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Liturgical Books

Under this name we understand all the books, published by the authority of any church, that contain the text and directions for her official (liturgical) services. It is now the book that forms the standard by which one has to judge whether a certain service or prayer or ceremony is official and liturgical or not. Those things are liturgical, and those only, that are contained in one of the liturgical books. It is also obvious that any church or religion or sect is responsible for the things contained in its liturgical books in quite another sense than for the contents of some private book of devotion, which she at most only allows and tolerates. The only just way of judging of the services, the tone, and the ethos of a religious body, is to consult its liturgical books. Sects that have no such official books are from that very fact exposed to all manner of vagaries in their devotion, just as the absence of an official creed leads to all manner of vagueness in their belief. In this article the liturgical books of the Roman Rite are described first, then a short account is given of those of the other rites.

I. THE FIRST TRACES OF LITURGICAL BOOKS

Our present convenient compendiums -- the Missal, Breviary, and so on -- were formed only at the end of a long evolution. In the first period (lasting perhaps till about the fourth century) there were no books except the Bible , from which lessons were read and psalms were sung. Nothing was written, because nothing was fixed (see LITURGY). Even after certain forms had become so stereotyped as to make already what we should call a more or less fixed liturgy, it does not seem that there was at first any idea that they should be written down. Habit and memory made the celebrant repeat more or less the same forms each Sunday ; the people answered his prayers with the accustomed acclamations and responses -- all without books.

It has been much discussed at what period we have evidence of written liturgies. Renaudot ("Liturgiarum Orientalium Collectio", 2nd ed., Frankfurt, 1847, I, pp. ix and xi) thought that no books were written even by the fourth century. He argues this from a passage in St. Basil (died 379), who distinguishes between the written teaching of the Apostles (in the Bible ) and the unwritten tradition, and quotes liturgical functions as belonging to this: "Who", he asks, "of the saints has written down for us the words of the Sacred Invocation in the consecration of the bread and chalice ?" (De Spir. Sancto, c. xxvii, in P. G., XXXII, 187). Another argument is that no mention is made of liturgical books in the acts of martyrs (who are required to give up their holy books, that is, always, the Bible ), or in the quarrels about the books with the Donatists in the fourth century. Daniel ("Codex liturgicus", IV, Leipzig, 1853, pp. 25-32) argues against this opinion at length, and defends the view that liturgies were written down at the beginning of the fourth century. Probst ("Die ältesten römischen Sakramentarien und Ordines", Münster, 1892, pp. 1-19) tries to establish that there were liturgical books back to the time of the Apostolic Fathers. The argument from St. Basil may be dismissed at once. He is only explaining the well-known distinction between the two sources of revelation, Scripture and tradition. Tradition is distinct from Scripture ; it may include other written books, but not the Bible . By "saints" he means only the writers of Scripture, and therefore his statement is that the Eucharistic Invocation is not in the Bible . As for the Donatists, there is, on the contrary, evidence that both they and the Catholics had liturgical books at that time. Optatus of Mileve, writing about the year 370 against them, says: "You have no doubt cleaned the palls " (linen cloths used in Mass), "tell me what you have done with the books?" ("De schism. Donat.", V, Vienna edition, 1893, p. 153.) What were these books? Both palls and books had been taken from the Catholics, both were used in the liturgy (ibid.). The books were not the Bible , because the Donatists thought them polluted (ibid.). So there were other liturgical books besides the Bible . Augustine too reproaches the Donatists with being in schism with the very churches whose names they read in the "holy books" (epp. lii and liii). So also a synod at Hippo in Africa (in 393) forbids anyone to write down the prayers of other Churches and use them, until he has shown his copy to the more learned brethren (can. xxv; Hefele - Leclercq, "Histoire des Conciles", II, Paris, 1908, p. 88; cf. Probst, op. cit., 13-14).

That some prayers were occasionally written down from the first age is evident. Prayers are quoted in the Apostolic Fathers ("Didache", ix, x; Clement, "First Epistle to the Corinthians", lix, 3-lxi. See LITURGY). This does not, however, prove the existence of liturgical books. Probst thinks that the exact quotations made by the Fathers as far back as the second century prove that the liturgy was already written down. Such quotations, he says, could only be made from written books (op. cit., 15-17). This argument does not seem very convincing. We know that formulæ, especially liturgical formulæ, can become very definite and well-known before they are put in a book. A more solid reason for the existence of a written liturgy at any rate by the fourth century is the comparison of the liturgy of the eighth book of the Apostolic Fathers with the Byzantine Rite of St. Basil. Proclus (died 446) says that Basil (died 379) modified and shortened the liturgy because it was too long for the people. There is no reason to doubt what he says (see CONSTANTINOPLE, THE RITE OF). The liturgy shortened by Basil was that of Antioch, of which we have the oldest specimen in the Apostolic Constitutions . A comparison of this (especially the Thanksgiving-prayer) with that of St. Basil (Brightman, "Eastern Liturgies ", pp. 14-18 and 321-3) shows in effect that Basil is much shorter. It does not seem likely that, after Basil's necessary shortening, anyone should have taken the trouble to write out the discarded long form. Therefore, the liturgy of the Apostolic Constitutions was written before St. Basil's reform, although it is incorporated into a work not finally compiled till the early fifth century (Funk, "Die apostolischen Konstitutionen", Rottenburg, 1891, p. 366; Probst, op. cit., 12-13).

Our conclusion then is that at any rate by the middle of the fourth century there were written liturgies, and therefore liturgical books of some kind, however incomplete. How long before that anything was written down we cannot say. We conceive portions of the rite written out as occasion required. Evidently one of the first things to be written was the diptychs containing the lists of persons and churches for whom prayers were to be said. These diptychs were used liturgically -- the deacon read them -- in all rites down to the Middle Ages. Augustine's argument against the Donatists refers to the diptychs (epp. lii and liii above). The diptychs were two tablets folded like a book ( dis and ptyche ); on one side the names of the living, on the other those of the dead were written. They have now disappeared and the names are said from memory. But the Byzantine Rite still contains the rubrics : "The deacon remembers the diptychs of the departed"; "He remembers the diptychs of the living" (Brightman, op. cit., 388-9). No doubt the next thing to be written out was the collection of prayers said by the celebrant (Sacramentaries and Euchologia ), then indications for the readers (Comites, Capitularia, Synaxaria) and the various books for the singers (Antiphonaries, books of Troparia), and finally the rubrical directions (Ordines, Typika).

II. HISTORY OF THE ROMAN LITURGICAL BOOKS

So far the development went on in parallel lines in East and West. When we come to the actual books we must distinguish between the various rites, which have different groups and arrangements. In the Roman Rite the first complete books we know are the Sacramentaries ( Sacramentaria ). A Sacramentary is not the same thing as a Missal. It contains more on the one side, less on the other. It is the book for the celebrant. It contains all and only the prayers that he says. At the time that these books were written it was not yet the custom for the celebrant also to repeat at the altar whatever is sung by the ministers or choir. Thus Sacramentaries contain none of those parts of the Mass, no Lessons, no Introits, Graduals, Offertories and so on, but only the Collects, Prefaces, Canon, all that is strictly the celebrant's part. On the other hand they provide for his use at other occasions besides Mass. As the celebrant is normally supposed to be a bishop, the Sacramentary supplies him with the prayers he wants at ordinations, at the consecration of a church and altar and many exorcisms, blessings, and consecrations that are now inserted in the Pontifical and Ritual. That is the order of a complete Sacramentary. Many of those now extant are more or less fragmentary.

The name Sacramentarium is equivalent to the other form also used (for instance, in the Gelasian book), Liber Sacramentorum . The form is the same as that of the word Hymnarium , for a book of hymns. Gennadius of Marseilles (fifth cent.) uses both. He says of Paulinus of Nola : "Fecit et sacramentarium et hymnarium" (De viris illustribus, xlviii). The word sacramentum or sacramenta in this case means the Mass. Sacramenta celebrare or facere is a common term for saying Mass. So St. Augustine (died 430) remarks that we say "Sursum corda" "in sacramentis fidelium", that is at Mass (De Dono Persev., xiii, 33), and two schismatics of the fifth century complain to the Emperors Gratian and Theodosius that Pope Damasus (366-84) will not let them say Mass ; but they do so all the same, because "salutis nostræ sacramenta facienda sunt" (Faustinus and Marcellinus, "Lib. prec. ad Imp." in P. L., XIII, 98; cf. Probst, "Die ältesten röm. Sakram.", 20-1). A number of Sacramentaries of the Roman Rite are still extant, either complete or in part. Of these the most important are the three known by the names Leonine, Gelasian, and Gregorian. Their date, authorship, place, and original purpose have been much discussed. What follows is a compilation of the views of recognized scholars.

The so-called "Sacramentarium Leonianum" is the oldest. Only one manuscript of it is known, written in the seventh century. This manuscript was found in the library of the cathedral chapter of Verona, was published by Joseph Bianchini in 1735 in the fourth volume of his edition of Anastasius Bibliothecarius, and was by him attributed arbitrarily to St. Leo I (440-61). On the strength of this attribution the book was included by the Ballerini in their edition of Leo (Venice, 1753-7), and still bears the name Leonine. It was reprinted by Muratori in his "Liturgia Romana vetus" (Venice, 1748). Now the best edition is that of C. L. Feltoe (Cambridge, 1896). The Leonine Sacramentary represents a pure Roman use with no Gallican elements. But it is not a book compiled for use at the altar. The hopeless confusion of its parts shows this. It is a fragment, containing no Canon nor Ordinary of the Mass, but a collection of Propers (Collects, Secrets, Prefaces, Postcommunions, and Orationes super populum), of various Masses with ordination forms, arranged according to the civil year. It begins in the middle of the sixth Mass for April, and ends with a blessing for the font "In ieiunio mensis decimi" (i.e. the winter Ember-days). In each month groups of Masses are given, often very large groups, for each feast and occasion. Thus, for instance, in June we find twenty-eight Masses for St. Peter and St. Paul, one after another, each headed: "Item alia" (Feltoe's ed., pp. 36-50); there are fourteen for St. Lawrence, twenty-three for the anniversary of a bishop's consecration (123-39), and so on. Evidently the writer has compiled as many alternative Masses for each occasion as he could find. In many cases he shows great carelessness. He inserts Masses in the wrong place. Many of his Masses in natali episcoporum have nothing at all to do with that anniversary, and are really Masses for Sundays after Pentecost; in the middle of a Mass of St. Cornelius and St. Cyprian he has put the preface of a Mass of St. Euphemia (p. 104), a Mass for the new civil year is inserted among those for martyrs (XX item alia , p. 9); Masses for St. Stephen's day (26 Dec.) with evident allusions to Christmas are put in August (pp. 86-9), obviously through a confusion with the feast of the finding of his relics (3 Aug.). Many other examples of the same confusion are quoted by Buchwald ("Das sogen. Sacramentarium Leonianum", Vienna, 1908). That the collection is Roman is obvious. It is full of local allusions to Rome. For instance, one of the collects to be said by a bishop on the anniversary of his consecration could only be used by the pope of Rome : " Lord God. . . who, although Thou dost not cease to enrich with many gifts Thy Church spread throughout the world, nevertheless dost look more favourably upon the see of Thy blessed Apostle Peter, as Thou hast desired that it should be most exalted, etc." (p. 127). The Preface for St. John and St. Paul remembers that they are buried within "the boundaries of this city" (p. 34); the Masses of the Patrons of Rome, St. Peter and St. Paul, continually allude to the city (so the preface in the twenty-third Mass: "who, foreseeing that our city would labour under so many troubles, didst place in it the chief members of the power of the Apostles ", p. 47), and so on continually (cf. Probst, op. cit., 48-53, etc.).

Mgr Duchesne (Origines du Culte Chrétien, 129-37) thinks that the Leonine book is a private collection of prayers copied without much intelligence from the official books at Rome about the year 538. He arrives at this date especially through an allusion in the Secret of a Mass placed in June (but really an Easter Mass), which refers to a recent deliverance from enemies (Feltoe, p. 73). This allusion he understands to refer to the raising of the siege of Rome by Vitiges and his Goths at Easter-time, 538 (see his other arguments, pp. 131-2). Muratori considered that the book was composed under Felix III (483-92; "Liturgia rom. vetus", diss. xxvii). Probst answers Duchesne's arguments (Die ältesten röm. Sakram., pp. 56-61); he attributes the allusion in the Secret to Alaric's invasion in 402, and thinks that the compilation was made between 366 and 461. The latest theory is that of Buchwald (Das sogen. Sacram. Leon., 62-7), who suggests that the book is a compilation of Roman Masses made in the sixth or seventh century for use in Gaul, so that the composers of Roman books who were at that time introducing the Roman Rite into Gaul (see LITURGY) might have a source from which to draw their material. He suggests Gregory of Tours (died 594) as possibly the compiler.

The "Gelasian Sacramentary" exists in several manuscripts. It is a Roman book more or less Gallicanized; the various manuscripts represent different stages of this Gallican influence. The oldest form extant is a book written in the seventh or early eighth century for use in the abbey of St. Denis at Paris. This is now in the Vatican library (Manuscript Reginæ 316). It was first published by Tommasi in his "Codices Sacramentorum nongentis annis vetustiores" (Rome, 1680), then by Muratori in "Liturgia romana vetus", I. Other versions of the same book are the Codices of St. Gall and of Rheinau, both of the eighth century, edited by Gerbert in his "Monumenta veteris liturgiæ alemmanicæ," I (St. Blaise, 1777). These three (collated with others) form the basis of the standard edition of H. A. Wilson (Oxford, 1894). The book does not in any old manuscript bear the name of Gelasius ; it is called simply "Liber Sacramentorum Romanæ ecclesiæ". It is much more complete than the Leonine Sacramentary. It consists of three books, each marked with a not very accurate title. Book I (The Book of Sacraments in the order of the year's cycle) contains Masses for feasts and Sundays from Christmas Eve to the octave of Pentecost (there are as yet no special Masses for the season after Pentecost), together with the ordinations, prayers for all the rites of the catechumenate, blessing of the font at Easter Eve, of the oil, dedication of churches, and reception of nuns (Wilson, ed., pp. 1-160). Book II ( Prayers for the Feasts of Saints) contains the Proper of Saints throughout the year, the Common of Saints, and the Advent Masses (ibid., 161-223). Book III ( Prayers and the Canon for Sundays ) contains a great number of Masses marked simply "For Sunday " (i.e. any Sunday ), the Canon of the Mass, what we should call votive Masses (e.g. for travellers, in time of trouble, for kings, and so on), Masses for the Dead, some blessings (of holy water, fruits, trees and so on), and various prayers for special occasions (224-315). An old tradition (Walafrid Strabo, ninth century, "De rebus eccl.", XX; John the Deacon , "Vita S. Gregorii", II, xvii, etc.) ascribes what is evidently this book to Pope Gelasius I [492-6. Gennadius (De vir. illust., xcvi) says he composed a book of Sacraments ]. Duchesne (op. cit., 121-5) thinks it represents the Roman service-books of the seventh or eighth century (between the years 628 and 731). It was, however, composed in the Frankish kingdom. All the local Roman allusions (for instance, the Roman Stations) have been omitted; on Good Friday the prayers read: "Let us pray for our most Christian Emperor [the compiler has added] or king " (p. 76), and again: "look down mercifully on the Roman, or the Frankish , Empire" (ibid.). There are also Gallican additions (Duchesne, 125-8). Dom Baumer ("Ueber das sogen. Sacram. Gelas." in "Histor. Jahrbuch der Görresgesellschaft", 1893, pp. 241-301) and Mr. Bishop ("The earliest Roman Massbook" in "Dublin Review", 1894; pp. 245-78) maintain that it is much earlier than Duchesne thinks, and ascribe it to the sixth century, at which time the Roman Rite entered Gaul (see LITURGY). Buchwald (Das sogen. Sacr. Leon., ibid., p. 66) agrees with Duchesne in dating this Sacramentary at the seventh or eighth century, and thinks that its compiler used the Leonine collection.

We know most about the third of these books, the so-called "Gregorian Sacramentary". Charlemagne, anxious to introduce the Roman Rite into his kingdom, wrote to Pope Adrian I between the years 781 and 791 asking him to send him the service-book of the Roman Church. The book sent by the pope is the nucleus of the Gregorian Sacramentary. It was then copied a great number of times, so that there are many versions of it, all containing additions made by the various scribes. These are described by Probst (Die ätesten Sakr., pp. 303-13). The first edition is that of Pamelius in his "Rituale SS. Patrum Latinorum", II (Cologne, 1571). The standard edition is Muratori, "Liturgia romana vetus", II. This is based on two manuscripts, both written before 800, now in the Vatican Library (Cod. Ottobonianus and Cod. Vaticanus). Migne (P. L., LXXVIII, 25-602) reprints the edition of Nicholas Ménard (Paris, 1642). Probst maintains that this is rather to be considered a Gelasian book, reformed according to the Gregorian (Die ältes. Sakr., pp. 165-9). In any case the elements are here completely fused. The original book sent by Adrian to Charlemagne is easily distinguished from the additions. The first who began to supplement Adrian's book from other sources (Pamelius says it was a certain Frankish Abbot named Grimold) was a conscientious person and carefully noted where his additions begin. At the end of the original book he adds a note, a prefatiuncula beginning with the word Hucusque: "So far (Hucusque) the preceding book of Sacraments is certainly that edited by the holy Pope Gregory." Then come (in Pamelius's edition) two supplements, one (according to Pamelius ) by Abbot Grimold and the other by Alcuin. The supplements vary considerably in the codices. Eventually their matter became incorporated in the original book. But in the earlier versions we may take the first part, down to the prefatiuncula , as being the book sent by Adrian. How far it is that of Gregory I is another question. This book then has three parts:

  • (1) The Ordinary of the Mass;
  • (2) the Propers for the year beginning with Christmas Eve. They follow the ecclesiastical year; the feasts of saints (days of the month in the civil year) are incorporated in their approximate places in this. The Roman Stations are noted. There are still no Masses for the Sundays after Epiphany and Pentecost;
  • (3) the prayers for ordinations.

There are no votive Masses or requiems. For these reasons Mgr Duchesne considers that the "Sacramentary" is the " pope's book", that is the book used by the pope himself for the public papal services (Origines du Culte Chrétien, p. 117). Is its attribution to St. Gregory I (590-604) correct? That Gregory did much to reform the liturgy is certain. A constant tradition ascribes such a work to him, as to Gelasius. John the Deacon (eighth century) in his life of Gregory expresses this tradition: "He collected the Sacramentary of Gelasius in one book" (we have seen that the two sets of Propers in the Gelasianum are fused together in the Gregorianum), "leaving out much" (this too is verified by comparing the books; numbers of Gelasian Prefaces and ritual elaborations are omitted in the Gregorian book), "changing little, adding something" (II, xvii). Pope Adrian himself, in sending the book to Charlemagne, says that it is composed "by our holy predecessor, the divinely speaking Pope Gregory " (letter in Jaffé, "Cod. Carol.", p. 274). That the essential foundation of this "Sacramentary" goes back to St. Gregory, indeed to long before his time, is certain. Nor need we doubt that he made such changes as are claimed for him by his biographer, and that these changes stand in this book. But it is not his work untouched. It has additions made since his time, for instance his own feast (12 March, in Migne's edition, P. L., LXXVIII, 51) and other feasts not kept at Rome before the seventh century (Duchesne, op. cit., 118). Evidently then the book sent by Pope Adrian has gone through the inevitable development; succeeding centuries since Gregory have added to it. It represents the Roman Rite of the time when it was sent -- the eighth century. For this reason Duchesne prefers to call it the "Sacramentary" of Adrian (op. cit., p. 119). We have said that, when it arrived in the Frankish kingdom, it began to receive supplements. It must be remembered of course that the writers who copied it had not in view the future needs of students. The books they made were intended for practical use at the altar. So they added at the end of Adrian's "Sacramentary" whatever other Masses and prayers were wanted by the churches for which they wrote. These supplements are taken partly from the Gelasian book, partly from Gallican sources. We have also noted that the additions were at first carefully distinguished from the original book, eventually incorporated in it. Dom Bäumer sees in these additions a compromise made in carrying out Charlemagne's orders that only the book he had received from Rome should be used (see LITURGIES; and Baumer, "Ueber das sogen. Sacram. Gelasianum", 295-301). He also thinks that the first additions and the prefatiuncula were made by Alcuin (died 804). Between the ninth and eleventh centuries the book so composed returned to Rome, took the place of the original pure Roman Rite, and so became the foundation of our present Roman Missal. Besides these three most important Sacramentaries there are other fragments, the "Missale Francorum," written in the seventh or eighth century, the "Ravenna Roll" of doubtful date (sixth to eleventh century?), etc. (see Duchesne, "Origines", pp. 128-9, 137-8).

At the same time as the Sacramentaries, books for the readers and choir were being arranged. Gradually the "Comes" or "Liber Comicus" that indicated the texts of the Bible to be read developed into the "Evangelarium" and "Lectionarium" (see GOSPEL IN THE LITURGY and LESSONS IN THE LITURGY). The homilies of Fathers to be read were collected in "Homilaria", the Acts of the martyrs , read on their feasts, in "Martyrologia". The book of psalms was written separately for singing, then arranged in order, as the psalms were sung through the week, in the "Psalterium" that now forms the first part of our Breviary. The parts of the Mass sung by the choir ( Introit, Gradual, Offertory, Communion) were arranged in the "Liber Antiphonarius" (or Gradualis), the Antiphons and Responsories in the Office formed the "Liber Responsalis", or "Antiphonarius Officii", as distinct from the "Antiphonarius Missæ". Two early collections of this kind, ascribed to St. Gregory I, are in P. L., LXXVIII, 641-724, and 725-850. The same tradition that attributes to him the Sacramentary attaches his name to these (e.g., John the Deacon, "Vita S. Gregorii", II, vi). Throughout the early Middle Ages such collections were copied with local modifications all over Western Europe. Hymns (in our sense) were introduced into the Roman Rite about the fifth or sixth century. Those of the Mass were written in the Gradual, those of the Divine Office at first in the Psalter or Antiphonary. But there were also separate collections of hymns, called "Hymnaria", and "Libri Sequentiales" (or troponarii), containing the sequences and additions (farcing) to the Kyrie and Gloria, etc. Other services, the Sacraments (Baptism, Confirmation, Penance, Marriage, Extreme Unction ), the Visitation of the Sick, the Burial Service, all manner of blessings, were written in a very loose collection of little books called by such names as "Liber Agendorum", "Agenda", "Manuale", "Benedictionale", "Pastorale", "Sacerdotale", "Rituale", the predecessors of our Ritual. As examples of such books we may quote the "Manuale Curatorum" for the Diocese of Roeskilde in Denmark (ed. by J. Freisen, Paderborn, 1898) and the "Liber Agendorum" of Schleswig (ed. J. Freising, Paderborn, 1898). Their number and variety is enormous.

Finally there remained the rubrics, the directions not about what to say but what to do. This matter would be one of the latest to be written down. Long after the more or less complicated prayers had to be written and read, tradition would still be a sufficient guide for the actions. The books of prayers (Sacramentaries, Antiphonaries, etc.) contained a few words of direction for the most important and salient things to be done -- elementary rubrics. For instance the Gregorian "Sacramentary" tells priests (as distinct from bishops ) not to say the Gloria except on Easter Day ; the celebrant chants the preface excelsa voce , and so on (P. L., LXXVIII, 25). In time, however, the growing elaborateness of the papal functions, the more complicated ceremonial of the Roman Court, made it necessary to draw up rules of what custom and etiquette demanded. These rules are contained in the "Ordines" -- precursors of our "Cærimoniale Episcoporum". Mabillon published sixteen of the Ordines in his "Musæum Italicum", II (Paris, 1689). These are reproduced in P. L., LXXVIII, 937-1372. They are of different dates, from about the eighth to the fifteenth century. The first of them ("Ordo Romanus primus", edited apart by E. G. C. Atchley with excellent notes, London, 1905), which is the most important, was probably drawn up about the year 770 in the reign of Pope Stephen III (768-72), but is founded on a similar "Ordo" of the time of Gregory I (590-604). The "Ordines" contain no prayers, except that, where necessary, the first words are given to indicate what is meant. They supplement the Sacramentary and choir-books with careful directions about the ritual. Since Mabillon other "Ordines" have been found and edited. A famous and important one, found in a manuscript of the church of St. Amand at Puelle is published by Duchesne in the Appendix of his "Origines du Culte Chrétien" (pp. 440-63). It was composed about the eighth or ninth century.

During the Middle Ages these books were rearranged for greater convenience, and developed eventually into the books we know. The custom of Low Mass changed the Sacramentary into a Missal. At Low Mass the celebrant had to supplement personally what was normally chanted by the deacon and subdeacon or sung by the choir. This then reacted upon High Mass, so that here too the celebrant began to say himself in a low voice what was sung by some one else. For this purpose he needed texts that were not in the old Sacramentary. That book was therefore enlarged by the addition of Lessons (Epistle and Gospel, etc.) and the chants of the choir ( Introit, Gradual, etc.). So it becomes a Missale plenarium , containing all the text of the Mass. Isolated cases of such Missals occur as early as the sixth century. By about the twelfth century they have completely replaced the old Sacramentaries. But Lectionaries and Graduals (with the music) are still written for the readers and choir. In the same way, but rather later, compilations are made of the various books used for saying the Divine Office. Here too the same motive was at work. The Office was meant to be sung in choir. But there were isolated priests, small country churches without a choir, that could not afford the library of books required for saying it. For their convenience compendiums were made since the eleventh century. Gregory VII (1073-85) issued a compendium of this kind that became very popular.

First we hear of Libri nocturnales or matutinales , containing all the lessons and responses for Matins. To these are added later the antiphons and psalms, then the collects and all that is wanted for the other canonical hours too. At the same time epitomes are made for people who recite the Office without the chant. In these the Psalter is often left out; the clergy are supposed to know it by heart. The antiphons, versicles, responsories, even the lessons are indicated only by their first words. The whole is really a kind of concise index to the Office, but sufficient for people who said it day after day and almost knew it by heart. Such little books are called by various names -- "Epitomata", "Portiforia", and then especially "Breviaria divini officii" (Abbreviations of the Divine Office ). They were used mostly by priests on journeys. In the twelfth century the catalogue of the library of Durham Cathedral includes "a little travelling breviary " ( breviarium parvum itinerarium ). In 1241 Gregory IX says in a Bull for the Franciscan order: "You have (the Divine Office ) in your Breviaries " (see Batiffol, "Histoire du Bréviaire", chap. iv, especially pp. 192-202). The parts of these Breviaries were filled up eventually so as to leave nothing to memory, but the convenient arrangement and the name have been kept. It is curious that the word Breviary, which originally meant only a handy epitome for use on journeys and such occasions, has come to be the usual name for the Divine Office itself. A priest "says his breviary " that is, recites the canonical hours.

The development of the other books took place in much the same way. The Missals now contained only the Mass and a few morning services intimately connected with it. Daily Mass was the custom for every priest ; there was no object in including all the rites used only by a bishop in each Missal. So these rites apart formed the Pontifical. The other non-Eucharistic elements of the old Sacramentary combined with the "Libri Agendarum" to form our Ritual. The Council of Trent (1545-63) considered the question of uniformity in the liturgical books and appointed a commission to examine the question. But the commission found the work of unifying so many and so varied books impossible at the time, and so left it to be done gradually by the popes. The Missal and Breviary were reformed very soon (see next paragraph), the other books later. The latest work was the production of the "Cærimoniale Episcoporum". John Burchard, Master of Ceremonies to Sixtus IV (1471-84), combined the old "Ordines Romani" into an Ordo servandus per sacerdotem in celebratione missœ (Rome, 1502), and arranged the rubrics of the Pontifical. Other editions of the rubrics were made at intervals, till Clement VIII (1592-1605) issued the "Cærimoniale Episcoporum" (in 1600). All the books have been constantly revised and re-edited with additions down to our own time.

III. THE PRESENT ROMAN LITURGICAL BOOKS

The official books of the Roman Rite are seven -- the Missal, Pontifical, Breviary, Ritual, Cærimoniale Episcoporum, Memoriale Rituum, and Martyrology. These contain all and only the liturgical services of this rite. Several repeat matter also found in others. Other books, containing extracts from them, share their official character inasmuch as the texts conform to that of the original book. Such secondary liturgical books are the Lectionary and Gradual (with musical notes) taken from the Missal, the Day Hours (Horæ diurnæ) of the Breviary, the Vesperal, Antiphonary and other choir-books (with notes), also extracted from the Breviary, various Benedictionals and Ordines taken from the Ritual or Pontifical.

(a) The Roman Missal

The ( Missale Romanum ) as we now have it, was published by Pope Pius V by the Bull "Quo primum" of 14 July, 1570 (see LITURGIES and ROMAN RITE). A commission, opened by the Council of Trent under Pius IV (1559-65), consisting of Cardinal Bernardine Scotti, Thomas Goldwell, Bishop of St. Asaph (one of the last two English bishops of the old Catholic line), Giulio Poggi, and others, had then finished its task of revising the book. Clement VIII (1592-1605) formed a new commission ( Baronius, Bellarmine, and others) to restore the text which printers had again corrupted, and especially to substitute the new Vulgate (1590) texts for those of the Itala in the Missal ; he published his revision by the Bull "Cum Sanctissimum" on 7 July, 1604. Urban VIII (1623-44) again appointed a commission to revise chiefly the rubrics, and issued a new edition on 2 September, 1634 ( Bull "Si quid est"). Leo XIII (1878-1903) again made a revision in 1884. These names stand for the chief revisions; they are those named on the title-page of our Missal (Missale Romanum ex decreto SS. Concilii Tridentini restitutum S. Pii V Pont. Max. iussu editum, Clementis VIII, Urbani VIII et Leonis XIII auctoritate recognitum). But the continual addition of Masses for new feasts goes on. There are few popes since Pius V who have not authorized some additions, made by the Sacred Congregation of Rites, to the Missal or its various supplements. The reigning pope [1910], Pius X, has issued the chants of the Vatican edition in the Gradual. As far as these affect the Missal they have again produced new editions of it. Moreover a commission now sitting is considering a further revision of the text. It is believed that when the commission for restoring the text of the Vulgate has completed its work, that text will be issued in the lessons of the Missal, thus making again a new revision. But, in spite of all these modifications, our Missal is still that of Pius V. Indeed its text goes back to long before his time to the Gallicanized Gregorian "Sacramentary" of the ninth to eleventh century, and, in its essential characteristics, behind that to the Gelasian book of the sixth century, and so back into the mist that hangs over the formation of the Roman Rite in the first centuries.

The Missal begins with the Bulls of Pius V, Clement VIII , and Urban VIII. Then come the approbation of the bishop in whose diocese it is printed and a few of the most important decisions of the Sacred Congregation of Rites. A long explanation of the Gregorian Calendar follows, containing much astronomical information. This is headed: "De anno et eius partibus". The two Paschal tables follow (Julian and Gregorian), a table of movable feasts for a number of future years and the Roman Calendar of feasts. Then come three sets of rubrics, first "Rubricæ generales Missæ", containing the more general rules in twenty paragraphs (these were made by Burchand, revised by the commissions of Pius V, Clement VIII, Urban VIII ); then the "Ritus servandus in celebratione missæ", in thirteen paragraphs or chapters. This latter gives exact directions for High or Low Mass, whether celebrated by a bishop or priest. Third come the directions about what to do in case of various accidents or defects, headed "De defectibus in celebratione missæ occurrentibus", in ten chapters. A private preparation and thanksgiving for Mass follow "to be made at the opportunity of the priest. The prayers said while vesting come at the end of the preparation. Lastly, figures show the way to incense the altar and oblation. Shorter and special rubrics for various occasions are inserted (in red) in the text.

Then follows the text of the Missal. The first part contains the "Proper of the time" ( Proprium temporis ) from the first Sunday of Advent to the last after Pentecost. The Proper of each Mass is given in order of the ecclesiastical year, that is the Masses of each Sunday and other day (vigils, ember-days, feriæ in Lent ) that has a proper Mass. Only Christmas and its cycle of feasts (to the octave of the Epiphany ), although fixed to days of the civil year (25 Dec., etc.), come in this part. Certain rites, not Eucharistic, but connected closely with the Mass, are in their place in the Missal, such as the blessing of ashes, candles, and palms, all the morning services of Holy Week (except the Vespers of Thursday and Friday). After the service of Holy Saturday the whole Ordinary of the Mass with the Canon is inserted. This is the (almost) unchanging framework into which the various Propers are fitted. Its place in the book has varied considerably at different times; it is now put here, not so much for mystic or symbolic reasons, as because it is a convenient place, about the middle where a book lies open best (see CANON OF THE MASS). The eleven proper Prefaces, and all changes that can occur in the Canon (except the modifications on Maundy Thursday ), are printed here, in the Ordinary. Then follows Easter Day and the rest of the year in order. The second part of the Missal contains the Proper of Saints ( Proprium missarum de sanctis ), that is, the feasts that occur on days of the civil year. It begins with the Vigil of St. Andrew (29 Nov.), as occurring at about the beginning of Advent, and continues (leaving out Christmas and its cycle) regularly through the months to the feasts of St. Silvester and St. Peter of Alexandria (26 Nov.).

The third part is always paged anew in brackets, [I], etc. It contains the Common Masses ( Commune Sanctorum ), that is, general Masses for Apostles, Martyrs and so on, that are very commonly used for saints of each class, often with proper Collect Secret, and Postcommunion. Most saints' days give the rubric : "All of the Common of a Confessor Pontiff (or whatever it may be) except the following prayers ". A collection of votive Masses of various kinds follows, ending with the Mass for a wedding ( Pro Sponso et Sponsa ), then thirty-five sets of prayers ( Orationes diversœ ) that may be used on certain occasions in Mass, according to the rubrics. The four Masses for the dead come next, then twelve sets of prayers for the dead. Then the rite of blessing holy water and the Asperges ceremony. Eleven forms of blessings (Sacramentals) used by priests, blessings of vestments, altar-linen, and the tabernacle or ciborium (used by bishops and by priests having a special faculty), and the prayers (Collect, Secret Hanc Igitur, Postcommunion ) said at ordination Masses end the old part of the Missal. There follow, however, the ever-growing supplements. Of these first come a collection of votive Masses appointed by Pius IX for each day of the week, then special Masses allowed for certain dioceses ( Missœ aliquibus in locis celebrandœ ), now forming a second Proper of Saints nearly as long as the old one; and finally with the Missal is bound up another supplement (paged with asterisks, I., etc.) for whatever country or province or religious order uses it. The Missal contains all the music used by the celebrant at the altar (except the obvious chan

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Lérida

(ILERDENSIS) Diocese ; suffragan of Tarragona. La Canal says it was erected in 600, but ...

Lérins, Abbey of

Situated on an island of the same name, now known as that of Saint-Honorat, about a league from ...

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Lübeck

Lübeck, a free imperial state and one of the Hanse towns, is in area the second smallest and ...

Lütolf, Aloys

An ecclesiastical historian, born 23 July, 1824, in Gettnau near Willisau (Switzerland); died at ...

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L'Enfant, Pierre-Charles

Engineer, b. in France, August, 1755; d. near Bladensburg, Maryland, U.S.A. 14 June, 1825. He ...

L'Hospital, Michael de

Born at Aigueperse, about 1504; d. at Courdimanche, 13 March, 1573. While very young he went to ...

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La Bruyère, Jean de

Born at Paris in 1645; died at Chantilly in 1696. He was the son of a comptroller general of ...

La Chaise, François d'Aix de

( Also Chaize). Confessor of King Louis XIV, born at the mansion of Aix, in Forez, ...

La Crosse

(CROSSENSIS) Diocese erected in 1868; included that part of the State of Wisconsin , U.S.A. ...

La Fayette, Marie Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, Comtesse de

Author of memoirs and novels, born in Paris, 1634; died there, 1693 (al., 1696). She received a ...

La Fontaine, Jean de

French poet, b. at Chateau-Thierry, 8 July, 1621; d. at Paris, 13 April, 1695. He was the eldest ...

La Fosse, Charles de

Painter, b. in Paris, 15 June, 1636; d. in Paris, 13 December, 1716, and buried in the church of ...

La Harpe, Jean-François

A French critic and poet, b. at Paris, 20 November, 1739; d. February, 1803. He was ten years old ...

La Haye, Jean de

Franciscan Biblical scholar, b. at Paris, 20 March, 1593; d. there 15 Oct., 1661. He passed his ...

La Hire, Philippe de

Mathematician, astronomer, physicist, naturalist, and painter, b. in Paris, 18 March, 1640; d. ...

La Luzerne, César-Guillaume

French cardinal b. at Paris, 1738; d. there, 1821. He studied at the Collège de Navarre, ...

La Moricière, Louis-Christophe-Leon Juchault de

French general and commander-in-chief of the papal army, b. at Nantes, 5 February, 1806; d. ...

La Paz

DIOCESE OF LA PAZ (PACENSIS). Diocese of La Paz, in Bolivia. The city is the capital of the ...

La Plata

DIOCESE OF LA PLATA (DE PLATA). The city of La Plata, capital of the Argentine Province of ...

La Plata

ARCHDIOCESE OF LA PLATA/DE PLATA (OR CHARCAS) La Plata, besides being the metropolitan see of ...

La Richardie, Armand de

Born at Périgueux, 7 June, 1686; died at Quebec, 17 March, 1758. He entered the Society ...

La Roche Daillon, Joseph de

Recollect, one of the most zealous missionaries of the Huron tribe, d. in France, 1656. He ...

La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, The Duke of

(François-Alexandre-Frédéric). Born at La Roche-Guyon, on 11 January, 1747; ...

La Rochejacquelein, Henri-Auguste-Georges du Vergier, Comte de

French politician, b. at the château of Citran (Fironde), on 28 September, 1805; d. on 7 ...

La Rochelle

The Diocese of La Rochelle (Rupellensis), suffragan of Bordeaux, comprises the entire Department ...

La Rue, Charles de

One of the great orators of the Society of Jesus in France in the seventeenth century, b. at ...

La Salette

Located in the commune and parish of La Salette-Fallavaux, Canton of Corps, Department of Isere, ...

La Salette, Missionaries of

The Missionaries of La Salette were founded in 1852, at the shrine of Our Lady of La Salette , ...

La Salle, John Baptist de, Saint

Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools , educational reformer, and ...

La Salle, René-Robert-Cavelier, Sieur de

Explorer, born at Rouen, 1643; died in Texas, 1687. In his youth he displayed an unusual ...

La Serena, Diocese of

(De Serena, Serenopolitana). Embracing Atacama and Coquimbo provinces (Chile), suffragan of ...

La Trappe

This celebrated abbey of the Order of Reformed Cistercians is built in a solitary valley ...

La Valette, Jean Parisot de

Forty-eighth Grand Master of the Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem ; b. in 1494; d. ...

La Verna

An isolated mountain hallowed by association with St. Francis of Assisi, situated in the centre ...

Labadists

A pietist sect of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries founded by Jean de Labadie, who was ...

Laban

Son of Bathuel, the Syrian (Gen. xxviii, 5; cf. xxv, 20); grandson of Nachor, Abraham's ...

Labarum (Chi-Rho)

Labarum is the name by which the military standard adopted by Constantine the Great after his ...

Labat, Jean-Baptiste

Dominican missionary, born at Paris, 1664; died there, 1738. He entered the Order of Preachers ...

Labbe, Philippe

Born at Borges, 10 July, 1607; died at Paris, at the College of Clermont, 17 (16) March, 1667; ...

Labour and Labour Legislation

Labour is work done by mind or body either partly or wholly for the purpose of producing ...

Labour Unions, Moral Aspects of

Since a labour union is a society, its moral aspects are determined by its constitution, its ...

Labyrinth

A complicated arrangement of paths and passages; or a place, usually subterraneous, full of ...

Lac, Stanislaus du

Jesuit educationist and social work, b. at Paris, 21 November, 1835; d. there, 30 August, 1909. ...

Lace

(Latin laqueus ; It. laccio, trine, merletto ; Spanish lazo, encaje, pasamano ; French ...

Lacedonia, Diocese of

(LAQUEDONIENSIS) Located in the province of Avellino, Southern Italy. Lacedonia is famous in ...

Lacordaire, Jean-Baptiste-Henri-Dominique

The greatest pulpit orator of the nineteenth century b. near Dijon, 13 May, 1802; d. at ...

Lactantius, Lucius Cæcilius Firmianus

A Christian apologist of the fourth century. The name Firmianus has misled some authors into ...

Lacy, Blessed William

Born at "Hanton", Yorkshire (probably Houghton or Tosside, West Riding); suffered at York, 22 ...

Laderchi, James

An Italian Oratorian and ecclesiastical historian, born about 1678, at Faenza near Ravenna ; ...

Ladislaus, Saint

King of Hungary, born 1040; died at Neutra, 29 July, 1095; one of Hungary's national Christian ...

Laennec, René-Théophile-Hyacinthe

Born at Quimper, in Brittany, France, 17 February, 1781; died at Kerlouanec, 13 August, 1826, a ...

Laetare Sunday

The fourth, or middle, Sunday of Lent, so called from the first words of the Introit at Mass, ...

Laetus, Pomponius

Humanist, b. in Calabria in 1425; d. at Rome in 1497. He was a bastard of the House of the ...

LaFarge, John

Painter, decorator, and writer, b. at New York, 31 March, 1835; d. at Providence, Rhode Island, ...

Lafitau, Joseph-Françs

Jesuit missionary and writer, born at Bordeaux, France, 1 January, 1681; died there, 1746. He ...

Laflèche, Louis-François Richer

French-Canadian bishop, b. 4 Sept., 1818, at Ste-Anne de la Perade, Province of Quebec ; d. 14 ...

Laforêt, Nicholas-Joseph

Belgian philosopher and theologian, born at Graide, 23 January, 1823; died at Louvain, 26 ...

Lafuente y Zamalloa, Modesto

Spanish critic and historian, b. at Ravanal de los Caballeros, 1 May, 1806; d. at Madrid, 25 ...

Lagania

A titular see in Galatia Prima. The town is mentioned by Ptolemy, V, i, 14, and in several ...

Lagrené, Pierre

A missionary in New France, b. at Paris, 12 Nov. (al. 28 Oct.), 1659; d. at Quebec in 1736. He ...

Lahore

(LAHLORENSIS). Diocese in northern India, part of the ecclesiastical Province of Agra. Its ...

Laibach

(LABACENSIS). Austrian bishopric and suffragan of Görz, embraces the territory of the ...

Laicization

( Latin laicus , lay). The term laity signifies the aggregation of those Christians who ...

Lainez, James

(LAYNEZ). Second general of the Society of Jesus , theologian, b. in 1512, at Almazan, ...

Laity

(Greek laos , "the people"; whence laikos , "one of the people"). Laity means the body ...

Lake Indians

Called by themselves S ENIJEXTEE and possibly identical with the L AHANNA of Lewis and Clark ...

Lalemant, Charles

Born at Paris, 17 November, 1587; died there, 18 November, 1674. He was the first superior of ...

Lalemant, Gabriel

Jesuit missionary, b. at Paris, 10 October, 1610, d. in the Huron country, 17 March 1649. He was ...

Lalemant, Jerome

Alias H IEROSME . Jesuit missionary, b. at Paris, 27 April, 1593, d. at Quebec, 16 ...

Lallemant, Jacques-Philippe

French Jesuit, b. at St-Valéry-sur-Somme about 1660; d. at Paris 1748. Little is known ...

Lallemant, Louis

French Jesuit, b. at Châlons-sur-Marne, 1588; d. at Bourges, 5 April, 1635. After making ...

Lalor, Teresa

Co-foundress, with Bishop Neale of Baltimore, of the Visitation Order in the United States ...

Lamarck, Chevalier de

(Jean-Baptiste-Pierre-Antoine de Monet; also spelled L A M ARCK ; botanical abbreviation ...

Lamartine, Alphonse de

Poet, b. at Mâcon Saône-et-Loire, France, 21 Oct., 1790; d. at Paris, l March, ...

Lamb (in Early Christian Symbolism)

One of the few Christian symbols dating from the first century is that of the Good Shepherd ...

Lamb, Paschal

A lamb which the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as a part of the ...

Lambeck, Peter

Generally called LAMBEC[C]IUS, historian and librarian, b. at Hamburg, 13 April 1628; d. at Vienna, ...

Lambert Le Bègue

Priest and reformer, lived at Liège, Belgium, about the middle of the twelfth century. ...

Lambert of Hersfeld

A medieval historian; b. in Franconia or Thuringia, c. 1024; d. after 1077. On 15 March 1058, ...

Lambert of St-Bertin

Benedictine chronicler and abbot, b. about 1060; d. 22 June, 1125, at St-Bertin, France. He came ...

Lambert, Louis A.

Priest and journalist, b. at Charleroi, Pennsylvania, 13 April, 1835; d. at Newfoundland, New ...

Lambert, Saint

(LANDEBERTUS). Martyr, Bishop of Maestricht, b. at Maestricht between 633 and 638; d. at ...

Lamberville, Jacques and Jean de

Jacques de Lamberville Jesuit missionary, b. at Rouen, 1641; d. at Quebec, 1710. He joined the ...

Lambillotte, Louis

Belgian Jesuit, composer and paleographer of Church music ; born at La Hamaide, near Charleroi, ...

Lambin, Denis

(DIONYSIUS LAMBINUS.) French philologist, b. about 1520, at Montreuil-sur-mer, in Picardy; d. ...

Lambruschini, Luigi

Cardinal, b. at Sestri Levante, near Genoa, 6 March, 1776, d. at Rome, 12 May, 1854. As a youth ...

Lambton, Ven. Joseph

English martyr, b. 1569; d. at Newcastle-on-Tyne. The day of his death is variously given as 23 ...

Lamego

(LAMECENSIS). Diocese situated in the district of Vizeu, province of Beira, Portugal. The ...

Lamennais, Félicité Robert de

Born at Saint-Malo, 29 June, 1782; died at Paris, 27 February, 1854. His father, Pierre Robert de ...

Lamennais, Jean-Marie-Robert de

French priest, brother of Félicité Robert de Lamennais, b. at St-Malo in 1780; d. ...

Lamoignon, Family of

Illustrious in the history of the old magistracy, originally from Nivernais. Owing to the nearness ...

Lamont, Johann von

Astronomer and physicist, b. 13 Dec., 1805, at Braemar in Scotland, near Balmoral Castle; d.. 6 ...

Lamormaini, Wilhelm

Confessor of Emperor Ferdinand II, b. 29 December, 1570, at Dochamps, Luxemburg ; d. at ...

Lamp and Lampadarii

There is very little evidence that any strictly liturgical use was made of lamps in the early ...

Lamp, Altar

In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should ...

Lampa

(LAMPAE, LAPPA). A titular see in Crete, suffragan of Gortyna, was probably a colony of ...

Lamprecht

Surnamed D ER P FAFFE (The Priest). German poet of the twelfth century, of whom practically ...

Lamps, Early Christian

Of the various classes of remains from Christian antiquity there is probably none so numerously ...

Lampsacus

A titular see of Hellespont, suffragan of Cyzicus. The city is situated in Mysia, at the ...

Lamuel

Name of a king mentioned in Proverbs 31:1 and 4 , but otherwise unknown. In the opening verse we ...

Lamus

A titular see of Isauria, suffragan of Seleucia. In antiquity this village is mentioned by ...

Lamy, Bernard

Oratorian, b. at Le Mans, France, in June, 1640; d. at Rouen, 29 Jan., 1715. At the age of twelve ...

Lamy, François

An ascetical and apologetic writer of the Congregation of St-Maur, b. in 1636 at Montireau in ...

Lamy, Thomas Joseph

Biblical scholar end orientalist, b. at Ohey, in Belgium, 27 Jan., 1827, d. at Louvain, 30 July, ...

Lana, Francesco

Born 10 Dec., 1631, at Brescia in Italy ; died in the same place, 22 Feb., 1687. Mathematician ...

Lance, The Holy

We read in the Gospel of St. John (19:34) , that, after our Saviour's death, "one of the ...

Lancelotti, Giovanni Paolo

Canonist, b. at Perugia in 1522; d. there, 23 September, 1590. He graduated doctor of law in ...

Lanciano and Ortona

(LANCIANENSIS ET ORTONENSIS). Lanciano is a small city in the province of Chieti, in the ...

Land-Tenure in the Christian Era

The way in which land has been held or owned during the nineteen hundred years which have seen in ...

Lando, Pope

(913-14). A native of the Sabina, and the son of Taino, elected pope seemingly in July or ...

Landriot, Jean-François-Anne

French bishop, b. at Couches-les-Mines near Autun, 1816, d. at Reims, 1874. Ordained in 1839 ...

Lanfranc

Archbishop of Canterbury, b. at Pavia c. 1005; d. at Canterbury, 24 May, 1089. Some say his ...

Lanfranco, Giovanni

Also known as CAVALIERE GIOVANNI DI STEFANO. Decorative painter, b. at Parma, 1581, d. in ...

Langénieux, Benoit-Marie

Cardinal, Archbishop of Reims, b. at Villefranche-sur-Saône, Department of Rhône, ...

Lang, Matthew

Cardinal, Bishop of Gurk and Archbishop of Salzburg, b. at Augsburg in 1468; d. at ...

Langen, Rudolph von

Humanist and divine, b. at the village of Everswinkel, near Munster, Westphalia, 1438 or 1439; ...

Langham, Simon

Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of England, b. at Langham in Rutland; d. at ...

Langheim

A celebrated Cistercian abbey situated in Upper Franconia (Bavaria), not far from Mein, in the ...

Langhorne, Ven. Richard

English martyr, b. about 1635, d. at Tyburn, 14 July, 1679. He was the third son of William ...

Langley, Richard

Layman and martyr, b. probably at Grimthorpe, Yorks, England, date unknown; d. at York, 1 Dec., ...

Langres

(LINGONÆ). Diocese comprising the Department of the Haute-Marne. Suppressed by the ...

Lanigan, John

Church historian, b. at Cashel, County Tipperary, Ireland, in 1758; d. at Finglas, Dublin, 8 ...

Lanspergius

(JOHN JUSTUS OF LANDSBERG). Carthusian monk and ascetical writer, b. at Landsberg in Bavaria ...

Lantern

In Italian or modern architecture, a small structure on the top of a dome, for the purpose of ...

Lanterns, Altar

Lanterns are used in churches to protect the altar candles and lamp, if the latter for any ...

Lanzi, Luigi

An Italian archeologist, b. at Mont Olmo, near Macerata, in 1732; d. at Florence in 1810. In ...

Laodicea

A titular see, of Asia Minor, metropolis of Phrygia Pacatiana, said to have been originally ...

Laos

(Vicariate Apostolic) Separated from the Vicariate Apostolic of Siam by a decree of 4 ...

Laplace, Pierre-Simon

Mathematical and physical astronomer, b. in Beaumont-en-Auge, near Caen, department of Calvados, ...

Lapland and Lapps

About 150,000 square miles of the most northerly regions of Europe, from the Atlantic Ocean to the ...

Lapparent, Albert Auguste de

French geologist, b. at Bourges, 30 Dec., 1839; d. at Paris, 12 May, 1908. He made a brilliant ...

Laprade, Victor de

French poet and critic, b. at Montbrison in 1812; d. at Lyons in 1883. He first studied ...

Lapsi

( Latin, labi, lapsus ). The regular designation in the third century for Christians who ...

Lapuente, Venerable Luis de

(Also, D'Aponte, de Ponte, Dupont). Born at Valladolid, 11 November, 1554; died there, 16 ...

Laranda

A titular see of Isauria, afterwards of Lycaonia. Strabo (XII, 569), informs us that Laranda ...

Lares

Formerly a titular archiepiscopal see in pro-consular Africa. In ancient times it was a ...

Larino

(Larinum). Diocese in the province of Capmobasso, Southern Italy. Larinum was a city of the ...

Larissa

The seat of a titular archbishopric of Thessaly. The city, one of the oldest and richest in ...

Larke, Blessed John

English martyr ; died at Tyburn, 7 March, 1543-4. He was rector of St. Ethelburga's ...

Larrey, Dominique-Jean

Baron, French military surgeon, b. at Baudéan, Hautes-Pyrénées, July, 1766; ...

Larrey, Dominique-Jean

Baron, French military surgeon, b. at Baudéan, Hautes-Pyrénées, July, 1766; ...

Larue, Charles de

Born 29 July, 1685 (some say 12 July, 1684), at Corbie, in France ; died 5 Oct., 1739, at St. ...

Lasaulx, Ernst von

Scholar and philosopher, born at Coblenz, 16 March, 1805; died at Munich, 9 May, 1861. His ...

Lascaris, Constantine

Greek scholar from Constantinople; born 1434; died at Messina in 1501. Made a prisoner by the ...

Lascaris, Janus

Also called John; surnamed Rhyndacenus (from Rhyndacus, a country town in Asia Minor ). He ...

Laski, John

J OHN A L ASCO . Archbishop of Gnesen and Primate of Poland, b. at Lask, 1456; d. at ...

Lassberg, Baron Joseph Maria Christoph von

A distinguished German antiquary, born at Donaueschingen, 10 April, 1770; died 15 March, 1855. He ...

Lassus, Orlandus de

(Original name, Roland de Lattre), composer, born at Mons, Hainault, Belgium, in 1520 (according ...

Last Judgment, The

(Judicium Universale, Last Judgment). I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT 1 Few truths are ...

Last Supper, The

The meal held by Christ and His disciples on the eve of His Passion at which He instituted the ...

Lataste, Marie

Born at Mimbaste near Dax, France, 21 February, 1822; died at Rennes, 10 May, 1847; was the ...

Latera, Flaminius Annibali de

Historian, born at Latera, near Viterbo, 23 November, 1733; died at Viterbo, 27 February, 1813. He ...

Lateran Council, Fifth

When elected pope, Julius II promised under oath that he would soon convoke a general ...

Lateran Council, First

The Council of 1123 is reckoned in the series of ecumenical councils. It had been convoked in ...

Lateran Council, Fourth

From the commencement of his reign Innocent III had purposed to assemble an ecumenical council, ...

Lateran Council, Second

The death of Pope Honorius II (February, 1130) was followed by a schism. Petrus Leonis (Pierleoni), ...

Lateran Council, Third

The reign of Alexander III was one of the most laborious pontificates of the Middle Ages. Then, ...

Lateran Councils

A series of five important councils held at Rome from the twelfth to the sixteen century. From ...

Lateran, Christian Museum of

Established by Pius IX in 1854, in the Palazzo del Laterano erected by Sixtus V on the part of ...

Lateran, Saint John

THE BASILICA This is the oldest, and ranks first among the four great "patriarchal" basilicas ...

Lathrop, George Parsons

Poet, novelist, b. at Honolulu, Hawaii, 25 August, 1851; d. at New York, 19 April, 1898. He was ...

Latin Church

The word Church ( ecclesia ) is used in its first sense to express whole congregation of ...

Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem

The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was founded as a result of the First Crusade, in 1099. Destroyed ...

Latin Literature in Christianity (Before the Sixth Century)

The Latin language was not at first the literary and official organ of the Christian Church in ...

Latin Literature in Christianity (Sixth to Twentieth Century)

During the Middle Ages the so-called church Latin was to a great extent the language of poetry, ...

Latin, Ecclesiastical

In the present instance these words are taken to mean the Latin we find in the official textbooks ...

Latini, Brunetto

Florentine philosopher and statesman, born at Florence, c. 1210; the son of Buonaccorso Latini, ...

Latreille, Pierre-André

A prominent French zoologist; born at Brives, 29 November, 1762; died in Paris, 6 February, 1833. ...

Latria

Latria ( latreia ) in classical Greek originally meant "the state of a hired servant" (Aesch., ...

Latrocinium

(L ATROCINIUM ). The Acts of the first session of this synod were read at the Council of ...

Latter-Day Saints, The Church of Jesus Christ of

( Also called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.) This religious body had ...

Lauda Sion

The opening words (used as a title of the sequence composed by St. Thomas Aquinas, about the year ...

Lauds

In the Roman Liturgy of today Lauds designates an office composed of psalms and canticles, ...

Laura

The Greek word laura is employed by writers from the end of the fifth century to distinguish ...

Laurence O'Toole, Saint

(L ORCAN UA T UATHAIL ; also spelled Laurence O'Toole) Confessor, born about 1128, in the ...

Laurentie, Pierre-Sébastien

French publicist; b. at Houga, in the Department of Gers, France, 21 January, 1793; d. 9 ...

Lausanne and Geneva

Diocese of Lausanne and Geneva (Lausannensis et Genevensis). Diocese in Switzerland, immediately ...

Lauzon, Jean de

Fourth governor of Canada, b. at Paris, 1583; d. there, 16 Feb., 1666. He was the son of ...

Lauzon, Pierre de

A noted missionary of New France in the eighteenth century, born at Poitiers, 26 September, ...

Lavérendrye, Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de

Discoverer of the Canadian West, born at Three Rivers, Quebec, 17 November, 1685; died at ...

Lavabo

The first word of that portion of Psalm 25 said by the celebrant at Mass while he washes his hands ...

Laval University of Quebec

The University of Laval was founded in 1852 by the Seminary of Quebec; the royal charter granted ...

Laval, François de Montmorency

First bishop of Canada, b. at Montigny-sur-Avre, 30 April, 1623, of Hughes de Laval and ...

Lavant

(LAVANTINA) An Austrian bishopric in the southern part of Styria, suffragan of Salzburg. The ...

Laverdière, Charles-Honoré

French-Canadian historian, born Chateau-Richer, Province of Quebec, 1826; died at Quebec, 1873. ...

Laverlochère, Jean-Nicolas

Missionary, born at St. Georges d'Espérance, Grenoble, France, 6 December, 1812; died at ...

Lavigerie, Charles-Martial-Allemand

French cardinal, b. at Huire near Bayonne, 13 Oct., 1825; d. at Algiers, 27 Nov., 1892. He ...

Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent

Chemist, philosopher, economist ; born in Paris, 26 August, 1743; guillotined 8 May, 1794. He ...

Law

I. CONCEPT OF LAW A. By law in the widest sense is understood that exact guide, rule, or ...

Law, Canon

This subject will be treated under the following heads: I. General Notion and DivisionsII. Canon ...

Law, Cemeteries in

Cemeteries in Civil Law It would be impossible here to deal in detail with the various ...

Law, Civil (Influence of the Church on)

Christianity is essentially an ethical religion; and, although its moral principles were meant ...

Law, Common

(Latin communis , general, of general application; lex , law) The term is of English ...

Law, Divine (Moral Aspect of)

Divine Law is that which is enacted by God and made known to man through revelation. We ...

Law, International

International law has been defined to be "the rules which determine the conduct of the general ...

Law, Mosaic

The body of juridical, moral, and ceremonial institutions, laws and decisions comprised in the ...

Law, Natural

I. ITS ESSENCE In English this term is frequently employed as equivalent to the laws of nature, ...

Law, Roman

In the following article this subject is briefly treated under the two heads of; I. Principles; ...

Lawrence Justinian, Saint

Bishop and first Patriarch of Venice, b. in 1381, and d. 8 January, 1456. He was a descendant ...

Lawrence O'Toole, Saint

(L ORCAN UA T UATHAIL ; also spelled Laurence O'Toole) Confessor, born about 1128, in the ...

Lawrence of Brindisi, Saint

(Also: Lawrence, or Laurence, of Brindisi.) Born at Brindisi in 1559; died at Lisbon on 22 ...

Lawrence, Saint

Martyr ; died 10 August, 258. St. Lawrence, one of the deacons of the Roman Church, was one ...

Lawrence, Saint

Second Archbishop of Canterbury, d. 2 Feb., 619. For the particulars of his life and ...

Laws, Penal

This article treats of the penal legislation affecting Catholics in English-speaking countries ...

Lay Abbot

( abbatocomes, abbas laicus, abbas miles ). A name used to designate a layman on whom a king ...

Lay Brothers

Religious occupied solely with manual labour and with the secular affairs of a monastery or ...

Lay Communion

The primitive discipline of the Church established a different punishment for certain crimes ...

Lay Confession

This article does not deal with confession by laymen but with that made to laymen, for the ...

Lay Tithes

Under this heading must be distinguished (1) secular tithes, which subjects on crown-estates were ...

Laymann, Paul

A famous Jesuit moralist, b. in 1574 at Arzl, near Innsbruck; d. of the plague on 13 November, ...

Lazarites

A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul. The ...

Lazarus

Lazarus (Greek Lazaros , a contraction of Eleazaros --see 2 Maccabbees 6:18 — meaning ...

Lazarus of Bethany, Saint

Reputed first Bishop of Marseilles, died in the second half of the first century. According ...

Lazarus of Jerusalem, Order of Saint

The military order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem originated in a leper hospital founded in the ...

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Le 130

Le Blant, Edmond-Frederic

French archeologist and historian, born 12 August, 1818; died 5 July, 1897 at Paris. He studied ...

Le Camus, Emile-Paul-Constant-Ange

Preacher, theologian, scripturist, Bishop of La Rochelle and Saintes, b. at Paraza, France, ...

Le Camus, Etienne

French cardinal, b. at Paris, 1632; d. at Grenoble, 1707. Through the influence of his father, ...

Le Caron, Joseph

One of the four pioneer missionaries of Canada and first missionary to the Hurons, b. near ...

Le Coz, Claude

French bishop, b. at Plouévez-Parzay (Finistère), 1740; d. at Villevieux (Jura), ...

Le Fèvre, Jacques

A French theologian and controversialist, b. at Lisieux towards the middle of the seventeenth ...

Le Gobien, Charles

French Jesuit and founder of the famous collection of "Lettres édifiantes et curieuses", ...

Le Gras, Venerable Louise de Marillac

Foundress of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul , born at Paris, 12 August, 1591, ...

Le Hir, Arthur-Marie

Biblical scholar and Orientalist ; b. at Morlaix (Finisterre), in the Diocese of Quimper, ...

Le Loutre, Louis-Joseph

A missionary to the Micmac Indians and Vicar-General of Acadia under the Bishop of Quebec, b. ...

Le Mans

DIOCESE OF LE MANS (CENOMANENSIS). Comprises the entire Department of Sarthe. Prior to the ...

Le Mercier, François

One of the early missionaries of New France , b. at Paris, 4 October, 1604; d. in the island of ...

Le Moyne

The name of one of the most illustrious families of the New World, whose deeds adorn the pages ...

Le Moyne, Simon

A Jesuit missionary, b. at Beauvais, 1604; d. in 1665 at Cap de la Madeleine, near Three ...

Le Nourry, Denis-Nicolas

Denis-Nicolas Le Nourry, of the Congregation of St-Maur, ecclesiastical writer, b. at Dieppe in ...

Le Puy

(Aniciensis). Diocese comprising the whole Department of Haute Loire, and is a suffragan of ...

Le Quien, Michel

French historian and theologian, b. at Boulogne-sur-Mer, department of Pas-de-Calais, 8 Oct., ...

Le Sage, Alain-René

Writer, b. at Sarzeau (Morbihan), 1668; d. at Boulogne-sur-Mer, 1747. The son of a notary who ...

Le Tellier, Charles-Maurice

Archbishop of Reims, b. at Turin, 1642; d. at Reims, 1710. The son of Michel Le Tellier and ...

Le Tellier, Michel

Born 16 October, 1643, of a peasant family, not at Vire as has so often been said, but at Vast ...

Le Verrier, Urbain-Jean-Joseph

An astronomer and director of the observatory at Paris, born at Saint Lô, the ancient ...

León

DIOCESE OF LEÓN (LEONENSIS) Suffragan of Michoacan in Mexico, erected in 1863. In the ...

León, Luis de

Spanish poet and theologian, b. at Belmonte, Aragon, in 1528; d. at Madrigal, 23 August, 1591. ...

Lead, Diocese of

(LEADENSIS). The Diocese of Lead, which was established on 6 August, 1902, comprises all that ...

League of the Cross

A Catholic total abstinence confraternity founded in London in 1873 by Cardinal Manning to ...

League, German

Only three years before the League was established, Duke Maximilian of Bavaria (d. 1651), who ...

League, The

I. THE LEAGUE OF 1576 The discontent produced by the Peace of Beaulieu (6 May, 1576), which ...

Leander of Seville, Saint

Bishop of that city, b. at Carthage about 534, of a Roman family established in that city; d. ...

Leavenworth

Diocese of Leavenworth (Leavenworthensis). Suffragan to St. Louis. When established, 22 May, ...

Lebanon

Lebanon (Assyr. Labn nu ; Hebrew Lebanôn ; Egypt. possibly, Ramunu ; Greek Libanos ...

Lebedus

Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ephesus. It was on the coast, ninety stadia to the east ...

Lebrun, Charles

French historical painter, born in Paris, 1619; died at the Gobelin tapestry works, 1690. This ...

Lebwin, Saint

(LEBUINUS or LIAFWIN). Apostle of the Frisians and patron of Deveater, b. in England of ...

Lecce

(LICIENSIS). Diocese ; suffragan of Otranto. Lecce, the capital of a province in Terra ...

Leclerc du Tremblay, François

A Capuchin, better known as P ÈRE J OSEPH , b. in Paris, 4 Nov., 1577; d. at Rueil, ...

Leclercq, Chrestien

A Franciscan Récollet and one of the most zealous missionaries to the Micmac of ...

Lecoy de La Marche

(RICHARD-ALBERT). French historian; b. at Nemours, 1839; d. at Paris, 1897. He left the ...

Lectern

(Lecturn, Letturn, Lettern, from legere , to read). Support for a book, reading-desk, or ...

Lectionary

( Lectionarium or Legenda ). Lectionary is a term of somewhat vague significance, used ...

Lector

A lector (reader) in the West is a clerk having the second of the four minor orders. In all ...

Ledge, Altar

Originally the altar was made in the shape of an ordinary table, on which the crucifix and ...

Ledochowski, Miecislas Halka

Count, cardinal, Archbishop of Gnesen-Posen, b. at Gorki near Sandomir in Russian Poland, 29 ...

Leeds

(LOIDIS; LOIDENSIS). Diocese embracing the West Riding of Yorkshire, and that part of the city ...

Lefèvre d'Etaples, Jacques

Frequently called "Faber Stapulensis." A French philosopher, biblical and patristic scholar; ...

Lefèvre de la Boderie, Guy

French Orientalist and poet; b. near Falaise in Normandy, 9 August, 1541; d. in 1598 in the house ...

Lefèvre, Family of

There were various members of the Lefèvre family engaged in tapestry weaving in the ...

Lefebvre, Camille

Apostle of the Acadians, b. at St. Philippe, P. Q., 1831; d. at St. Joseph, N. B., 1895. The ...

Legacies

(Latin Legata ). I. DEFINITION In its most restricted sense, by a pious legacy or bequest ...

Legate

( Latin legare , to send). Legate, in its broad signification, means that person who is sent ...

Legends of the Saints

Under the term legend the modern concept would include every untrue tale. But it is not so ...

Legends, Literary or Profane

In the period of national origins history and legend are inextricably mingled. In the course of ...

Leghorn

(LIBURNENSIS.) Suffragan of Pisa. Leghorn ( Italian Livorno ), in Tuscany, is the capital ...

Legio

Titular see of Palestina Secunda, suffragan of Scythopolis. It figures for the first time in a ...

Legipont, Oliver

Benedictine, bibliographer, born at Soiron, Limburg, 2 Dec., 1698; died at Trier, 16 Jan., 1758. ...

Legists

Teachers of civil or Roman law, who, besides expounding sources, explaining terms, elucidating ...

Legitimation

( Latin legitimatio ). The canonical term for the act by which the irregularity contracted ...

Legrand, Louis

French theologian and noted doctor of the Sorbonne, b. in Burgundy at Lusigny-sur-Ouche, 12 ...

Lehnin, Abbey of

Founded in 1180 by Otto II, Margrave of Brandenburg, for Cistercian monks. Situated about ...

Leibniz, System of

I. LIFE OF LEIBNIZ Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz was born at Leipzig on 21 June (1 July), 1646. ...

Leigh, Venerable Richard

English martyr, born in Cambridgeshire about 1561; died at Tyburn, 30 August, 1588. Ordained ...

Leipzig

Chief town in the Kingdom of Saxony, situated at the junction of the Pleisse, Parthe, and Weisse ...

Leipzig, University of

The University of Leipzig in Saxony is, next to Heidelberg, the oldest university in the German ...

Leitmeritz

(L ITOMERICENSIS ), in Austria, embraces the northern part of the Kingdom of Bohemia (see map ...

Lejeune, Jean

Born at Poligny in 1592; died at Limoges, 19 Aug., 1672; member of the Oratory of Jesus, founded ...

Lelong, Jacques

A French bibliographer, b. at Paris, 19 April, 1665 d. there, 13 Aug., 1721. As a boy of ten, he ...

Lemberg

Seat of a Latin, a Uniat Ruthenian, and a Uniat Armenian archbishopric. The city is called Lwow ...

Lemcke, Henry

Missionary in the United States b. at Rhena, Mecklenburg, 27 July, 1796; d. at Carrolltown, ...

Lemercier, Jacques

Born at Pontoise, about 1585; died at Paris, 1654. Lemercier shares with Mansart and Le Muet the ...

Lemos, Thomas de

Spanish theologian and controversialist, b. at Rivadavia, Spain, 1555, d. at Rome 23 Aug., ...

Lennig, Adam Franz

Theologian, b. 3 Dec., 1803, at Mainz ; d. there, 22 Nov., 1866. He studied at Bouchsal under the ...

Lenormant, Charles

French arch æologist, b. in Paris, 1 June, 1802; d. at Athens, 24 November, 1859. After ...

Lenormant, François

Arch&aeligologist; son of Charles Lenormant, b. at Paris, 17 January, 1837; d. there, 9 ...

Lent

Origin of the word The Teutonic word Lent , which we employ to denote the forty days' fast ...

Lentulus, Publius

Publius Lentulus is a fictitious person, said to have been Governor of Judea before Pontius, and ...

Leo Diaconus

Byzantine historian; b. at Kaloe, at the foot of Mount Tmolos, in Ionia, about the year 950; the ...

Leo I (the Great), Pope

(Reigned 440-61). Place and date of birth unknown; died 10 November, 461. Leo's pontificate, ...

Leo II, Pope Saint

Pope (682-83), date of birth unknown; d. 28 June, 683. He was a Sicilian, and son of one Paul. ...

Leo III, Pope Saint

Date of birth unknown; died 816. He was elected on the very day his predecessor was buried (26 ...

Leo IV, Pope

(Reigned 847-55) A Roman and the son of Radoald, was unanimously elected to succeed Sergius ...

Leo IX, Pope

(1049-54), b. at Egisheim, near Colmar, on the borders of Alsace, 21 June, 1002; d. 19 April, ...

Leo V, Pope

Very little is known of him. We have no certainty either as to when he was elected or as to ...

Leo VI, Pope

The exact dates of the election and death of Leo VI are uncertain, but it is clear that he was ...

Leo VII, Pope

Date of birth unknown; d. 13 July, 939. A Roman and priest of St. Sixtus, and probably a ...

Leo VIII, Pope

Date of birth unknown; d. between 20 February and 13 April, 965. When the Emperor Otho I ...

Leo X, Pope

(G IOVANNI DE M EDICI ). Born at Florence, 11 December, 1475; died at Rome, 1 December, ...

Leo XI, Pope

(ALESSANDRO OTTAVIANO DE' MEDICI). Born at Florence in 1535; died at Rome 27 April, 1605, on ...

Leo XII, Pope

(A NNIBALE F RANCESCO C LEMENTE M ELCHIORE G IROLAMO N ICOLA DELLA G ENGA ) Born ...

Leo XIII, Pope

Born 2 March, 1810, at Carpineto; elected pope 20 February, 1878; died 20 July, 1903, at Rome. ...

Leo, Brother

Friar Minor, companion of St. Francis of Assisi,date of birth uncertain; died at Assisi, 15 ...

Leocadia, Saint

Virgin and martyr, d. 9 December, probably 304, in the Diocletian persecution. The last great ...

Leodegar, Saint

(LEGER) Bishop of Autun, b. about 615; d. a martyr in 678, at Sarcing, Somme. His mother ...

Leon

(THE DIOCESE AND CIVIL PROVINCE OF LEON) HISTORY Probably before the time of Trajan, the ...

Leonard of Chios

Born at an uncertain date on the Island of Chios, then under Genoese domination; died in Chios ...

Leonard of Limousin, Saint

Nothing absolutely certain is known of his history, as his earliest "Life", written in the ...

Leonard of Port Maurice, Saint

Preacher and ascetic writer, b. 20 Dec., 1676, at Porto Maurizio on the Riviera di Ponente; d. ...

Leonardo da Vinci

(LEONARDO DI SER PIERO DA VINCI) Florentine painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and ...

Leonidas, Saint

( Or LEONIDES.) The Roman Martyrology records several feast days of martyrs of this ...

Leontius Byzantinus

( Leontios Byzantios ) An important theologian of the sixth century. In spite of his ...

Leontius, Saint

Bishop of Fréjus, in Provence. France, b. probably at Nîmes, towards the end of ...

Leontopolis

A titular archiepiscopal see of Augustamnica Secunda. Strabo (XVII, 1,19, 20) places it near ...

Leopoldine Society, The

Established at Vienna for the purpose of aiding the Catholic missions in North America. When ...

Lepanto

Italian name for Naupactos (Naupactus) a titular metropolitan see of ancient Epirus. The name ...

Leprosy

Leprosy proper, or lepra tuberculosa , in contradistinction to other skin diseases commonly ...

Leptis Magna

Leptis Magna, a titular see of Tripolitana. Founded by the Sidonians in a fine and fertile ...

Leros

Titular see of the Cyclades, suffragan of Rhodes. According to Strabo (XIV, i, 6), this island ...

Leroy-Beaulieu, Anatole

French publicist, b. at Lisieux, Calvados, in 1842; d. at Paris, 15 June, 1912. After ...

Lesbi

A titular see in Mauretania Sitifensis, suffragan of Sitifis, or Sétif, in Algeria. It ...

Lesbi

A titular see in Mauretania Sitifensis, suffragan of Sitifis, or Sétif, in Algeria. It ...

Lescarbot, Marc

French lawyer, writer, and historian, b. at Vervins, between 1565 and 1570; d. about 1629. ...

Lescarbot, Marc

French lawyer, writer, and historian, b. at Vervins, between 1565 and 1570; d. about 1629. ...

Lescot, Pierre

One of the greatest architects of France in the pure Renaissance style, b. at Paris about ...

Lescot, Pierre

One of the greatest architects of France in the pure Renaissance style, b. at Paris about ...

Lesina

(PHARIA: HVAR; PHARENSIS, BRACHIENSIS, ET ISSENSIS) Diocese in Dalmatia ; includes the three ...

Leslie, John

Bishop of Ross, Scotland, born 29 September, 1527, died at Guirtenburg, near Brussels 30 May, ...

Lessius, Leonard

(LEYS) A Flemish Jesuit and a theologian of high reputation, born at Brecht, in the ...

Lessons in the Liturgy

(Exclusive of Gospel). I. HISTORY The reading of lessons from the Bible, Acts of Martyrs , or ...

Lestrange, Louis-Henri de

(In religion, DOM AUGUSTINE) Born in 1754, in the Château de Colombier-le-Vieux, ...

Lesueur, François Eustache

Jesuit missionary and philologist, of the Abnaki mission in Canada ; born (according to notes ...

Lesueur, Jean-François

Composer, b. at Drucat-Plessiel, near Abbeville, 15 Feb., 1760; d. at Paris, 6 October, 1837. He ...

Lete

A titular see of Macedonia, known by its coins and inscriptions, mentioned in Ptolemy (III, ...

Letourneux, Nicolas

A well-known French preacher and ascetical writer of Jansenistic tendencies, born at Rouen, 30 ...

Letters, Ecclesiastical

(LITTERÆ ECCLESIASTICÆ) Ecclesiastical letters are publications or announcements of ...

Leubus

A celebrated ancient Cistercian abbey, situated on the Oder, northwest of Breslau, in the ...

Leuce

A titular see of Thrace, not mentioned by any ancient historian or geographer. However, its ...

Levadoux, Michael

One of the first band of Sulpicians who, owing to the distressed state of religion in France, ...

Levau, Louis

(LE VAU) A contemporary of Jacques Lemercier and the two Mansarts, and the chief architect of ...

Levites

(From Levi , name of the ancestral patriarch, generally interpreted "joined" or "attached ...

Leviticus

The third book of the Pentateuch, so called because it treats of the offices, ministries, rites, ...

Lex

(LAW) The etymology of the Latin word lex is a subject of controversy. Some authorities ...

Lezana, Juan Bautista de

Theologian, born at Madrid, 23 Nov., 1586; died in Rome, 29 March, 1659. He took the habit at ...

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Li 90

Liège

(The Diocese of Liège; canonical name L EODIENSIS ). Liège (V ICUS L ...

Libel

( Latin libellus , a little book) A malicious publication by writing, printing, picture, ...

Libellatici, Libelli

The libelli were certificates issued to Christians of the third century. They were of two ...

Liber Diurnus Romanorum Pontificum

A miscellaneous collection of ecclesiastical formularies used in the papal chancery until the ...

Liber Pontificalis

(BOOK OF THE POPES). A history of the popes beginning with St. Peter and continued down to ...

Liber Septimus

Three canonical collections of quite different value from a legal standpoint are known by this ...

Libera Me

(Domine, de morte aeterna, etc.). The responsory sung at funerals. It is a responsory of ...

Libera Nos

The first words of the Embolism of the Lord's Prayer in the Roman Rite. Most liturgies ...

Liberal Arts, The Seven

The expression artes liberales , chiefly used during the Middle Ages, does not mean arts as we ...

Liberalism

A free way of thinking and acting in private and public life. I. DEFINITION The word liberal ...

Liberatore, Matteo

A philosopher, theologian, and writer, born at Salerno, Italy, 14 August, 1810; died at Rome, ...

Liberatus of Carthage

(Sixth century) Archdeacon ; author of an important history of the Nestorian and ...

Liberia

A republic on the west coast of Africa, between 4° 20´ and 7° 20´ N. lat., ...

Liberius, Pope

(Reigned 352-66) Pope Julius died on 12 April, according to the "Liberian Catalogue", and ...

Libermann, Ven. Francis Mary Paul

Founder of the Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, which was afterwards merged in the ...

Libraries

Libraries, that is to say, collections of books accumulated and made accessible for public or ...

Libri Carolini

A work in four books (120 or 121 chapters), purporting to be the composition of Charlemagne, and ...

Lichfield

ANCIENT DIOCESE OF LICHFIELD (LICHFELDENSIS). This diocese took its rise in the conversion ...

Lidwina, Saint

Born at Schiedam, Holland, 18 April 1380; died 14 April, 1433. Her father, Peter by name, came of ...

Lieber, Ernst Maria

Born at Camberg in the Duchy of Nassau, 16 Nov., 1838; died 31 March, 1902. He was the principal ...

Lieber, Moriz

Politician and publicist, b. at the castle of Blankenheim in the Eifel, 1 Oct., 1790, d. at ...

Liebermann, Bruno Franz Leopold

Catholic theologian, b., at Molsheim in Alsace 12 Oct., 1759; 4. at Strasburg, 11 Nov., 1844. ...

Liesborn

A former noted Benedictine Abbey in Westphalia, Germany, founded in 815; suppressed in 1803. ...

Liesborn, Master of

A Westphalian painter, who in 1465 executed an altar-piece of note in the Benedictine monastery ...

Liessies

A Benedictine monastery near Avesnes, in the Diocese of Cambrai, France (Nord), founded about ...

Life

(Greek zoe ; Latin vita ; French La vie , German Das Leben ; vital principle; Greek ...

Ligamen

( Latin for bond ). The existing marriage tie which constitutes in canon law a public ...

Lights

Upon the subject of the liturgical use of lights, as an adjunct of the services of the Church, ...

Ligugé

A Benedictine Abbey, in the Diocese of Poitiers, France, was founded about the year A.D. 360, ...

Liguori, Saint Alphonsus

Born at Marianella, near Naples, 27 September, 1696; died at Nocera de' Pagani, 1 August, 1787. ...

Lilienfeld

Lilienfeld, a Cistercian Abbey fifteen miles south of St. Polten, Lower Austria, was founded ...

Lilius, Aloisius

Aloisius Lilius, principal author of the Gregorian Calendar, was a native of Cirò or ...

Lille

The ancient capital of Flanders, now the chief town of the Département du Nord in France. ...

Lillooet Indians

An important tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, in southern British Columbia, formerly holding a ...

Lima

(Limana). The city of Lima, in the Department of the same name, is the capital of the Republic ...

Limbo

(Late Latin limbus ) a word of Teutonic derivation, meaning literally "hem" or "border," as ...

Limbourg, Pol de

A French miniaturist. With his two brothers, he flourished at Paris at the end of the fourteenth ...

Limburg

(L IMBURGENSIS ) Diocese in the Kingdom of Prussia, suffragan of Freiburg. I. HISTORY ...

Limerick

(LIMERICENSIS) Diocese in Ireland ; includes the greater part of the County of Limerick and ...

Limoges

(LEMOVICENSIS). Diocese comprising the Departments of Haute Vienne and Creuse in France. ...

Limyra

Limyra, a titular see of Lycia, was a small city on the southern coast of Lycia, on the Limyrus, ...

Linacre, Thomas

English physician and clergyman, founder of the Royal College of Physicians, London, b. at ...

Linares

[Or MONTEREY or NUEVO LEÓN; ARCHDIOCESE OF (DE LINARES)] In 1777, at the request of ...

Lincoln

(LINCOLNIENSIS) Suffragan of Dubuque, erected 2 August, 1887, to include that part of the ...

Lincoln

ANCIENT DIOCESE OF LINCOLN (LINCOLNIENSIS). This see was founded by St. Theodore, Archbishop ...

Lindanus, William Damasus

(VAN LINDA) Bishop of Ruremonde and of Ghent, b. at Dordrecht, in 1525; d. at Ghent, 2 ...

Linde, Justin Timotheus Balthasar, Freiherr von

Hessian jurist and stateman, b. in the village of Brilon, Westphalia, 7 Aug., 1797; d. at Bonn ...

Lindemann, Wilhelm

A Catholic historian of German literature, b. at Schonnebeck near Essen, 17 December, 1828; d. ...

Lindisfarne, Ancient Diocese and Monastery of

(Lindisfarnensis). The island of Lindisfarne lies some two miles off the Northumberland coast, ...

Lindores, Benedictine Abbey of

On the River Tay, near Newburgh, Fifeshire, Scotland, founded by David, Earl of Huntingdon, ...

Line, Saint Anne

English martyr, d. 27 Feb., 1601. She was the daughter of William Heigham of Dunmow, Essex, a ...

Linens, Altar

The altar-linens are the corporal, pall, purificator, and finger- towels. The Blessed Sacrament ...

Lingard, John

English priest and historian b. at Winchester, 5 February, 1771; d. at Hornby, 17 July, 1851. He ...

Linköping, Ancient See of

(LINCOPIA; LINCOPENSIS.) Located in Sweden ; originally included Östergötland, the ...

Linoe

A titular see of Bithynia Secunda, known only from the "Notitiae Episcopatuum" which mention ...

Linus, Pope Saint

(Reigned about A.D. 64 or 67 to 76 or 79). All the ancient records of the Roman bishops ...

Linz

D IOCESE OF L INZ (L INCIENSIS ). Suffragan of the Archdiocese of Vienna . I. HISTORY ...

Lippe

One of the Confederate States of the German Empire. The occasional use of the designation "Lippe ...

Lippi, Filippino

Italian painter, son of Filippo Lippi, b. at Prato, in 1458; d. at Florence 18 April, 1515. His ...

Lippi, Filippo

Italian painter, b. at Florence about 1406; d. at Spoleto, 9 October, 1469. Left an orphan at ...

Lippomano, Luigi

( Or Aloisius Lipomanus Lippomano). A cardinal, hagiographer, b. in 1500; d. 15 August, ...

Lipsanotheca

A term sometimes used synonymously with reliquary, but signifying, more correctly, the little box ...

Lipsius, Justus

(JOSSE LIPS) A philologian and humanist of the Netherlands, b. at Overyssche, 18 Oct., ...

Lisbon

Patriarchate of Lisbon (Lisbonensis). Includes the districts of Lisbon and Santarem. The area ...

Lismore

DIOCESE OF LISMORE (LISMORENSIS) The Diocese of Lismore extends over a territory of 21,000 ...

Lismore and Waterford

(Waterfordiensis et Lismorensis), suffragan of Cashel. This diocese is almost coterminous with ...

Lismore, School of

As the School of Armagh in the North of Ireland, and that of Clonmacnoise in the centre, so the ...

Lister, Thomas

( alias Thomas Butler) Jesuit writer, b. in Lancashire, about 1559; d. in England, probably ...

Liszt, Franz

Admittedly the greatest pianist in the annals of music, and a composer whose status in musical ...

Litany

(Latin litania , letania , from Greek lite , prayer or supplication) A litany is a ...

Litany of Loreto

Despite the fact that, from the seventeenth century onwards, the Litany of Loreto has been the ...

Litany of the Holy Name

An old and popular form of prayer in honour of the Name of Jesus. The author is not known. ...

Litany of the Saints

The model of all other litanies, of great antiquity. HISTORY It was used in the "Litania ...

Literature, English

It is not unfitting to compare English Literature to a great tree whose far spreading and ever ...

Lithuania

( German Litauen ) An ancient grandy-duchy united with Poland in the fourteenth century. ...

Lithuanians in the United States

The Lithuanians ( Lietuvys ; adjective, lietuviskas ) are a people of Russia, occupying the ...

Litta

A noble Milanese family which gave two distinguished cardinals to the Church. I. ALFONSO ...

Little Flowers of St. Francis of Assissi

Little Flowers of Francis of Assisi , the name given to a classic collection of popular legends ...

Little Office of Our Lady

A liturgical devotion to the Blessed Virgin, in imitation of, and in addition to, the Divine ...

Little Rock

(PETRICULANA) The State of Arkansas and the Indian Territory, parts of the Louisiana ...

Littré, Paul-Maximilien-Emile

A French lexicographer and philosopher ; born at Paris, 1 February, 1801; died there, 2 June, ...

Liturgical Books

Under this name we understand all the books, published by the authority of any church, that ...

Liturgical Chant

Taking these words in their ordinary acceptation, it is easy to settle the meaning of "liturgical ...

Liturgy

The various Christian liturgies are described each under its own name. ( See ALEXANDRINE ...

Liturgy of Jerusalem

The Rite of Jerusalem is that of Antioch. That is to say, the Liturgy that became famous as ...

Liturgy of the Hours

("Liturgy of the Hours" I. THE EXPRESSION "DIVINE OFFICE" This expression signifies ...

Liutprand of Cremona

(Or L UIDPRAND ). Bishop and historian, b. at the beginning of the tenth century; d. after ...

Liverpool

Diocese of Liverpool/a>/Liverpolium (Liverpolitana). One of the thirteen dioceses into ...

Livias

A titular see in Palestina Prima, suffragan of Cæsarea. It is twice mentioned in the Bible ...

Livorno

(LIBURNENSIS.) Suffragan of Pisa. Leghorn ( Italian Livorno ), in Tuscany, is the capital ...

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Ll 4

Llancarvan

Llancarvan, Glamorganshire, Wales, was a college and monastery founded apparently about the ...

Llandaff

ANCIENT DIOCESE OF LLANDAFF (LANDAVENSIS) The origins of this see are to be found in the sixth ...

Llanthony Priory

A monastery of Augustinian Canons, situated amongst the Black Mountains of South Wales, nine ...

Lloyd, Saint John

Welsh priest and martyr, executed at Cardiff, 22 July, 1679. He took the missionary oath at ...

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Lo 73

Loaisa, Garcia de

Cardinal and Archbishop of Seville, b. in Talavera, Spain, c. 1479; d. at Madrid, 21 April, ...

Loango

VICARIATE APOSTOLIC OF LOANGO (LOWER FRENCH CONGO). Formerly included in the great Kingdom of ...

Loaves of Proposition

Heb. "bread of the faces", i.e. "bread of the presence (of Yahweh )" ( Exodus 35:13 ; 39:35 , ...

Lobbes, Benedictine Abbey of

Located in Hainault, Belgium, founded about 650, by St. Landelin, a converted brigand, so that ...

Lobera, Ann

(Better known as V ENERABLE A NN OF J ESUS ). Carmelite nun, companion of St. Teresa; ...

Loccum

(LUCCA, LOCKEN, LOCKWEEN, LYKE, LYCKO) A Cistercian abbey in the Diocese of Minden, formerly ...

Lochleven

(From leamhan , an elm-tree) Lochleven, a lake in Kinross-shire, Scotland, an island of ...

Lochner, Stephen

A painter, born at Meersburg, on the Lake of Constance, date of birth unknown; died at ...

Loci Theologici

Loci theologici or loci communes , are the common topics of discussion in theology. As ...

Locke, Matthew

Composer; born at Exeter, in 1629; died August, 1677. He was a chorister of Exeter Cathedral ...

Lockhart, William

Son of the Rev. Alexander Lockhart of Waringham, Surry; b. 22 Aug., 1820; d. at St. Etheldreda's ...

Lockwood, Venerable John

Venerable John Lockwood, priest and martyr, born about 1555; died at York, 13 April, 1642. He ...

Lodi

(LAUDENSIS) A suffragan of Milan. Lodi, the capital of a district in the Province of Milan, ...

Logia, Jesu

Found partly in the Inspired Books of the New Testament, partly in uninspired writings. The ...

Logic

Logic is the science and art which so directs the mind in the process of reasoning and ...

Logos, The

The word Logos is the term by which Christian theology in the Greek language designates the ...

Lohel, Johann

(JOHANN LOHELIUS) Archbishop of Prague, b. at Eger, Bohemia, 1549; d. 2 Nov., 1622. Of poor ...

Lohner, Tobias

Born 13 March, 1619, at Neuötting in the Diocese of Salzburg ; died 26 (probably) May, ...

Loja, Diocese of

(Lojana), suffragan of Quito, Ecuador, includes the greater part of the Provinces of Loja and El ...

Lollards

The name given to the followers of John Wyclif, an heretical body numerous in England in the ...

Loménie de Brienne, Etienne-Charles de

French cardinal and statesman; b. at Paris, 1727; d. at Sens, 1794. He was of noble lineage, ...

Loman, Saint

Bishop of Trim in Ireland, nephew of St. Patrick, was remarkable as being the first placed over ...

Lombard, Peter

Theologian, b. at Novara (or perhaps Lumello), Italy, about 1100; d. about 1160-64. He studied ...

Lombard, Peter

Archbishop of Armagh, b. at Waterford, about 1555; d. at Rome, 1625; belonged to a respectable ...

Lombardy

A word derived from Longobardia and used during the Middle Ages to designate the country ruled ...

London (England)

London, the capital of England and chief city of the British Empire, is situated about fifty ...

London (Ontario)

DIOCESE OF LONDON (LONDINENSIS) Diocese in Canada, established 21 February, 1855; see ...

Longstreet, James

Soldier and Catholic convert. Born 8 January, 1821, at Edgefield, South Carolina, U.S.A.; died ...

Lope de Vega Carpio, Félix de

Poet and dramatist, b. at Madrid, 1562; d. 23 Aug., 1635. With Lope de Vega begins the era of ...

Lopez-Caro, Francisco

Spanish artist, b. at Seville in 1598; d. at Madrid in 1662; he was a pupil of Juan de Las ...

Lord's Prayer

Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase "Lord's Prayer" does not ...

Lorea

Titular see in the province of Arabia, suffragan of Bostra. The city figures in the different ...

Lorenzana, Francisco Antonio de

Cardinal, b. 22 Sept., 1722 at Leon in Spain ; d. 17 April, 1804, at Rome. After the completion ...

Lorenzetti, Pietro and Ambrogio

Sienese painters. The time of their birth and death is not known. Their dated works extend ...

Lorenzo da Brindisi, Saint

(Also: Lawrence, or Laurence, of Brindisi.) Born at Brindisi in 1559; died at Lisbon on 22 ...

Loreto, Holy House of

(The Holy House of Loreto). Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the "Holy ...

Loreto, Litany of

Despite the fact that, from the seventeenth century onwards, the Litany of Loreto has been the ...

Lorette

(Full name, Notre-Dame de la Jeune Lorette , "Our Lady of New Loretto") An Indian village ...

Lorrain, Claude de

French painter and etcher, b. in 1600 at Chamagnc on the banks of the Moselle in Lorraine ; d. ...

Lorraine

I. ORIGIN By the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the empire of Charlemagne was divided in three ...

Lorsch Abbey

( Laureshamense Monasterium , called also Laurissa and Lauresham ). One of the most ...

Loryma

A titular see of Caria, small fortified town and harbour on the coast of Caria, not far from ...

Los Angeles and Monterey

DIOCESE OF MONTEREY AND LOS ANGELES (MONTEREYENSIS ET ANGELORUM). Comprises that part of the ...

Lossada, Luis de

Philosopher, b. at Quiroga, Asturias, Spain in 1681; d. at Salamanca, in 1748. He entered the ...

Lossen, Karl August

German petrologist and geologist, born at Kreuznach (Rhine Province), 5 January, 1841; died at ...

Lot

Son of Abraham's brother Aran ( Genesis 11:27 ), therefore Abraham's nephew (his "brother": ...

Lottery

A lottery is one of the aleatory contracts and is commonly defined as a distribution of prizes by ...

Lotti, Antonio

Composer, born at Venice in 1667; died there, 5 January, 1740 and studied under Legrenzi, ...

Lotto, Lorenzo

Italian portrait painter, born at Venice, 1480; died at Loreto, 1556. This eminent artist was ...

Loucheux

The would-be Kuchin of some ethnologists, and the Tukudh of the Protestant missionaries; ...

Louis Allemand, Blessed

Cardinal, Archbishop of Arles, whose name has been written in a great variety of ways (Alamanus, ...

Louis Bertrand, Saint

Born at Valencia, Spain, 1 Jan., 1526; died 9 Oct., 1581. His patents were Juan Bertrand and ...

Louis IX, Saint

King of France, son of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile, born at Poissy, 25 April, 1215; died ...

Louis of Casoria, Venerable

Friar Minor and founder of the Frati Bigi; b. at Casoria, near Naples, 11 March, 1814; d. at ...

Louis of Granada, Venerable

Theologian, writer, and preacher; b. of very humble parentage at Granada, Spain, 1505; d. at ...

Louis of Toulouse, Saint

Bishop of Toulouse, generally represented vested in pontifical garments and holding a book and a ...

Louis XIV

King of France, b. at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 16 September, 1638; d. at Versailles, 1 September, ...

Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, Saint

Missionary in Brittany and Vendee; born at Montfort, 31 January, 1673; died at Saint Laurent sur ...

Louise de Marillac Le Gras, Venerable

Foundress of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul , born at Paris, 12 August, 1591, ...

Louise, Sister

Educator and organizer, b. at Bergen-op-Zoom, Holland, 14 Nov., 1813; d. at Cincinnati, Ohio, 3 ...

Louisiana

I. COLONIAL The history of Louisiana forms an important part of the history of the United ...

Louisville, Diocese of

Comprises that part of Kentucky west of the Kentucky River and western borders of Carroll, Owen, ...

Lourdes, Brothers of Our Lady of

(Abbreviation C.N.D.L. — Congregation de Notre-Dame de Lourdes) A community devoted to ...

Lourdes, Notre-Dame de

Notre-Dame de Lourdes, in the Department of Hautes Pyrenées, France, is far-famed for the ...

Louvain, University of

In order to restore the splendour of Louvain, capital of his Duchy of Brabant, John IV of the ...

Love, Theological Virtue of

The third and greatest of the Divine virtues enumerated by St. Paul ( 1 Corinthians 13:13 ), ...

Low Church

The name given to one of the three parties or doctrinal tendencies that prevail in the ...

Low Sunday

The first Sunday after Easter. The origin of the name is uncertain, but it is apparently ...

Lower California, Vicariate Apostolic of

Includes the territory of that name in Mexico (Sp. Baja or Vieja California ), a peninsula ...

Lower Criticism

The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work ...

Loyola University (Chicago)

Loyola University is the outgrowth of St. Ignatius College, founded by the Jesuits in 1869 for ...

Loyola University (New Orleans)

Loyola University, New Orleans, Louisiana, is (1912) the only Catholic university in what is ...

Loyola, Saint Ignatius

Youngest son of Don Beltrán Yañez de Oñez y Loyola and Marina Saenz de Lieona ...

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Lu 49

Luçon

Diocese of Luçon (Lucionensis). Embraces the Department of La Vendée. It was ...

Lublin

DIOCESE OF LUBLIN (LUBLINENSIS). The city of Lublin is in Russian Poland, capital of the ...

Luca, Giovanni Battista de

A Cardinal and Italian canonist of the seventeenth century, b. at Venusia, Southern Italy, in ...

Lucas, Frederick

A member of Parliament and journalist, b. in Westminster, 30 March, 1812, d. at Staines, ...

Lucca

ARCHDIOCESE OF LUCCA (LUCENSIS). Lucca, the capital of the like named province in Tuscany, ...

Lucera

DIOCESE OF LUCERA (LUCERINENSIS). Lucera is a very ancient city in the province of Foggia in ...

Lucerne

Chief town of the Canton of Lucerne in Switzerland. The beginnings of the town, as well as the ...

Lucian of Antioch

A priest of the Church of Antioch who suffered martyrdom (7 January, 312), during the reign ...

Lucic, John

(Or LUCIUS) Croatian historian, b. early in the seventeenth century, at Trojir, or Tragurion, ...

Lucifer

( Hebrew helel ; Septuagint heosphoros , Vulgate lucifer ) The name Lucifer ...

Lucifer of Cagliari

(LUCIFER CALARITANUS) A bishop, who must have been born in the early years of the fourth ...

Lucina, Crypt of

The traditional title of the most ancient section of the catacomb of St. Callistus. According to ...

Lucius I, Pope Saint

Reigned 253-254; died at Rome, 5 March, 254. After the death of St. Cornelius , who died in ...

Lucius II, Pope

(Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso) Born at Bologna, unknown date, died at Rome, 15 February, ...

Lucius III, Pope

(Ubaldo Allucingoli) Born at Lucca, unknown date ; died at Verona, 25 Notaember, 1185. ...

Lucy, Saint

A virgin and martyr of Syracuse in Sicily, whose feast is celebrated by Latins and ...

Ludger, Saint

(Lüdiger or Liudger) Missionary among the Frisians and Saxons, first Bishop of Munster ...

Ludmilla, Saint

Wife of Boriwoi, the first Christian Duke of Bohemia, b. at Mielnik, c. 860; d. at Tetin, near ...

Ludolph of Saxony

(Ludolph the Carthusian ). An ecclesiastical writer of the fourteenth century, date of ...

Ludovicus a S. Carolo

(LUDOVICUS JACOB) Carmelite writer, b. at Châlons-sur-Marne (according to some at ...

Lueger, Karl

A burgomaster of Vienna, Austrian political leader and municipal reformer, born at Vienna, 24 ...

Lugo

DIOCESE OF LUGO (LUCENSIS) Diocese in Galicia, Spain, a suffragan of Santiago, said to have ...

Lugo, Francisco de

Jesuit theologian, b. at Madrid, 1580; d. at Valladolid, 17 September, 1652. he was the elder ...

Lugo, John de

Spanish Jesuit and Cardinal, one of the most eminent theologians of modern times, b. at ...

Lugos

Diocese in Hungary, suffragan of Fogaras and Alba Julia of the Uniat-Rumanian Rite, was ...

Luini, Bernardino

Milanese painter, b. between 1470 and 1480; d. after 1530. The actual facts known respecting the ...

Luke, Gospel of Saint

The subject will be treated under the following heads: I. Biography of Saint Luke ...

Lulé Indians

A name which has given rise to considerable confusion and dispute in Argentine ethnology, owing ...

Lully, Jean-Baptiste

Composer, b. near Florence in 1633; d. at Paris, 22 March, 1687. He was brought to France when ...

Lully, Raymond

(RAMON LULL) "Doctor Illuminatus", philosopher, poet, and theologian, b. at Palma in Majorca, ...

Lumen Christi

The versicle chanted by the deacon on Holy Saturday as he lights the triple candle. After ...

Luminare

(A word which gives in the plural luminaria and has hence been incorrectly written in the ...

Lummi Indians

(Abbreviated from Nuglummi , about equivalent to "people", the name used by themselves). ...

Lumper, Gottfried

Benedictine patristic writer, born 6 Feb., 1747, at Füssen in Bavaria ; died 8 March, ...

Luna, Pedro de

Antipope under the name of Benedict XIII, b. at Illueca, Aragon, 1328; d. at the ...

Lund

[LUNDA; LONDUNUM (LONDINUM) GOTHORUM (SCANORUM, SCANDINORUM, or DANORUM)]. In the Län of ...

Lunette

The lunette, known in Germany as the lunula and also as the melchisedech, is a crescent-shaped ...

Luni-Sarzana-Brugnato

Diocese in the province of Genoa. Luni (originally Luna) was an Etruscan city, but was seized by ...

Lupus

(SERVATUS LUPUS, LOUP) Abbot of Ferrières, French Benedictine writer, b. in the ...

Lupus, Christian

(WOLF) Historian, b. at Ypres (Flanders), 23 July, 1612; d. at Louvain, 10 July, 1681. He ...

Luscinius, Ottmar

(NACHTGALL) An Alsatian Humanist, b. at Strasburg, 1487; d. at Freiburg, 1537. After ...

Lusignan, Jean-Baptiste-Alphonse

French-Canadian writer, b. at St-Denis on the Richelieu, P.Q., 27 September, 1843; d. 5 January, ...

Lussy, Melchior

Statesman, b. at Stans, Canton of Unterwalden, Switzerland, 1529; d. there 14 Nov., 1606. Even in ...

Lust

The inordinate craving for, or indulgence of, the carnal pleasure which is experienced in the ...

Luther, Martin

Leader of the great religious revolt of the sixteenth century in Germany ; born at Eisleben, 10 ...

Lutheranism

The religious belief held by the oldest and in Europe the most numerous of the Protestant ...

Lutzk, Zhitomir, and Kamenetz, Diocese of

(LUCEORIENSIS, ZYTOMIRIENSIS, ET CAMENECENSIS). Diocese located in Little Russia. Its present ...

Luxemburg

The small remnant of the old duchy of this name and since 11 May, 1867, an independent neutral ...

Luxeuil Abbey

Situated in the Department of Haute-Saône in Franche-Comté, in the Diocese of ...

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Ly 13

Lycopolis

A titular see in Thebais Prima, suffragan of Antinoë. As Siout or Siaout it played a ...

Lydda

A titular see of Palestina Prima in the Patriarchate of Jerusalem. The town was formerly ...

Lydgate, John

Born at Lydgate, Suffolk, about 1370; d. probably about 1450. He entered the Benedictine abbey ...

Lying

Lying, as defined by St. Thomas Aquinas , is a statement at variance with the mind . This ...

Lynch, John

Historian, b. at Galway, Ireland, 1599; d. in France, 1673; was the son of Alexander Lynch, who ...

Lyndwood, William

Bishop of St. David's and the greatest of English canonists, b. about 1375; d. in 1446. He had ...

Lyons, Archdiocese of

The Archdiocese of Lyons (Lugdunensis) comprises the Department of the Rhône (except the ...

Lyons, Councils of (Introduction)

Previous to 1313 the Abbé Martin counts no less than twenty-eight synods or councils held ...

Lyons, First Council of

Innocent IV, threatened by Emperor Frederick II, arrived at Lyons 2 December, 1244, and early in ...

Lyons, Second Council of

The Second Council of Lyons was one of the most largely attended of conciliar assemblies, there ...

Lyrba

A titular see of Pamphylia Prima, known by its coins and the mention made of it by Dionysius, ...

Lysias

A titular see of Phrygia Salutaris, mentioned by Strabo, XII, 576, Pliny, V, 29, Ptolemy, V, 2, ...

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