in all branches of ecclesiastical affairs. Hence also a natural division into executive cases, assigned to the offices ( officia ), judicial cases, reserved to the tribunals, and administrative cases, committed to the Roman Congregations.

Sixtus V was the first to distribute this administrative business among different congregations of cardinals ; and in his Constitution "Immensa" (22 Jan., 1588) he generalized the idea, already conceived and partly reduced to practice by some of his predecessors, of committing one or another case or a group of cases to the examination, or to the decision, of several cardinals. By a judicious division of administrative matters, he established that permanent organization of these departments of the Curia, which since then have rendered such great services to the Church. The congregations at first established by Sixtus V were officially designated as:

  • for Holy Inquisition ;
  • for the Signature of Grace ;
  • for the erection of churches and consistorial provisions;
  • for the abundance of supplies and prosperity of the Church's temporal dominions;
  • for sacred rites and ceremonies ;
  • for equipping the fleet and maintaining it for the defence of the Church's dominions;
  • for an index of forbidden books;
  • for the execution and interpretation of the Council of Trent ;
  • for relieving the ills of the States of the Church ;
  • for the University of the Roman study (or school );
  • for regulations of religious orders;
  • for regulations of bishops and other prelates ;
  • for taking care of roads, bridges, and waters;
  • for the Vatican printing-press;
  • for regulations of the affairs of the Church's temporal dominions.
  • From this it will be seen that, while the chief end of the Congregations of Cardinals was to assist the sovereign pontiff in the administration of the affairs of the Church, some of these congregations were created to assist in the administration of the temporal States of the Holy See . The number of these varied according to circumstances and the requirements of the moment; in the time of Cardinal De Luca there were about nineteen of them, as he himself tells us in his admirable work "Relatio Romanæ Curiæ forensis", without counting other congregations of a lower order, consisting of prelates, as were, for example, the "Congregatio baronum et montium" and the "Congregatio computorum".

    Other congregations were added by different popes, until the present organization was established by Pius X in his Constitution "Sapienti consilio" of 29 June, 1908, according to which there are thirteen congregations, counting that of the Propaganda as only one. As, however, the last-named congregation is divided into two parts: Congregation of the Propaganda for Affairs of the Latin Rite, and Congregation of the Propaganda for Affairs of the Oriental Rites, it may well be considered as two congregations; so that the total number of the congregations is fourteen. Sixtus V granted ordinary jurisdiction to each of the congregations which he instituted within the limits of the cases assigned to it, reserving to himself and to his successors the presidency of some of the more important congregations, such as the Congregation of the Holy Inquisition and that of the Signature of Grace. As time went on, the congregations of cardinals, which at first dealt exclusively with administrative matters, came to pass upon the legal points of the cases submitted to them, until the congregations overshadowed the ecclesiastical tribunals and even the Roman Rota in fact almost took their places. In time the transaction of business was impeded by the cumulation of jurisdictions, different congregations exercising jurisdiction rendering decisions, and enacting laws in the same matters; Pius X resolved to define the competency of each congregation more precisely and to provide otherwise for the better exercise of its functions. It would not be possible to relate here all the changes effected in this connexion. The reader seeking detailed information may consult the commentaries that have already appeared on the Constitution "Sapienti consilio" (see General Bibliography at the end of this article). Mention will be made here of only the chief among those innovations which, besides the principal one of the demarcation of competency, are to be found in the following provisions.

    All decisions of the sacred congregations require pontifical approval, unless special powers have been given previously by the pope. The officials of the congregations are divided into two classes: minor officers who are to be chosen by competitive examination and named by a letter of the cardinal prefect, and major officers, freely selected by the pope, and named by a note of the cardinal secretary of State. There is to be henceforth no cumulation of offices in the hands of one individual, not only to satisfy the requirements of distributive justice, but also because the tenure of several offices by the same person often results in detriment to the service. Wherefore, it is forbidden for an officer of one of the congregations to serve in any way as an agent, or as a procurator or advocate, in his own department or in any other ecclesiastical tribunal. The competency of the congresso in each congregation is determined. The congresso consists of the major officers under the presidency of the cardinal who presides over the congregation. It deals with the matters of less importance among those that are before the congregation, while those of greater moment must be referred to the full congregations of cardinals. It is also the business of the congresso to prepare for their discussion those matters that are to be considered by the full congregation. On the other hand, the congresso is charged with the execution of the orders of the full congregation that have received the approval of the pope. As examples of matters of greater importance which must be considered by the full congregation, the special rules ( normæ peculiares ) mention the solution of doubts or of questions that may arise in regard to the interpretation of ecclesiastical laws, the examination of important administrative controversies, and kindred matters. The normæ peculiares and the normæ communes , together with the Constitution "Sapienti consilio", constitute the entire code of the new organization of the Roman ecclesiastical departments.

    I. CONGREGATION OF THE HOLY OFFICE

    As the Roman Inquisition ( Romana Inquisitio ) this congregation is of very ancient origin, dating from Innocent III (1194-1216), although some authorities attribute its establishment to Lucius III (1181-85). In the beginning of the thirteenth century Innocent III established at Rome an inquisitorial tribunal against the Albigenses and other innovators of the south of France. From its first title of Romana Inquisitio was derived the usage of calling this body Congregation of the Holy Roman Universal Inquisition. Sixtus V, in the Bull "Immensa", calls it Congregatio pro S. inquisitione and also Congregatio sanct inquisitionis hæreticæ pravitatis . Benedict XIV calls it Romanæ Universalis Inquisitionis Congregatio (Const. "Sollicita"). Later it had the official title Suprema Congregatio sanctæ romanæ et universalis inquisitionis . Pius X in his recent Constitution calls it, simply, Congregatio S. Officii . The qualification of Suprema was omitted, possibly to avoid the appearance of an inequality of dignity among the congregations, they being all of the same rank and dignity, since they are composed of cardinals. According to Leitner, the name Inquisition was suppressed in order to shield this congregation from the hatred inspired by that name. It retains, therefore, the title of Holy Office, so well suited to the most holy office to which it is assigned, namely, that of removing the faithful from the danger of deviation from the Faith through the influence of false doctrine. In 1251 Innocent IV gave the Dominicans charge of this tribunal. In view of the progress of the Reformation, Paul III, by the Bull "Licet ab initio", of 21 July, 1542, declared the Roman Inquisition to be the supreme tribunal for the whole world; and he assigned to it six cardinals. Simier (La curie romaine, cf. S. n. I) is of opinion that Paul III appointed the six cardinals of S. Clemente, S. Sisto, S. Balbina, S. Cecilia, S. Marcello, and S. Silvestro general inquisitors, with universal powers, not, however, to act collegialiter , as a tribunal, but individually and independently of one another. The Constitution "Licet ab initio" lends itself to that interpretation. But the Holy Office did not begin its existence as a congregation until 1558, in the reign of Paul IV. As time went on, the number of cardinals assigned to the Holy Office was increased, and the tribunal took a form like that of the other congregations. Formerly a cardinal used to be selected to preside over the Holy Office with the title of prefect; the first to be appointed to this charge was Cardinal Michele Ghislieri, afterwards Pius V . The prefecture of the congregation, however, has long been reserved by the pope to himself.

    Like all the other congregations, the Holy Office has officials of the second order. The first of these is the assessor, one of the highest officers of the Curia ; next comes the commissary, always a Dominican. Sometimes, as an exception, these two officials are invested with the episcopal character. Among the other officers who complete the personnel of the Holy Office are a vice-commissary, a first associate (socius), and a second associate, all Dominicans, also a sommista , a fiscal advocate, an advocatus reorum and some notaries.

    It may appear strange that so many positions in this congregation are filled by Dominicans. The reason is to be found in the great solicitude of Pius V for the Holy Office, which solicitude led him to reserve all these functions for his fellow-Dominicans, especially those of the Province of Lombardy, to which he himself had belonged, and in whose members he reposed great confidence. It is to be observed that, whereas the assessor now takes precedence of the commissary, the contrary order obtained in former times, even in the days of Cardinal De Luca (Relatio curiæ forensis disc., 14, n. 6), for the commissary had the faculties of a true judge in ordinary, while the assessor was merely an assessor or consultor, as in other tribunals. According to Simier (La curie romaine, ch. i, n. I) this change occurred towards the middle of the seventeenth century. Besides the officers already mentioned, the Holy Office, like most other congregations, has a number of consultors, chosen from among the most esteemed and learned prelates and religious. Some are ex officio consultors by virtue of a right anciently granted; these are called natural consultors ( consultori nati ). They are the Master General of the Order of Preachers , the Master of the Sacred Palace (of the same order by a privilege granted by Pius V ), and a religious of the Order of Friars Minor added by Sixtus V, himself a Friar Minor.

    This congregation also has certain officers peculiar to itself, required by the nature of its attributes. They are the qualifiers ( qualificatores ), explained by the function of these officials, theologians whose duty it is to propose to the cardinals the particular note or censure by which objectionable propositions are to be condemned, since all such propositions do not affect the Faith in the same degree, and therefore are condemned by the Holy Office not in a general, but in a specific way, being termed heretical, erroneous, temerarious, false, injurious, calumnious, scandalous, or qualified by the ancient special phrase piarum aurium offensiv , "offensive to pious ears". Since the promulgation of the recent Constitution by the reigning pope, giving a new organization to the Curia, while all that has been referred to in regard to the internal status of this congregation has remained, a new division, to deal with indulgences, has been added to the Holy Office. For this division a congresso has also been established. Although no mention is made in the basic constitution of a congress ( congresso ) for the main part of this congregation, the Holy Office itself, the fact that it is said in the "Normæ peculiares" that the Holy Office shall retain its former methods of procedure insures to it a kind of congress analogous to that of the other congregations and consisting of the assessor, the commissary, the first associate, and a few other officers. Its duties are to examine the various cases, and to decide which of them must be submitted to the congregation of the consultors and which others may be disposed of without further proceedings, as is the case in matters of minor importance or of well-established precedent. The Decree often makes it clear that the case has been determined in this way, as when use is made of the formula: "D. N... Papa.. per facultates R. P. D. Assessori S. Off. impertitas..." The congresso of the new division consists of the cardinal, secretary, the assessor, the commissary, and the surrogate for indulgences.

    The Congregation of the Holy Office defends Catholic teaching in matters of faith and morals : "Hæc S. Congregatio . . .doctrinam fidei et morum tutatur." Whence it follows, and is explicitly affirmed in the "Sapienti consilio", that the Holy Office deals with all matters which, directly or indirectly, concern faith and morals ; it judges heresy, and the offences that lead to suspicion of heresy ; it applies the canonical punishments incurred by heretics, schismatics, and the like. In this the Holy Office differs from all the other congregations, which are without judicial power, or, at least, may exercise it only at the request of the parties interested, while the Holy Office has both judicial and administrative power, since the legislator rightly believed that the congregation exclusively empowered to pass upon a doctrine, and qualify and condemn it as heretical, should also be the judge in heretical and kindred cases. From the fact that the purpose of this congregation is to defend the Faith, it follows that dispensation from the impediments of disparity of worship and of mixed religion (which by their nature imperil faith, and which, by Divine law itself is granted only upon guarantees given by the non-Catholic party) pertains to the Holy Office. The same is true of the Pauline privilege. And as the judicial causes connected with this privilege and with impediments of disparity of worship and mixed religion have a remote connexion with the Faith, it was declared that these causes belonged to the jurisdiction of the Holy Office (see decision of the Cong. of the Consistory, January, 1910). With regard, however, to the substantial form of the celebration of mixed marriages, the pope withdrew all authority from this congregation, wishing article 11 of the Decree "Ne temere" to remain in force.

    The Holy Office formerly had a more ample jurisdiction, acquired by spontaneous development as time went on. Thus it dispensed from abstinence, from fasting, and from the observance of feasts (all of which now pertains to the Congregation of the Council); it dispensed from vows made in religious institutions, a function now exercised by the Congregation of Religious, and it dealt with the nomination of bishops, according to the Motu Proprio of Pius X (17 December, 1903), which business now belongs to the Congregation of the Consistory. In former times the Holy Office even dealt with causes of canonization, a matter which is now assigned to the Congregation of Rites. Grimaldi (op. cit. infra in general bibliography) gives as an example of such cases the Decree of the Holy Office in confirmation of the cult of the Blessed Colomba of Rieti , who died in the odour of sanctity at Perugia in 1507; and he adds: "Ce genre de causes est devenu ensuite l'apanage de la congrégation des Rites ; mais si la vraie sainteté échappe actuellement à la juridiction de l' inquisition, ce tribunal a conservé le privilège de juger la fausse sainteté. Dans cet ordre d'idées nous trouvons les procès, qui se font en cour de Rome pour examiner les prophéties et révélations" (Causes of this kind afterwards became the province of the Congregation of Rites. But if true sanctity is no longer the jurisdiction of the Inquisition, that tribunal has kept the privilege of judging questions of spurious sanctity. Of this order are the processes carried on in the Roman Curia to examine prophesies and revelations). All persons are subject to the Holy Office except cardinals, who may be judged only by the pope.

    Mention should be made of the strict secrecy which characterizes the proceedings of this congregationa most prudent measure indeed, for the protection of the good name of individuals in a congregation which must deal with most grievous offences against the Faith. Grimaldi (op. cit.) rightly says, speaking of the secrecy of the Holy Office: "Le saint-office ayant à s'occuper des délits commis non seulement contre la foi, mais encore d'autres qui ne relèvent que de très loin de l'intelligence, il s'ensuit qu'être cité à ce tribunal n'est pas une recommendation, et en sortir même par la porte d'un acquitement, ne sera jamais un titre de gloire. Aussi doit-on bénir ce mystère qui protège celui qui comparait devant ce tribunal, et dont le procès se déroule sans qu'aucune phase n'en ait transpiré dans le public" (As the Holy Office has to deal not only with offences against the Faith, but also with others which are very remotely connected with the intelligence, it follows that to be cited before this tribunal is no recommendation, and to leave it, even by the door of acquittal, will never be a title to glory. We should bless that mystery which protects him who appears before the tribunal and whose trial proceeds without any phase of it becoming public).

    For the discussion of matters before the Holy Office there are three kinds of reunions, or, as they are called, congregations. The first is the so-called congregation of the consultors at which the consultors and the greater officials of the congregation are present under the presidency of the assessor. This meeting is held on Monday of each week in the Palace of the Holy Office behind the colonnade of St. Peter's. The most important matters are discussed at this meeting, and the views of the consultors are given for the enlightenment of the cardinals of the Holy Office, who, on the following Wednesday, consider the same matters and pass judgment upon them at the congregation of cardinals which used to be held at the residence of the general of the Dominicans near Santa Maria sopra Minerva, but since 1870 has been held at the Palace of the Holy Office. The third congregation is held in the presence of the pope, who approves or modifies the decisions rendered by the cardinals on the previous day. This third congregation, formerly held every Thursday, is now held only on occasion of the most exceptional cases. Instead of the congregation, the assessor refers the decisions of the cardinals to the Holy Father on Wednesday evenings, after which the pope gives the final decision. It was formerly customary, both at the congregation of cardinals and at that of Thursdays in the presence of the pope ( coram Sanctissimo ), for the consultors to wait in the antechamber in case they might be called upon by the cardinals or the Holy Father for explanations. This custom has been abolished.

    As regards the doctrinal value of Decrees of the Holy Office it should be observed that canonists distinguish two kinds of approbation of an act of an inferior by a superior: first, approbation in common form ( in forma communi ), as it is sometimes called, which does not take from the act its nature and quality as an act of the inferior. Thus, for example, the decrees of a provincial council, although approved by the Congregation of the Council or by the Holy See, always remain provincial conciliar decrees. Secondly, specific approbation ( in forma specifica ), which takes from the act approved its character of an act of the inferior and makes it the act of the superior who approves it. This approbation is understood when, for example, the pope approves a Decree of the Holy Office ex certa scientia, motu proprio , or plenitudine suâ potestatis . Even when specifically approved by the pope, decrees of the Holy Office are not infallible. They call for a true assent, internal and sincere, but they do not impose an absolute assent, like the dogmatic definitions given by the pope as infallible teacher of the Faith. The reason is that, although an act of this congregation, when approved by the pope specifically, becomes an act of the sovereign pontiff, that act is not necessarily clothed with the infallible authority inherent in the Holy See , since the pope is free to make the act of an inferior his own without applying his pontifical prerogative to its performance. Similarly, when he acts of his own volition, he may teach ex cathedra or he may teach in a less decisive and solemn way. Examples of specific approbation of the Decrees of the Holy Office which yet lack the force of ex cathedra definitions are given by Choupin ("Valeur des décisions doctrinales et disciplinaires du Saint-Siège", Paris, 1907, ch. ix, sect. 9). The disciplinary Decrees of the Holy Office have the same force as those of the other congregations, that is, they are binding upon all the faithful if they be formally universal; and they are binding only upon the parties interested if they be merely personal, e.g., judicial sentences, which are law for the parties in the case. If, however, they be personal and at the same time equivalently universal, canonists are not fully agreed as to their force. For a discussion of this point see Choupin, op. cit., ch. iv, sect. 33, and the authors cited by him.

    II. CONGREGATION OF THE CONSISTORY

    This congregation was established by Sixtus V under the title of Congregation for the Erection of Churches and for Consistorial Provisions (pro erectione ecclesiarum et provisionibus consistorialibus). Its original organization was somewhat different from that of the modern congregations of cardinals. It was a mixed congregation composed of cardinals and of prelates, similar to the original Congregation of Propaganda (De Luca, op. cit., dis. 23). It had also a secretary who, as a rule, was not a prelate but an advocate ( peritus togatus ). As time went on it took the form of the other congregations, which consisted entirely of cardinals, to whom, in this congregation, two subaltern officers were added, one who filled the office of secretary and another who acted as surrogate ( sostituto ). These two prelates filled the same offices for the College of Cardinals. Originally, the cardinal dean was the prefect of this congregation, but later, the prefecture was reserved by the pope to himself. The recent Constitution of Pius X has in part changed the organization of this congregation. The prefecture is still retained by the sovereign pontiff, and the congregation is formed exclusively of cardinals, selected by the pope ; the secretary, however, is no longer a prelate but a cardinal priest, who is appointed by the Holy Father himself and who, as will be seen, has become one of the most important officers of the Curia. To the cardinal in control of the congregation is attached a prelate who has the title of assessor, and who, at the present time also, is the secretary of the Sacred College . There is, likewise, a surrogate. These are major officials, and therefore, together with the cardinal secretary, form the congresso . This congregation has numerous inferior officers. At present, its personnel is completed by several consultors, as had been the case in former times, before that office was suppressed. These consultors, with the exception of two, are selected by the pope ; the exceptions are the assessor of the Holy Office, and the secretary of the Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, who are ex-officio consultors of the Congregation of the Consistory.

    The work of the congregation formerly was to prepare the matters to be proposed and examined in the Consistory, and to bestow such honours on ecclesiastics who sought them as it might seem fit to grant. The new constitution, however, has greatly extended the scope of the Congregation of the Consistory, to the degree that, although in that Constitution the latter is named second among the congregations, it might be considered the first in importance, on account of the great number of matters which have been assigned to it, and its great influence in the affairs of the Church from both the disciplinary and the administrative point of view. The Holy Office, however, retains its priority, whether by reason of ancient custom or because it deals with matters concerning the Faith. The great volume of the business which now falls to the Congregation of the Consistory and the great importance of the matters with which it has to deal have necessitated a division of the congregation into two very distinct parts, corresponding to two distinct classes of business. One section of the congregation has been formed for the purpose of preparing the business to be brought before the Consistory ; to establish in places, not subject to Propaganda, new dioceses and collegiate as well as cathedral chapters; to elect bishops, Apostolic administrators, suffragans or assistants of other bishops ; to prepare the processes in such cases and to examine the candidates in doctrine. As regards these processes, it may be observed that when the appointment is to be made in a place where the Holy See has a diplomatic representative, the preparation of the necessary documents is left to the office of the cardinal secretary of State, which is in a position more easily to obtain the necessary information and to collect the necessary documents. These documents and information are transmitted to the Congregation of the Consistory, which prepares the report, or official sheet, on the matter to be distributed among the cardinals. The other section of this congregation transacts all the business that relates to the government of dioceses not under Propaganda : within its scope is the supervision of bishops in regard to the fulfilment of their duties, the review of reports on the state of their Churches presented by bishops, announcements of apostolic visitations, the review of those previously made, and, with the approval of the sovereign pontiff, the prescription of necessary or opportune remedies; finally, the supervision of all that concerns the government, discipline, temporal administration, and studies in seminaries.

    It is clear that the legislator intended to give to the Congregation of the Consistory complete authority in all that relates to a diocese as a juridical institution, including its establishment and its conservation; whence the power of electing bishops, of supervising them in the performance of their duties, and of controlling the seminaries so intimately connected with the future of the dioceses. For the same reason it would appear that the Congregation of the Consistory has authority in all that pertains to the creation of diocesan societies or committees, rural banks, and kindred establishments within a diocese. On the other hand, a very high function was given to this congregation in the new organization of the Curia, namely, the power of settling any doubts in relation to the competency of the other congregations, exception being made for the Holy Office, which is empowered to determine for itself all such doubts. Nevertheless, the Holy Office did not disdain to submit to the judgment of the Congregation of the Consistory a question that arose in regard to the competency of the former, after the promulgation of the Constitution "Sapienti consilio", It is the duty of the Congregation of the Consistory to send to bishops the invitations to assist at solemn canonizations or other solemn pontifical ceremonies, according to ancient custom.

    Its proceedings are characterized by the same strict secrecy that marks the deliberations of the Holy Office. As to the division of business between the congresso and the full congregation of cardinals, the same arrangement obtains as in the other congregations, which is to leave to the congresso the matters of minor importance while matters of greater interest are considered in the full congregation. Among such matters are the nomination of bishops or of Apostolic administrators (except, in regard to the latter, in cases of urgency, in which the congresso acts alone), the creation of new dioceses, or the unification of existing ones, the erection of chapters, the drafting of general rules for the direction of seminaries, and other similar matters the enumeration of which would take us beyond the necessary limits of this article.

    III. CONGREGATION OF THE SACRAMENTS

    This congregation, which owes its existence to the recent Constitution "Sapienti consilio", exercises a great influence upon ecclesiastical discipline through the authority given to it in its establishment, to regulate all sacramental discipline. Its numerous and important duties were formerly divided among the other congregations and offices. As regards matrimony, for example, causes of matrimony ratified and not consummated were referred to the Congregation of the Council, dispensations for the external forum were granted by the Dataria or, in certain cases, the P nitentiaria; many matters relating to the Sacrament of the Eucharist belonged to the Congregation of Rites. Many other examples could be cited; now, however, all such matters pertain to the Congregation of the Sacraments, excepting the rights of the Holy Office, as said above, and the power of the Congregation of Rites to determine all that concerns the ceremonies to be observed in the administration of the sacraments. With so wide and important a field of activities, this congregation required a special organization. Accordingly, besides its cardinals, one of whom is its prefect, it has a secretary, who deals with all the matters referred to it, and who was later given three sub-secretaries -- a feature in which it differs from all other congregations. Each one of these sub-secretaries is the director of one of the following sections of the congregation.

    A. The first section deals with all matrimonial dispensations, except those that imply disparity of religion, which pertain to the Holy Office. With regard to these dispensations it is important to note the distinction introduced by the Special Rules between impediments in the major degree and impediments in minor degree, and correspondingly between major and minor dispensations. Minor dispensations concern impediments of relationship or affinity of the third and the fourth degrees in the collateral line, whether of equal degrees, or of unequal degrees -- i.e., of the fourth degree with the third or of the third degree with the second. Minor dispensations are also given from impediments of affinity in the first degree, or in the second degree, whether simple or mixed -- i.e., of the first with the second degree -- when this impediment arises from illicit relations, or from spiritual kinship of whatever nature, or from impediments of public decorum, whether arising out of espousals or out of ratified marriage already dissolved by pontifical dispensation. Dispensations from these minor impediments are now granted ex rationalibus causis a S. Sede probatis, which means that none of the reasons formerly required, called canonical, are now necessary for obtaining the dispensations in question. Moreover, these dispensations are supposed to be given motu proprio and with certain knowledge, from which it follows that they are not vitiated by obreption or by subreption. The other impediments, and therefore the other dispensations are considered as of the major order, and the Special Rules show that the dispensations of this order more frequently granted are those relating to the impediment of consanguinity in the second collateral degree, or the mixed second or third degree with the first; those relating to affinity of the first or of the second equal collateral degree, or of the second or third with the first; finally, those relating to crime arising from adultery with a promise of future marriage.

    B. The second section of the Congregation of the Sacraments also deals exclusively with matrimony, and exercises its functions in all matters concerning that sacrament, except dispensations from impediments. Of its competency, therefore, are the concessions of sanatio in radice , the legitimation of illegitimate children, dispensations from marriage ratified and not consummated, the solution of doubts concerning matrimonial law, and the hearing of causes concerning the validity of marriages. In regard to the latter, however, it is to be noted that, the new Constitution on the Curia having established a complete separation between those departments which exercise judicial power and those which are administrative, and, on the other hand, the very nature of matrimonial causes making it impossible to determine them administratively, this power granted to the Congregation of the Sacraments should be interpreted reasonably, in such a way as not to be at variance with the spirit of the new Constitution. It seems, therefore, that this faculty should be held to signify only that, in special cases, in which the sovereign pontiff, for special reasons, might consider it desirable to withdraw a matrimonial cause from the Rota, and submit it to the judgment of a congregation, the Congregation of the Sacraments should be considered the competent congregation under such circumstances. It must be admitted, further, that if a matrimonial cause be brought before this congregation, the congregation may, if it please, hastily review any matrimonial cause brought before it and reject it, if found futile, ab ipso limine . If, however, the cause be found admissible, the congregation should refer it to the Rota (unless there be a special commission of the pope to the contrary), seeing that the very nature of causes concerning the matrimonial bond, in which not private interests are at issue but the public welfare, demands that those causes be determined judicially, and not administratively.

    None of this, however, applies to dispensation from a ratified, but not consummated, marriage, because the nature of such a case requires that it be determined administratively, since it relates to the concession of a grace. This does not do away with the necessity of establishing beyond doubt the non-consummation, or the existence of the requisite conditions for the dispensation, since these conditions constitute the proof that the sovereign pontiff has power, in the concrete case under consideration, to grant the dispensation validly and licitly, and therefore come within the domain of administrative power. On the other hand the congregation is always free to refer to the Rota the establishment of the fact of non-consummation.

    C. The third section of this congregation deals with all matters concerning the other six sacraments than matrimony. It has authority in all matters touching the validity of ordinations, in all matters of discipline that concern these six sacraments and also the dispensations in such matters. In the Special Rules, as examples to illustrate the competency of this congregation, specification is made of some of the dispensations or graces reserved to it; these may be mentioned here for the guidance of those who may wish to apply to the Holy See. This section grants permission to preserve the Blessed Sacrament in churches or chapels which are not so authorized by common Law ; to celebrate Mass in private chapels, exercising over them due supervision; to celebrate Mass before dawn, after midday, or in the open air; to celebrate Mass on Holy Thursday, or the three Masses of Christmas, at night, in private chapels ; to wear a skull-cap or a wig either while celebrating Mass or in the exposition of the Blessed Sacrament ; to blind and partially blind priests to celebrate the Votive Mass of the Blessed Virgin; to celebrate Mass aboard ship; to consecrate a bishop on a day other than those established by the Pontifical, or to confer Holy orders extra tempora , that is, on other days than those appointed by law ; finally, to dispense the faithful -- even members of religious orders -- from the Eucharistic fast in cases of necessity.

    The competency of this congregation is limited in relation both to persons and to places; its authority does not extend to places subject to Propaganda, or to members of religious orders, who for dispensations, relating even to the sacraments, must go to the Congregation of Religious (an exception being made in regard to the Eucharistic fast, as stated above). As to the sacrament of matrimony, however, the competency of the Congregation of the Sacraments is universal in relation to place; objectively, however, all that concerns the impediments of mixed religion or of disparity of worship and the Pauline privilege pertains exclusively to the Holy Office.

    IV. CONGREGATION OF THE COUNCIL

    When the Council of Trent had brought its gigantic work to an end, the Fathers were greatly concerned for the practical application of their disciplinary decrees. The council therefore made a strong appeal to the sovereign pontiff to make provision for this important end, as is shown by the last (the twenty-fifth) session of the council, entitled De recipiendis et observandis decretis . Pius IV, in his zeal for the execution of the Decrees of the Council of Trent, besides other measures taken by him to this end (see the Constitution "Benedictus Deus" of 26 January, 1563), by a Motu Proprio of 2 August, 1564, commissioned eight cardinals to supervise the execution of the Tridentine Decrees and gave them ample faculties to that end, providing however, that cases of doubt or of difficulty, as he had already decreed in the Constitution "Benedictus Deus", should be referred to him. In this Motu Proprio, Pius IV referred to the congregation of cardinals thus created as "Congregatio super exsecutione et observatione S. Concilii Tridentini". As time went on, and in view of the interpretation of frequent doubts, the congregation received from the successors of Pius IV the power also to interpret the Decrees of the Council of Trent, so that Sixtus V, in his Constitution "Immensa", already calls it "Congregatio pro exsecutione et interpretatione Concilii Tridentini", a title given to it before his time. Gregory XIV afterwards conferred upon it authority to reply to questions in the name of the pope.

    The number of cardinals composing the Congregation of the Council was never restricted to eight, for to that number, which had been assigned by Pius IV, four more were soon added. The number was generally greater than the original eight, and always variable, depending upon circumstances and upon the wishes of the Holy Father. One of its cardinals has the office of prefect, it also has a secretary, and that office has always been filled by eminent men, some of them famous -- to take a few examples, Fagnano, Petra, and Prospero Lambertini, afterwards Benedict XIV. A sub-secretary and other minor officials complete the personnel of the Congregation of the Council. In its origin, and indeed until the new Constitution on the Curia, this congregation was without consultors, although a special congregation created by Pius IX for the revision of

    More Volume: T 528

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    1

    Tænarum

    Tænarum, a titular see in Greece, suffragan of Corinth. Tænarum, or Tænarus, ...

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    1

    Téllez, Gabriel

    Spanish priest and poet, better known by his pseudonym of Tirso de Molina, b. at Madrid, c. ...

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    1

    Tübingen, University of

    Located in Würtemberg ; founded by Count Eberhard im Bart on 3 July, 1477, after Pope ...

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    Ta 91

    Tabæ

    Titular see in Caria, suffragan of Stauropolis ; according to Strabo (XII, 570, 576) it was ...

    Tabasco

    (TABASQUENSIS) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of the Archbishopric of ...

    Tabb, John Bannister

    An American poet and educator, born at "The Forest" near Richmond, 1845; died at Ellicott City, ...

    Tabbora

    A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Tabbora or Talbora has been ...

    Tabernacle

    (TABERNACULUM). Tabernacle signified in the Middle Ages sometimes a ciborium-altar, a ...

    Tabernacle

    (Latin tabernaculum , tent). Tabernacle in Biblical parlance usually designates the ...

    Tabernacle Lamp

    In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should ...

    Tabernacle Societies

    The Association of Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament and of work for poor churches ...

    Tabernacle Society

    Notre Dame Convent, Philadelphia; a society of persons affiliated with the Association of ...

    Tabernacles, Feast of

    One of the three great feasts of the Hebrew liturgical calendar, even the greatest, according ...

    Tabor, Mount

    The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...

    Tacana Indians

    The collective designation for a group of tribes constituting the Tacanan linguistic stock in ...

    Tacapæ

    Titular see of Tripolitana in northern Africa. The official list of titular sees of the ...

    Taché, Alexandre-Antonin

    First Archbishop of St. Boniface, Manitoba, missionary, prelate, statesman, and writer of ...

    Taché, Etienne-Pascal

    Statesman, b. at St. Thomas (Montmagny, Province of Quebec ), 5 Sept., 1795, son of Charles, and ...

    Tadama

    A titular see in Mauretania Cæsariensis, of which nothing, is known. Its bishop David is ...

    Taensa Indians

    A tribe of Muskhogean stock and somewhat superior culture, living when first known on the west ...

    Tahiti

    Tahiti, the most important of the Society Islands, has an area of 600 square miles and a ...

    Taigi, Ven. Anna Maria

    ( Maiden name Giannetti.) Venerable Servant of God, born at Siena, Italy, 29 May, 1769; ...

    Tait Indians

    ( Te-it , "Those up river"). A collective term for those members of the Cowichan tribe, of ...

    Takkali

    (More proper Takhehi, plural Takhehlne). The hybrid name by which the Carrier Indians of the ...

    Talbot, James

    Fourth son of George Talbot and brother of the fourteenth Earl of Shrewsbury (b. 1726; d. ...

    Talbot, John

    English Catholic layman, b. 1535(?); d. 1607(?). Only son and heir of Sir John Talbot, of ...

    Talbot, Peter

    Archbishop of Dublin, 1669-1680; b. at Malahide, Dublin, in 1620. At an early age he entered ...

    Talbot, Thomas Joseph

    Born 14 February, 1727; died at Hotwells, near Bristol, 24 April, 1795. Brother of the fourteenth ...

    Tallagaht, Monastery of

    The name Tallaght (Irish Tamlachta ), derived from tam , plague, and lecht , stone ...

    Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles-Maurice de

    Prince of Benevento, Bishop of Autun, French minister and ambassador, born in Paris, 13 ...

    Tallis, Thomas

    English composer, born about 1514; died 23 November, 1585. He was a chorister at Saint ...

    Talmud

    1. DEFINITION Talmud was a post-Biblical substantive formation of Pi'el ("to teach"), and ...

    Talon, Jean

    First intendant in exercise of New France , b. at Châlons-sur-Marne, 1625, of Philippe ...

    Talon, Nicolas

    French Jesuit, historian, and ascetical writer, b. at Moulins, 31 August, 1605; d. at Paris, 29 ...

    Talon, Pierre

    A French-Canadian explorer, b. at Quebec, 1676, of Lucien and Isabelle Planteau; d. in France ...

    Tamanac Indians

    A formerly important tribe of Cariban linguistic stock occupying the territory about the Cuchivero ...

    Tamassus

    A titular see in Cyprus, suffragan of Salamis, was situated in the great central plain of the ...

    Tamaulipas

    (CIVTTATIS VICTORIÆ SIVE TAMAULIPENSIS) Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of ...

    Tamburini, Michelangelo

    Fourteenth General of the Society of Jesus , born at Modena, 27 Sept., 1648; died 28 Feb., ...

    Tamburini, Thomas

    Moral theologian, born at Caltanisetta in Sicily, 6 March, 1591; died at Palermo 10 October, ...

    Tametsi

    ("ALTHOUGH") The first word of Chapter 1, Session 24 ( De Ref. Matr. ), of the Council of ...

    Tamisier, Marie-Marthe-Baptistine

    (Called by her intimates EMILIA) Initiator of international Eucharistic congresses, born at ...

    Tanagra

    A titular see in Hellas, suffragan of Corinth ; it was a town of Bœotia, in a fertile ...

    Tancred

    Prince of Antioch, born about 1072; died at Antioch, 12 Dec., 1112. He was the son of Marquess ...

    Taney, Roger Brooke

    (Pronounced Tawney ) Fifth chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, ...

    Tanguay, Cyprien

    Genealogist, born at Quebec, 1819; died 1902. After a course of classics and theology at Quebec ...

    Tanis

    A titular see, suffragan of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima, capital of the fourteenth district ...

    Tanner, Adam

    Controversialist, born at Innsbruck in 1571; died at Unken, 25 May, 1632. He entered the Society ...

    Tanner, Conrad

    Abbot of Einsiedeln, born at Arth in the Canton of Schwyz, 28 Dec., 1752; died 7 April, 1825. He ...

    Tanner, Edmund

    Bishop of Cork and Cloyne, Ireland, 1574-1579; born about 1526; died 1579. The statement in ...

    Tanner, Matthias

    Born at Pilsen in Bohemia, 28 Feb., 1630; died at Prague, 8 Feb., 1692. He entered the Society ...

    Tantum Ergo

    The opening words of the penultimate stanza of the Vesper hymn (see PANGE LINGUA GLORIOSI, II) ...

    Tanucci, Bernardo

    Marchese, Italian statesman, born at Stia in Tuscany, of poor family, in 1698 died at Naples, 29 ...

    Taoism

    (TAO-KIAO.) Taoism is the second of the three state religions ( San-kiao ) of China. ...

    Taos Pueblo

    An important town of the Pueblo group, inhabited by Indians speaking the Tigua language of ...

    Taparelli, Aloysius

    (D'AZEGLIO, christened PROSPERO) Philosopher and writer on sociological subjects, born at ...

    Tapestry

    A word of French origin naming a fabric in which the two processes of weaving and embroidering ...

    Tapis, Esteban

    Born at Santa Coloma de Farnes, Catalonia, Spain, 25 Aug., 1754; died 3 Nov., 1825. He entered ...

    Tarabotti, Helena

    Nun and authoress, b. at Venice, 1605; d. there 1652. Obliged by her father, who was descended ...

    Tarachus, Probus, and Andronicus, Saints

    Martyrs of the Diocletian persecution (about 304). The "Martyrologium Hieronymian." contains the ...

    Taranto

    DIOCESE OF TARANTO (TARENTINA) Diocese in southern Italy, on a bay in the Gulf of Taranto. The ...

    Tarapacá

    VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF TARAPACA (DE TARAPACA). Situated in Chile, bounded on the north by the ...

    Tarasius, Saint

    Patriarch of Constantinople, date of birth unknown; died 25 February, 806. He was the son of the ...

    Tarazona

    DIOCESE OF TARAZONA (TURIASONENSIS) The Diocese of Tarazona comprises the Spanish provinces of ...

    Tarbes

    DIOCESE OF TARBES (TARBIA) The Diocese of Tarbes comprises the Department of the ...

    Tarentaise

    (TARANTASIENSIS) Tarentaise comprises the arrondissement of Moutiers in the Department of ...

    Targum

    Targum is the distinctive designation of the Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the Old ...

    Tarisel, Pierre

    Master-mason to the king, b. about 1442; d. in August, 1510. (In 1555 the title of architect was ...

    Tarkin, Saint

    (Talarican.) Bishop of Sodor (including the western islands of Scotland ), was probably of ...

    Tarnow

    DIOCESE OF TARNOW (TARNOVIENSIS). Diocese in western Galicia, Austria. The See of Posen, ...

    Tarquini, Camillus

    Cardinal, Jesuit canonist and archaeologist, b. at Marta in the diocese of Montefiascone, ...

    Tarragona

    ARCHDIOCESE OF TARRAGONA (TARRACONENSIS) Bounded on the north by Barcelona and Lérida, ...

    Tarsicius, Saint

    Martyr. The only positive information concerning this Roman martyr is found in the poem composed ...

    Tarsus

    A metropolitan see of Cilicia Prima. It appears to have been of Semitic origin and is ...

    Tartaglia, Nicolò

    (T ARTALEA ). Italian mathematician, b. at Brescia, c. 1500; d. at Venice, 13 December, ...

    Tartini, Giuseppe

    Violinist, composer, and theorist, b. at Pirano, Italy, 12 April, 1692; d. at Padua, 16 Feb., ...

    Taschereau, Elzéar-Alexandre

    Archbishop of Quebec and first Canadian cardinal, b. 17 February, 1820, at la Beauce, Province ...

    Tassé, Joseph

    Writer and journalist, born at Montreal, 23 Oct., 1848; died 17 Jan., 1895; son of Joseph, and ...

    Tassach, Saint

    Irish saint, born in the first decade of the fifth century; died about 497. He was one of St. ...

    Tassin, René-Prosper

    French historian, belonging to the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur, born at Lonlay, in ...

    Tasso, Torquato

    Italian poet, born at Sorrento near Naples in 1544; died at Rome, in 1595; son of Bernardo ...

    Tassoni, Alessandro

    Italian poet, born at Modena in 1565; died there in 1635. He spent his life in the service of ...

    Tatian

    A second-century apologist about whose antecedents and early history nothing can be affirmed ...

    Tatwin, Saint

    (TATUINI) Archbishop of Canterbury ; died 30 July, 734. A Mercian by birth, he became a ...

    Taubaté

    (DE TAUBATÉ) Diocese in Brazil, South America, established on 29 April, 1908, as a ...

    Tauler, John

    German Dominican, one of the greatest mystics and preachers of the Middle Ages, born at ...

    Taunton, Ethelred

    Writer, born at Rugeley, Staffordshire, England, 17 Oct., 1857; died in London, 9 May, 1907. He ...

    Taverner, John

    Composer, b. in the County of Norfolk, England, about 1475; d. at Boston, England, 1535 or 1536. ...

    Tavistock Abbey

    Tavistock Abbey, on the Tavy River in Devonshire, England, founded for Benedictine monks in ...

    Tavium

    A titular see in Galatia Prima, suffragan of Ancyra. Tavium, or Tavia, was the chief city of ...

    Taxa Innocentiana

    A Decree issued by Innocent XI, 1 Oct., 1678, regulating the fees that may be demanded or ...

    Taxster, John de

    (TAYSTER) John de Taxster, sometimes erroneously called Taxter or Taxston, was a ...

    Taylor, Frances Margaret

    (MOTHER M. MAGDALEN TAYLOR) Superior General, and foundress of the Poor Servants of the Mother ...

    Taylor, Ven. Hugh

    English martyr, born at Durham ; hanged, drawn, and quartered at York, 25 (not 26) November, ...

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    Te 69

    Te Deum, The

    An abbreviated title commonly given both to the original Latin text and the translations of a ...

    Te Lucis Ante Terminum

    The hymn at Compline in the Roman Breviary. The authorship of St. Ambrose, for which Pimont ...

    Tebaldeo, Antonio

    Italian poet, born at Ferrara, in 1463; died in 1537. His family name (Tebaldi) he changed to ...

    Tegernsee

    Called Tegrinseo in 817, Tegernsee in 754. A celebrated Benedictine abbey of Bavaria that ...

    Tehuantepec

    (Tehuantepecensis) Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of Oaxaca. Its area covers ...

    Teilo, Saint

    (Eliud.) "Archbishop" of Llandaff, born at Eccluis Gunniau, near Tenby, Pembrokeshire; died at ...

    Tekakwitha, Blessed Kateri

    (Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha/Takwita.) Known as the "Lily of the Mohawks", and the ...

    Teleology

    (From Greek telos , end, and logos , science). Teleology is seldom used according to its ...

    Telepathy

    ( tele , far, and pathein , to experience) A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to ...

    Telese

    (TELESINENSIS) Telese, a small town in the Province of Benevento, Southern Italy, is situated ...

    Telesio, Bernardino

    Italian humanist and philosopher born of a noble family at Cosenza, near Naples, 1508; died ...

    Telesphorus of Cosenza

    (THEOPHORUS, THEOLOPHORUS). A name assumed by one of the pseudo-prophets during the time of ...

    Telesphorus, Pope Saint

    (Lived about 125-136.) St. Telesphorus was the seventh Roman bishop in succession from the ...

    Tell el-Amarna Tablets, The

    The Tell el-Amarna Tablets are a collection of some 350 clay tablets found in 1887 amid the ruins ...

    Tellier, Michel Le

    Born 19 April, 1603; died at Paris, 30 Oct., 1685. He was commissioned by Cardinal Mazarin to ...

    Telmessus

    Titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Telmessus (or incorrectly Telmissis) was a flourishing ...

    Temiskaming

    The Vicariate Apostolic of Temiskaming, suffragan of Ottawa, Canada, is bounded on the north by ...

    Temnus

    A titular see in Asia, a suffragan of Ephesus. Temnus was a little town of Æolia, near ...

    Tempel, Wilhelm

    (ERNEST LEBERECHT) German astronomer, b. 4 December, 1821, at (Nieder-) Cunnersdorf near ...

    Temperance

    (Latin temperare , to mingle in due proportions; to qualify). Temperance is here considered ...

    Temperance Movements

    EUROPE Reasons for a temperance movement exist to a greater or less degree in all the countries ...

    Templars, The Knights

    The Knights Templars were the earliest founders of the military orders, and are the type on which ...

    Temple

    The Latin form, templum , from which the English temple is derived, originally signified an ...

    Temple of Jerusalem

    The word "temple" is derived from the Latin templum , signifying an uncovered place affording a ...

    Temple, Sisters of the

    The Sisters of the Temple (whose full title is S ISTERS OF THE F INDING OF J ESUS IN THE T ...

    Temptation

    ( Latin tentare , to try or test). Temptation is here taken to be an incitement to sin ...

    Temptation of Christ

    In the Catholic translation of the Bible , the word "temptation" is used in various senses, ...

    Ten Commandments, The

    Called also simply THE COMMANDMENTS, COMMANDMENTS OF GOD, or THE DECALOGUE (Gr. deka , ten, ...

    Ten Thousand Martyrs, The

    On two days is a group of ten thousand martyrs mentioned in the Roman Martyrology. On 18 March: ...

    Tencin, Pierre-Guérin de

    French statesman and cardinal, b. at Grenoble, 22 August, 1680; d. at Lyons, 2 March, 1758. ...

    Tenebræ

    Tenebræ is the name given to the service of Matins and Lauds belonging to the last three ...

    Tenebrae Hearse

    The Tenebræ Hearse is the triangular candlestick used in the Tenebræ service. The ...

    Tenedos

    A titular see, suffragan of Rhodes in the Cyclades. The island, called in Turkish ...

    Teneriffe

    DIOCESE OF TENERIFFE (TENERIFENSIS). Suffragan of Seville, formerly called Nivariensis from ...

    Teniers, David

    The name of two eminent Flemish landscape painters ; the elder, born at Antwerp in 1582; ...

    Tennessee

    The State of Tennessee lies between 35° and 36°30' N. lat. and 81°37' and 90°38' ...

    Tenney, William Jewett

    An author, editor, born at Newport, Rhode Island, 1814; died at Newark, New Jersey, 20 Sept., ...

    Tentyris

    (TENTYRA) Seat of a titular suffragan see of Ptolemais in Thebaid Secunda. The city was ...

    Tenure, Ecclesiastical

    I. In the feudal system an ecclesiastical fief followed all the laws laid down for temporal ...

    Teos

    Titular see ; suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. A city of Caria situated on a peninsula ...

    Tepic

    DIOCESE OF TEPIC (TEPICENSIS) A diocese of the Mexican Republic, suffragan of the ...

    Tepl

    A Premonstratensian abbey in the western part of Bohemia, included in the Archdiocese of Prague ...

    Teramo

    Diocese in southern Italy. In the past the city was injured by earthquakes. It is situated at ...

    Terce

    The origin of Terce, like that of Sext and None, to which it bears a close relationship, dates ...

    Terenuthis

    Titular see, suffragan of Antinoë in Thebais Prima. Le Quien (Oriens christ., II, 611) ...

    Teresa of Avila, Saint

    Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada Born at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; died at ...

    Teresa of Lisieux, Saint

    (Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

    Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed

    Guillotined at the Place du Trône Renversé (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 ...

    Terill, Anthony

    English theologian, b. at Canford, Dorsetshire, in 1623; d. at Liège, 11 Oct., 1676. His ...

    Termessus

    A titular see, suffragan of Perge in Pamphylia Secunda. This is one of the most ancient cities ...

    Termoli

    (THERMULARUM) Located on the Italian coast of the Adriatic, having a small harbour near the ...

    Ternan, Saint

    Bishop of the Picts, flourished in the sixth century. Much obscurity attaches to his history, and ...

    Terracina, Sezze, and Piperno

    (TERRACINENSIS, SETINENSIS ET PRIVERNENSIS) Located in the Province of Rome. The city of ...

    Terrasson, André

    A French preacher, born at Lyons in 1669; died at Paris, 25 April, 1723. He was the eldest son ...

    Terrestrial Paradise

    ( paradeisos , Paradisus ). The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the ...

    Terrien, Jean-Baptiste

    Dogmatic theologian, born at St-Laurent-des-Autels, Maine-et-Loire, 26 Aug., 1832; d. at ...

    Tertiaries

    (From the Latin tertiarius , the relative adjective of tertius , third ). Tertiaries, or ...

    Tertullian

    (Q UINTUS S EPTIMIUS F LORENS T ERTULLIANUS ). Ecclesiastical writer in the second and ...

    Teruel

    (TUROLENSIS) A suffragan of Saragossa, comprises the civil province of the same name, ...

    Test-Oath, Missouri

    In January, 1865, there assembled in St. Louis, Missouri, a "Constitutional Convention" composed ...

    Testament, New

    I. Name ; II. Description ; III. Origin ; IV. Transmission of the Text ; V. Contents, History, ...

    Testament, Old

    I. NAME The word "testament", Hebrew berîth , Greek diatheke , primarily signifies the ...

    Testem Benevolentiae

    An Apostolic Letter of Leo XIII addressed to Cardinal Gibbons, 22 January, 1899. It opens by ...

    Tetzel, Johann

    First public antagonist of Luther, b. at Pirna in Meissen, 1465; d. at Leipzig, 11 Aug., 1519. ...

    Teuchira

    A titular see in Libyan Pentapolis. Teuchira ( Teucheira ) neuter plural, was a city on the ...

    Teutonic Order

    A medieval military order modelled on the Hospitallers of St. John, which changed its residence ...

    Tewdrig

    (THEODORIC) A Welsh saint, son of King Ceithfalt of Morganwg or Southern Wales, flourished ...

    Texas

    S TATE OF T EXAS . The name, Texas, is probably derived from Tejas, the name of a ...

    Textual Criticism

    The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...

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    Th 147

    Thænæ

    A titular see in Africa Byzacena. It is mentioned in numerous ancient geographical documents ...

    Thébaud, Augustus

    Jesuit educator and publicist, b. at Nantes, France, 20 Nov., 1807; d. at St. John's College, ...

    Thénard, Louis-Jacques, Baron

    Chemist, b. at Louptière, near Nogent-sur-Seine, Aube, France, on 4 May, 1777; d. at Paris, ...

    Théophane Vénard

    (JEAN-THÉOPHANE V&Eaucte;NARD.) French missionary, born at St-Loup, Diocese of ...

    Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint

    (Sister Teresa of the Child Jesus) Carmelite of Lisieux, better known as the Little Flower of ...

    Thabor, Mount

    The name of Mount Thabor, , is rendered in the Septuagint as , and in Jeremias and Osee ...

    Thabraca

    A titular see of Numidia near the sea, between the Armua and the Tusca. Thabraca was the last ...

    Thacia Montana

    A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. An inscription discovered in the ...

    Thagaste

    (TAGASTE) Thagaste, a titular see in Numidia, was a rather important municipality. It is ...

    Thagora

    (Tagora) Titular see in Numidia, mentioned by the "Rabula Peutingeriana", which calls it ...

    Thais, Saint

    (THAISIS or THAISIA). A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century. In the Greek menology her ...

    Thalberg, Sigismond

    Musical composer and pianist, b. at Geneva, 1812; d. at Posilipo, Italy, 27 April, 1871. The ...

    Thalhofer, Valentin

    German theologian, b. at Unterroth, near Ulm, 21 January, 1825; d. at the same place, 17 ...

    Thangmar

    (THANKMAR) Historian, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. probably at Hildesheim ...

    Thanksgiving before and after Meals

    The word grace , which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English ...

    Thanksgiving Day

    A civil holiday observed annually in the United States of America on the last Thursday in ...

    Thapsus

    A titular see in Byzacene Africa. It was a Phoenician market on the coast of Byzacium in ...

    Thasos

    A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. The island of Thasos was anciently ...

    Thaumaci

    A titular see in Thessaly, suffragan of Larissa, commanding the defile of Coele at the ...

    Thayer, John

    Missionary, convert, first native of New England ordained to the priesthood, b. Boston, ...

    Theatines

    (CLERICS REGULAR) A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo ...

    Theatre, The

    Considering the tone of what is preserved to us of the works of the Greek tragedians and even of ...

    Thebaid

    The valley of the Nile, under Roman domination, was divided into four provinces: Lower and Upper ...

    Thebes

    (THEBAE) A metropolitan titular see of Achaia Secunda. The city was founded by the ...

    Thebes

    (THEBAE) Titular see of Thebais Secunda, suffragan of Ptolemais, and the seat of a Coptic ...

    Thecla, Saint

    Benedictine Abbess of Kitzingen and Ochsenfurt; date of birth unknown; d. at Kitzingen about 790 ...

    Thecla, Saints

    I. Thecla of Iconium The reputed pupil of the Apostle Paul , who is the heroine of the ...

    Theft

    Theft is the secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other. ...

    Thegan (Degan) of Treves

    Chronicler, d. about 850. Very little is known of his life; all that is certain is that he was ...

    Theiner, Augustin

    Theologian and historian, b. at Breslau, 11 April, 1804; d. at Civitavecchia, 8 Aug., 1874. He was ...

    Thelepte

    A titular see in Byzacene. From an inscription we learn that it was a colony. An important ...

    Themiscyra

    A titular see, suffragan of Amasea in the Hellespont. There was a town of this name near the ...

    Themisonium

    A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. Themisonium was a city of Phrygia, ...

    Thennesus

    A titular suffragan see of Pelusium in Augustamnica Prima. Cassian (Collat., XI, 1-3) gives a ...

    Theobald

    (T EDBALD .) Archbishop of Canterbury ; d. 18 April, 1161. He was a Norman by descent and ...

    Theobald, Saint

    Born at Provins in the Province of Champagne, France, in 1017; died at Salanigo in Italy 30 June, ...

    Theocracy

    A form of civil government in which God himself is recognized as the head. The laws of the ...

    Theodard, Saint

    Archbishop of Narbonne, b. at Montauban about 840; d. at the same place 1 May, 893. He seems to ...

    Theodicy

    Etymologically considered theodicy ( théos díe ) signifies the justification of ...

    Theodore I, Pope

    Pope from 642 to 649; the date of his birth is unknown. He was a Greek of Jerusalem and the ...

    Theodore II, Pope

    Son of Photius. His pontificate lasted only twenty days; neither the date of his birth nor of his ...

    Theodore of Amasea, Saint

    Surnamed Tyro (Tiro), not because he was a young recruit, but because for a time he belonged to ...

    Theodore of Gaza

    A fifteenth-century Greek Humanist and translator of Aristotle, b. at Thessalonica early in ...

    Theodore of Studium, Saint

    A zealous champion of the veneration of images and the last geat representative of the unity ...

    Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury

    Seventh Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Tarsus in Cilicia about 602; d. at Canterbury 19 ...

    Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia

    Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer; b. at Antioch about 350 (thus also ...

    Theodoret

    Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457. He says ...

    Theodoric (Thierry) of Chartres

    A Platonist philosopher of the twelfth century, b. in France at the beginning of the twelfth ...

    Theodoric the Great

    King of the Ostrogoths, born A.D. 454 (?); died 26 August, 526. He was an illegitimate son of ...

    Theodorus and Theophanes, Saints

    (Called Grapti , "written upon", graptoi ) Theodorus, b. about 775; d. about 842-43; ...

    Theodorus Lector

    A lector attached to the Church of St. Sophia of Constantinople in the early part of the sixth ...

    Theodosiopolis

    A titular metropolitan see of Thracia Prima. In the beginning the city was called Apros, or ...

    Theodosius Florentini

    Born at Münster, in the Grisons, Switzerland, 23 May, 1808; died at Heiden, in Appenzell, ...

    Theodosius I

    Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 ...

    Theodotus of Ancyra, Saint

    Martyr. On 18 May the Roman Martyrology says: "At Ancyra, in Galatia, the martyr Saint Theodotus ...

    Theodulf

    (Theodulfus, Theodulfe), Bishop of Orléans, a writer skilled in poetic forms and a ...

    Theology of Christ (Christology)

    Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ. In its full extent ...

    Theology, Ascetical

    Ascetics, as a branch of theology, may be briefly defined as the scientific exposition of ...

    Theology, Dogmatic

    Dogmatic theology is that part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith ...

    Theology, History of Dogmatic

    The imposing edifice of Catholic theology has been reared not by individual nations and men, ...

    Theology, Moral

    Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things. The distinction ...

    Theology, Mystical

    Mystical theology is the science which treats of acts and experiences or states of the soul ...

    Theology, Pastoral

    Pastoral theology is the science of the care of souls. This article will give the definition of ...

    Theonas

    Bishop of Alexandria from about 283 to 301 ( Eusebius, "Chronicle", Ann. Abr. 2299, St. Jerome's ...

    Theophanes Kerameus

    ( Kerameus , potter). Archbishop of Rossano in Calabria (1129-52), a celebrated homiletic ...

    Theophanes, Saint

    Chronicler, born at Constantinople, about 758; died in Samothracia, probably 12 March, 817, on ...

    Theophilanthropists

    ("Friends of God and Man") A deistic sect formed in France during the latter part of the ...

    Theophilus

    Bishop of Antioch. Eusebius in his "Chronicle" places the name of Theophilus against that of ...

    Theophilus

    Patriarch of Alexandria (385-412). Concerning the extraction and early life of Theophilus we ...

    Theosophy

    ( Theosophia = "wisdom concerning God ") Theosophy is a term used in general to designate ...

    Theotocopuli, Domenico

    One of the most remarkable Spanish artists, b. in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; d. at Toledo, 7 ...

    Thera (Santorin)

    DIOCESE OF THERA (SANTORINO) Diocese in the Cyclades. About the year 2000 B.C., the ...

    Thermae Basilicae

    A titular see in Cappadocia Prima, suffragan of Caesarea. The Greek "Notitiae episcopatuum" ...

    Thermopylae

    A titular see and suffragan of Athens in Achaia Prima. It is the name of a defile about 4 ...

    Thessalonians, Epistles to the

    Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul. This article will treat the Church of ...

    Thessalonica

    (SALONIKI) Titular metropolis in Macedonia. It was at first a village called Alia, situated ...

    Theveste

    Titular see of Numidia. The city seems to have had some importance even prior to Christianity. ...

    Thibaris

    Titular see in Byzacena ( Africa ), not mentioned by any ancient author. The official list of ...

    Thibaut de Champagne

    Thibaut IV, count of Champagne and King of Navarre, a French poet, b. 1201, at Troyes ; d. 8 ...

    Thierry of Freburg

    ( Or Thierry of Saxony). A philosopher and physician of the Middle Ages, and a member of ...

    Thiers, Louis-Adolphe

    French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic, b. at Marseilles, ...

    Thignica

    A titular see in Numidia. The Roman Curia's official list of titular sees places Thignica in ...

    Thijm, Joseph Albert Alberdingk

    Born at Amsterdam, 8 July, 1820; d. there, 17 March, 1889. After finishing his studies in his ...

    Thijm, Peter Paul Maria Alberdingk

    Brother of Joseph Alberdingk Thijm , b. at Amsterdam, 21 Oct., 1827, d. at Louvain, 1 Feb., ...

    Thimelby, Richard

    ( Alias ASHBY) Missionary priest, b. in Lincolnshire, England, 1614; d. at St. Omer's, ...

    Third Orders

    I. GENERAL Third Orders signify in general lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women ...

    Thirty Years War

    The Thirty Years War (1618-48), though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance ...

    Thmuis

    A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium ; a city of Lower Egypt, on the ...

    Thomas á Jesu

    (Diaz Sanchez de Avila). Discalced Carmelite, writer on mystical theology, born at Baeza, ...

    Thomas à Kempis

    Author of the "Imitation of Christ" , born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; ...

    Thomas Abel, Blessed

    (Also ABLE, or ABELL.) Priest and martyr, born about 1497; died 30 July, 1540. He was ...

    Thomas Alfield, Venerable

    (AUFIELD, ALPHILDE, HAWFIELD, OFFELDUS; alias BADGER). Priest, born at Gloucestershire; ...

    Thomas Aquinas, Saint

    Philosopher, theologian, doctor of the Church ( Angelicus Doctor ), patron of Catholic ...

    Thomas Atkinson, Venerable

    Martyred at York, 11 March, l6l6. He was born in the East Riding of Yorkshire, was ordained ...

    Thomas Becket, Saint

    Martyr, Archbishop of Canterbury, born at London, 21 December, 1118 (?); died at Canterbury, 29 ...

    Thomas Belchiam, Venerable

    A Franciscan martyr in the reign of Henry VIII, date of birth uncertain; d. 3 August 1537. He ...

    Thomas Christians, Saint

    An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent ...

    Thomas Cottam, Blessed

    Martyr, born 1549, in Lancashire; executed at Tyburn, 30 May, 1582. His parents, Laurence cottam ...

    Thomas Ford, Blessed

    Born in Devonshire; died at Tyburn, 28 May, 1582. He incepted M.A. at Trinity College, Oxford, 14 ...

    Thomas Garnet, Saint

    Protomartyr of St. Omer and therefore of Stonyhurst College; b. at Southwark, c. 1575; executed ...

    Thomas Johnson, Blessed

    Carthusian martyr, died in Newgate gaol, London, 20 September, 1537. On 18 May, 1537, the twenty ...

    Thomas More, Saint

    Saint, knight, Lord Chancellor of England, author and martyr, born in London, 7 February, ...

    Thomas of Beckington

    (BEKYNTON.) Bishop of Bath and Wells, born at Beckington, Somerset, about 1390; died at ...

    Thomas of Bradwardine

    (BRAGWARDIN, BRANDNARDINUS, BREDWARDYN, BRADWARDYN, DE BREDEWARDINA). Born about 1290; died in ...

    Thomas of Cantimpré

    Medieval writer, preacher, and theologian, born of noble parentage at Leuw St. Pierre near ...

    Thomas of Celano

    Friar Minor, poet, andhagiographical writer, born at Celano in the Province of the Abruzzi, about ...

    Thomas of Dover

    Martyr ; died 2 or 5 August, 1295. On the above date the French ravaged Dover with fire and ...

    Thomas of Hereford

    (THOMAS DE CANTELUPE). Born at Hambledon, Buckinghamshire, England, about 1218; died at ...

    Thomas of Jesus

    (THOMAS DE ANDRADA). Reformer and preacher, born at Lisbon, 1529; died at Sagena, Morocco, 17 ...

    Thomas of Jorz

    (Often but erroneously called JOYCE and frequently referred to as ANGLUS or ANGLICUS). ...

    Thomas of Strasburg

    A fourteenth-century scholastic of the Augustinian Order, born, according to some writers, at ...

    Thomas of Villanova, Saint

    Educator, philanthropist, born at Fuentellana, Spain, 1488; died at Valencia, 8 September, 1555. ...

    Thomas Percy, Blessed

    Earl of Northumberland, martyr, born in 1528; died at York, 22 August, 1572. He was the eldest ...

    Thomas Sherwood, Blessed

    Martyr, born in London, 1551; died at Tyburn, London, 7 February, 1578. His parents also ...

    Thomas the Apostle, Saint

    Little is recorded of St. Thomas the Apostle, nevertheless thanks to the fourth Gospel his ...

    Thomas Thwing, Venerable

    Martyr. Born at Heworth Hall, near York, in 1635; suffered at York, 23 Oct., 1680. His father was ...

    Thomas Woodhouse, Blessed

    Martyr who suffered at Tyburn 19 June, 1573, being disembowelled alive. Ordained in Mary's ...

    Thomas, Charles L.A.

    French composer, born at Metz, 5 August, 1811; died at Paris, 12 February, 1896. He gained the ...

    Thomassin, Louis

    Theologian and French Oratorian, b. at Aix-en-Provence 28 Aug., 1619; d. in Paris, 24 Dec., ...

    Thomism

    In a broad sense, Thomism is the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. ...

    Thompson River Indians

    (THOMPSON INDIANS). An important tribe of British Columbia of Salishan linguistic stock, also ...

    Thompson, Blessed James

    (Also known as James Hudson). Martyr, born in or near York; having nearly all his life in that ...

    Thompson, Edward Healy and Harriet Diana

    The name of two English converts : (1) Edward Healy and (2) Harriet Diana. Edward Healy ...

    Thompson, Francis

    Poet, b. at Preston, Lancashire, 18 Dec., 1859; d. in London, 13 Nov., 1907. He came from the ...

    Thompson, Right Honourable Sir John Sparrow David

    Jurist and first Catholic Premier of Canada, b. at Halifax, Nova Scotia , 10 Nov., 1844; d. ...

    Thonissen, Jean-Joseph

    Professor of law at the University of Louvain, minister in the Belgian Government, b. at ...

    Thorlaksson, Arni

    An Icelandic bishop, b. in Iceland, 1237; d. at Bergen, 1297. While a deacon, he visited ...

    Thorney Abbey

    (i.e. "the isle of thorns", anciently called ANCARIG). Thorney Abbey, in Cambridgeshire, ...

    Thorns, Crown of

    Although Our Saviour's Crown of Thorns is mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded ...

    Thorns, Feast of the Crown of

    The first feast in honour of the Crown of Thorns ( Festum susceptionis coronae Domini ) was ...

    Thorpe, Venerable Robert

    Priest and martyr, b. in Yorkshire; suffered at York, 15 May, 1591. He reached the English ...

    Thou, Jacques-Auguste de

    French historian, b. at Paris, 8 October, 1553; d. there, 7 May, 1617. The son of Christophe de ...

    Thou, Nicolas de

    Bishop of Chartres, uncle of the historian Jacques-Auguste de Thou, b. at Paris, 1528; d. at ...

    Three Chapters

    The Three chapters ( trîa kephálaia ) were propositions anathematizing : (1) the ...

    Three Rivers

    DIOCESE OF THREE RIVERS (TRIFLUVIANENSIS) Formed from the Archdiocese of Quebec , to which it ...

    Throne

    (Latin thronus, cathedra, sedes episcopalis ), the seat the bishop uses when not engaged at ...

    Thuburbo Minus

    A titular see in Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage. Thuburbo Minus is mentioned in ...

    Thugga

    Titular see of Numidia, perhaps the Numidian fortress of Tocai mentioned about 305 B.C. by ...

    Thugut, Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula

    Austrian statesman, born at Linz, 31 March, 1736; died at Vienna, 28 May, 1818. He was the son of ...

    Thulis, Venerable John

    English martyr, born at Up Holland, Lancashire, probably about 1568; suffered at Lancaster, 18 ...

    Thun-Hohenstein, Count Leo

    Austrian statesman, b. at the family castle of Tetschen in Bohemia, 7 April, 1811; d. at Vienna, ...

    Thundering Legion

    ( Legio fulminata , or fulminea , not fulminatrix ). The story of the Thundering Legion ...

    Thuringia

    The name Thuringia is given to a large part of Central Germany, bounded on the west by the ...

    Thurmayr, Johannes

    (Called AVENTINUS from the place of his birth) Born at Abensberg, Bavaria, 4 July, 1477; died ...

    Thyatira

    A titular suffragan see of Sardes in Lydia. According to Stephanus Byzantius, the name was ...

    Thynias

    A titular see, suffragan of Nicomedia, in Bithynia Prima. It is an island situated in the Black ...

    Thyräus, Hermann

    German Jesuit, b. at Neuss on the Rhine, 1532; d. at Mainz, 26 October, 1591. He studied first ...

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    Ti 45

    Tiara

    The papal crown, a costly covering for the head, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, ...

    Tibaldi, Pellegrino

    Known also as Pellegrino da Bologna and as Pellegrino Pellegrini; decorator, mural painter, and ...

    Tiberias

    Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda. The town of Tiberias was founded on ...

    Tiberias, Sea of

    So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1 ), otherwise known as "the sea of Galilee" ( Matthew 4:18 ; Mark ...

    Tiberiopolis

    Titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana. Tiberiopolis is mentioned by Ptolemy (V, 2, 25); Socrates ...

    Tiberius

    The second Roman emperor ( A. D. 14-37), b. 16 November, 42 B. C. , d. 16 March, A. D. 37. ...

    Tibet

    A vast plateau, about 463,320 square miles, about 1240 miles in its greatest length from east to ...

    Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints

    Roman martyrs, feast 11 August. The story is related in the legend of St. Sebastian that ...

    Ticelia

    Titular see, suffragan of Cyrene, in the Libya Pentapolis. Under this name it is not found in any ...

    Tichborne, Ven. Nicholas

    Martyr, b. at Hartley Mauditt, Hampshire; suffered at Tyburn, London, 24 Aug., 1601. He was a ...

    Tichborne, Ven. Thomas

    Born at Hartley, Hampshire, 1567; martyred at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1602. He was educated ...

    Ticonius

    (Also TYCONIUS, TYCHONIUS, etc.) An African Donatist writer of the fourth century who ...

    Ticuna Indians

    A tribe of Indians of some importance, constituting a distinct linguistic stock, inhabiting the ...

    Tieffentaller, Joseph

    Jesuit missionary and noted geographer in Hindustan, b. at Bozen in the Tyrol, 27 August, 1710; ...

    Tiepolo

    Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Tiepolo Born in Venice in 1696; died at Madrid, 27 March, 1770. ...

    Tierney, Mark Aloysius

    Born at Brighton, Sept., 1795; died at Arundel, 19 Feb., 1862. After his early schooling with the ...

    Tigris, Saint

    Irish saint, sister of St. Patrick. Much obscurity attaches to her life, and she has been ...

    Tillemont, Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de

    French historian and priest, b. at Paris, 30 November, 1637; d. there, 10 January, 1698; he was ...

    Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of

    Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632. He was a member of a noble family of ...

    Timbrias

    A titular see in Pisidia, suffragan of Antioch. It is called Thymbrium in the official lists ...

    Time

    The problem of time is one of the most difficult and most keenly debated in the field of natural ...

    Timothy and Symphorian, Saints

    Martyrs whose feast is observed on 22 August. During the pontificate of Melchiades (311-13), ...

    Timothy and Titus, Epistles to

    (T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

    Timucua Indians

    A principal group or confederacy of Ancient Florida, notable for the successful missions ...

    Tincker, Mary Agnes

    Novelist, born at Ellsworth, Maine, 18 July, 1833; died at Boston, Massachusetts, 4 December, ...

    Tingis

    A titular see of Mauretania Tingitana (the official list of the Roman Curia places it in ...

    Tinin

    SEE OF TININ (KNIN). Located in Dalmatia ; suffragan to Kalocsa-Bacs. Knin is a town on ...

    Tinos and Mykonos

    DIOCESE OF TINOS AND MYKONOS (TINENSIS ET MYCONENSIS) A Latin diocese of the Cyclades, ...

    Tintern Abbey

    This abbey, in Monmouthshire, England [actually Wales -- Ed. ], was founded in 1131 by ...

    Tintoretto, Il

    (J ACOPO R OBUSTI ) Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594. His father was a ...

    Tipasa

    A titular see of Numidia. The Phoenician word signifies passage. Early in its history we find ...

    Tiraboschi, Girolamo

    Italian scholar, b. in the region of Bergamo, 1731; d. 3 June, 1794. At an early age he entered ...

    Tiraspol

    DIOCESE OF TIRASPOL (or CHERSONESE) (TIRASPOLENSIS; CHERSONENSIS) Diocese in Southern Russia ...

    Tisio da Garofalo, Benvenuto

    An Italian painter of the Ferrarese school ; b. in 1481 at Garofalo, whence, as was the ...

    Tissot, James

    (JOSEPH-JACQUES TISSOT) French draughtsman and painter, b. at Nantes, 15 Oct., 1836; d. at ...

    Tithes

    (Anglo-Saxon teotha , a tenth). Generally defined as "the tenth part of the increase arising ...

    Tithes, Lay

    Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...

    Titian

    (T IZIANO V ECELLI , called T ITIAN ). The greatest of Venetian painters, born at Pieve ...

    Titopolis

    (TITIOPOLIS) Titular see, suffragan of Seleucia Trachaea in Isauria. Le Quien (Oriens ...

    Titulus

    In pagan times titulus signified an inscription on stone, and later the stone which marked ...

    Titus

    Roman Emperor 79-81, b. 30 Dec., 41; d. 13 Sept., 81; son of the Emperor Vespasian, and from the ...

    Titus and Timothy, Epistles to

    (T HE P ASTORALS STS. TIMOTHY AND TITUS Saints Timothy and Titus were two of the most beloved ...

    Titus, Bishop of Bostra

    Born about 362-371. Sozomen (Hist. eccl., III, xiv) names Titus among the great men of the time ...

    Tius

    (TIUM) Titular see, suffragan of Claudiopolis in Honorias. According to Strabo (542, 545) the ...

    Tivoli

    DIOCESE OF TIVOLI (TIBURTINA) Diocese in the Province of Rome. The city in situated where the ...

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    Tl 2

    Tlaxcala

    (TLAXCALENSIS) A former diocese of the colony of New Spain. It was the fifth diocese ...

    Tlos

    A titular see in Lycia, suffragan of Myra. Tlos was one of the six cities forming the Lycian ...

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    To 56

    Toaldo, Giuseppe

    Priest and physicist, b. at Pianezze, 1719; d. at Padua, 1797. In his fourteenth year he entered ...

    Toba Indians

    One of the few still unconquered savage tribes of the great Chaco wilderness of South America, and ...

    Tobias

    We shall first enumerate the various Biblical persons and then treat the book of this name. I. ...

    Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de

    (CHARLES-ALEXIS-HENRI-MAURICE-CLEREL DE TOCQUEVILLE) Writer and statesman, b. at Verneuil, ...

    Todi

    (T UDERTINA ). Diocese in Central Italy ; immediately dependent on the Holy See. The city ...

    Tokio

    (Tokiensis) Archdiocese comprising 21 provinces or 15 departments with a population of over ...

    Toledo (Ohio)

    (Toletana in America) A diocese in Ohio, U.S.A. formed out of the Diocese of Cleveland and ...

    Toledo (Spain)

    ARCHDIOCESE OF TOLEDO (TOLETANENSIS) Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost ...

    Toledo, Francisco

    Philosopher, theologian, and exegete, son of an actuary, b. at Córdova, 4 Oct., 1532; d. ...

    Tolentino and Macerata

    Located in the Marches, Central Italy. Macerata is a provincial capital, situated on a hill, ...

    Toleration, History of

    In any attempt to deal historically with the attitude of the Church towards religious toleration ...

    Toleration, Religious

    Toleration in general signifies patient forbearance in the presence of an evil which one is ...

    Tolomei, John Baptist

    A distinguished Jesuit theologian and cardinal, born of noble parentage, at Camberaia, between ...

    Tomb

    A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons, ...

    Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary

    The tomb of the Blessed Virgin is venerated in the Valley of Cedron, near Jerusalem. Modern ...

    Tomb, Altar

    A tomb, or monument, over a grave, oblong in form, which is covered with a slab or table, having ...

    Tomi

    A titular metropolitan see in the Province of Scythia, on the Black Sea. It was a Greek colony ...

    Tommasi, Blessed Giuseppe Maria

    A Cardinal, noted for his learning, humility, and zeal for reform; born at Licata, Sicily, of ...

    Tongerloo, Abbey of

    Located near Antwerp, Belgium, founded in 1128 in honour of the Blessed Virgin, by de ...

    Tongiorgi, Salvator

    Philosopher, born at Rome, Italy, 25 December, 1820; d. there, 12 November, 1865. At the age of ...

    Tongues, Gift of

    (Glossolaly, glossolalia ). A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae , ...

    Tonica Indians

    (Or TUNICA). A small tribe constituting a distinct linguistic stock living, when first known ...

    Tonkawa Indians

    A tribal group or confederacy, of low culture status and constituting a distinct linguistic stock, ...

    Tonsure

    ( Latin tondere , "to shear") A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized ...

    Tootell, Hugh

    Commonly known as Charles Dodd. Historian, b. in 1671 or 1672, at Durton-in-Broughton, ...

    Torah

    I. USE OF WORD Torah, (cf. Hiph. of ), signifies first "direction, instruction", as, for ...

    Torbido, Francesco

    Often called IL MORO (The Moor). Veronese painter and engraver, b. at Verona about 1486; ...

    Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint

    Archbishop of Lima ; b. at Mayorga, León, Spain, 1538; d. near Lima Peru, 23 March ...

    Tornielli, Girolamo Francesco

    Italian Jesuit, preacher and writer, b. at Cameri, 1 Febreuary, 1693, of a distinguished family ...

    Torone

    A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica. Torone was a colony of Chalcideans from ...

    Toronto

    (TORONTINA). Located in the Province of Ontario , Canada. When constituted a diocese, it ...

    Torquemada, Tomás de

    First Grand Inquisitor of Spain, born at Valladolid in 1420; died at Avila, 16 September, ...

    Torres Naharro, Bartolemé de

    Spanish poet and dramatist, b. at Torres, near Badajoz, towards the end of the fifteenth ...

    Torres, Francisco

    (TURRIANUS.) Hellenist and polemicist, born in Herrera, Palencia, about 1509; died at Rome, ...

    Torricelli, Evangelista

    Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 ...

    Torrubia, José

    Born towards the end of the seventeenth century at Granada, Spain ; died in 1768 in the ...

    Tortona

    DIOCESE OF TORTONA (DERTONENSIS) Diocese in Piedmont, Italy. The city is situated on the ...

    Tortosa

    DIOCESE OF TORTOSA (DERTHUSENSIS, DERTUSA). Located in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona ; ...

    Toscanella and Viterbo

    (VITERBIENSIS ET TUSCANENSIS). The city of Viterbo in the Province of Rome stands at the foot ...

    Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo

    Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer, b. at Florence in 1397; d. there, 10 May, 1482. ...

    Tosephta

    ( Hebrew = addition, supplement ) Tosephta is the name of compilation of ...

    Tostado, Alonso

    (ALONSO TOSTATUS) Exegete, b. at Madrigal, Castile, about 1400; d. at Bonilla de la Sierra, ...

    Tosti, Luigi

    Benedictine historian, b. at Naples 13 Feb., 1811; d. at Monte Cassino, 24 Sept., 1897. His ...

    Totemism

    Totemism from ote , root ot , possessive form otem , in the Ojibway dialect of the ...

    Totonac Indians

    One of the smaller cultured nations of ancient Mexico, occupying at the time of the Spanish ...

    Touchet, George Anselm

    Born at Stalbridge, Dorset; died about 1689. He was second son of Mervyn, twelfth Lord Audley, ...

    Toulouse

    A RCHDIOCESE OF T OULOUSE (T OLOSENSIS ) Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne. As ...

    Tournély, Honoré

    Theologian, b. Antibes, Provence, 28 August, 1658; d. at Paris, 26 December 1729. His parents ...

    Tournai

    DIOCESE OF TOURNAI (Latin TURNACUM, TORNACUM; Flemish, DOORNIJK — TORNACENSIS) Diocese ...

    Tournefort, Joseph Pitton de

    French botanist, b. at Aix in Provence, 5 June, 1656; d. at Paris, 28 Dec., 1708. After his ...

    Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de

    Papal legate to India and China, cardinal, born of a noble Savoyard family at Turin, 21 ...

    Touron, Antoine

    Dominican biographer and historian, born at Graulhet, Tarn, France, on 5 September, 1686; died ...

    Tours

    (TURONENSIS.) Comprises the Department of Indre-et-Loire, and was re-established by the ...

    Toustain, Charles-François

    French Benedictine, and member of the Congregation of St-Maur, born at Repas in the Diocese of ...

    Touttée, Antoine-Augustin

    A French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, b. at Riom, Department of Puy-de-Dôme, ...

    Tower of Babel

    The "Tower of Babel" is the name of the building mentioned in Genesis 11:19 . History of the ...

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    Tr 77

    Tracy, Alexandre de Prouville, Marquis de

    Viceroy of New France, born in France, 1603, of noble parents ; died there in 1670. A soldier ...

    Tradition and Living Magisterium

    The word tradition (Greek paradosis ) in the ecclesiastical sense, which is the only one in ...

    Traditionalism

    A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude. ...

    Traducianism

    Traducianism ( tradux , a shoot or sprout, and more specifically a vine branch made to take root ...

    Trajan

    Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117. He ...

    Trajanopolis

    Titular metropolitan see of Rhodope. The city owes its foundation or restoration to Trajan. Le ...

    Trajanopolis

    A titular see of Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan of Laodicea. The only geographer who speaks ...

    Tralles

    A titular see, suffragan of Ephesus in Asia Minor. It was founded, it is said, by the Argians ...

    Trani and Barletta

    (T RANEN , et Barolen.) Diocese in Italy. The city of Trani is situated on the Adriatic in ...

    Transcendentalism

    The terms transcendent and transcendental are used in various senses, all of which, as a ...

    Transept

    A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica. It ...

    Transfiguration

    The Transfiguration of Christ is the culminating point of His public life, as His Baptism is ...

    Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the

    Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. ...

    Transubstantiation

    In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence , which is, indeed, the central ...

    Transvaal

    Vicariate apostolic ; lies between 23° 3' and 27° 30' S. lat., and 25° and 32° ...

    Transylvania

    (Also TRANSYLVANIENSIS or ERDELY). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Kalocsa Bács. The ...

    Trapani

    (TREPANENSIS). Diocese in Sicily, suffragan of Palermo. The city is the capital of a ...

    Trapezopolis

    A titular see in Phrygia Pacatiana, suffragan to Laodicea. Trapezopolis was a town of Caria ...

    Trappists

    The common name by which the Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de ...

    Trasilla and Emiliana, Saints

    Aunts of St. Gregory the Great, virgins in the sixth century, given in the Roman Martyrology, ...

    Treason, Accusations of

    A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics ...

    Trebizond

    (TRAPEZUNTINA). An Armenian Catholic diocese. The city owes its ancient name to the fact that ...

    Trebnitz

    A former abbey of Cistercian nuns, situated north of Breslau in Silesia. It was founded in ...

    Tredway, Lettice Mary

    (Called "Lady" Tredway) Born 1595; died Oct., 1677; daughter of Sir Walter Tredway, of Buckley ...

    Tregian, Francis

    Confessor, b. in Cornwall, 1548; d. at Lisbon, 25 Sept., 1608. He was son of Thomas Tregian of ...

    Tremithus

    Titular see, suffragan of Salamis in Cyprus. The city is mentioned by Ptolemy (Geog., V, xiii, ...

    Trent

    (TRIDENTUM; TRIDENTINA). Diocese ; suffragan of Salzburg. Trent became universally known ...

    Trent, Council of

    The nineteenth ecumenical council opened at Trent on 13 December, 1545, and closed there on 4 ...

    Trenton

    (T RENTONENSIS ). Diocese created 15 July, 1881, suffragan of New York, comprises Atlantic, ...

    Tresham, Sir Thomas

    Knight Bachelor (in or before 1524), Grand Prior of England in the Order of Knights ...

    Treviso

    (TARVISINA). Diocese in Venetia (Northern Italy ). The capital is surrounded by the River ...

    Tribe, Jewish

    ( Phyle, tribus .) The earlier Hebrew term rendered in our English versions by the word ...

    Tricarico, Diocese of

    (TRICARICENSIS.) Located in the Province of Potenza in the Basilicata (Southern Italy ), near ...

    Tricassin, Charles Joseph

    One of the greatest theologians of the Capuchin Order, b. at Troyes ; d. in 1681. There is but ...

    Tricca

    Titular see, suffragan of Larissa in Thessaly. It was an ancient city of Thessaly, near the River ...

    Trichinopoly, Diocese of

    (TRICHINOPOLITAN.) Located in India, suffragan of Bombay, comprises the south east portion of ...

    Trichur

    (TRICHURENSIS.) Vicariate Apostolic in India, one of the three vicariates of the Syro-Malabar ...

    Tricomia

    Titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palaestina Prima. It is mentioned in George of Cyprus ...

    Triduum

    (Three days). A time frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices, whether ...

    Trier

    (TREVIRENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Cologne; includes in the Prussian province of the ...

    Triesnecker, Francis a Paula

    Astronomer, b. at Kirchberg on the Wagram, in Lower Austria, 2 April, 1745; d. at Vienna 29 ...

    Triest-Capo d'Istria

    (TERGESTINA ET JUSTINOPOLITANA.) Suffragan diocese of Görz-Gradiska ; exists as a ...

    Trincomalee

    (TRINCOMALIENSIS.) Located in Ceylon, suffragan of Colombo, was created in 1893 by a division ...

    Trinità di Cava dei Tirrenti, Abbey of

    Located in the Province of Salerno. It stands in a gorge of the Finestre Hills near Cava dei ...

    Trinitarians, Order of

    The redemption of captives has always been regarded in the Church as a work of mercy, as is ...

    Trinity College

    An institution for the higher education of Catholic women, located at Washington, D.C., and ...

    Trinity Sunday

    The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity. In the early ...

    Trinity, The Blessed

    This article is divided as follows: I. Dogma of the Trinity; II. Proof of the Doctrine from ...

    Triple-Candlestick

    A name given along with several others (e.g. reed, tricereo, arundo, triangulum, lumen Christi ...

    Trissino, Giangiorgio

    Italian poet and scholar, b. of a patrician family at Vicenza in 1478; d. at Rome, 8 ...

    Tritheists

    (TRITHEITES). Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity. (1) Those who are ...

    Trithemius, John

    A famous scholar and Benedictine abbot, b. at Trittenheim on the Moselle, 1 February, 1462; d. at ...

    Trivento

    (Triventensis) Diocese in southern Italy. The earliest bishop was St. Castus of an uncertain ...

    Trivet, Nicholas

    (Or "Trevet" as he himself wrote it) B. about 1258; d. 1328. He was the son of Thomas Trevet, a ...

    Troas

    A suffragan of Cyzicus in the Hellespont. The city was first called Sigia; it was enlarged and ...

    Trocmades

    (Trocmada) Titular see of Galatia Secunda, suffragan of Pessinus. No geographer or historian ...

    Trokelowe, John de

    (THROWLOW, or THORLOW) A monastic chronicler still living in 1330, but the dates of whose birth ...

    Trondhjem, Ancient See of

    (NIDAROS). In Norway it was the kings who introduced Christianity, which first became ...

    Trope

    Definition and Description Trope, in the liturgico-hymnological sense, is a collective name ...

    Tropology, Scriptural

    The theory and practice of interpreting the figurative meaning of Holy Writ. The literal meaning, ...

    Troy, John Thomas

    Archbishop of Dublin ; b. in the parish of Blanchardstown, near Dublin, 10 May, 1739; d. at ...

    Troyes

    (TRECENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Aube. Re-established in 1802 as a suffragan ...

    Truce of God

    The Truce of God is a temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God ...

    Truchsess von Waldburg, Otto

    Cardinal-Bishop of Augsburg (1543-73), b. at Castle Scheer in Swabia, 26 Feb., 1514; d. at ...

    Trudo, Saint

    (TRON, TROND, TRUDON, TRUTJEN, TRUYEN). Apostle of Hasbein in Brabant; d. 698 (693). Feast 23 ...

    Trudpert, Saint

    Missionary in Germany in the seventh century. He is generally called a Celtic monk from ...

    True Cross, The

    (AND REPRESENTATIONS OF IT AS OBJECTS OF DEVOTION). (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult ; (2) ...

    Trueba, Antonio de

    Spanish poet and folklorist, b. at Montellana, Biscay, in 1821; d. at Bilbao, 10 March, 1889. In ...

    Trujillo

    Diocese comprising the Departments of Lambayeque, Libertad, Pinra, and the Province of Tumbes, ...

    Trullo, Council in

    This particular council of Constantinople, held in 692 under Justinian II, is generally known as ...

    Trumpets, Feast of

    The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...

    Trumwin, Saint

    (TRIUMWINI, TRUMUINI). Died at Whitby, Yorkshire, England, after 686. He was consecrated by ...

    Trustee System

    I In the exercise of her inherent right of administering property, the Church often appoints ...

    Trusts and Bequests

    A trust has been defined, in its technical sense, as the right enforceable solely in equity to ...

    Truth

    Truth (Anglo-Saxon tréow, tryw, truth, preservation of a compact, from a Teutonic base ...

    Truth Societies, Catholic

    This article will treat of Catholic Truth Societies in the chronological order of their ...

    Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha

    Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...

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    Ts 2

    Tschiderer zu Gleifheim, Johann Nepomuk von

    Bishop of Trent, b. at Bozen, 15 Feb., 1777; d. at Trent, 3 Dec., 1860. He sprang from a family ...

    Tschupick, John Nepomuk

    A celebrated preacher, b. at Vienna, 7 or 12 April, 1729; d. there, 20 July, 1784. He entered the ...

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    Tu 27

    Tuam

    (TUAMENSIS). The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly ...

    Tuam, School of

    (Irish, Tuaim da Ghualann , or the "Mound of the two Shoulders"). The School of Tuam was ...

    Tubunae

    A titular see in Mauretania Caesariensis, according to the "Gerachia cattolica", or in Numidia ...

    Tucson

    (T UCSONENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe. It comprises the State of ...

    Tucumán

    (T UCUMANENSIS ). Suffragan to Buenos Aires, erected from the Diocese of Salta on 15 ...

    Tudela

    (TUTELÆ, TUTELENSIS). Diocese in Spain. The episcopal city has a population of 9213. ...

    Tuguegarao

    (TUGUEGARAONENSIS). Diocese in the Philippines ; situated in the north-eastern section of ...

    Tulancingo

    (D E T ULANCINGO ). Diocese in the Mexican Republic, suffragan of Mexico. Its area is ...

    Tulasne, Louis-René

    A noted botanist, b. at Azay-le-Rideau, Dept of Indre-et-Loire, France, 12 Sept., 1815; d. at ...

    Tulle

    (TUTELENSIS). Diocese comprising the Department of Corrèze. It was suppressed by the ...

    Tunic

    By tunic is understood in general a vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper ...

    Tunis

    French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa. About the twelfth century before Christ ...

    Tunja

    (T UNQUENENSIS ). Diocese established in 1880 as a suffragan of Bogotá, in the ...

    Tunkers

    ( German tunken , to dip) A Protestant sect thus named from its distinctive baptismal rite. ...

    Tunstall, Cuthbert

    Bishop of London, later of Durham, b. at Hackforth, Yorkshire, in 1474; d. at Lambeth Palace, ...

    Tunstall, Venerable Thomas

    Martyred at Norwich, 13 July, 1616. He was descended from the Tunstalls of Thurland, an ancient ...

    Tunsted, Simon

    English Minorite, b. at Norwich, year unknown; d. at Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369. Having joined the ...

    Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques

    Baron de L' Aulne, French minister, born at Parish, 10 May, 1727; died there, 20 March, 1781. ...

    Turin

    (Turino; Taurinensis) The City of Turin is the chief town of a civil province in Piedmont and ...

    Turin, Shroud of

    This name is primarily given to a relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that ...

    Turin, University of

    The University of Turin was founded in 1404, when the lectures at Piacenza and Pavia were ...

    Turkestan

    I. CHINESE TURKESTAN When Jenghiz Khan died (1227) his second son, Djagatai, had the greater part ...

    Turkish Empire

    Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the ...

    Turnebus, Adrian

    Philologist, b. at Andely in Normandy in 1512; d. in Paris, 12 June, 1565. The accounts of the ...

    Turpin

    Archbishop of Reims, date of birth uncertain; d. 2 Sept., 800. He was a monk of St. Denis ...

    Tuscany

    Tuscany, a division of central Italy, includes the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, Grosseto, ...

    Tuy

    (Tudensis.) Suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Santiago, comprises the civil provinces ...

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    Tw 2

    Twenge, Saint John

    Last English saint canonized, canon regular, Prior of St. Mary's, Bridlington, b. near the ...

    Twiketal of Croyland

    (THURCYTEL, TURKETUL). Died July, 975. He was a cleric of royal descent, who is said to have ...

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    Ty 7

    Tyana

    A titular metropolitan see of Cappadocia Prima. The city must first have been called Thoana, ...

    Tychicus

    A disciple of St. Paul and his constant companion. He was a native of the Roman province of ...

    Tynemouth Priory

    Tynemouth Priory, on the east coast of Northumberland, England, occupied the site of an earlier ...

    Types in Scripture

    Types, though denoted by the Greek word typoi , are not coextensive with the meaning of this ...

    Tyrannicide

    Tyrannicide literally is the killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a ...

    Tyre

    (TYRUS.) Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese. The city is called in Hebrew, Zor , ...

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