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Reductions of Paraguay

The Jesuit Reductions of Paraguay, one of the most singular and beautiful creations of Catholic missionary activity, have contributed more than any other factor to fix the name of Paraguay in history. They have been the object alike of the most sincere admiration and the bitterest criticism. An exact account, based on the best sources, should be their best justification.

I. PRELIMINARY NOTIONS

The founding and the plan of the reductions cannot be understood except in the light of colonial and political conditions as they prevailed in the Spanish La Plata territory at the time of the arrival of the Jesuits. The country discovered in 1515 by Juan Díaz de Solís had gradually by slow stages been conquered in sanguinary, and in the beginning, disastrous battles with the warlike, liberty-loving tribes. Until 1590 the Spaniards had founded ten cities and forty colonies. The natives, subdued by force of arms or submitting voluntarily were brought under the yoke of the Spanish encomienda system which in its more severe application made them yanaconas , or slaves, in its milder form mitayas , or serfs, to the conquistadores and the white colonists. The Spanish kings sought to better the lot of the natives by wise and humane decrees for their protection, but the difficulty of exercising control over them, and the unreliability, weakness, or selfishness of many of the officials permitted the abuse of this system to flourish. This system resulted in frequent uprisings of the subjugated race, and an implacable hatred of the foreigners on the part of the numerous tribes still retaining their freedom, ompanied even the earliest expeditions to La Plata, and churches and parishes were founded in the new steppes and forests in the interior, harassed the colonies, still in their youth, with inroads, and frequently laid them waste. It was not until the Reductions were founded that conditions were essentially improved in this respect also.

The kings of Spain having the conversion of the native peoples sincerely at heart, missionaries accompanied even the earliest expeditions to La Plata, and churches and parishes were founded in the new colony as soon as possible. Here, as elsewhere, the first pioneers of the Faith were sons of St. Francis. Besides them we find Dominicans, Mercedarians and, to conjecture from the oldest lists of bishops, also Augustinians and Hieronymites. The immense territory was divided into three dioceses :

  • Paraguay (see at Asunción), established in 1547;
  • Tucuman (see at Santiago del Estero , later at Córdoba), 1570;
  • Buenos Aires (see at Buenos Aires ) 1582.
But as late as 1559 the clergy in the colony numbered in all only twenty secular and regular priests. When the first Bishop of Tucuman, Don Francisco de Victoria, O.P., took charge of his diocese in 1581, he found in the entire diocese only five secular and a few regular priests, not one of whom could speak the language of the Indians. In 1586 the first Jesuits came to Tucuman at his request, and in 1587, at the request of the Bishop of Asunción, Don Alonso Guerra, O.S.F., also to Paraguay. In view of the fame acquired in Europe for the young order still in its first ardour, by Francis Xavier in Eastern India, Anchieta in Brazil, and others, it was hoped the Society would prove a great aid, as well towards improving the religious conditions in general, as towards pacifying and converting the numerous wild tribes. The colleges, seminaries, residences, and houses for spiritual retreats founded after 1593 in rapid succession at Santiago del Estero, Asunción, Córdoba (a university since 1621), Buenos Aires, Corrientes, Tarija, Salta, San Miguel de Tucuman, Santa F&eaccute;, La Rioja and elsewhere served to attain the first purpose; while the second purpose was fulfilled by the ministry among the Indians in the encomiendas , and by travelling missionaries who went out among the tribes still at liberty and covered the vast territory in all directions, very much as St. Francis Solanus did at about the same period. These mission excursions reflected honour upon the heroism of the missionaries, but achieved no lasting results. Therefore the general of the order, Aquaviva insisted on the concentration of effort and the founding of central points in the most advantageous localities, after the fashion of similar efforts in Brazil. The first superior of the province of Paraguay, founded in 1606 (which numbered at its foundation seven Jesuits, but in 1613 no less than one hundred and thirteen), Father Diego de Torres Bollo, was commissioned to put these ideas into practice.

II. FOUNDATION OF THE REDUCTIONS

They did not, as has been asserted, owe their origin to a previously-outlined idea of a state after the pattern of Campanella's "Sun State", which should form the realization of the longing of the Jesuits for power; on the contrary they grew in the most natural manner out of the efforts to obviate the three principal difficulties in the way of the conversion of the heathen resulting from the prevailing encomienda system, namely:

  • the oppression of the natives by force,
  • the consequent aversion to the religion of the oppressors,
  • and the bad example of the colonists.
The new watchword was:
  • liberty for the Indians,
  • emancipation from the servitium personale ,
  • and the gathering and isolating of the natives won over by the conquista espiritual in separate mission colonies or "reductions" managed independently by the missionaries.
The plan provoked a storm of animosity against the Jesuits among the colonists, which led to repeated expulsions of the members of the order from their colonies. Even a part of the clergy, looking on the encomienda system as a righteous institution, and who themselves lived upon its fruits, opposed the Jesuits. The Jesuits, however, had a powerful ally in Philip III of Spain, who very energetically espoused the cause of the oppressed Indians, and who not only sanctioned the plans of the Jesuits, but furthered them very effectively by a number of royal decrees and appropriations from the public treasury and placed them on a firm legal basis. The Cedula Real (Royal Ordinance) of 18 December, 1606, given at Valladolid, commanded the governor, Hernandarias de Saavedra that, "even if he could conquer the Indians on the Paran&aaccute; by force of arms he must not do so, but must gain them over solely through the sermons and instructions of the religious who had been sent for that purpose."

The Cedula Real of 30 January, 1607 provided that the Indians who were converted and became Christians could not be made serfs, and should be exempt from taxation for a period of ten years. The so-called Cedula magna of 6 March, 1609, declared briefly that "the Indian should be as free as the Spaniards." With these royal decrees (which were followed by a long list of others) as a basis, the Jesuits began, in explicit understanding with the highest ecclesiastical and civil authorities, who had been commanded by the Government to render efficient aid, to found Reductions, first of all, in the distant northeastern Province of Guayra (approximately the present Brazilian Province of Paraná), where, in 1609, the Loreto Reduction was founded on the Rio Paranápanema, which was followed in 1611 by the Reduction S. Ignacio Miri, and between then and 1630 by eleven others, altogether numbering about 10,000 Christians. The Indians hastened in entire bands to these places of refuge, where they found protection and safety from the robbers who harassed them. All ecclesiastical and civil decrees notwithstanding, the traffic in slaves had experienced an astounding development among the mixed population of the captaincies of São Vicente and Santo Amaro (in the present Province of São Paulo, Brazil ) composed of adventurers and freebooters from all nations. Well-organized troops of man-hunters, the so-called Mamelucos, had in a short time depopulated the plateau of Sao Paulo, and from 1618 onwards threatened also the Reductions to which the startled Indians hastened from all sides. One by one the Reductions fell into the hands of the marauders. In 1630 alone no less than 30,000 Indians are said to have been murdered in Guayra or carried off from there by force as slaves. In vain the missionaries had appealed to the Spanish and Portuguese authorities for protection. They could not or would not help. As a last resort it was decided to take the remaining Christians and those still coming in to the Reductions founded on the Paraná and Uruguay rivers, and in 1831 the exodus was accomplished under the leadership of the heroic Father Simon Maceta. Some scholars have called this exodus one of the greatest achievements of its kind in history. Scarcely 12,000 reached their destination. In similar manner also the nine Reductions which had been founded between 1614 and 1638 on the Rio Jacuhy and in the Sierra dos Tapes in the present Brasilian Province of Rio Grande do Sul, and which numbered in all some 30,000 souls, were soon after destroyed and partially transferred to other places. The neglect of the Spanish governors to come to the aid of the missions in their peril was bitterly avenged by the subsequent destruction of the Spanish colonies in Guayra, by the Portuguese, and the loss of the entire province. Cast upon their own resources, the Jesuits organized, with the king's consent, an Indian militia, equipped with firearms, so that, as early as 1640, they could place a well-disciplined army in the field against the Paulistas, and could effectively suppress robbery and pillage. Henceforth the Reductions continued to form strong bulwark against the inroads of the Portuguese.

The main part of this "Christian Indian State", as the Reductions have been called, was formed by the 30 [32] Guaran&iaccute; Reductions, which came into being during the period from 1609-1780 in the territory of the present country of Paraguay, the Argentine Provinces of Misiones and Corrientes, and the Brazilian Province of Rio Grande do Sul. Many of these Reductions repeatedly changed their location in consequence of the frequent inroads of the Mamelucos and savage Indian tribes, retaining, however, their former names a circumstance which has given rise to no little confusion in older charts. The growth of the Guaran&iaccute; Mission can be seen from the annual statistical records.

  • In 1648 the Governor of Buenos Aires on a visit found a population of 30,548 souls in nineteen Reductions, and
  • in 1677 the Fiscal of the Audiencia of Charcas, Don Diego Ibañez da Faria, found 58,118 in twenty-two Reductions.
  • In 1702, 22 villages on the Paraná and Uruguay numbered 89,500 souls ;
  • in 1717, 31 villages numbered 121,168;
  • in 1732, 141,242;
  • 1733 128,389;
  • 1734, 116ú
  • 1735, 108,228;
  • 1736, 102,721;
  • 1737, 104,473;
  • 1738, 90,287;
  • 1739, 81,159;
  • 1740, 73,910;
  • 1741, 76,960;
  • 1742, 78,929;
  • 1743, 81,355;
  • 1750, 95,089.
The remarkable fluctuations in the number of the inhabitants were due to repeated attacks of epidemic diseases (see below).

Besides the Guaraní missions, the Chiquitos Mission was founded in 1892 to the northwest, in the present Bolivia ; in 1765 this mission numbered 23,288 souls (4981 families ) in ten Reductions. The connecting link between the Guaraní and the Chiquitos missions was formed by the Mission of Taruma with three Reductions: San Joaquin (1747); San Estsanislao (1747), and Belen (1760), to which 2597 souls (547 families ) belonged in 1762, and 3777 souls (803 families ) in 1766. Far greater difficulties than in the Guaraní missions were encountered among the numerous many-tongued "mounted tribes" of the Gran Chaco, whose depredations continually kept the Spanish colonies on the alert. At the urgent request of the Spanish authorities the Jesuits attempted to found Reductions among these tribes also. Fifteen Reductions came into existence between 1735 and 1767, which about 1767 harboured Indians of eleven different tribes, among them about 5000 Christians. Scattered Reductions were founded in Tucuman, particularly among the Chiriguanos and Mataguayos (1762: 1 Reduction, 268 Christians, 20 pagans ) and in North Patagonia (Terra Magallonica) where the Reduction of Nuestra Señora del Pilar was established in 1745. Altogether the Jesuits founded approximately 100 Reductions, some of which were later destroyed; 46 were established between 1638 and 1768. Consequently, the accusation raised by Azara and others that their missionary activity had become stagnated is unfounded. Until 1767 new reductions were continually being formed, while a constant stream of converts gained by the missionaries on their extensive apostolic journeys kept pouring into the older Reductions. Between 1610 and 1768, 702,086 Indians of the Guaraní tribes alone were baptized.

The founding and preservation of these Reductions were the fruit of a century and a half of toil and heroic sacrifice in the battle against the terrors of the wilderness and the indolence and fickleness of a primitive people, as well as against the reckless policy of exploitation followed by the Spaniards, to whom the Reductions were ever an eyesore. Down to 1764 twenty-nine Jesuits of Paraguay suffered death by martyrdom.

III. ORGANIZATION OF THE REDUCTIONS

A. Plan and Location of the Settlements

The Reductions were almost always laid out in healthy, high locations, the great central stations, as for instance Candelaria and Yapeyu, on the large waterways (Paraná stnd Uruguay ) of the country. The general plan was similar to that of the Spanish pueblos . The was square, all streets running in straight lines, the main streets frequently being paved. The latter gave upon the plaza the large square where the church was situated generally shaded by trees, and ornamented with a large cross, a statue of the Virgin and frequently also with a pretty village well; at the head of the plaza stood the church, and adjoining it, on one side, the residence of the Fathers, called the "College"; on the other, the cemetery, enclosed by a wall with a pillared hall. The dwellings of the Indians, until the end of the seventeenth century, were frequently plain huts; later solid, one-story houses, built of stone or adobe, and invariably covered with tiles because of the danger of fire, about fifteen by eighteen feet in size, and divided into various apartments by partitions of wicker-work; they formed comfortable quarters for families of from four to six members, and, at all events, were incomparably better than the dwellings of the Indians of the encomienda . A portico, resting on stone or wooden pillars, and extending the entire width of the building, projected from the front of each house, so that one could walk through the entire town in rainy weather without getting wet. The houses were arranged in separate groups ( vici, insulae ) of six to ten dwellings each, to diminish the danger of fire. The "college" was separated from the plaza by a wall and a small courtyard, and by another wall from the adjoining buildings, which contained the schools, workshops, store-houses etc. Behind lay the carefully-kept garden of the Fathers.

The churches, mostly three-aisled, built of massive blocks of stone, with a richly-decorated façade, a main door, and several wide entrances, convey an impression of grandeur even as ruins. In the massive belfries, which mostly stood apart from the churches, hung six or even more bells, which latterly were cast in the Reductions. The rich interior furnishings would have graced any cathedral. Besides the church, each village had one or more chapels for the dead, in which the corpses were exposed and whence they were taken away, also a churchyard chapel. The cemetery, laid out alongside the church and enclosed by a wall with a pillared hall, was, with its rows of orange trees and its wealth of flowers, truly "a sacred garden of the dead." To the left of the cemetery, isolated and surrounded by a wall, stood the cotiguazu (the big house), which served as an asylum for the widows, who lived there in common; as a reformatory for women ; as a home for cripples; and as a common spinning-room. Beyond the village, just at the village limits, stood the chapel of St. Isidore, the ramada or lodging-house for travelling Spaniards, and farther off the tile-kilns, mills, stamping-mills, tanneries, and other buildings devoted to industry. The villages mostly lay open; only the Reductions more exposed to the inroads of bands of savages, and the estancias or farms, and the cattle-corrals were protected by moats, palisades, walls, or thorn hedges. To facilitate communication and traffic between the various villages, serviceable roads were laid out, often to great distances. Besides, the splendid network of rivers served as an excellent waterway, the mission operating no less than 2000 boats of various kinds on the Paraná alone and approximately as many on the Uruguay with its own wharves, as, for example, at Yapeyu. The population varied widely in the different villages, ranging between 350 and 7000 souls.

B. The Economic System of the Reductions

The plan of the Jesuits of forming, with rude tribes of nomads, large commonwealth, separate from the Spanish colonies, and far in the interior of a country but little explored placed before them the difficult problem of making the commonwealth economically independent and self-sustaining. If the Indians were obliged, day by day, to gather their means of sustenance in the forest and on the plain, they would never have heen lifted out of their nomad life and would have remained half-heathens. The financial support of the Crown consisted, for the first reductions, of a moderate appropriation out of the state treasury and of bells and articles for use in the church, and later were reduced to a temporary tax exemption, and a small salary for the missionaries doing parish duty. In the eighteenth century this salary amounted to 300 pesos annually for the cura and his assistant. Consequently the natural resources of the fertile soil had to be exploited, and the Indians, lazy and careless by disposition, had to be trained to regular work.

(1) Conditions of Property

The economic basis was a sort of communism, which, however differed materially from the modern system which bears the same name, and was essentially theocratic. "The Jesuits ", writes Gelpi y Ferro, "realized in their Christian commonwealth all that is good and nothing that is bad in the plans of modern Socialists and Communists." The land and all that stood upon it was the property of the community. The land was apportioned among the caciques, who allotted it to the families under them. Agricultural instruments and draught-cattle were loaned from the common supply. No one was permitted to sell his plot of land or his house, called abamba, i.e. "own possession." The individual efforts of the Indians, owing to their indolence, soon proved to be inadequate, whereupon separate plots were set aside as common fields, called Tupamba, i.e. " God's property " which were cultivated by common labour under the guidance of the Padres. The products of these fields were placed in the common storehouse, and were used partly for the support of the poor, the sick, widows, orphans, Church Indians, etc., partly as seed for the next year, partly as reserve supply for unforeseen contingencies, and also as a medium of exchange for European goods and for taxes (see below). The yield of the private fields and of private effort became the absolute property of the Indians, and was credited to them individually in the common barter transactions, so that each received in exchange the goods he desired. Those abamba plots which gave a smaller yield because of faulty individual management were exchanged from time to time. The herds of livestock were also common property. The caballos del Santo, which were used in processions on festal occasions, were especially reserved. Thus the Reduction Los Santos Apostoles at one time owned 599 of these.

(2) Products

The Indians themselves were content for their needs, with the cultivation of maLe, manioc, various indigenous tuberous plants and vegetables, and a little cotton. But the work conducted by the communities continued constantly to assume larger proportions, and surpassed by far the work of the Spanish colonies, both in regard to the variety of the products and to rational cultivation. Besides the common cereals (wheat and rice were grown scarcely anywhere outside of the Reductions) and field produce, tobacco, indigo, sugarcane, and above all, cotton were cultivated. Much care was devoted also to fruit culture, and that successfully. Even today one may find in the wilderness traces of former splendid orchards, particularly orange groves. Vine culture was attempted, but with only moderate success.

One of the most important products of the territory comprised by the Reductions was the so-called Paraguay tea ( herba ), which is still the largest article of export of the country. It consisted of dried leaves of the maté tree ( Ilex Paraguayensis ), crushed and slightly roasted, and drawn in boiling water; it was then, as it is now, the favourite beverage of the country and almost entirely displaced the intoxicating drinks to which the Indians had been addicted to a deplorable extent. Because the herba forests ( herbales ) frequently lay hundreds of miles distant, and the Indians there employed had to be deprived of regular pastoral care for too long a period, the Jesuits attempted to transplant the tree into the Reductions; their endeavours were successful here and there, but the jealous Spanish colonists used every means to frustrate their endeavours. The other abundant natural resources, choice sorts of wood, aromatic resins, honey bees, and the like, were converted to useful purposes, and attempts were even made, on a small scale, to produce pig-iron. Cattle-raising attained a magnificent development, the entire country being rich in grass, and some estancias numbered as many as 30,000 sheep and more than 100,000 head of cattle, numbers which were not unusual in some of the Spanish haciendas . The herds were increased from time to time by the capture of wild cattle, and the breed improved by careful selection and breeding. Horses, mules, donkeys, and poultry were also raised on a large scale. In addition, hunting and fishing aided in providing support; these forms of sport were, however, restricted in the Guaraní Reduction for reasons of discipline. The individual Reductions devoted themselves more or less to one or the other branch of production, and supplied their wants by exchange with other Reductions. A written almanac of 1765, which the Salesian Fathers of Don Bosco discovered about 1890 at Asunción, contains on its parchment leaves, besides the calendar, an adviser for agriculturists, with particular reference to the climate of the country; the manuscript shows what knowledge and solicitude the apostolic missionaries devoted to agriculture.

(3) Industries

The vast needs of such an enormous establishment and the difficulties and expense of import necessitated the foundation of domestic industries. Thanks to the exceptional native gifts of the Guaranís, the abilities necessary for almost all the trades and crafts were soon developed in these people. Some were carpenters, joiners, wood-turners, builders; others blacksmiths, goldsmiths, armourers, bellfounders, masons, sculptors, stone-cutters, tilemakers, house-painters, painters and gilders, shoemakers, tailors, bookbinders, weavers, dyers, bakers, butchers, tanners, instrument-makers, organ-builders, copyists, calligraphers etc. Others again were employed in the powder-mills, tea-mills, corn-mills etc. Each man remained true to the craft once adopted, and provided for the transmission of his trade by teaching it to apprentices. The wonderful quality of the products of the workshops in the Reductions is shown by the beautiful cut-stone work of the churches. In some of the Reductions there were printing establishments, as for instance in Corpus, San Miguel, San Xavier, Loreto, Santa Maria la Mayor, where principally books of a liturgical and an ascetic nature were printed. It should be noted particularly that the remarkably high industrial development was not reached until after the end of the seventeenth century, when Jesuits from Germany and the Netherlands came to Paraguay in larger numbers. In 1726 a Spanish procurator of the missions admitted that "Artes plerasque [missionarii] erexerunt, sed eas omnes Germanis debent." Arts and the crafts were completely neglected in the Spanish colony at that time, the houses in Buenos Aires being built of clay and covered with rushes. A German lay brother of the Society of Jesus , Joh. Kraus, erected the first larger brick buildings (college and novitiate ) in Buenos Aires and Córdoba; Brother Joseph Klausner of Munich introduced the first tin-foundry in the Province of Tucuman; while Indians from the Reductions, under the direction of the missionaries, built the fortifications and ramparts of Buenos Aires, Tobati, San Gabriel, Arecutagui, and other public works.

(4) Distribution of Labour and Manner of Control

The economic machinery of the Reductions could be kept in motion, and the Indians, naturally averse to work and thoughtless, brought up to systematic labour only by a well-regulated direction and control. Even the children were taught to work, and day by day some of them were occupied in the workshops and spinning-rooms under special overseers, while others were led out into the fields and plantations, to the joyous strains of music, following a statue of St. Isidore carried before them, and employed there for a few hours.The women were obliged, in addition to the performance of their household duties, to spin a certain amount weekly for the use of the community, to help during the sowing and harvesting of cottonand the like. Men who followed no particular trade were obliged to work at least two days weekly at communal undertakings, in the fields, or at public buildings, etc. All had to work during harvest time. Relaxation and recreation were provided in the hours set aside for leisure, which were passed in arranging common games, military drill-horse races, and so on, by the many feast-days and the days set aside for hunting trips and other expeditions. Cards and dice, however, were strictly forbidden. The heads of each community were entrusted with the direction of their communities (see below). Besides, each branch of trade had its own superintendents and guild-masters, who constantly remained in touch with the missionaries, who watched over all and whose presence and authority formed the driving-wheel of the whole community. All officials were obliged to give exact account of their administration, and it is a matter of fact that the accounts and administration reports were in exemplary order, according to the testimony of the government inspectors. The superiors of the order also conducted an exact inspection every year. Labourers and such public employees as hospital attendants, sextons, and others were kept at public cost, and the private fields of draymen and ferrymen, shepherds and others, who were engaged in public service, were tilled by others for their benefit.

(5) Distribution of Rations

Food and dress were the same for all, with some slight concessions in favour of the caciques and public officials. The produce of the private fields provided the secondary dishes for the daily table. Whatever was missing was provided out of the common storehouse in equal measure. The principal article of diet of the Indians was meat, mhich they obtained from the common slaughterhouses at regular intervals. Ordinarily, animals were slaughtered three times a week; in Yapeyu, with about 7000 inhabitants, about forty beeves were killed each day. In order to prevent the Indians from consuming their entire rations of meat in one day, they were induced to make charqui (meat dried in the sun and pulverized) of a portion of it. The sick were given special food prepared in the parsonage; the children received their morning and evening meal in common in the courtyard of the parsonage also. On high feast-days public banquets were held in common. The common storehouses also furnished additional provisions of a special nature for wedding feasts and the like. Strong liquors were almost entirely replaced by maté in the Guaraní Reductions.

Twice a year each family received the necessary woven woollen and cotton goods, of which the women made clothing. In addition, each family could bring its private cotton crop to the parish mills. Only a coarse, plain cloth was woven. Goods of better quality, for the altar linens vestments, and garments of state had to be imported. The dress of the natives was plain but decent; the attire of the men consisted of short, loose breeches, a cotton shirt, and two woollen ponchos , one for everyday wear, the other for holidays; the women wore long, loose, shirt-like gowns, with many folds. Ordinarily all went barefoot. The official garments and uniforms for festive occasions, neat and made of fine, coloured materials, were kept in separate chests in the "college," as also the banners, theatrical costumes, insignia, and so on.

C. Commerce and Wealth of the Jesuits

The accusation that the Jesuits acquired immense wealth in the Reductions is a fable, spread broadcast by their enemies and those jealous of their success, but long since disproved. "I dare to maintain", the Bishop of Buenos Aires, Dom Pedro Taxardo, wrote to Philip V of Spain in 1721, "that if the Jesuits were less virtuous, they would have fewer enemies. I have visited their missions frequently, and I can assure Your Majesty, that I have nowhere found greater order and more perfect unselfishness than among these religious, who take nothing that belongs to their converts, whether it be for their own attire or for their sustenance". The fact is that the Fathers bore the expense of their own sustenance, as far as possible out of the salary appropriated by the king for them (about 250 pesos) although it was smaller than the salary of the other priests, both secular and religious (600 pesos). In compensation for the provisions taken by the Fathers from the common stores, such as fish, milk, eggs, vegetables, the procurator sent each missionary a supply of salt, soap, knives, shears, glass beads, fish-hooks, pins, medals, and the like for distribution among the Indians, who were very fond of these things. Southey, himself a Protestant, published as the result of his investigation covering this question, that nothing can be more certain, than that the Jesuits have not amassed any treasures in Paraguay. The myth concerning their vast trade transactions must be classed with that of the gold mines in the Reductions, which never existed, notwithstanding the fact that hatred and envy have so persistently clung to this assertion, that the Government was forced more than once to institute investigations. Thus an investigation was conducted in 1640 by Don André" de León Gacavita, and another, still more searching, in 1657 by Don J. Blasquez Valverde. In both cases the inquiries led to a clear demonstration of the untruth of the accusations, and to the severe punishment of the accusers. The gold mines have never been found, even after the expulsion of the Jesuits. The estimates that have been made of the alleged vast income and trade profit are founded upon purely arbitrary or false suppositions. The vast herds of cattle, for example, were not representative of wealth, because of the great numbers of ownerless cattle in which the land abounded, the price of a healthy steer in consequence being half a peso in Dobrizhoffer's time, while later the price rose to one and two pesos in consequence of the reckless destruction of these animals by the Spaniards. The single carved high altar in the Church of San Borja was valued at the price of 30,000 steers.

In addition, the expense of keeping up such a vast community should be borne in mind; the high prices of the new products and iron goods that had to be imported (a Spanish hundredweight, about 102 lbs. of iron from Buenos Aires cost 16 aurei , 1 ell of linen cloth 4 old rix-dollars, and even more, a fine lace alb about 120 rix-dollars); the tribute to the crown, which according to experts, amounted to 24,000 pesos; the building and decorating of the numerous churches far in the interior; the equipment of Indian auxiliary troops in the service of the king (see below); all of which, "taken together, alone required the expenditure of almost the entire income. As a matter of fact, the entire commerce was confined to the exchange, justified by canon law, of such products as cotton, tobacco, hides, various kinds of timber, horse-hair, honey, and in particular of the highly-prized mission herba , for goods which the Reductions themselves either could not produce or at least not in sufficient quantities, such as fine cloths, silks, linen for vestments and altar use, instruments, iron and glassware, books, paper salt, wine, vinegar dyes, etc. The trade by barter netted an average annual income of 100,000 pesos, according to the report of the royal investigating commission, or 7 reals per capita of the population. One instance may illustrate how arbitrarily the calumniators of the Jesuits juggle with figures. Some scholars assert that the Jesuits sold 4,000,000 pounds of herba annually, while the amount officially certified is only about 6000 arrobas (150,000 lbs.); he also places the number of Indians employed in its cultivation and production at 300,000, or twice the total number of men, women, and children living at any one time in all the Reductions.

How purely imaginary the wealth of the Jesuits had been was proved by the inventories taken of their houses and colleges at the time of their expulsion in 1787. These buildings mere seized suddenly, without previous warning, so that the Jesuits might not be able to conceal anything. But the only treasures found were the precious church articles. Only a trifling amount of money was found. The college that was most prominent, that of Córdoba, was barely self-supporting, according to the documents. "The Jesuits," writes one scholar, "strange as it may appear, did not conduct the missions after the fashion of a business concern, but rather as the rulers of some Utopia -- those foolish beings who think happiness is preferable to wealth."

D. Form of Government

The local administration of the Reductions was arranged according to the provisions of the lex indica , after the Spanish pattern, and was composed of the corregidor or burgomaster (in the Guaraní language poro puaitara , i.e. one who gives commands); the teniente , or deputy; three alcaldes , i.e. bailiffs or inspectors, two for the work in the town and one ( alcalde de la hermandad ) for the work in the rural districts; four regidores or councilmen (Guaraní icabildo iguata , i.e. one belonging to the council); one alguazil mayor , a sort of prefect of police (Guaraní ibirararuzu , i.e. "the chief of those who carry the stick">); one procurador or steward, and one escribano or writer (Guaraní quatiaapobara , i.e. "one who draws or writes"). Besides these there were the alferez real or standard-bearer (Guaraní, aobebe rerequara , i.e. "he to whom the care of the banner is entrusted," and a number of subaltern officials and assistants. The annual election took place at the end of December. The list of new candidates was drawn up by the retiring officials and submitted to the cura for approval, who had the jus indicum of challenging the nominations. On the first of January the installation of the new officials and the investiture with the insignia of office took place in very solemn fashion at the entrance to the church. Besides their insignia, the public officials had a place of honour in the church. Their final confirmation was obtained in each instance from the Spanish governor. On 1 January also the sextons, superintendents of works, the boys' directors, and others were elected. Each day after Mass the corregidor gave the cura a report of all current affairs and received from him the necessary directions, which he transmitted to those concerned. It should be noted that the old hereditary caciqueship, and also the hereditary Indian nobility retained their rights and were honoured in the Reductions, and, it appears, were especially considered in the allotment of higher offices and military charges. The plan of Philip V to make the five hundred caciques of the Guaraní Reductions Knights of Santiago was not carried out, owing to the fact that the caciques attached no value to such a distinction.

E. Military Power

The organization for armed self-defense against the frequent inroads of hordes of savages and of the Portuguese neighbours was not only permitted by repeated royal decrees, but was carried out in accordance with the declared wishes of the king. In conformity with these decrees arsenals were erected in all the Reductions, in which weapons of the best quality, principally firearms, were stored, together with ammunition. The king repeatedly sent new supplies of arms, among them some 800 guns, about 1730. Later gunpowder was produced in the Reductions themselves. Each Reduction was divided into eight companies, with a maestro de cumpo , generally a cacique, a sergeante mayor , eight capitanes , and other officers at their head. Regularly arranged military exercises and armed drills, together with sham battles, preserved and increased the military efficiency of the people. The governors repeatedly sent Spanish officers into the Reductions, to instruct the Indians in the use of firearms. The main strength of the Reductions, however, lay in their cavalry. This force had already proved itself very efficient in the defence against the Paulistas; from 1841 onwards it was called into service by the governors almost year after year to help in the wars with the savage tribes, with the Portuguese, the English who threatened Buenos Aires, and, last but not least, rebellious colonists and encomienda Indians, and rendered splendid service. Time and again kings and governors expressed their sincerest gratitude for these services, which were all the more valuable because they cost the Crown nothing. The Reduction Indians between 1637 and 1735 entered the field no less than fifty times for the cause of the king, repeatedly with a large force and under considerable sacrifice of time and life.

F. Church and Religious Life

The Reductions of Paraguay are justly called a model of a theocratic commonwealth. Religion ruled the entire public and private life. The entire community attended Holy Mass and the evening devotions daily. Prayers and religious songs accompanied and encompassed work and recreation alike. Religious instruction was given daily for the children, on several days each week for catechumens, and every Sunday for the entire parish. Through the medium of easily sung catechismal hymns the doctrines and the principal events of the life of Christ and those of the saints were impressed upon the minds of the people. A sort of religious handbook bearing the title "Ara poru aguiyey haba yacoa ymomoeoinda" (On the Proper Use of Time ) writton by P. Jos. de Insauralde (born at Asunción; d. 1730), printed at Madrid in 1759-84 in two volumes, and which was very popular, gave directions concerning the performance of various acts at home and in church in a holy and meritorious manner.

Public religious life in the splendid churches found its expression in an exceedingly brilliant manner, particularly on feast-days. Church music was carefully cultivated, especially under the direction of Italian and German Fathers, and its production would have been, according to the testimony of Don Franc. Xarque, a credit to any Spanish cathedral. In consequence, the church choirs of the Reductions were frequently invited to the Spanish cities. The reports of the celebration of the Feast of Corpus Christ, the patronal feasts, the Rogation and penitential processions, the devotion to the saints (particularly to the Blessed Virgin), the representations of the Crib and the Passion, mystery-plays, sacramental dances, and so on, convey a charming picture of the religious life in the Reductions. Religious societies also, especially the Sodalities of the Blessed Virgin, attained to a remarkable growth. The reception of the sacraments, after the Reductions had become firmly grounded, and a solid body of older Christians had been obtained, was, according to the annual reports, and in accordance with ecclesiastical practice of the times, very good. The members of the religious societies received Communion monthly, many of them weekly. The early marriages (boys were obliged to marry at 17, girls at 15), strict discipline, and surveillance fostered chastity among the natives, which aided the natural increase of the race, ordinarily not very fruitful (the average number of children in was four). Careful control and strict segregation of all objectionable elements did the rest. "Such innocence prevails among these people," Bishop Faxardo wrote, 20 May 1720, from Buenos Aires to Philip V, "who are composed exclusively of Indians naturally inclined to all kinds of vices, that I believe no mortal sin is ever committed there, the vigilance of the shepherds foreseeing and preventing even the slightest fault." A number of authentic testimonials of bishops and royal visiting inspectors speak with the greatest admiration of the religious zeal, the devotion, purity of morals, Christian brotherly love, and conscientiousness of the Indians, as well as the unshirking devotion and the edifying lives of the priests.

G. Schools and Education

Each Reduction had, at least during the later period, an elementary school with Indian teachers educated by the Fathers; there at least the boys, above all the sons of the caciques and the more prominent Indians, from whose ranks the heads of the villages and other officials were mostly taken, could learn reading, writing, and arithmetic. In this respect also the Reductions were in advance of the Spanish colony. Even Bucareli, who later carried out the decree of expulsion in such relentless fashion, acknowledged the work of the Reduction schools. Boys who were especially gifted also received instruction in Latin sufficient to enable them to perform sexton's duties and to read at table in the college. The schools for singing and music were conducted very successfully, so that each Reduction had a capable church choir and orchestra. The accusation that the Jesuits studiously prevented the Indians from learning Spanish, in order to preserve their secrets the more securely and to prevent intercourse with the colonists, is untrue, as Bucareli attests, and is, besides, altogether absurd, since the Guaraní language, then as now, was the common language of the Spaniards also. The women knew no Spanish. The fathers surely sought to introduce the Spanish language in their own interest, although it was very difficult for the Indians to learn and very unpopular with them; still they followed the jus indicum (Tit. I, c. vi, leg. 18) which did not oblige the natives to learn Spanish.

H. Discipline and Penal Regulations

It was necessary to accustom the Indians to Christian morals and love of work by mildness linked with severity. The daily routine, marked by the ringing of the bell, the strict segregation of the sexes in public community life demanded by the jus indicum , together with a prudent system of surveillance demanded by the commingling of older Christians, neophytes, and the new arrivals constantly coming in from the wilderness, helped to achieve this result. Another precaution was the segregation, as far as possible, of the Indians from the Spaniards, and from the encomienda Indians, who were mostly of questionable moral character, a measure which some, referring to the sad experience in Peru, consider entirely appropriate, and the observance of which the missionaries of the Gran Chaco even today deem necessary. Regarding the penal discipline, even Asara, who is so averse to the Jesuits, admits "that they exercised their authority with a mildness and moderation [ suavidad y moderación ] which one must admire." Minor offences, such as laziness, public disturbances etc., were punished by sentences of fasting or a few blows with a whip, transgressions of a more serious character by arrest and confinement in jail on small rations. Refractory women were confined for a time in the cotiguazu , or house for the women. To prevent abuse of authority on the part of the Indian officials, they were not permitted to inflict punishment of any kind without having previously reported the case in question to the Fathers. Capital punishment was never inflicted. Crimes deserving capital punishment, which occurred but rarely, were punished by expulsion from the Reduction and surrender of the perpetrator to the Spanish authorities. The fact that these tribes, so enamoured of liberty, did not undertake a single uprising against the missionaries, while on the other hand revolts among the encomienda Indians were very frequent, and the additional circumstance that two or three Fathers were sufficient to keep a population of 1000 to 2000 souls in order and discipline, surely speaks very strongly in favour of the system and proves the untruth of the accusation of Jesuit despotism.

J. The Care of the Sick

The care of the sick was well organized in all the Reductions. In each village there were four to eight nurses, well-instructed in the use of medicines, and devoted absolutely to their profession; they were called curuzuya , or cross-bearers, from the shape of their staffs which terminated in a cross at the top. They made a round of the village each day, and were obliged to give the Fathers an exact report of the condition of the sick, so that as a consequence scarcely an Indian died without the last sacraments. The remedies principally used were the indigenous medicinal herbs. In addition, each "college" had a pharmacy. Some Fathers and Brothers who possessed a knowledge of medicine compiled special medicinal handbooks for use in the Reductions. Several German Fathers and a few lay-brothers, the latter having been apothecaries before entering the order, deserved particularly well of the Reductions in this respect; pre-eminent in this regard was the Tyrolese Father S

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Râle, Sebastian

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Räss, Andreas

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Régis, Jean-Baptiste

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Régis, Pierre Sylvain

Born at La Salvetat de Blanquefort, near Agen, in 1632; died in Paris, in 1707. After his ...

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Ra 67

Rabanus, Blessed Maurus Magnentius

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Re 118

Reading Abbey

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Italian painter, b. at Calvenzano near Bologna, 4 Nov., 1575; d. at Bologna, 18 Aug. 1642. At one ...

Rennes

(RHEDONENSIS) Rennes includes the Department of Ille et Vilaine. The Concordat of 1802 ...

Renty, Gaston Jean Baptiste de

Born 1611 at the castle of Beni, Diocese of Bayeux in Normandy ; died 24 April, 1649. The only ...

Renunciation

( Latin renuntiare ). A canonical term signifying the resignation of an ecclesiastical ...

Reordinations

I. STATE OF THE QUESTION The Oratorian Jean Morin , in the seventeenth century, and Cardinal ...

Reparation

Reparation is a theological concept closely connected with those of atonement and satisfaction, ...

Repington, Philip

( Also Repyngdon). Cardinal-priest of the title of SS. Nereus and Achilleus, Bishop of ...

Repose, Altar of

(Sometimes called less properly sepulchre or tomb, more frequently repository). The altar ...

Reputation (as Property)

It is certain that a man is indefeasibly the owner of what he has been able to produce by his ...

Requiem, Masses of

Masses of Requiem will be treated under the following heads: I. Origins; II. Formulary ; III. ...

Rerum Crerator Optime

The hymn for Matins of Wednesday in the Divine Office. It comprises four strophes of four ...

Rerum Deus Tenax Vigor

The daily hymn for None in the Roman Breviary, comprises (like the hymns for Terce and Sext ...

Rerum Novarum

The opening words and the title of the Encyclical issued by Leo XIII, 15 May, 1891, on the ...

Rescripts, Papal

( Latin re-scribere , "to write back") Rescripts are responses of the pope or a Sacred ...

Reservation

The restriction in certain cases by a superior of the jurisdiction ordinarily exercised by an ...

Reserved Cases

A term used for sins whose absolution is not within the power of every confessor, but is ...

Residence, Ecclesiastical

A remaining or abiding where one's duties lie or where one's occupation is properly carried on, ...

Respicius, Tryphon, and Nympha

Martyrs whose feast is observed in the Latin Church on 10 November. Tryphon is said to have ...

Respighi, Lorenzo

Born at Cortemaggiore, Province of Piacenza, 7 October, 1824; died at Rome, 10 December, 1889. He ...

Responsorium

Responsory, or Respond, a series of verses and responses, usually taken from Holy Scripture and ...

Restitution

Restitution has a special sense in moral theology. It signifies an act of commutative justice ...

Resurrection of Jesus Christ

Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life. In this article, we shall ...

Resurrection, General

Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life. The Fourth Lateran ...

Rethel, Alfred

Born at Aachen, 1816; died at Düsseldorf, 1859. He combined in a brilliant and forcible ...

Retreat of the Sacred Heart, Congregation of

(DAMES DE LA RETRAITE) Originally founded in 1678 under the name of the Institute of Retreat, ...

Retreats

If we call a retreat a series of days passed in solitude and consecrated to practices of ...

Retz, Cardinal de

ARCHBISHOP OF PARIS Born at the Château of Montmirail, Oct., 1614; died in Paris, 24 ...

Reuben

(REUBEN.) A proper name which designates in the Bible : (1) a patriarch; (II) a tribe of ...

Reuchlin, Johannes

( Græcized , Capnion). Celebrated German humanist, b. at Pforzheim, Baden, 22 ...

Reumont, Alfred von

Statesman and historian, b. at Aachen, 15 August, 1808; d. there, 27 April, 1887. After finishing ...

Reusens, Edmond

Archeologist and historian, b. at Wijneghem (Antwerp), 25 April, 1831; d. at Louvain, 25 Dec., ...

Reuss

Name of the two smallest states of the German Confederation, which lie almost in the centre of ...

Revelation

I. MEANING OF REVELATION Revelation may be defined as the communication of some truth by God ...

Revelation, Book of

Apocalypse, from the verb apokalypto , to reveal, is the name given to the last book in the ...

Revelations, Private

There are two kinds of revelations: (1) universal revelations, which are contained in the Bible ...

Revocation

The act of recalling or annulling, the reversal of an act, the recalling of a grant, or the making ...

Revolution, English

James II, having reached the climax of his power after the successful suppression of Monmouth's ...

Revolution, French

The last thirty years have given us a new version of the history of the French Revolution, the ...

Rex Gloriose Martyrum

Rex Gloriose Martyrum, the hymn at Lauds in the Common of Martyrs (Commune plurimorum ...

Rex Sempiterne Cælitum

The Roman Breviary hymn for Matins of Sundays and weekdays during the Paschal Time (from ...

Rey, Anthony

An educator and Mexican War chaplain, born at Lyons, 19 March, 1807; died near Ceralvo, Mexico, ...

Reynolds, William

(RAINOLDS, RAYNOLDS, REGINALDUS) Born at Pinhorn near Exeter, about 1544; died at Antwerp, ...

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Rh 18

Rhætia

(RHÆTORUM). Prefecture Apostolic in Switzerland ; includes in general the district ...

Rhaphanæa

A titular see in Syria Secunda, suffragan of Apamea. Rhaphanæa is mentioned in ancient ...

Rheinberger, Joseph Gabriel

A composer and organist, born at Vaduz, in the Principality of Lichtenstein, Bavaria, 17 March, ...

Rhenish Palatinate

( German Rheinpfalz ). A former German electorate. It derives its name from the title of a ...

Rhesæna

A titular see in Osrhoene, suffragan of Edessa. Rhesæna (numerous variations of the name ...

Rhinocolura

A titular see in Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium. Rhinocolura or Rhinocorura was a ...

Rhithymna

(RHETHYMNA) A titular see of Crete, suffragan of Gortyna, mentioned by Ptolemy, III, 15, ...

Rhizus

( Rizous .) A titular see of Pontus Polemoniacus suffragan of Neocæsarea, ...

Rho, Giacomo

Missionary, born at Milan, 1593; died at Peking 27 April, 1638. He was the son of a noble and ...

Rhode Island

The State of Rhode Island and xxyyyk.htm">Providence Plantations, one of the thirteen original ...

Rhodes

(RHODUS) A titular metropolitan of the Cyclades. It is an island opposite to Lycia and ...

Rhodes, Alexandre De

A missionary and author, born at Avignon, 15 March, 1591; died at Ispahan, Persia, 5 Nov., 1660. ...

Rhodesia

A British possession in South Africa, bounded on the north and north-west by the Congo Free ...

Rhodiopolis

A titular see of Lycia, suffragan of Myra, called Rhodia by Ptolemy (V, 3) and Stephanus ...

Rhodo

A Christian writer who flourished in the time of Commodus (180-92); he was a native of Asia ...

Rhosus

A titular see in Cilicia Secunda, suffragan to Anazarba. Rhosus or Rhossus was a seaport ...

Rhymed Bibles

The rhymed versions of the Bible are almost entirely collections of the psalms. The oldest ...

Rhythmical Office

I. DESCRIPTION, DEVELOPMENT, AND DIVISION By rhythmical office is meant a liturgical horary ...

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Ri 66

Ribadeneira, Pedro de

(Or RIBADENEYRA and among Spaniards often RIVADENEIRA) Pedro De Ribadeneira was born at ...

Ribas, Andrés Pérez De

A pioneer missionary, historian of north-western Mexico; born at Cordova, Spain, 1576; died in ...

Ribe, Ancient See of, in Denmark (Jutland)

(RIPAE, RIPENSIS.) The diocese (29 deaneries, 278 parishes ) consisted of the modern ...

Ribeirao Preto

(DE RIBERAO PRETO) A suffragan see of the Archdiocese of São Paulo , Brazil, ...

Ribera, Jusepe de

Called also SPAGNOLETTO, L'ESPAGNOLET (the little Spaniard) Painter born at Jativa, 12 Jan., ...

Ricardus Anglicus

Ricardus Anglicus, Archdeacon of Bologna, was an English priest who was rector of the law ...

Riccardi, Nicholas

A theologian, writer and preacher; born at Genoa, 1585; died at Rome, 30 May, 1639. Physically ...

Ricci, Lorenzo

General of the Society of Jesus b. at Florence, 2 Aug., 1703; d. at the Castle of Sant' Angelo, ...

Ricci, Matteo

Founder of the Catholic missions of China, b. at Macerata in the Papal States, 6 Oct. 1552; ...

Riccioli, Giovanni Battista

Italian astronomer, b. at Ferrara 17 April, 1598; d. at Bologna 25 June, 1671. He entered the ...

Rice, Edmund Ignatius

Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools (better known as "Irish ...

Rich, St. Edmund

Archbishop of Canterbury, England, born 20 November, c. 1180, at Abingdon, six miles from ...

Richard

A Friar minor and preacher, appearing in history between 1428 and 1431, whose origin and ...

Richard de Bury

Bishop and bibliophile, b. near Bury St. Edmund's, Suffolk, England, 24 Jan., 1286; d. at ...

Richard de la Vergne, François-Marie-Benjamin

Archbishop of Paris, born at Nantes, 1 March, 1819; died in Paris, 28 January, 1908. ...

Richard de Wyche, Saint

Bishop and confessor, b. about 1197 at Droitwich, Worcestershire, from which his surname is ...

Richard Fetherston, Blessed

Priest and martyr ; died at Smithfield, 30 July, 1540. He was chaplain to Catharine of Aragon ...

Richard I, King Of England

Richard I, born at Oxford, 6 Sept, 1157; died at Chaluz, France, 6 April, 1199; was known to ...

Richard of Cirencester

Chronicler, d. about 1400. He was the compiler of a chronicle from 447 to 1066, entitled "Speculum ...

Richard of Cornwall

(RICHARD RUFUS, RUYS, ROSSO, ROWSE). The dates of his birth and death are unknown, but he ...

Richard of Middletown

(A MEDIA VILLA). Flourished at the end of the thirteenth century, but the dates of his birth ...

Richard of St. Victor

Theologian, native of Scotland, but the date and place of his birth are unknown; d. 1173 and ...

Richard Thirkeld, Blessed

Martyr ; b. at Coniscliffe, Durham, England ; d. at York, 29 May, 1583. From Queen's College, ...

Richard Whiting, Blessed

Last Abbot of Glastonbury and martyr, parentage and date of birth unknown, executed 15 Nov., ...

Richard, Charles-Louis

Theologian and publicist; b. at Blainville-sur-l'Eau, in Lorraine, April, 1711; d. at Mons, ...

Richardson, Ven. William

( Alias Anderson.) Last martyr under Queen Elizabeth; b. according to Challoner at Vales in ...

Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis, Duke de

Cardinal ; French statesman, b. in Paris, 5 September, 1585; d. there 4 December 1642. At first ...

Richmond, Diocese of

(RICHMONDENSIS.) Suffragan of Baltimore, established 11 July, 1820, comprises the State of ...

Ricoldo da Monte di Croce

(PENNINI.) Born at Florence about 1243; d. there 31 October, 1320. After studying in various ...

Riemenschneider, Tillmann

One of the most important of Frankish sculptors, b. at Osterode am Harz in or after 1460; d. at ...

Rienzi, Cola di

(i.e., NICOLA, son of Lorenzo) A popular tribune and extraordinary historical figure. His ...

Rieti

(REATINA). Diocese in Central Italy, immediately subject to the Holy See. The city is ...

Rievaulx, Abbey of

(RIEVALL.) Thurston, Archbishop of York, was very anxious to have a monastery of the newly ...

Riffel, Caspar

Historian, b. at Budesheim, Bingen, Germany, 19 Jan., 1807, d. at Mainz, 15 Dec., 1856. He ...

Rigby, John, Saint

English martyr ; b. about 1570 at Harrocks Hall, Eccleston, Lancashire; executed at St. Thomas ...

Rigby, Nicholas

Born 1800 at Walton near Preston, Lancashire; died at Ugthorpe, 7 September, 1886. At twelve years ...

Right

Right, as a substantive (my right, his right), designates the object of justice. When a person ...

Right of Exclusion

(Latin Jus Exclusivæ . The alleged competence of the more important Catholic ...

Right of Option

In canon law an option is a way of obtaining a benefice or a title, by the choice of the new ...

Right of Voluntary Association

I. LEGAL RIGHT A voluntary association means any group of individuals freely united for the ...

Rimbert, Saint

Archbishop of Bremen - Hamburg, died at Bremen 11 June, 888. It is uncertain whether he was ...

Rimini

DIOCESE OF RIMINI (ARIMINUM). Suffragan of Ravenna. Rimini is situated near the coast between ...

Rimini, Council of

The second Formula of Sirmium (357) stated the doctrine of the Anomoeans, or extreme Arians. ...

Rimouski

DIOCESE OF RIMOUSKI (SANCTI GERMANI DE RIMOUSKI) Suffragan of Quebec, comprises the counties of ...

Ring of the Fisherman, The

The earliest mention of the Fisherman's ring worn by the popes is in a letter of Clement IV ...

Rings

Although the surviving ancient rings, proved by their devices, provenance, etc., to be of ...

Rinuccini, Giovanni Battista

Born at Rome, 1592; d. at Fermo, 1653; was the son of a Florentine patrician, his mother being a ...

Rio Negro

Prefecture Apostolic in Brazil, bounded on the south by a line running westwards from the ...

Rio, Alexis-François

French writer on art, b. on the Island of Arz, Department of Morbihan, 20 May, 1797; d. 17 June, ...

Riobamba

Diocese of (Bolivarensis), suffragan of Quito, Ecuador, erected by Pius IX, 5 January, 1863. ...

Rioja, Francisco de

A poet, born at Seville, 1583; died at Madrid, 1659. Rioja was a canon in the cathedral at ...

Ripalda, Juan Martínez de

Theologian, b. at Pamplona, Navarre, 1594; d. at Madrid, 26 April, 1648. He entered the Society ...

Ripatransone

(RIPANENSIS). Diocese in Ascoli Piceno, Central Italy. The city is situated on five hills, ...

Ripon, Marquess of

George Frederick Samuel Robinson, K.G., P.C., G.C.S.I., F.R.S., Earl de Grey, Earl of Ripon, ...

Risby, Richard

Born in the parish of St. Lawrence, Reading, 1489; executed at Tyburn, London, 20 April, 1534. ...

Rishanger, William

Chronicler, b. at Rishangles, Suffolk, about ú d. after 1312. He became a Benedictine at ...

Rishton, Edward

Born in Lancashire, 1550; died at Sainte-Ménehould, Lorraine, 29 June, 1585. He was ...

Rita of Cascia, Saint

Born at Rocca Porena in the Diocese of Spoleto , 1386; died at the Augustinian convent of ...

Rites

I. NAME AND DEFINITION Ritus in classical Latin in means primarily, the form and manner of any ...

Rites in the United States

Since immigration from the eastern portion of Europe and from Asia and Africa set in with ...

Ritschlianism

Ritschlianism is a peculiar conception of the nature and scope of Christianity, widely held in ...

Ritter, Joseph Ignatius

Historian, b. at Schweinitz, Silesia, 12 April, 1787; d. at Breslau, 5 Jan., 1857. He pursued his ...

Ritual

The Ritual ( Rituale Romanum ) is one of the official books of the Roman Rite. It contains all ...

Ritualists

The word "Ritualists" is the term now most commonly employed to denote that advanced section of ...

Rivington, Luke

Born in London, May, 1838; died in London, 30 May, 1899; fourth son of Francis Rivington, a ...

Rizal, José Mercado

Filipino hero, physician, poet, novelist, and sculptor ; b. at Calamba, Province of La Laguna, ...

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Ro 133

Robbers, Seven

(Septem Latrones), martyrs on the Island of Corcyra (Corfu) in the second century. Their ...

Robbia, Andrea della

Nephew, pupil, assistant, and sharer of Luca's secrets, b. at Florence, 1431; d. 1528. It is ...

Robbia, Lucia di Simone

Sculptor, b. at Florence, 1400; d. 1481. He is believed to have studied design with a goldsmith, ...

Robert Bellarmine, Saint

(Also, "Bellarmino"). A distinguished Jesuit theologian, writer, and cardinal, born at ...

Robert Johnson, Blessed

Born in Shropshire, entered the German College, Rome, 1 October, 1571. Ordained priest at ...

Robert of Arbrissel

Itinerant preacher, founder of Fontevrault, b. c. 1047 at Arbrissel (now Arbressec) near ...

Robert of Courçon

(DE CURSONE, DE CURSIM, CURSUS, ETC.). Cardinal, born at Kedleston, England ; died at ...

Robert of Geneva

Antipope under the name of Clement VII, b. at Geneva, 1342; d. at Avignon, 16 Sept., 1394. He ...

Robert of Jumièges

Archbishop of Canterbury (1051-2). Robert Champart was a Norman monk of St. Ouen at Rouen ...

Robert of Luzarches

(LUS). Born at Luzarches near Pontoise towards the end of the twelfth century; is said to have ...

Robert of Melun

(DE MELDUNO; MELIDENSIS; MEIDUNUS). An English philosopher and theologian, b. in England ...

Robert of Molesme, Saint

Born about the year 1029, at Champagne, France, of noble parents who bore the names of Thierry ...

Robert of Newminster, Saint

Born in the district of Craven, Yorkshire, probably at the village of Gargrave; died 7 June, 1159. ...

Robert Pullus

(PULLEN, PULLAN, PULLY.) See also ROBERT PULLEN. Cardinal, English philosopher and ...

Robert, Saint

Founder of the Abbey of Chaise-Dieu in Auvergne, b. at Aurilac, Auvergne, about 1000; d. in ...

Roberts, Saint John

First Prior of St. Gregory's, Douai (now Downside Abbey ), b. 1575-6; martyred 10 ...

Robertson, James Burton

Historian, b. in London 15 Nov., 1800; d. at Dublin 14 Feb., 1877, son of Thomas Robertson, a ...

Robinson, Venerable Christopher

Born at Woodside, near Westward, Cumberland, date unknown; executed at Carlisle, 19 Aug., 1598. ...

Robinson, William Callyhan

Jurist and educator, b. 26 July, 1834, at Norwich, Conn.; d. 6 Nov., 1911, at Washington, D.C. ...

Rocaberti, Juan Tomás de

Theologian, b. of a noble family at Perelada, in Catalina, c. 1624; d. at Madrid 13 June, 1699. ...

Rocamadour

Communal chief town of the canton of Gramat, district of Gourdon, Department of Lot, in the ...

Rocca, Angelo

Founder of the Angelica Library at Rome, b. at Rocca, now Arecevia, near Ancone, 1545; d. at ...

Roch, Saint

Born at Montpellier towards 1295; died 1327. His father was governor of that city. At his birth ...

Rochambeau, Jean-Baptiste-Donatien

Marshal, b. at Vendôme, France, 1 July, 1725; d. at Thoré, 10 May, 1807. At the age ...

Roche, Alanus de la

( Sometimes DE LA ROCHE). Born about 1428; died at Zwolle in Holland, 8 September, 1475. ...

Rochester, Ancient See of

(ROFFA; ROFFENSIS). The oldest and smallest of all the suffragan sees of Canterbury, was ...

Rochester, Blessed John

Priest and martyr, born probably at Terling, Essex, England, about 1498; died at York, 11 May, ...

Rochester, Diocese of

This diocese, on its establishment by separation from the See of Buffalo, 24 January, 1868, ...

Rochet

An over-tunic usually made of fine white linen (cambric; fine cotton material is also allowed), ...

Rochette, Désiré Raoul

Usually known as Raoul-Rochette, a French archeologist, b. at St. Amand (Cher), 9 March, 1789; d. ...

Rock, Daniel

Antiquarian and ecclesiologist, b. at Liverpool, 31 August, 1799; d. at Kensington, London, 28 ...

Rockford, Diocese of

(ROCKFORDIENSIS). Created 23 September, 1908, comprises Jo Daviess, Stephenson, Winnebago, ...

Rockhampton

Diocese in Queensland, Australia. In 1862 Father Duhig visited the infant settlement on the banks ...

Rococo Style

This style received its name in the nineteenth century from French émigrés , who ...

Rodez

(RUTHENAE) The Diocese of Rodez was united to the Diocese of Cahors by the Concordat of ...

Rodrigues Ferreira, Alexandre

A Brazilian natural scientist and explorer, b. at Bahia in 1756; d. at Lisbon in 1815. He ...

Rodriguez, Alonso

Born at Valladolid, Spain, 1526; died at Seville 21 February, 1616. When twenty years of age he ...

Rodriguez, Joao

(GIRAM, GIRAO, GIRON, ROIZ). Missionary and author, b. at Alcochete in the Diocese of Lisbon ...

Rodriguez, Saint Alphonsus

(Also Alonso). Born at Segovia in Spain, 25 July, 1532; died at Majorca, 31 October, 1617. ...

Roe, Bartholomew

(VENERABLE ALBAN). English Benedictine martyr, b. in Suffolk, 1583; executed at Tyburn, 21 ...

Roermond

(RUBAEMUNDENSIS). Diocese in Holland ; suffragan of Utrecht. It includes the Province of ...

Rogation Days

Days of prayer, and formerly also of fasting, instituted by the Church to appease God's anger ...

Roger Bacon

Philosopher, surnamed D OCTOR M IRABILIS , b. at Ilchester, Somersetshire, about 1214; d. at ...

Roger Cadwallador, Venerable

English martyr, b. at Stretton Sugwas, near Hereford, in 1568; executed at Leominster, 27 Aug., ...

Roger of Wendover

Benedictine monk, date of birth unknown; d. 1236, the first of the great chroniclers of St. ...

Roger, Bishop of Worcester

Died at Tours, 9 August, 1179. A younger son of Robert, Earl of Gloucester, he was educated ...

Roh, Peter

Born at Conthey (Gunthis) in the canton of Valais ( French Switzerland ), 14 August, 1811; d. at ...

Rohault de Fleury

A family of French architects and archaeologists of the nineteenth century, of which the most ...

Rohrbacher, Réné François

Ecclesiastical historian, b. at Langatte (Langd) in the present Diocese of Metz, 27 September, ...

Rojas y Zorrilla, Francisco de

Spanish dramatic poet, b. at Toledo, 4 Oct., 1607; d. 1680. Authentic information regarding the ...

Rokewode, John Gage

Born 13 Sept., 1786; died at Claughton Hall, Lancashire, 14 Oct., 1842. He was the fourth son of ...

Rolduc

(RODA DUCIS, also Roda, Closterroda or Hertogenrade). Located in S. E. Limburg, Netherlands. ...

Rolfus, Hermann

Catholic educationist, b. at Freiburg, 24 May, 1821; d. at Buhl, near Offenburg, 27 October, ...

Rolle de Hampole, Richard

Solitary and writer, b. at Thornton, Yorkshire, about 1300; d. at Hampole, 29 Sept., 1349. The ...

Rollin, Charles

Born in Paris, 1661; died there, 1741. The son of a cutler, intended to follow his father's ...

Rolls Series

A collection of historical materials of which the general scope is indicated by its official ...

Rolph, Thomas

Surgeon, b. 1800; d. at Portsmouth, 17 Feb., 1858. He was a younger son of Dr. Thomas Rolph and ...

Roman Catacombs

This subject will be treated under seven heads: I. Position; II. History; III. Inscriptions; IV. ...

Roman Catechism

This catechism differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the ...

Roman Catholic

A qualification of the name Catholic commonly used in English-speaking countries by those ...

Roman Catholic Relief Bill

IN ENGLAND With the accession of Queen Elizabeth (1558) commenced the series of legislative ...

Roman Christian Cemeteries, Early

This article treats briefly of the individual catacomb cemeteries in the vicinity of Rome. For ...

Roman Colleges

This article treats of the various colleges in Rome which have been founded under ...

Roman Congregations

Certain departments have been organized by the Holy See at various times to assist it in the ...

Roman Curia

Strictly speaking, the ensemble of departments or ministries which assist the sovereign pontiff ...

Roman Processional

Strictly speaking it might be said that the Processional has no recognized place in the Roman ...

Roman Rite, The

( Ritus romanus ). The Roman Rite is the manner of celebrating the Holy Sacrifice, ...

Romanos Pontifices, Constitutio

The restoration by Pius IX, 29 Sept. 1850, by letters Apostolic "Universalis ecclesiæ" of ...

Romanos, Saint

Surnamed ho melodos and ho theorrhetor , poet of the sixth century. The only authority for ...

Romans, Epistle to the

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. The Roman Church and St. Paul; II. ...

Romanus, Pope

Of this pope very little is known with certainty, not even the date of his birth nor the exact ...

Romanus, Saints

(1) A Roman martyr Romanus is mentioned in the "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, 155) ...

Rome

The significance of Rome lies primarily in the fact that it is the city of the pope. The Bishop ...

Rome, University of

The University of Rome must be distinguished from the "Studium Generale apud Curiam", established ...

Romero, Juan

Missionary and Indian linguist, b. in the village of Machena, Andalusia, Spain, 1559; d. at ...

Romuald, Saint

Born at Ravenna, probably about 950; died at Val-di-Castro, 19 June, 1027. St. Peter Damian, his ...

Romulus Augustulus

Deposed in the year 476, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire. His reign was purely ...

Ronan, Saint

There are twelve Irish saints bearing the name of Ronan commemorated in the "Martyrology of ...

Ronsard, Pierre de

French poet, b. 2 (or 11) Sept., 1524, at the Château de la Poissonniere, near ...

Rood

(Anglo-Saxon Rod, or Rode, "cross"), a term, often used to signify the True Cross itself, ...

Roothaan, Johann Philipp

Twenty-first General of the Society of Jesus , b. at Amsterdam, 23 November, 1785; d. at Rome, ...

Roper, William

Biographer of St. Thomas More, born 1496; died 4 January, 1578. Both his father and mother ...

Rorate Coeli

(Vulgate, text), the opening words of Isaiah 45:8 . The text is used frequently both at Mass and ...

Rosa, Salvatore

(Also spelled SALVATOR; otherwise known as RENNELLA, or ARENELLA, from the place of his birth). ...

Rosalia, Saint

Hermitess, greatly venerated at Palermo and in the whole of Sicily of which she in patroness. ...

Rosary, Breviary Hymns of the

The proper office granted by Leo XIII (5 August, 1888) to the feast contains four hymns ...

Rosary, Confraternity of the

In accordance with the conclusion of the article ROSARY no sufficient evidence is forthcoming to ...

Rosary, Feast of the Holy

Apart from the signal defeat of the Albigensian heretics at the battle of Muret in 1213 which ...

Rosary, Seraphic

( Or Seraphic Rosary.) A Rosary consisting of seven decades in commemoration of the seven ...

Rosary, The

Please see our How to Recite the Holy Rosary sheet in PDF format, and feel free to copy and ...

Rosate, Alberico de

(Or ROSCIATE). Jurist, date of birth unknown; died in 1354. He was bom in the village of ...

Roscelin

Roscelin, a monk of Compiègne, was teaching as early as 1087. He had contact with ...

Roscommon

Capital of County Roscommon, Ireland ; owes origin and name to a monastery founded by St. Coman ...

Rose of Lima, Saint

Virgin, patroness of America, born at Lima, Peru 20 April, 1586; died there 30 August, 1617. ...

Rose of Viterbo, Saint

Virgin, born at Viterbo, 1235; died 6 March, 1252. The chronology of her life must always remain ...

Rose Window

A circular window, with mullions and traceries generally radiating from the centre, and filled ...

Rosea

A titular see. The official catalogue of the Roman Curia mentioned formerly a titular see of ...

Roseau

(ROSENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Port of Spain, Trinidad, B.W.I. The different islands of ...

Rosecrans, William Starke

William Born at Kingston, Ohio, U.S.A. 6 Sept., 1819; died near Redondo California, 11 March, ...

Roseline, Saint

(Rossolina.) Born at Château of Arcs in eastern Provence, 1263; d. 17 January, 1329. ...

Rosenau

( Hungarian ROZSNYÓ; Latin ROSNAVIENSIS). Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Eger, ...

Rosh Hashanah

The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year. Two trumpets are ...

Rosicrucians

The original appelation of the alleged members of the occult-cabalistic- theosophic "Rosicrucian ...

Roskilde, Ancient See of, in Denmark

(ROSCHILDIA, ROSKILDENSIS.) Suffragan to Hamburg, about 991-1104, to Lund, 1104-1536. The ...

Roskoványi, August

Bishop of Neutra in Hungary, doctor of philosophy and theology, b. at Szenna in the County ...

Rosmini and Rosminianism

Antonio Rosmini Serbati, philosopher, and founder of the Institute of Charity, born 24 March, ...

Rosminians

The Institute of Charity, or, officially, Societas a charitate nuncupata , is a religious ...

Ross

(ROSSENSIS). Diocese in Ireland. This see was founded by St. Fachtna, and the place-name ...

Ross, School of

The School of Ross &151; now called Ross-Carbery, but formerly Ross-Ailithir from the large ...

Rossano

(ROSSANENSIS). Archdiocese in Calabria, province of Cosenza, Southern Italy. The city is ...

Rosselino, Antonio di Matteo di Domenico

The youngest of five brothers, sculptors and stone cutters, family name Gamberelli (1427-78). He ...

Rosselino, Bernardo

(Properly BERNARDO DI MATTEO GAMBARELLI.) B. at Florence, 1409; d. 1464. Rosselino occupies ...

Rosselli, Cosimo

(LORENZO DI FILIPPO). Italian fresco painter, b. at Florence, 1439; d. there in 1507. The ...

Rossi, Bernardo de

(DE RUBEIS, GIOVANNI FRANCESCO BERNARDO MARIA). Theologian and historian; b. at Cividale del ...

Rossi, Giovanni Battista de

A distinguished Christian archaeologist , best known for his work in connection with the Roman ...

Rossi, Pellegrino

Publicist, diplomat, economist, and statesman, b. at Carrara, Italy, 13 July, 1787; assassinated ...

Rossini, Gioacchino Antonio

Born 29 February, 1792, at Pesaro in the Romagna; died 13 November, 1868, at Passy, near Paris. ...

Rostock, Sebastian von

Bishop of Breslau, b. at Grottkau, Silesia, 24 Aug. 1607; d. at Breslau, 9 June, 1671. He ...

Rostock, University of

Located in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, founded in the year 1419 through the united efforts of Dukes John ...

Roswitha

A celebrated nun -poetess of the tenth century, whose name has been given in various forms, ...

Rota, Sacra Romana

In the Constitution "Sapienti Consilio" (29 June, 1908), II, 2, Pins X re-established the Sacra ...

Roth, Heinrich

Missionary in India and Sanskrit scholar, b. of illustrious parentage at Augsburg, 18 December, ...

Rothe, David

Bishop of Ossory ( Ireland ), b. at Kilkenny in 1573, of a distinguished family ; d. 20 ...

Rottenburg

(ROTTENBURGENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of the ecclesiastical Province of the Upper Rhine. It ...

Rotuli

Rotuli, i.e. rolls — in which a long narrow strip of papyrus or parchment, written on one ...

Rouen, Archdiocese of

(ROTHOMAGENSIS) Revived by the Concordat of 1802 with the Sees of Bayeux, Evreux, and ...

Rouen, Synods of

The first synod is generally believed to have been held by Archbishop Saint-Ouen about 650. ...

Rouquette, Adrien

Born in Louisiana in 1813, of French parentage; died as a missionary among the Choctaw Indians ...

Rousseau, Jean-Baptiste

French poet, b. in Paris, 16 April 1670; d. at La Genette, near Brussels, 17 May, 1741. ...

Rovezzano, Benedetto da

Sculptor and architect, b. in 1490, either at Rovezzano, near Florence, or, according to some ...

Rowsham, Stephen

A native of Oxfordshire, entered Oriel College, Oxford, in 1572. He took orders in the English ...

Royal Declaration, The

This is the name most commonly given to the solemn repudiation of Catholicity which, in ...

Royer-Collard, Pierre-Paul

Philosopher and French politician, b. at Sompuis (Marne), 21 June, 1763; d. at ...

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Ru 42

Ruadhan, Saint

One of the twelve "Apostles of Erin" ; died at the monastery of Lorrha, County Tipperary, ...

Ruben

(REUBEN.) A proper name which designates in the Bible : (1) a patriarch; (II) a tribe of ...

Rubens, Peter Paul

Eminent Flemish painter, b. at Siegen, Westphalia, 28 June, 1577; d. at Antwerp, 30 May, 1640. ...

Rubrics

I. IDEA Among the ancients, according to Columella, Vitruvius, and Pliny, the word rubrica , ...

Rubruck, William

(Also called William of Rubruck and less correctly Ruysbrock, Ruysbroek, and Rubruquis), ...

Rudolf of Fulda

Chronicler, d. at Fulda, 8 March, 862. In the monastery of Fulda Rudolf entered the ...

Rudolf of Habsburg

German king, b. 1 May 1218; d. at Speyer, 15 July, 1291. He was the son of Albert IV, the founder ...

Rudolf of Rüdesheim

Bishop of Breslau, b. at Rüdesheim on the Rhine, about 1402; d. at Breslau in Jan., 1482. ...

Rudolf von Ems

[Hohenems in Austria ]. A Middle High German epic poet of the thirteenth century. Almost ...

Rueckers, Family of

Famous organ and piano-forte builders of Antwerp. Hans Rueckers, the founder, lived in ...

Ruffini, Paolo

Physician and mathematician, b. at Valentano in the Duchy of Castro, 3 Sept., 1765; d. at Modena, ...

Rufford Abbey

A monastery of the Cistercian Order, situated on the left bank of the Rainworth Water, about ...

Rufina, Saints

The present Roman Martyrology records saints of this name on the following days: (1) On ...

Rufinus, Saint

The present Roman Martyrology records eleven saints named Rufinus: (1) On 28 February, a ...

Rufus, Saint

The present Roman Martyrology records ten saints of this name. Historical mention is made of ...

Ruiz de Alarcón y Mendoza, Juan de

Spanish dramatic poet, b. at Mexico City, about 1580; d. at Madrid, 4 August, 1639. He received ...

Ruiz de Montoya, Antonio

One of the most distinguished pioneers of the original Jesuit mission in Paraguay, and a ...

Ruiz de Montoya, Diego

Theologian, b. at Seville, 1562; d. there 15 March, 1632. He entered the Society of Jesus in ...

Rule of Faith, The

The word rule ( Latin regula , Gr. kanon ) means a standard by which something can be ...

Rule of St. Augustine

The title, Rule of Saint Augustine , has been applied to each of the following documents: ...

Rule of St. Benedict

This work holds the first place among monastic legislative codes, and was by far the most ...

Rumania

A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, situated between the Black Sea, the Danube, the Carpathian ...

Rumohr, Karl Friedrich

Art historian, b. at Dresden, 1785; d. there, 1843. He became a Catholic in 1804. He was ...

Rupe, Alanus de

( Sometimes DE LA ROCHE). Born about 1428; died at Zwolle in Holland, 8 September, 1475. ...

Rupert, Saint

(Alternative forms, Ruprecht, Hrodperht, Hrodpreht, Roudbertus, Rudbertus, Robert, Ruprecht). ...

Rusaddir

A titular see of Mauritania Tingitana. Rusaddir is a Phoenician settlement whose name ...

Rusicade

A titular see of Numidia. It is mentioned by Ptolemy (IV, 3), Mela (I, 33), Pliny (V, 22), ...

Ruspe

Titular see of Byzacena in Africa, mentioned only by Ptolemy (IV, 3) and the "Tabula" of ...

Russell, Charles

(BARON RUSSELL OF KILLOWEN). Born at Newry, Ireland, 10 November, 1832; died in London, 10 ...

Russell, Charles William

Born at Killough, Co. Down, 14 May, 1812; died at Dublin 26 Feb., 1880. He was descended from the ...

Russell, Richard

Bishop of Vizéu in Portugal, b. in Berkshire, 1630; d. at Vizéu, 15 Nov., 1693. He ...

Russia

GEOGRAPHY Russia ( Rossiiskaia Imperiia; Russkoe Gosudarstvo ) comprises the greater part of ...

Russia, The Religion of

A. The Origin of Russian Christianity There are two theories in regard to the early Christianity ...

Russian Language and Literature

The subject will be treated under the following heads, viz. RUSSIAN LANGUAGE; ANCIENT POPULAR ...

Rusticus of Narbonne, Saint

Born either at Marseilles or at Narbonnaise, Gaul; died 26 Oct., 461. According to biographers, ...

Ruth, Book of

One of the proto-canonical writings of the Old Testament, which derives its name from the heroine ...

Ruthenian Rite

There is, properly speaking, no separate and distinct rite for the Ruthenians, but inasmuch as ...

Ruthenians

(Ruthenian and Russian: Rusin , plural Rusini ) A Slavic people from Southern Russia, ...

Rutter, Henry

( vere BANISTER) Born 26 Feb., 1755; died 17 September, 1838, near Dodding Green, ...

Ruvo and Bitonto

(RUBENSIS ET BITUNTINENSIS) Diocese in the Province of Bari, Aquileia, Southern Italy. Ruvo, ...

Ruysbroeck, Blessed John

Surnamed the Admirable Doctor, and the Divine Doctor, undoubtedly the foremost of the Flemish ...

Ruysch, John

Astronomer, cartographer, and painter, born at Utrecht about 1460; died at Cologne, 1533. Little ...

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Ry 4

Ryan, Father Abram J.

The poet-priest of the South, born at Norfolk, Virginia, 15 August, 1839; died at Louisville, ...

Ryan, Patrick John

Sixth Bishop and second Archbishop of Philadelphia, b. At Thurles, County Tipperary, ...

Ryder, Henry Ignatius Dudley

English Oratorian priest and controversialist, b. 3 Jan., 1837; d. at Edgbaston, Birmingham, 7 ...

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